Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
SOCIAL WELFAE POLICY has always been a controversial subject in the United States because of the difference between its perceived and real benefits. Usually public is unable to decide who are social welfare programs designed for and whether they actually benefit the target population. The government on its part fails to convince the public of the benefits and advantages of having various social welfare programs running in the country. Some historians and analysts have attacked the social welfare policy and termed it government's weapon against the able-bodied poor. Katz (1989) contends that the "the core of most welfare reform in America since the early nineteenth-century," has been the assault against the "able-bodied poor" -- a crusade to "define, locate and purge them from the roles of relief." (Katz, 18) Thus social welfare policy becomes an unlikely target of controversy and public uproar. The problem is grounded in vaguely defined and…
Blanche D. Coll: Safety Net: Welfare and Social Security, 1929-1979 Rutgers University Press. New Brunswick, NJ. 1995
Gerard Dumenil; Dominique Levy: THE ECONOMICS OF U.S. IMPERIALISM AT THE TURN OF THE 21st CENTURY: Retrieved Online at ( http://www.ucm.es/info/ec/jec9/pdf/P1%20-%20Dum%E9nil,%20G%E9rard%20y%20L%E9vy,%20Dominique%20 (2).pdf.
Gupta, Gunja San, Black and "dangerous"? African-American working poor perspectives on juvenile reform and welfare in Victorian New York, 1840-1890. The Journal of Negro History; 3/22/2001;
K.T. Fann; Donald C. Hodges; Readings in U.S. Imperialism P. Sargent Boston. 1971
Social Welfare and Society
The Brutality of Laissez Faire Capitalism and the Minimal Welfare State.
For Chapter 5, the main point is that the U.S. went through a period of rapid industrialization and urbanization in the Gilded Age of 1870-1900 that was downright brutal in its treatment of immigrant workers, blacks and Native Americans. In this era, which resembles out own in many ways, racism was endemic, political corruption was common, and inequality in wealth and incomes was extreme. All of this is very similar to what has been happening in the U.S. For the last thirty years, which could well be thought of as a Second Gilded Age. Of course, in the late-19th Century only a very "primitive welfare state" existed with "a minimal set of poorhouses and mental institutions," as well as public hospitals and charities funded by religious organizations (Jansson, 2009, p. 159). In the cities, corrupt…
Progressivism was an urban, middle class reform movement of the late-19tha and early-20th Centuries that did attempt to deal with the social and economic problems of the United States in a limited way, almost always through regulations on the state and local levels. In many ways, the origins of social work as a modern profession and the welfare state can be traced back to this era, particularly to the work of Jane Addams at Hull house in Chicago and other urban reformers. Addams also supported national health insurance, public housing, old-age pensions and social security at the federal level, although these did not come about until the New Deal of the 1930s and Great Society of the 1960s (Jansson, p. 201). Early social workers like Addams soon came to understand that there was an "ethic of mutual assistance" in immigrant and ethnic communities that still exists today, and this was often the only form of welfare and social security that they had (Jansson, p. 169). This has changed little today with Latino and Asian communities in contemporary urban centers. In the post-1965 period, the U.S. again became the favorite destination for millions of refugees and economic migrants from poor countries, as it had been in the years 1880-1920. They again faced the same low wages and miserable housing and health care conditions that the earlier immigrants had, and also had no "right to safety net programs and protections that other working Americans receive" (Jansson, p. 200). Since the Progressive Era welfare state was more concerned with regulation of capitalism than social welfare and entitlement programs, present-day social workers "need to be familiar with the regulatory side of the American welfare state," especially regulations of wages, hours, workers' compensation, public health, food and drug safety and housing conditions, all of which had their origin in the Progressive Era (Jansson, p. 207).
Jansson, B.S. (2009). The Reluctant Welfare State: Engaging History to Advance Social Work Practice in Contemporary Society, 6th Edition. Cengage Learning.
This view seeks to develop a better community instead of providing services in order to alleviate problems.
The dual perspective is a structure that attempts to discuss the different social complexities which affect an individual outlook toward their community. This structure entails three main parts which centers on the individual, surrounded by their immediate family, called the nurturing system, and finally the sustaining system which surrounds all. The individual learns their values, beliefs, traditions, and customs from their family, or nurturing system, but these must somehow fit into the values, beliefs, traditions, and customs of the sustaining system. And as the sustaining system is represented by the dominant society in which the individual exists, there can sometimes be a conflict between the values of the nurturing system and those of the sustaining system.
When an individual's values, beliefs, etc., which they learned from their nurturing system, are not the same…
Netting, E., Kettner, P., and McMurtry, S. (2008). Social Work Macro Practice (4th ed.).
Boston: Pearson. Print.
People may often be unaware of the cultural influences in their lives. They may think they are highly individualistic and original thinkers only to realize later that they are nothing like that and are actually heavily influenced by cultural beliefs. For example every culture finds itself superior to others and this is called ethnocentrism. People in the east actually believe they are far superior to those in the west because of the boundaries they maintain and respect. However in the west, people may think they are better off than those in the east because they have more freedom.
It is so unfortunate that even the so-called wise and intelligent people among us can be blindly controlled by ethnocentrism. For example in one Oprah Winfrey show, she commented against the practice of arranged marriages in the east and said, "we should be grateful that we were born in American where we…
Explain how Christianity has strongly influenced U.S. social welfare history.
Social welfare maintains the well-being of individuals in the society. Poor people are affected by different circumstances like poverty and need assistance from volunteers as Christians and the government. In the 1700s, Christians was visiting various homes of the poor people and giving them items like food and water. They could also provide other necessary items like clothes. There were efforts in England that helped to shape the social welfare of United States by addressing poverty. Christians initiated the efforts and the government assisted them later to advance the support. One of the efforts was the Speenhamland Act of 1795. The Act helped in the provision of minimum wages to the employees and even their families. The government would assist in paying some part of the wages if the employers were unable to pay all costs. The act…
Karger, H., & Stoesz, D. (2010). American social welfare policy: A pluralist approach. Allyn & Bacon.
Zastrow, C. (2013). Brooks/Cole Empowerment Series: Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare. Cengage Learning
Social elfare Policy
All nation states have some sort of social welfare policy. Social welfare may be defined as the explicit and implicit terms by which the state and its citizenry establish a network of relations with one another. (Blau & Abramovitz, 2003) Citizens may be said to owe the state certain things, like taxes, military service when called for, obedience to the law of the state, and in return the state provides them with everything from proper removal of their trash on a local level, social security payments on a federal level, and protection from insurgent powers in the form of community policing and a standing army.
Some states assume a large burden for their citizens in their social contracts, such as Sweden, which offers its citizens a virtual 'cradle to grave' system of social welfare protections. However, in financial terms the citizens pay dearly for it, in the…
Blau, Joel & Mimi Abramovitz. (2003) The Dynamics of Social Welfare Policy. New York: Oxford University Press.
" And a seven-year time limit was set for the states to approve so that the amendment could be ratified, and in 1982, it was found that it could not be approved because the number fell three short of the 38 needed for approval. Why did the EA fail so miserably? What must be done to win? A eport issued by the U.S. Civil ights Commission stated that the EA would provide the constitutional guarantee of full citizenship for women, and would also treat men and women equally under the law, but this type of protection for women is yet to materialize. (The Struggle for the Equal ights Amendment)
In the same way, when Scotland's First Minister Henry McLeish failed to provide free long-term care for his state's elderly, his entire administration came under threat. The Minister had in fact hinted that he would implement Sutherland's various recommendations on this…
ADS Draft Multicultural Policy culturally appropriate aged care" Retrieved at http://ageing.nsw.uca.org.au/policies/multicultural.htm . Accessed on 7 August, 2005
Age" Retrieved at http://www.indiana.edu/~rcapub/v18n2/p4.html . Accessed on 7 August, 2005
APA Policy Statements on Lesbian and Gay Issues" Retrieved at http://www.apa.org/pi/statemen.html. Accessed on 8 August, 2005
Art History Club, Ageism" Retrieved at http://www.arthistoryclub.com/art_history/AgeismAccessed on 7 August, 2005
individuals and families kept more of their income instead of having it taxed to support social programs, would this be prudent public policy? Explain your answer.
The answer to this question is 'it depends.' Many social programs orchestrated by the federal government are more efficient than what some individuals could provide for themselves such as education. Also, while some upper-middle class families might be able to better provide some of the social services provided by the government for themselves like access to recreational areas if they were taxed less, very poor people would not have sufficient income to do so. Of course, the very 'poorest of the poor' who are barely taxed at all because their incomes were so low would be hurt the worst by this policy, as they would lose the safety net that protects them.
Q2. Should there be an expectation for individuals to act in their…
Haynes, K. & Mickelson, J. (2010). Affecting change: Social workers in the political arena.
(7th ed.). New York, NY: Allyn Bacon.
Karger, H. & Stoesz, D. (2013). American social welfare policy: A pluralist approach (7th ed.).
Boston, MA: Allyn Bacon.
History Of Social Policy
When social welfare began Social welfare has a tumultuous history, with the authorities traditionally attempting to implement legislations aimed at improving society as a whole while also keeping control over diverse communities. By going back to the early sixteenth century and observing how the Crown attempted to issue measures that would assist the population in recovering from difficult times, one can easily comprehend how the state concentrated on helping the masses. Social welfare is most probably several millennia old, but it would be difficult to address its condition in early times because of the limited information on the topic.
Why social welfare began With conditions in 1927 being critical in the East Anglican region of Britain, the Crown was in charge of operating a plan that would provide the masses with resources meant to assist them recover from a period of famine. By dealing with this…
Social elfare -- Its Origins and Contributions
hen did social welfare begin as a policy to help those who were struggling to find enough food, or suffering from a blight -- or otherwise in need of a lift from government? hy was social welfare initially launched -- and what groups or individuals were pivotal and ultimately influential as regards the social welfare movement? These questions will be addressed and critiqued in this paper utilizing the available scholarly literature.
hen Social elfare Began
Four hundred and eighty seven years ago in a section of Great Britain known as the East Anglian region, farmers were subjected to terrible crop failures -- due to pounding, unending rains -- and these conditions resulted in famine, according to a peer-reviewed article in Accounting History Review (Bisman, 2012). In response to this crisis in 1527, the British Crown appointed "commissioners" to conduct surveys of certain population…
Aja, A., Bustillo, D., Darity, W., and Hamilton, D. (2013). Jobs Instead of Austerity: A Bold
Policy Proposal for Economic Justice. Social Research, 80(3), 781-790.
Bisman, J.E. (2012). Budgeting for famine in Tudor England, 1527-1528: social and policy perspectives. Accounting History Review, 22(2), 105-126.
Gunnarsson, E. (2009). The welfare state, the individual and the need for care: older people's views. International Journal of Social Welfare, 18(3), 252-259.
However, there have been both positive and negative outcomes from these changes. Some of the positive changes are: reduced welfare caseloads, they have increase unemployment / income levels for the recipients' and it improves family security. While some of the negative outcomes would include:: low wages, dead end jobs, difficulty obtaining health / child care and inconsistent performance from social workers. This is significant, because it shows how the law has made an impact upon reducing the overall amounts of waste. Like any change there will be obvious positive and negatives outcomes. In the case of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, these changes would impact the way various social services are provided, to low income individuals and families.
Types of Poverty. (n.d.). Haki Kazi.org. Retrieved from http://www.hakikazi.org/zwp/types_of_poverty.htm
Types of Poverty. (2007). Society Forward. Retrieved from http://societyforward.blogspot.com/2007/08/7-types-of-poverty.html
Anderson, S. (2004). Difficulties After Leaving TANF. Social Work. 49…
Types of Poverty. (n.d.). Haki Kazi.org. Retrieved from http://www.hakikazi.org/zwp/types_of_poverty.htm
Types of Poverty. (2007). Society Forward. Retrieved from http://societyforward.blogspot.com/2007/08/7-types-of-poverty.html
Anderson, S. (2004). Difficulties After Leaving TANF. Social Work. 49 (2), pg. 185.
Grogger, J. (n.d). Conflicting Benefits. Rand. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/publications/randreview/issues/rr.12.02/benefits.html
POLITICAL ECONOMY ANALYSIS & IMPLICATIONS FO SOCIAL POTECTION POLICY & POGAMS IN AFICA
SOCIAL POTECTION POLICY AND POGAMMES IN AFICA
Analysis and Implications for Social Protection Policy and Programs in Africa
Analysis and Implications for Social Protection Policy and Programs in Africa
the role of the welfare state
The perception of welfare state requires the government to promote and protect the social well-being of citizens and their economic situation. This is guided by the doctrine of public responsibility, capital sharing, and equal opportunity. The general term covers a wide variety of social and economic organization. Social welfare is an imprecise and encompassing term. In most cases, it is defined in terms of interventions and organized activities or some other elements that suggest programs and policies aimed at improving the well-being of individuals at risk and responding to recognized social problems. (Handa, Devereux, and Webb, 2011) have shown that the concept…
Atkinson, A.B. (1995). "Incomes and the Welfare State. Cambridge" Cambridge University Press
Bender, K., Kaltenborn, M. & Pfeiderer, C. (2013). "Social Protection in Developing Countries: Reforming Systems" Routledge
Berg, A & Ostry, J.D (2011). Inequality and Unsustainable Growth: Two Sides of the Same Coin?" IMF Staff Discussion Note SDN/11/08, International Monetary Fund
Bradley, D., Huber, E., Moller, S., Nielson, F. & Stephens, J.D. (2003) "Determinants of relative poverty in advanced capitalist democracies" American Sociological Review 68:3:
Last year, 76 minors were homicide victims."
The child has lost her life and the government is now trying to take actions to revamp the system. Under the new system, Children's Trusts will be set up "at the local level to bring experts - psychologists, social workers, education officials - together, with a local director ultimately accountable."
There may appear to be few similarities between EPL and current social welfare policy but when we closely study their impact, we fail to accept the notion that a lot has changed. EPL was ineffective in controlling child-related problems. Children were subjected to cruel working conditions, they had hardly any proper means of nutrition and overseers probably did not care much about them. The same is true today. While there are protection agencies, social workers and others working for welfare of children, there is little if any improvement in their condition especially in…
1. Mark Rice-Oxley, Child-abuse tragedy spurs British overhaul of social services; the government unveiled a plan last week to keep better records on children and streamline the bureaucracy.(WORLD) the Christian Science Monitor; 9/16/2003
2. Bliss (1908), "Elizabethan Poor Laws" pp. 918-920.
benefiting from U.S. social welfare funds? Is it just the poor, or are other groups also receiving financial benefits from the U.S. Treasury? This paper delves into those issues and provides credible resources to ferret out the real facts.
Not for people in poverty exclusively: After pointing out that the Reagan Administration's conservative agenda created an "historic shift" in welfare benefits, journalist Mimi Abramovitz reports that subsequent to the Reagan cuts social welfare programs in fact dole out more taxpayer money to "middle and upper classes" than to poor people (Abramovitz, 2001). The federal government (in 2000) spent $235.9 billion on assistance programs for those in the low income bracket, and yet some $793.9 billion of taxpayer money went to programs that "do not use poverty or need as a criteria…" (Abramovitz, 299). Moreover, the Social Security (and other social insurance programs) "grants" increase with inflation, allowing the purchasing power…
Abramovitz, M. (2001). Everyone Is Still on Welfare: The Role of Redistribution in Social
Policy. Social Work, 46(4), 297-307.
Ahmad, F., and Iverson, S. (2013). The State of Women of Color in the United States. Center for American Progress. Retrieved October 2, 2014, from http://wwwamericanprogress.org.
Lawler, J. (2013). The Hidden Welfare State Is Regressive. The Mark-Up. Retrieved
United States is a country of settlers, anti-immigrant sentiment has permeated public discourse and is damaging the social fabric of the nation. Early anti-immigrant sentiment is symbolized most powerfully by the Nativist movement, which closely resembled white supremacy (Committee on US-Latin American Relations, 2014). What fueled anti-immigrant sentiment included fears of losing jobs and other conflict theory perspectives showing how immigrants are perceived of as threats to the existing social order (Social Work Speaks). The NASW Policy Statement supports the rights of immigrants and refugees to live without discrimination.
Committee on US-Latin American Nations (2014). Similar Anti-immigrant rhetoric used throughout US history. Retrieved online: https://cuslar.org/2014/10/23/similar-anti-immigrant-rhetoric-used-throughout-u-s-history/
NASW Policy Statement
Social Work Speaks
The pre-Civil War/antebellum era was tumultuous, with a series of failed political compromises leading to a breakdown of morals and ethics. At the same time, there were reform movements most notably the abolitionist movement, that took root as a…
Secondly, social welfare programs try to benefit most people. The recipients are not just poor households, the elderly, veterans, or students, but also farmers, petroleum companies, and affluent homeowners who receive support through tax deductions. And thirdly, social welfare does not substantially reduce income inequality. That is because the affluent receive far greater support from government-supported welfare than the poor. For example, deductions the affluent homeowners receive is worth $337 billion annually, which, as Macionis notes, "worth ten times as much as what the government spends to provide food assistance to low-income people" (43).
As Lauer and Lauer note, deriving from the study of consumer advocate Ralph Nader, there are four areas in the welfare system that are advantageous to the rich. Bailouts are given to large corporations to safeguard them from bankruptcy. Resource depletion, which allows large corporations to have the rights to minerals and timber leased at "bargain-basement…
Lauer, Robert, and Lauer, Jeanette. Social Problems and the Quality of Life, 12th Edition. New York: McGraw Hill Higher Education, 2011. Print.
Macionis, John. Social Problems, 3d edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall: 2008. Print.
Wildman, David, "Corporate Welfare vs. Social Welfare," Web. 22 March 2011
International Social Welfare Organizations
Over the last several decades, the role of the social worker has been continually evolving. Part of the reason for this, is because a wide variety of problems have emerged that are highlighting the challenges facing many societies around the globe. This significant, because it means the responsibilities for social workers are adapting (based upon these shifts). To fully understand these transformations requires reviewing and critiquing four different articles on the subjects. Once this occurs, it will provide the greatest insights as to how the roles and responsibilities of social workers are continually changing.
International Social Welfare Organizations
The article titled International Social Welfare Organizations is discussing the role of NGO's in addressing a variety of social issues. Currently, there are about 50 thousand NGOs that are operating around the world (which is increasing). The reason why, is because there has been a shift in political…
International Social Welfare Organizations. (n.d.).
Campfens, H. (1996). Partnerships in International Social Development. International Social Work, 39, 201 -- 223.
Karabanow, J. (2003). International Social Welfare Organizations. International Social Work, 46 (3), 369 -- 386.
Peters, J. (2001). NGOs in the Service of Imperialism (128 -- 139). Globalization Unmasked. Halifax: Fernanan.
Ethics and Best Practices
Social assistance as a tool to combat marital issues
Michelle's former husband would probably be inclined to resort to unorthodox methods of accessing her files. As a consequence, I would get actively involved in providing him with the opportunity to see things from a general perspective. By emphasizing the fact that he risks facing legal problems if he continues to harass his wife, I would attempt to enable him to move on with his life and accept that Michelle does not want to see him anymore. My role is to respect Michelle's position in this situation and this would require that I employ a hostile attitude with regard to showing her husband information concerning the woman.
Michelle is likely to cooperate with me in the process of informing her husband with regard to the condition their relationship is in. The fact that she has a history…
(Huff, Social ork, 2000, Chapter 1, p.3)
Private efforts were not enough to treat the ills caused by the unchecked capitalism of the Gilded Age, however, an age that brought tremendous wealth to some Americans and tremendous poverty to others. During the first depression occasioned by this split between the haves and the have-nots in 1890, private relief organizations could not cope. "In Mulberry Bend, the heart of the Italian district, one-third of all babies born in 1888 died before their first birthdays. Traditional agencies such as the Children's Aid Society and the Salvation Army were overwhelmed, incapable of meeting the demands placed on their services." (Huff, Social ork, 2000, Chapter 1, p.4) "The old shibboleths commonly accepted as the major causes of poverty, low character, indolence, and intemperance, were replaced with more systemic theories," that sought economic and social causes as the cure, rather than moral reform. (Huff, Social…
Murray, Jill. (1996) "The Social Work History Online Time-Line." The School of Social Work. Retrieved 10 Nov 2005. http://www.gnofn.org/~jill/swhistory/
Huff, Dan. (2000) Social Work: Progress and Reform. A Cyberhistory of Social Work's Most Formative Years. Retrieved 10 Nov 2005 http://www.idbsu.edu/socwork/dhuff/history/central/tc.htm
A proposal to change the program
educing Benefits: This can be done in various ways. Monthly benefits can be reduced by minimizing cost of living adjustments or by minimizing the primary insurance amount (PIA) for a certain average indexed monthly earnings (AIME). Other proposals include targeting reductions towards high-income retirees. Benefits can also be reduced by increasing the retirement age or imposing full taxes on social security benefits. These benefit reduction proposals are some of the simplest and cheapest to implement. If future clients expect lower benefits, they are expected to save more or work longer; all of which will have a positive effect on the economy (Midgley, 2006).
Complete privatization: one of the radical proposals is to erase the social security system and encourage individuals to save in their accounts held by private investment companies. Owners of accounts will have great discretion over their decision of investment…
Brown, J., Liebman, J., & Wise, D. (2009). Social Security Policy in a Changing Environment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cross, T.E. (2010). Social security: Capital markets & educational issues associated with individual accounts. S.l.: Diane Pub Co.
Midgley, J. (2006). Challenges to social security: An international exploration. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Auburn House.
Social work history displays that the desire of social justice is both a task and a myth for employees and their immediate predecessors in organizations. This study provides a critical analysis of Janet Finn's and Maxine Jacobson's work titled "Just Practice." The great focus is on the first and the third chapter where their contributions and critical omissions are identified. Finn and Jacobson have worked hard to illustrate the historical development of social work, which was largely premised on charity for the poor (Finn, & Jacobson, 2003). In both chapters, they have elaborated in length on how social work came into being. Ideally, social work history revolves around the industrial revolution and the way the rise of capitalism created a gap between the rich and the poor. In the first chapter, the role of Charity Organization Societies and Settlement House Movement as the pioneers of social work has been elucidated…
Barusch, A.S. (2009). Foundations of social policy: Social justice in human perspective. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Finn, J.L., & Jacobson, M. (2003). Just practice: a social justice approach to social work. Peosta, Iowa: Eddie Bowers Pub. Co..
Leiby, J. (1978). A history of social welfare and social work in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press.
Lundy, C., & Lundy, C. (2011). Social work, social justice, & human rights: A structural approach to practice. North York, Ont: University of Toronto Press.
On the other hand, one lesson of the Industrial Revolution is that human suffering and exploitation can never be used as a coin with which to pay for material progress or wealth. Likewise, the Industrial Revolution teaches that neither the welfare of the contemporary wealthy and fortunate, nor even the future well-being of subsequent generations is ever justified as the fruits of the suffering of other human beings.
In retrospect, the progression from agrarian to industrial economies need not have required the degree of suffering with which it was, unfortunately, associated, particularly in the nineteenth century. The best evidence for this proposition seems to be the efforts, most of which were successful, on the part of Bismark, in Germany, while workers suffered greater hardships, by comparison, in the rest of the newly industrialized world. Greed and callousness, is, unfortunately, characteristic of many elements of human life, which was not necessarily…
Burchell, S.D. (1968) Age of Progress.
Time Life: UK
Faissler, M., Hayes, C. (1966) Modern Times: Mainstreams of Civilization.
Macmillan: New York
absolute measure" of poverty is not an accurate measure of policy in the United States. The "absolute measure" is based on the threshold below which any family is unable to meet basic needs for living, or those having not enough income for food, shelter and clothing. The thresholds are generally based on the economy food plan, since it was determined that families spend one third of their after tax income on food, or are adjusted based on changes to the Consumer Price Index. However, this method is not realistic in terms of modern society. The "absolute method" does not account for income such as food stamps, school lunches, or public housing, nor does it account for income expenses such as taxes, child support payments, medical costs, health insurance premiums, or child care. The model for poverty in the United States should be adapted to account for disposable income, and use…
Social Security program. The wrier explores what the program is and what problems it faces. In addition, the writer explains how the services work and what role social workers play in the program. The writer then wraps it up with a discussion about changes that are needed and what the writer would like to see implemented.
Each month the social security office prepares and mails out millions of social security checks to those who are eligible. Many people believe that social security is a program only designed to assist the elderly who have retired but it has several other purposes and programs that assist those who are eligible (Facts about Social Security benefits http://www.epinet.org/content.cfm/issueguide_socialsecurityfacts).
For one to explore and analyze the program, one first needs to understand the program completely.
Several of President Bush's ideas also seem to be feasible methods to improve the current system as well.
Facts about Social Security benefits http://www.epinet.org/content.cfm/issueguide_socialsecurityfacts
Five Reasons to Privatize Social Security.
On Wall Street; 8/1/2001; Tanner, Michael
Social Work, Social Welfare, and American Society, sixth edition, by Philip R. Popple adn Leslie Leighninger 2005
Racism, nativism, and exclusion: Public policy, immigration, and the Latino experience in the United States. Journal of Poverty 4, 1-25.
Shacknove, a. (January 1985). Who is Refugee? Ethics 95, 274-284.
Said, E. (1993) Culture and imperialism. www.zmag.org/zmag/articles/barsaid.htm.
Platt, a.M., & Cooreman, J.L. (2001). A multicultural chronology of welfare policy and social work in the United States. Social Justice 28, 91-137.
Reisch, M. (1998). The sociopolitical context and social work method, 1890-1950. Social Service Review, June, 162-181.
Carlton-LaNey, I., & Hodges, V. (2004). African-American reformers' mission: Caring for our girls and women. Affilia, 19, 3, 257-272.
Gordan, L. (2002). If the Progressives were advising us today, should we listen? Journal of the Guilded Age and Progressive Era 1, 1-8.
Gordan, L. (1991). lack and white women's visions of welfare: Women's welfare activism, 1890-1955. Journal of American History, Sept. 559-590.
Williams, L.F. (2003). An assult on white privilege: civil rights and the…
Takaki, R. (1993). A different mirror. In a different mirror: A history of multicultural America (pp 1-170. New York, NY: Little, Brown & Company.
Kilty, K., & Haymes, M. (2000). Racism, nativism, and exclusion: Public policy, immigration, and the Latino experience in the United States. Journal of Poverty 4, 1-25.
Shacknove, a. (January 1985). Who is Refugee? Ethics 95, 274-284.
Said, E. (1993) Culture and imperialism. www.zmag.org/zmag/articles/barsaid.htm.
Corporate Social esponsibility
Today's society is very much a corporate society where power is centered at many of corporate centers. Corporations are seen more than just tools and methods of living, but rather this way of life dictates the lives of millions as this system provides jobs and employment as an outlet of societal contribution. As a result of the deep and profound impact on society, many wonder what is the long-term effects of a corporate society and what benefits, if any, are available?
This line of questioning eventually leads to the idea of corporate social responsibility and the ethical and moral approach of the corporation within the human culture. The purpose of this essay is to describe the idea of corporate responsibility and examine it through the use of corporate philanthropy as a useful and practical method of success and benefit. The profitability, both long-term and short-term, will be…
Karnani, Aneel, (2010). The Case Against Corporate Social Responsibility. The Wall Street Journal, 23 Aug 2010. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052748703338004575230112664504890
McKee, Steve, (2012). Corporate Social Responsibility: Distinction or Distraction? Bloomberg Businessweek, 9 Aug 2012. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2012-08-09/corporate-social-responsibility-distinction-or-distraction
Thorpe, Devon. (2013). Corporate Philanthropy Programs are Diverse and Creative. Forbes, 10 Oct 2013. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/devinthorpe/2013/10/10/corporate-philanthropy-programs-are-diverse-and-creative-get-ideas-here/
Furthermore, it is agreed that those who are working tend to earn low wages, about $7.00 per hour on average, thus making it difficult for them to support their families (Sawhill pp). Another concern is that the poverty rate has not fallen as much as the caseload (Sawhill pp). Fewer poor children are receiving assistance, and the incomes of the poorest one-fifth of single-parent families have continued to fall (Sawhill pp). Many families remain in deep poverty, and according to some reports, requests for emergency assistance have grown (Sawhill pp). Overall, some 700,000 families were significantly worse off in 1999 than their counterparts in 1995 (Sawhill pp).
Since welfare reform was implemented during an unprecedented economic expansion, questions remain about how much of the good news should be attributed to the 1996 law and how much to a strong economy or to the growth of other programs such as the…
Sawhill, Isabel. (2001, June 22). From Welfare to Work.
Brookings Review. Retrieved July 23, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Sommerfeld, David. (2002, March 01). Race, welfare reform, and nonprofit organizations. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare. Retrieved July 23, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Welfare. Retrieved July 23, 2005 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761575466/Welfare.html
Making Sense of Social Policy: Why Social Policy Affects Everyone
Social policy is a rather vague term because the word 'social' can have different meanings for different people (Human Services 311, p. 1). Social policies, in and of themselves, affect individuals at different stages in their lives. They also cover quite a broad range of issues -- ranging from children's issues, family and work issues -- such as retirement/pension policies and unemployment (i.e., social benefits), as well as policies regarding the physically disabled. Perhaps this is the reason that many seem so baffled about the term 'social policy' and what it specifically refers to. There really isn't anything confusing, however, about the term. Social policy can really be thought of simply as a study that has to do with the people's welfare. But to clarify, social policy isn't merely about making people happy, but it is…
Canadian Council of Chief Executives. (2011). Issues. Accessed on 7 December 2011
Human Services 311. (2011). Unit 4. Values and Policy-Making: The What and Who of Social
Policy and Its Definition. Human services 311.
UK Children and Families
Homeless families are generally defined as adults with dependent children who are briefly accommodated by voluntary agency, local authority or housing association hostels in the United Kingdom (Vostanis 2002). They are taken in from a few days or several months, often four to six weeks and generally provided with bread and breakfast. Although this broad definition does not include children who have lost homes and live with friends and relatives, it is estimated that there are 140,000 such displaced families in the UK today. The average family consists of a single mother and at least two children. Trends show that these families become homeless again within a year from being housed by agencies. Domestic violence and harassment from the neighborhood are the most frequent cause behind their homelessness. The volume of homeless refugee families among them has dwindled in the late 90s, mostly confined in the…
1. Harrisona C. et al. (2001). Who is failing abused and neglected children? Archives of Disease in Childhood. http://www.fetalneonatal.com/cgi/content/full/85/4/300
2. Jackson, S (2001). Reducing risk and promoting resilience in vulnerable children. IUC Journal of Social Work, Journal Issue 4. Department of Social Relations and Services: Bemidji State University. http://www.bemidji.msu.edu/sw_journal/issue4/articles/jackson.html
3. Jowell, T et al. (1999). Lone parent families: routes to social inclusion. Gingerbread. http://www.gingerbread.org.uk/lprtsi.txt
4. Nixon, P. Family group conference connections: shared problems and joined-up solutions. International Institutes for Restorative Practices. http://iirp.org/library/vt/vt_nixon.html
Addams included a large amount of environmental reforms in her program for Hull House. One of the most prominent incorporated her labors to address the unhealthful heaps of garbage in immigrant areas because of a lack of public interest. The mayor of Chicago ultimately appointed Addams garbage inspector for her region a job that she took very seriously. Addams managed garbage collectors and took violators of garbage policies to court. Even though Addams and her associates frequently started reforms, the immigrants had a dynamic role as well, helping in knowledge gathering and its communication to their neighbors (Settlement House Movement, 2011).
ichmond's devotion and professionalism, along with her scientific charity has been documented and developed over the years. Her casework practice, managerial talents, research, and stress on social work education fashioned a professional environment in what was beforehand thought to be just charity work. This professionalized social work permitted philanthropic…
Settlement House Movement. (2011). Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Web site:
Smith, Mark K. (2002). Casework and the Charity Organization Society. Retrieved March 23,
2011, from Web site: http://www.infed.org/socialwork/charity_organization_society.htm
This in turn generates a kind of societal morality. As a consequence, social order becomes an incorporated trait of everyday life. According to the theory, what people see as standards are indirect behavioral rules. Infringements of the standard lead to diverse amounts of punishment depending on how common the standard may be. Chastisements can come in the shape of being disqualified from one's social group, critical looks, or imprisonment in the case of harsh infringements like killing or assault (Jeanty, 2010).
As sociologists and historians examine social work, they often see a profession the spirit of which is social control. For them the language of therapy, assisting, or even empowerment masquerades a coercive center. Various recent literature of the vocation, conversely, has confronted the attitude of those researchers who depend on case reports as proof of what social workers in fact do in the field has highlighted empowerment in the…
Burford, Gale and Adams, Paul. (2010). Restorative justice, responsive regulation and social work. Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Web site:
Chapter 4: The role of the social worker. (2006). Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Web site:
Social Equity Public Administration
Emergence as Concern in Field of Public Administration
Social equity has always been an important aspect of public administration, though only recently is it receiving much attention in the press. Whereas in times of old social equity concerned itself primarily with issues of fairness and equality in the public workplace, today social equity is emerging as a field encompassing many different aspects of administration.
Among these include public education, policy development, hiring and promotional practices, public welfare and even transportation. In modern public administration, all of these issues are applied to the field in order to establish fairness, justice and equality for all. Social equity in the field of public administration has emerged as a response to consumer demands for equitable policy making and fairness in governance.
Public administration as a whole may be defined as the management of "matters which have principally to do with…
Frederickson, G. (1986). "New public administration." Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
Rice, M.F. (2003). "Organizational Culture, Social Equity & Diversity: Teaching Public
Administration." Texas A& M. University, Bush School Working Paper #314. 14, November, 2004: http://bush.tamu.edu/content/research/working_papers/mrice/teach-post-modern.pdf
Christopher, G.C., Rutledge, P.J. (2001). "Reinvigorating the Social Equity Debate."
While he supported me in my endeavors, he raised many questions, >Why do you want to enter social work? How do you think you are going to provide for your family and the lifestyle you are accustomed to?" Deferring to socialization pressures that still impel them to fulfill the "breadwinner" role and avoid feminine characteristics, they may segregate themselves from women in the profession, selecting specialties or positions that society deems as more appropriate for men (Williams, 1995). They too may emphasize the masculine aspects of their jobs to "reduce the dissonance between their professional and gender identities" and to justify their career choices (Christie, 1998, p. 506). Thereby, male social workers adhere more closely to the social definition of masculinity" (ritton, J. & Stoller M., 1998).
The young people who are trying to enter into a social work profession "hope to advance research and social work services for men…
Britton, J. & Stoller M. (Autumn, 1998), Engendered disparity: Males in Social Work, Retrieved December 6, 2006, from The Advocate's Forum, Vol.5, No.1, Web Site: http://www.ssa.uchicago.edu/publications/advforum/v5n1/v5i1a2.html
Chattopadhay, T. (2004), Role of men and boys in promoting gender equality: advocacy brief / Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL), United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok, Retrieved December 6, 2006, at http://www.ungei.org/resources/files/unesco_role_of_men.pdf
Christie, A.(2001), Men and social work, New York, NY USA: Palgrave Publishers, Retrieved December 3, 2006, at http://site.ebrary.com/lib/csueastbay/Doc?id=2002957
Gillingham, P. (January, 2006), Male social workers in child and family welfare: New directions for research, in Social work, Volume 51, number I
Cradock's 2004 study of a correlation between population categories and child abuse lead to the development of an assessment tool that allowed social workers to determine when children were at risk for child abuse and when to intervene and what actions would be seen as an over-intervention. By using this assessment, social workers will not only know how to identify the serious danger of child abuse and what children are at-risk for being abused, but also the assessment makes it possible for social workers to determine when intervening in the situation may be dangerous or unnecessary for the children involved. Of similar importance are the tools developed to assess and evaluate those convicted of both child physical and sexual abuse. In Milner and Murphy's 1995 study, the methods of assessment and evaluation are discussed and critiqued. These methods, including interview, observation, personality tests, and offender-specific assessments, are all studied in…
Arad-Davidzon, Bilhah, and Benbenishty, Rami. "The role of workers' attitudes and parent and child wishes in child protection workers' assessments and recommendation regarding removal and reunification. Children and Youth Services Review. 30.1 (2008): 107-121.
Bray, James H. "Family Assessment: Current Issues in Evaluating Families." National
Council on Family Relations. 44.4 (1995): 469-477.
Buckner, Lynn P. And Salts, Connie J. "A Premarital Assessment Program." Family
Social Order in Public Spaces
Every society has certain rules and regulations that help people live together harmoniously. Some of these rules are explicit and are openly known. Other rules are implicit and therefore subtle. Both implicit and explicit rules and regulations govern a society. However, when a person moves away from one particular society to another, he or she has difficulty in adjusting to the norms of that new society.
Social order is considered to be the method of explaining such rules and regulations so that we live in a society along with its members. Social order is very essential for organizing everyday social life.
When a particular group of people engage in a social activity, their social behavior may seem to threaten others. For example, when a group of people shout and scream in a street, the onlookers might find that their life, their neighborhood and society in…
Bromley, S. Hinchliffe S. & Taylor S., 2009. Making Social Lives. Open University.
Social Media and Suicide
Internet has become a gadget of everyday use for people of 21st century. As it is offering many benefits to the users in terms of information communcaition, interaction, entertainment, socialization and earning livelihhod, there are certain dark factors related to it. The dark factors are as severe as forcing people to commit suicide. It is no exaggeration to mention that Intenet is used as a medium to harass people and get undue benefits from them.
Social media today is playing major role in enabling people and organizations to communicate and share ideas, views and knowledge with other people. The traditional methods of communication have been modified through social media platforms like chat rooms, social networking sites (Facebook, My-Space, Twitter, Google+ etc.), video sites (YouTube), discussion forums, video chat, text messages, blogs etc. (Lexton et al., 2012). The most well-known social networking website Facebook had…
Biddle, L., Donovan, J., Hawton, K., Kapur, N., Gunnell, D., 2008. Suicide and the Internet. British Medical Journal, 336, 800-802.
"Cyberbullying Does Not 'Cause' Teen Suicide," 2012. Retrieved from http://www.science20.com/news_articles/cyberbullying_does_not_cause_teen_suicide-95444
"Facebook Statistics," 2011. Retrieved from http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics
"Facebook statistics by country," n.d. Retrieved from http://www.socialbakers.com/facebook-statistics
Psychological studies have confirmed 'altruistic behavior' can be elicited in people. 'Peer Pressure' could also be utilized as an effective psychological tool in reducing resource consumption and in promoting other healthy environmental practices. [Center for Naturalism] A case in point is the Chinese governments 'Grain to Green' Program that offered cash incentives to farmers to convert marginal farmlands to forests. As Alan Tessier, program director in the National Science Foundation (NSF) says, "Much of the marginal cropland in rural communities has been converted from agriculture to forests through the Grain-to-Green Program, one of the largest 'payment for ecosystem services' programs in the world," "Results of this study show that a community's social norms have substantial impacts on the sustainability of these conservation investments." [ScienceDaily] uilding this collective self-control at the community, national and international level holds the key to the success of an environmentally sustainable future. Motivated and environmentally conscious…
1) Su-Houn Liu, Yu-Hsieh Sung & Hsiu-Li Liao (2006), 'Developing Sustainable Digital Opportunity: The Case of Lalashan DOWEB Model', Issues in Information Systems,
Volume VII, No. 1, 2006, retrieved Dec 30th 2009, from http://www.iacis.org/iis/2006_iis/PDFs/Liu_Sung_Liao.pdf
2) BIO, (Nov 2009) 'Agricultural Biotechnology Benefits Farmers and the environment', retrieved Dec 30th 2009, from, http://www.bio.org/foodag/positions/Benbrook_Report_PUBLIC_111709.pdf
3) John Vidal, (2009), 'Rich Nations to Offset Emissions with Birth Control', retrieved Dec 30th 2009, from http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/dec/03/carbon-offset-projects-climate-change
It turns out Matthew's needs were "extensive" because he had ADHD, neurological and visual problems. Parents need support in this situations; indeed, Richard Barth (University of North Carolina researcher) states that in surveys of adoptive parents "school is named as a common family stressor." Hence parents should get in touch with the Learning Disabilities Association of America to find out how they can get help for their child. Or go to www.wrightslaw.com.
Adoptive children who suffer from Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) do indeed have special needs -- they have complex medical needs, including "a pattern of dysmorphic facial features," dental anomalies, possible cardiac defects and vision and hearing problems as well, according to the Children's House International Adoptions group (CHIA). These children will have very serious social and educational needs because they "tend to be curious" sexually as adolescents and have little understanding of "socially appropriate sexual behavior." They may…
Adoption.com. (2010). What Are Special Needs? Retrieved Dec. 11, 2010, from http://special-needs.adoption.com/children/what-are-special-needs.html .
Adoption.com. (2010). What Prospective Adoptive Parents Need to Know. Retrieved Dec. 11,
2010, from http://special-needs.adoption.com/children/adopting-a-child-with-special-needs.html .
Adoption Blogs.com. (2010). Welcoming a Visually Impaired Baby to Your Family. Retrieved Dec. 11, 2010, from http://special-needs.adoptionblogs.com/weblogs/welcoming-a-visually-impaired-baby-to-your-family.
Social Problem Related to Human Services
Social justice implies citizens’ equal entitlement to the self-same services and rights. In this paper, the inequalities in providing various human services to different societal groups in the nation will be addressed.
Beginning with education, a fundamental human service, it is a highly concerning fact that the nation’s educational system continually fails unwanted, abused and neglected children. Also, foster children totally at society’s mercy for survival are largely ignored. As children don’t have any avenue for voicing their views and demands, and cannot finance political campaigns, protest for improved services, or lobby elected representatives in order for being heard, it is the responsibility of society’s adults to speak for this faction of society. Attempts at organizing an effective child welfare system can be traced back to the late nineteenth century, when the nation’s contemporary system of foster care was established and Charles Loring Brace…
This drives a value system that makes our work preventative by one intent. ith a clear understanding that some intervention will require a removal of the child from his or her parents' care, the value of family togetherness will direct the strategy of community involvement on the part of the agency.
The practice framework is guided by specialized knowledge on the patterns and trends dominating the landscape of abuse cases. The breakdown of major abuse categories reported by Bromfield & Horsfall finds that 39% of abuse cases are of the emotional abuse category, 29% in the category of neglect, 22% in the category of physical abuse and 10% in the category of sexual abuse. (p. 3)
Moreover, a major thrust of the report by Bromfield & Horsfall is that reports of all types of cases are on the rise, but also attributes this to certain realities including the…
BBC News. (20009). Australia 'Sorry' for Child Abuse. Bbc.co.uk.
Bromfield, L. & Horsfall, B. (2010). Child Abuse and Neglect Statistics. National Child Protection Clearinghouse.
Department for Child Protection (DCP). (2010). Homepage. Government of Western Australia. Online at http://www.community.wa.gov.au/DCP/
Early Childhood Australia (ECA). (2006). Statistics Show Child Abuse in Australia is Getting Worse. Early Childhoodaustralia.org.
Social Ecology Model
Social ecology requires that people see that nature and society are intertwined by progress into one environment that is made up of two differences. The first difference being biotic nature and the second being human nature. Human nature and biotic nature split an evolutionary prospective for better prejudice and elasticity. Nature is the manner in which people are flexible, extremely intellectual primates that occupy the natural world. In other words, individuals generate an atmosphere that is most appropriate for their manner of survival. In this case, human nature is no different from the atmosphere that each animal, contingent upon its aptitudes, generates as well as acclimates to, the biophysical conditions or eco community in which it lives. On this extremely basic level, people are, in fact, doing nothing that varies from the endurance actions of nonhumans (Bookchin, 2001).
The SEM is made up of several levels wrapped…
Bookchin, Murray. (2001). What Is Social Ecology? Retrieved December 11, 2010, from Web site: http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/bookchin/socecol.html
Innovative Pediatric Nursing Role: Public Health Nurses in Child Welfare: Theoretical Framework for Health Case Management Role. (2006). Retrieved December 11, 2010, from: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/543725_4
Social Ecological Model. (n.d.). Retrieved December 11, 2010, from Web site: http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/cpns/Documents/Network-Appendix6SocialEcologicalModel.pdf
Social workers try to help people make the most of their environment, their relationships, and any struggles they might have with money or family. A lot of social workers deal with people who face life-threatening circumstances, such as criminal activity or substance abuse. Other issues that social workers try to tackle are inadequate housing, unemployment, illness, disability, or difficulties around childbirth (Social Work Professions: Summary of the Social Worker Fields, 2010).
There are various social work specializations, but the larger categories include child, family, and school social workers, who provide social services and assistance to children and their families; medical and public health social workers who provide support for people with illnesses, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer, or AIDS; mental health and substance abuse social workers who deal with people who struggle with psychological issues; and social workers who deal with the intricacies of social policy and planning (Social Work…
Social Work Practice. (n.d.). Retrieved August 31, 2010, from Web site:
Social Work Professions: Summary of the Social Worker Fields. (2010). Retrieved August 31,
2010, from Education Portal Web site: http://education-
Those values include the fact that I am very socially conscious and am very aware of my responsibilities and obligations as a social worker. I constantly strive to comprehend and understand the theories of human behaviors and social systems, and in doing so I strive to employ that understanding in order to promote the positive aspects of society and mankind. I am very apt to assist someone in solving the problems faced in their life or lives, and oftentimes see simple solutions even in the most complex scenarios. My strengths are that the values and beliefs I hold dear are the same values and beliefs that will hold me in high regard with the clientele I am most likely to interact with.
Humanism in particular plays a pivotal role in my values since I have always cared for my fellow humans and will continue to do so for as long…
One of the primary concerns was multicultural relationships -- the recognition that ethics were relative to specific cultures and that each culture had to be understood according to its own functions, has to be respected for what it is, and had to be addressed in light of its cultural history and practices so that its people could best be helped. Social work had come a long way from attempting to squeeze all citizens of America in the model of the 'perfect American' as it had done in the 1920s. Nowadays, it is well-recognized that immigrants have many problems that deter them from receiving the rights that all Americans should receive optimal beneficial medical care and healthy living accommodations. Suffering from handicapped language skills and ignorance about the ways of their new land, immigrants are often exploited by an unjust and insensitive system as well as by willful individuals. This is…
Chesney, A.P., Chavira, J.A., Hall, R.P., & Gary, H.E. (1982). Barriers to medical care of Mexican-Americans: the role of social class, acculturation, and social isolation. Med. Care 20, 883 -- 91
Raemer, F. (1998) The evolution of social work ethics Nat. Assoc. Of Social Workers.
If studied carefully, this theory also hints at man's willingness and ability to survive. Those who lack this ability will naturally face extinction, while those who can fight can work things in their favor and hence improve their lot. If not used harshly, social Darwinism can help us understand man's need and ability to survive.
Social Darwinism is most commonly defined as a theory concerning "eugenic population control" and offers "complete commitment to an exclusive genetic and hereditary explanation of man's evolution." (Offer, p. 142) in other words, social Darwinism says that man will survive if he has the ability or else he will meet some natural phenomenon too forceful for him and wither away. People have used this theory to explain natural disasters in poorest of countries, and in poorest of areas in some rich countries. It may actually be interesting to note that in recent past, some of…
John Offer, Herbert Spencer. Routledge (2002)
Social Science esearch
Module 3 Discussion 1- Operationalizing Constructs
What does "safe" mean to you?
Safe means that the airplane travels without any problems and with comfort.
What types of variables could you construct to capture your concept of "safe?"
Using Ordinal Level measures (Babbie, 2010)
- Very Safe
How will your conceptualization of "safe" compare to others?
This concept is based n comfort ability of the airplane.
Have you ever participated in a survey?
I participated in a social research activity that was done in our community. It was an educational research on the effect of drug abuse on education and learning.
How were you selected to participate? Was it a random selection?
I was chosen as one of the people who have never used drugs to improve classroom performance. It was not a random selection.
What bias may have come into play…
Babbie, E.R. (2010). The Practice of Social Research. New York: Cengage Learning.
Blaikie, N. (2009). Designing Social Research. Cambridge: Polity.
Concluding in Political moderation, in "A Theory of Justice," and in later works, John awls explains a comprehensive, as well as influential theory, which is on the subject of, presenting a theory of justice in concurrence with the liberal-democratic passion that relates to the rights and freedoms of individuals in society. It entails that the rights of the individuals ought to be moderated by various types of clauses, making certain that no social or natural eventualities are overlooked. The theory declares that no inborn benefits of political authority, substance riches or natural capability should irreversibly or overpoweringly establish life chances. Furthermore, more distinctively, these morally subjective issues should not establish the value of political liberties to moral persons (1).
In 1971, awls's explains his first articulation of his theory of justice which highlights on individual abilities that he entitles the "Original Position" and in addition, a model of…
1). Macedo, Stephen. April 1995. Liberal Civic Education and Religious Fundamentalism: the Case of God v. John Rawls. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Pp.468 -496.
2). Carter, Stephen. 1987. Evolutionism and Treating Religion as a Hobby. Duke Law Journal.
3). Rawls, John. 1993. Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.
4). Kenneth Baynes. 1992. The Normative Grounds of Social Criticism: Kant, Rawls, Habermas, Albany. Suny Press.
By improving their self knowledge, leaders can change and develop as leaders of people. Clinical supervision for leaders is sometimes called administrative clinical supervision. This is managerial clinical supervision with a focus on problems related to leadership and organization of work, particularly human relations issues. Administrative clinical supervision makes use of experiential learning focused on oneself and one's work (Sirola-Karvinen and Hyrkas, 2008).
Administrative clinical supervision means clinical supervision for leaders that address leadership issues in order to achieve set goals. Supervision promotes cohesion within the organization and is directed at change. Administrative clinical supervision is the examination of leadership in which leaders have the chance to reflect upon the quality of their decisions and share their feelings. In terms of action, administrative clinical supervision involves process-like support and mentoring, which boost the leader's confidence in coping with leadership duties and changes associated with it. Administrative clinical supervision addresses issues…
Clinical supervision 'can inoculate staff against stress'. (2010). Mental Health Practice. 13(7),
Clinical Supervision. (2009). Retrieved June 27, 2010, Australian College of Mental Health
Nurses Web site: http://www.acmhn.org/career-resources/clinical-supervision.html
She did not have the benefit of a bedroom door for the last two years of high school.
Without the bedroom door, the client changed her clothes in the bathroom and was often unable to sleep at night because of her father's snoring. The first time her mother confronted her for being wide awake (and reading) in her room in the middle of the night, the client admitted that her father's snoring kept her awake. A few minutes later, her father entered her room and whipped her with the belt for "being disrespectful."
After discovering that alcohol allowed her to fall asleep and sleep through the night, she began drinking vodka at bedtime, which she chose because it was odorless and easy to hide in alternative containers in her room and among the cleaning supplies in the bathroom cabinet.
The client has always recalled the details of her childhood physical…
Butler, K. (1997). The Anatomy of Resilience; the Family Therapy Networker, 21(2):22-31
DeJong, P., Miller, S. (1995). How to Interview for Clients Strengths;
Social Work, 40(6).
Goldstein, E. (1995). Ego Psychology and Social Work Practice. (2nd
Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and he can feed himself for life. How could you put this principle into practice through the development of a social entrepreneurship venture?
Development of Social Entrepreneurialism
Corporate Social Responsibility
Social Entrepreneurship and Food
Social entrepreneurship was introduced in the 1970s to address the issue of social sustainably and the term "social entrepreneur." This analysis will begin by providing a brief history as well as a working definition for the concept of social entrepreneurialism. It will also discuss some of the related movements that have been working towards some of the same goals, albeit, from different directions to address various challenges in society and the environment. Furthermore, a more detailed overview of the exact challenges that are present in society that social entrepreneurialism can work to address will…
Abu-Saifan, S., 2012. Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries. [Online]
Available at: http://timreview.ca/article/523
[Accessed 28 April 2016].
Ashoka, N.d.. Vision and Mission. [Online]
Social isk and Vulnerability Analysis Comment by Babyliza: There's No Abstract
Vulnerability to hazards is affected by several factors, comprising age or income, the power of social networks, and neighborhood individualities. Social vulnerability takes into account the socioeconomic and demographic factors that influence the resilience of populations. The Sovi for Bexar County is 0.230416 whereas that for Philadelphia County is 3.418284. This indicates that Philadelphia County as a geographical expanse has a higher vulnerability and susceptibility to environmental and public health hazards. A key group that ought to be taken into consideration is one of people lacking insurance. This is a group that is severely impacted in the course of disasters and after disasters, and are not able to easily recover. Individuals that are not self-insured are generally excluded from these calculations.
All expanses of the United States have experienced disasters, both natural and anthropogenic. The vulnerabilities that are…
Bexar County Emergency Management. (2016). The Mission & Vision of the OEM. Retrieved from: http://www.bexar.org/675/OEM-Mission-Vision
Chavi. (2015). Here Are The 10 Worst Disasters to Occur in Pennsylvania History. Only in Your State. Retrieved from: http://www.onlyinyourstate.com/pennsylvania/pa-disasters/
City Data. (2016). Philadelphia: Geography and Climate. Retrieved from: http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/The-Northeast/Philadelphia-Geography-and-Climate.html
Dunning, C. M., Durden, S. (2013). Social Vulnerability Analysis: A Comparison of Tools. Institute for Water Resources.
Consistent with this, other findings propose that women are more likely than men to take part in violence in the home whereas men are more likely than women to take part in violence in public places.
Even though there is some evidence that mental illness is associated with violence, it appears that the bigger contributing factor is that of outside influences. Substance abuse appears to be the greatest contributing factor, but it can be something as insignificant as one's living arrangements or even just their gender. Overall people with mental health problems do not appear to be at an increased risk of violence.
Appelbaum, P.S., Robbins, P.C., Monahan, J. (2000). Violence and delusions: data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157,
Cottle, C. (2004). The role of social context in the prediction and management of violence among persons with mental illness. Dissertation…
Three Community Functions of Social Welfare
At the heart of the ideas of community are notions of social justice (p. 9). The authors argue that the objectives of social welfare programs, redistribution of wealth to increase well-being and the creation of communities and sustaining them in healthy ways are vitally interrelated (p. 9-10). At least six community functions of social welfare are discussed. I focus on three including the functions of production, contribution, and consumption; the function of socialization; and, the function of social control in the fostering of social welfare and in the building of communities.
The function of production, contribution, and consumption in social welfare is to link individuals into the larger Canadian economic community in a non-exploitive manner so that individuals have control over their lives (p. 99-100).
The function of socialization in social welfare is to integrate immigrant communities and first nation's peoples fully…
Mothers -- Transitioning from elfare to Corporate America
elfare in the United States is both a complex and controversial subject. The issue focuses on several aspects of public policy: economics, cultural diversity, actualization, incentives, education/training, taxation and even the actual role of the government. e first begin this study with an overview of the idea of a state welfare system, its origins, development, purpose, and particularly view the manner in which the welfare system has changed since the Great Depression. It is then important to understand the implications of the 1988 Family Support Act (FSA) and the change in attitude and policy regarding welfare, and the newer focus on finding ways to train, retrain, or educate those on welfare so they can find gainful employment -- particularly those who move into the corporate world. Challenges, interventions, and potential outcomes are examined, among which looking at the juxtaposition between the fiscal…
Burnett, R. (2010, May 28). Social Welfre: Does it Really Help or Does it Really Hurt? Retrieved from The Cypress Times: http://www.thecypresstimes.com/article/Columnists/The_Hard_Truth/SOCIAL_WELFARE_DOES_IT_REALLY_HELP_OR_DOES_IT_REALLY_HURT/30509
Galster, G. (Ed.). (1996). Reality and Research: Social Science and U.S. Urban Policy since 1960. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.
Gyamfi, P., Brooks-Gun, J., & Jackson, A. (2005). Moving Towards Work: The Effects of Employment Experiences on Welfare-Dependent Women and their Children. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 12(2-3), 39-62.
Hamilton, G. (2002, July). Moving People from Welfare to Work. Retrieved from MDRC Policy Analysis: http://www.mdrc.org/publications/52/summary.html
The general problem of the social assistance concept is the eligibility issue. Conditions are very restrictive, and so they should. Too much benefits would lead people into thinking that the Government will provide for them, at the expense of others, which is not what politicians desire (maybe communist rulers do, but this is not the object of this paper). On the other hand, few benefits or no benefits at all would mean that the purpose of the program - i.e. social protection - is not achievable.
One other aspect of the way U.S. citizens (and people from other countries, for that matter) look at the social assistance programs is the stigmatization such a program brings to an individual. No one likes to admit that he/she is in desperate need of help, so people are reluctant to apply. Perhaps some media campaigns against that perception would make a difference.
1. Wineman, Steven. Power-Under: Trauma and Nonviolent Social Change.," Cambridge, 2003 http://www.gis.net/~swineman/Power_Under.pdf
Corporate Social Action of McDonald's and the Problem of Obesity
Corporate Social Responsibility
This paper proposes a corporate social action to McDonald's to address the issue of obesity among general consumers which is caused by high-calorie and spicy fast foods. The paper starts by highlight some research studies which explain how fast foods cause obesity among children and adults, and proceeds by discussing why McDonald's should take an initiative to remove this criticism by the local and international community. The paper also highlights the strategies to implement this action plan, the intended outcomes and affected stakeholders, the constituent parts of the plan, and unintended consequences or weaknesses of this initiative by the company.
The Social Problem:
Obesity is one of the major issues in health care. It gives rise to various heart diseases, diabetes, and other health related consequences (orld Heart Federation). A number of research studies have been conducted…
Benloulou, Jonathan. "Pelman v. McDonald's: An In-depth Case Study of a Fast Food -- Obesity Lawsuit," 2005. Print.
Environmental Action, "Marching against McDonalds," ProQuest Central, 1993: 25 (3). p-10.
Lu-sted, Marcia, Amidon. Obesity & food policing, 1st Edition. Edina, Minn.: ABDO Pub. Co., 2008. Print.
McBride, Sarah. "Currents: Exiling the Happy Meal; Los Angeles Lawmakers Want to Escalate the War on Obesity (and Fast Food)." Wall Street Journal, 22nd July, 2008: A.14. ProQuest. Web. May 11th, 2013.
Instead, the welfare system encouraged perpetual social dependency and provided a reason for poor people not to work at all when the most reliable method of achieving financial independence (besides continuing education) is precisely, to begin working at minimum wage jobs while gradually learning skills and establishing contacts and a record of regular employment that are essential in the long- term goal of qualifying for better work in time (Healey, 2003 p56).
The Need for Welfare Reform:
While elements of government assistance programs are still subject to epidemic abuse (Schmalleger, 2007 p104), the reconfiguration mandated by Congress in 1996 are designed to rectify some of the most glaring problems plaguing the federally administrated programs previously. First and foremost, the new state-run welfare programs must, by federal law, establish caps limiting welfare eligibility to discourage perpetual (even permanent) reliance on public funds as a substitute for making the necessary effort and…
Healey, Joseph F. Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: The Sociology of Group Conflict and Change. London: Pine Forge (2003).
Henslin, James M. Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon (2002).
Macionis, John J. Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall (2003).
Schaefer, Richard T. Racial and Ethnic Groups. New York: Harper-Collins (2001).
In this case there are differences due to the income level of the person who is replying.
The Americans who are making more than $34,000 a year generally say that the persons getting aid from welfare could manage their own lives without help from the government if they really tried, while the replies from the lower income groups feel that they could not manage. This continues on in the opinion of the comparatively richer group to say that the people getting poverty assistance could manage without assistance as they get the assistance without having to do anything for it. This continues on with persons having little knowledge of the changes in law that has come up. Only half the respondents were aware of the changes in the law. However of the persons who are aware of the changes in the law 61% think that the new law is working well,…
America's most costly welfare recipients are Fortune 500 companies. Cato Institute News Releases. June 30, 1999. Retrieved at http://www.cato.org/new/catonew-06-99.html . Accessed on 30 June, 2005
Bumpass, Larry. Ryder, N.B. The Changing Contexts of Parenting in the United States. Retrieved at http://parenthood.library.wisc.edu/Bumpass/Bumpass.html . Accessed on 29 June, 2005
Cauchon, Dennis. State, local spending up despite downturn. USA Today. 14 January, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2003-01-14-state-budgets-usat_x.htm . Accessed on 30 June, 2005
Danziger, Sheldon; Loury, Glenn; Murray, Charles; Wilkins, Roger. Does Welfare Cause Illegitimacy? 9 April, 1994. Retrieved at http://www.mugu.com/cgi-bin/Upstream/murray-loury-welfareAccessed on 29 June, 2005
The following review of current literature is categorized by a number of variables. Statistics and Data initiate the report and is quickly followed up with Policy Literature. From there, an Academic Literature Review focusing on five articles (with corresponding studies and citations) takes place. After the Academic Review comes a Relevant Campaigning Review and a Media Review. Finally, a quick conclusion ties the literature together in a neat little bow.
The charts below provide data that allows researchers to understand exactly how significant the problem is. Chart A (see below) shows the rates of pregnancies in the UK broken down by age. As is evident, since 1990 pregnancy rates for older women have been rising significantly, while the rates for those woman under 29 years of age (including teenagers) have been holding steady, or slightly declining for the most part. Since current public policy was first initiated in…
Arai, L.; (2003) British policy on teenage pregnancy and childbearing: The limitations of comparisons with other European countries, Critical Social Policy, Vol. 23, Issue 1, pp. 89 -- 102
Bingley, P.J., Douek, I.F., Rogers, C.A. And Gale, E.A.M. (2000) Influence of maternal age at delivery and birth order on risk of Type 1 Diabetes in childhood: Prospective population-based family study, British Medical Journal, Vol. 321, pp 420 -- 424.
Brewer, M.; Ratcliffe, A.; dSmith, S.; (2011) Does welfare reform affect fertility: Evidence from the UK, Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 25, Issue 1, pp. 245 -- 266
Doling, J. & Ford, J.; (2007) A union of homeowners? European Journal of Housing Policy, Vol. 7, pp. 113 -- 127.
UK Social Policy
Compare and contrast the trends in the 'settling' & 'unsettling' of the political, economic & social settlements for the UK social policies relating to health care and social housing. (Approx 2 pages) Explain and illustrate the broad nature of the UK post-war welfare settlements (namely political, economic, social & organizational) and their reconstruction in the 1980s and 1990s. In what ways has the discourse of management affected the above two areas of social policy (i.e. health care & social housing).
In the United Kingdom, after the destruction weathered by the British populace during orld ar II and the subsequent poverty weathered by so many of the British peoples, the argument for the right of universal public services or the creation of an all-encompassing welfare state became popular. The idea that all British citizens had the innate right to accessible roads and a clean and healthy environment was…
"Health Care." An Introduction to Social Policy Website. Last updated 2005. Retrived 19 Aug 2005 at http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/health.htm#UKH
'Housing and Urban Policy." An Introduction to Social Policy Website. Last updated 2005. Retrived 19 Aug 2005 at http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/housing.htm
'Social Policy." An Introduction to Social Policy Website. Last updated 2005. Retrived 19 Aug 2005 at http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/socpolf.htm
'Social Policy in the United Kingdom." An Introduction to Social Policy Website. Last updated 2005. Retrived 19 Aug 2005 at http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/uk.htm#Welfare%20State%20in%20Britain