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A more benign but still relevant application of the Dillingham Flaw might be to assume that all persons of Latin American extraction have the same political affiliation. A recent or lower-class worker might have more sympathy with the Democratic Party, or more strongly identify with candidates of Latin extraction. A Latin American immigrant or second generation immigrant with strong conservative views on social policy, or who owned his or her own business might be more responsive to political appeals from the Republican Party and care less about the ethnic background of a prospective candidate, unlike his or her parents. Thus, it would be in error for a candidate to assume that he or she was guaranteed or not guaranteed 'the Latin vote,' given the diversity of persons within that supposed voting monolith. The longer a group remains within the U.S. borders, the more diverse it becomes economically and culturally.
Different…… [Read More]
f the publishing organization is affiliated with an established and accredited institution of higher learning, that is evidence that the website is likely a credible source of valid information. might also do an nternet search for the individual authors to determine whether they have a reputation for objectivity or bias on the subject matter of their writing.
2. f you were going to begin a database search on the topic of the relationship between individualism and the portrait genre, what search terms would you use? What are the most significant terms here? The ones you could NOT leave out? f you searched "individualism" would this be sufficient?
Searching for "individualism" alone would not be sufficient because a search for that term in isolation would generate all sorts of information that would have nothing necessarily to do with the topic of portrait genre or art. would not leave out any of…… [Read More]
Two Sociological Concepts -- Anomie and Ethnocentrism
Anomie: Anomie is "a kind of existential dread," which in Emile Durkheim's view was the major pathology of societies characterized by organic solidarity, and therefore the most pressing underlying social problem with which modern societies must cope. (Durkheim, 1964) Anomie was characterized by a lack of knowing what to do, given the plurality of values that characterized societies organized by organic solidarity. Unlike primitive societies of mechanical solidarity, modern industrialized societies offered a plethora of modes of conduct and a variety of exposures to differing social norms, without reinforcing mechanical structures of collective conduct and obligation. This characterization was true of industrialized society, but seems even truer of the diverse fabric of society, particularly in arenas such as the college campus, which have few 'needful' connections between equals, based upon modes of kinship and barter and exchange of goods, and where…… [Read More]
Suicide and Society
Suicide: An Individual Phenomenon or a Societal Construct?
Statistics show that suicide rates in the U.S. are highly predictable. It is annually expected each year that over 30,000 suicides will occur, as compared to about 17,000 homicides. This stable and predictable estimate of suicide rate stems from a precise analysis of social factors describing four separate categories of suicidal influences: egoistic, altruistic, anomic, and fatalistic. According to the functionalist theory described by Emile Durkheim, rates are social facts based on other established social facts, and thus have a sociological basis. As suicide rates are social facts, Durkheim set out to provide an empirical basis of social explanation regarding suicide, providing a far different account of trends than the previously perceived notion that suicide is based purely on individual or psychological reasons. Thus, the phenomenon of what actually motivates the occurrence of suicide can be examined from a…… [Read More]
Do laws serve to help the masses or do they serve the "propertied and privileged few?" (Heywood 152) This question is thrown into stark relief, given the recent Kobe Bryant Scandal regarding the accuser's allegations that the NBA superstar raped her. (CNN.com, 2003)
Theorists and Sociological concepts
On one hand, it could be argued that the privileges of the wealth and fame offered by Bryant's status gave him added media protection. However, it could also be alleged that in a rape trial, given the seriousness of the offense, one cannot presume a defendant's guilt. Although societal prejudices may condemn the women's sexual behavior or mental instability, in the past American history of justice, Black African-American males have frequently and falsely been accused of violating white women as means of "keeping them in their place." Thus, the "bifurcated consciousness," or a polarized identity kept in place by the absolutism…… [Read More]
Sociology as a field of study entails examining and understanding the behavior of human groups and associated social behavior. In understanding these aspects, the sociologists have, their focus primarily concentrated on the human interactions. These human interactions revolve around how the different social relations influence the behavior and attitudes of the people and how the societies originate, form and change. Human interactions are vast, and so is the field of sociology. It covers virtually all the topics of human life, from gender, race, religion, education, politics, health, group behavior and conformity among others. Sociologist focus on how the society and people influence other people since most personal experiences has their origin from external or social forces.
The social and external forces exist within the society in the form of interpersonal relationships between families and friends. Additionally, these relations form from the encounters in the academic, religious,…… [Read More]
Sociological Theory: hat Makes Democracy ork?
hen it comes to "Classical Sociological Theory" and "Contemporary Sociological Theory" there are numerous sociological theories that try to inspect and interpret why and how society purposes; looking at the influences such as mass media, education, the family and the church. All of these theories have their own ideas as to how these numerous establishments distress how should be and is -- some facets of these theories intersect with each other and other facets are totally different. Theories for instance Functionalism and Marxism attempt to describe civilization as an 'absolute truth' (they each look at culture on a macro scale) they trust that set development of society is unavoidable; there is a construction to life and civilization that seldom permits for change.
According to Tocqueville (pp.104) concerning Classical Sociological Theory, his argument is that throughout time our world has seen a lot of different…… [Read More]
Sociological Theories of Crime
There are a number of respected sociological theories of crime and criminality, and in this paper four of those theories -- social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory and neutralization theory -- will be reviewed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. Also, of the theories discussed, one or more will be referenced in terms of the relevance to a recently convicted offender.
Social Control Theory
According to professor Larry Siegel social control theories put forward the notion that everyone has the potential to become a law-breaker, and the society offers multiple opportunities for illegal activity. The attraction for some people to deal drugs or steal cars, Siegel explains, is that there is "…the promise of immediate reward and gratification" (Siegel, 2011, p. 248). And so, Siegel continues, given the attraction of crime for many, and the benefits for some, his question is: why do…… [Read More]
Sociological theories have helped widen people's scope on social behaviors and societies. In fact, the study of sociological theories makes one develop a comprehensive understanding of sociology's past, present and future. There are a number of sociological theories namely: symbolic interaction theory, conflict theory, functionalist theory, feminist theory, critical theory, labeling theory, social learning theory, and structural strain theory among others (Giddens, 1997).
Government, religion, education, economics and family are some of the five major social institutions that have been there for quite some time. This term paper seeks to evaluate the impacts of functionalism, conflict, and interaction theories on the family institution. The paper will address how each of the theories apply to the family as a social institution; the similarities and differences that exist; how each theory affects the views of an individual who is a member of the family unit; how each of the theories affect approach…… [Read More]
Sociological Analysis of Hyperconnectivity
Hyperconnectivity is a fairly new concept that it is indigenous to the 21st century. The term was coined only a few years ago by Canadian social scientists as a way to describe how people are connect via machines, networked organizations, and networked societies overall. Thus, this is a term that could have been coined now. "Hyper" is usually an adjective to describe a state of excess excitement and unruly energy; "hyper" as it exists as a prefix coming from the Greek language, means abnormal, unusual, and appearing in quantities beyond what is normal. Both definitions can be useful when considering the global culture or state of hyperconnectivity that much of the world finds itself in during the 21st century. We have mobile devices that connect to the internet wherever we are and wherever there is an internet connection. We have long since had computers and…… [Read More]
The sociology of Max Weber (Question No. 1)
Max Weber's sociology involved two important concepts: Protestant ethic and capitalism. Establishing a causal connection between this two concepts, Weber presented in his discourse, "Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism," how the Protestant ethic was the catalyst that propelled Western societies towards social progress through capitalism. This causal connection was developed through a string of observations and ideas that helped Weber analyze the course of human history and interaction as it moved from 19th towards the 20th century.
In establishing his thesis, Weber centered his observations by looking into the interaction or social action among people in Western societies. This methodology enabled him to create descriptions, implications, and meanings in determining the origin of capitalism and how it developed. Social action was explicated by Weber as 'action that is social' -- that is, social action that has "subjective meaning…… [Read More]
Many different views abound on the origins of modern capitalism, causalities that range from economic to political, from religious to cultural, or for some, an amalgamation of societies need to expand and the resources necessary to fuel that expansion. Max Weber's the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a study of the relationship between the ethics of ascetic Protestantism and the emergence of the spirit of modern capitalism. An ascetic Protestant is one who practices self-denial and self-discipline. Weber argues that the religious ideas of groups such as the Calvinists played a role in creating the capitalistic spirit. Calvinism focused on predestination and God's infinite power, a hierarchical system that transcended religion and moved into economic and social activities.
This is true not only in cases where the difference in religion coincides with one of nationality, and thus of cultural development . . . . The same thing…… [Read More]
Analysis of group collectivism and interaction in "Culture in Interaction" by Nina Eliasoph and Paul Lichterman
The journal article entitled, "Culture in Interaction," authored by Nina Eliasoph and Paul Lichterman, brought into fore the use of empirical studies in identifying, analyzing, and interpreting the group culture of organizations and civil groups in terms of their use of speech acts and group interaction. The study's general objective was to describe the culture of civil organizations through a qualitative analysis of their speech acts and styles. Using the method of ethnographic analysis, Eliasoph and Lichterman was able to analyze and interpret how these civil groups' cultures, i.e., through collective representations, are characterized by their use of specific kinds of speech acts and styles.
Through the literature gathered by the researchers/authors, the choice of the sample was to select a civil group that center on activities related to activism and volunteerism,…… [Read More]
Conflict between the contestants and the management emerges as they are forced to compete and antagonize each other in order to win the prize. Thus, being a contest, conflict in "Survivor" is inevitable, and it is only through a successful power struggle that one will be able to win over the management, thereby winning $1 million. Among the Survivors, meanwhile, the initial conflict that happens is between groups or "tribes." As each contestant is eliminated, one tribe emerges as more dominant in terms of number, thereby necessitating a fusion of the two tribes. This fusion leads to a tension among each contestant, wherein everyone tries his/her best to remain in the contest; conflict now happens as contestants try to establish allegiances and affiliations with others, which, in the process, results to conflicts with other contestants.
However, the inherent presence of conflict in "Survivor" is mainly based on the daily interactions…… [Read More]
Sociological Explanation of Sexual Initiation and Negotiation
Part of the desire to initiate and negotiate sex stems from the sociological desire to couple or be partnered with another human being. Many people grow up with fantasies and notions of finding Mr. Of Mrs. ight, hoping that at some point in their life they will fall into love and have "an affair of the heart" (Michael, et. al, 1994: 67). The reality of existence however is that most meetings that result in long-term relationships can be mundane. Choice of long-term partners and sexual partners can sometimes differ. In general however, most people seek out people that they think are similar in nature and personality to themselves, even without having intimate knowledge of the social context in which the potential partner lives and exists (Michael, et. al, 1994: 69).
The initiation and negotiation of sex often stems from familiarity. Most people fantasize…… [Read More]
Sociological and Therapeutic Implications of the Brain Disease
Inspiration for professionals who authored the account on chronic brain illnesses came from findings on drugs' impacts on the human brain. The assurance that strong anti-addiction medicines can be found appeared great. The budding scientific branch, addiction biology, implies that addiction --a condition which starts off with the clear, intentional decision to have a go at drugs, spiraling quickly down to an irrepressible, involuntary state --would now be considered seriously, and forever, as an ailment. Using this knowledge, authors hoped to sensitize lawmakers as well as the society to drug-addicts' needs, including improved coverage of private insurance and public treatment access. The agenda also included moderating of puritanical outlooks and smoothing of penal law enforcement. The neuro-centric approach supports unjustified optimism with regard to pharmaceutical treatments, overrating the requirement of professional aid. Conditions characteristically remitted in young adulthood are branded as "chronic."…… [Read More]
In fact, the cohabitation option serves a valuable function for many couples, especially where living together allows them to discover possible problem areas in their relationship that would have made marriage a bad idea. If anything, that is preferable to the traditional situation where couples really only begin learning about one another after making the lifelong commitment to a marriage. Finally, Congressman McDonald's point about childbirth out of wedlock ignores the tremendous advantages to children born in stable marriages and suggests that high rates of unwanted pregnancies among unmarried couples somehow negates the benefits of planned pregnancies within marriage.
The Functionalist Perspective Applied to Marriage:
In some respects, there are valid criticisms that justify reevaluating certain aspects of modern marriage, including the unfairness of child custody decisions that favor mothers and financial settlements that obligate married partners who supported the marriage financially to share more of what they earned than…… [Read More]
Wallace x) Three psycho-sociological concepts which are well represented in the film are conformity of group behavior, gender roles in adolescents, especially boys and narrow tradition based attitudes about what is valuable in society.
The whole film is based upon conformity of behavior according to accepted traditions and accepted societal standards of the 1950s in America. Acting was not an accepted vocation, as accepted vocations were those which carried prestige and high salaries. Society's judgment of the value of a job was its monetary worth. The school and its teachers are bound by the traditional mode of teaching, which is largely stale drill and practice with attendant exams. The value is based upon the idea of education being based upon how much information a student can store and regurgitate. It is especially well illustrated by the scene with Keating where he has the students tear out the introduction in…… [Read More]
SOCIOLOGICAL TERMS (Terms in Italics)
Varsity Jackets, Subcultures, and the Function of Sports in Society
In sociological terms, the varsity letter jackets worn by the students would be considered status symbols because they have specific social connotations that correspond to achievements that are valued by the group. They represent group identity in high school based on membership in sports teams. In many cases, sports teams also feature subcultures in which group norms and values are used by members of the group to maintain a degree of exclusivity to membership in their group as well; in the high school setting, these would typically be referred to as cliques.
In general, competitive sports can be viewed from the structural-functional sociological approach or from the symbolic-interaction approach. In the former, sports would be viewed primarily in connection with their functions, such as a means through which participants maintain physical fitness or pursue enjoyment;…… [Read More]
There were several theories that I found interesting as a part of the course, yet the theory that I connected with most personally was Symbolic Interaction. This theory was established first by George Herbert Mead, who coined the phrase "symbolic interactionism" first. The theory has been present in the field of sociology for several decades, and after the death of Mead, other sociologists took on the theory in their own works, studies, and theories. This theory is one of my favorites for a few reasons, one of which is because I believe I have seen it at work in my own life and in the interactions of others in their lives.
I also agree with the validity of this theory because I feel that it coincides with other theories in other fields, such as psychology. There are psychologists, such as Freudian psychologists and Lacanian psychologists that have…… [Read More]
Social Order: Institutions, Socializations, And the Performance of Social Roles
Erving Goffman dramaturgical theory is a seminal theory in the field of sociology. An example of "micro-sociological analysis," it forced sociological analysis back into the examination of things which actually exist, individual behavior, instead of mere concepts. Goffman demonstrated that the examination of real things can not only clarify existing lines of thought, but open up new avenues for the study of social behavior. Thesis: Through his emphasis on the individual's performance of social roles, Goffman demonstrates that, although social organization and dynamics do influence individual behavior, it is the individual herself who determines the final shape of this behavior.
Summary of the Theory
Erving Goffman's work, often classified as "symbolic interactionism," is highly valuable for the study of socialization and the performance of social roles. Erving studied how individuals used symbols in the performance of their social roles and…… [Read More]
At the time of the Industrial Revolution, philosophy had already dealt substantially with the notion of "division of labour" although the terminology was slightly different. Our modern sense of the division of labour is, of course, largely derived from nineteenth century industrial capitalism, and it was based on this paradigm that sociological thinkers like Marx, Durkheim, and Simmel would analyze the phenomenon. But we might note by way of introduction that they were inheriting an earlier tradition that emerged from earlier pre-industrial forms of capitalism, what began to emerge in England in the Elizabethan period and thereafter. Thus the Elizabethan idea of a "great chain of being" -- which posited an order and hierarchy to social relationships -- would gradually come to be altered by thinkers like Thomas Hobbes and Bernard Mandeville. By the early eighteenth century, Mandeville would lay down the basic principles of an idea of division…… [Read More]
Many cultural studies state that the Qur'an provides for the mercy killing of women who have been failed to have been adequately protected and have, as a result thereof, been raped. In fact, Muslim countries have a disproportionate amount of honor killings; yet, this should be understood as a cultural phenomenon as the scripture and the practice of the Qur'an do not dictate or specifically set forth the proposition that women should die as a result of being assaulted (Quraishi,, 2000).
Conclusion and Commentary:
Importance of Cultural elativism and Understanding the Sociological Differences Between Women of the United States and Women of Islam
After September 11th and the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City by Osaama Bin Laden and his progeny, a cultural relativist approach which bases itself in understanding the Islamic worldview became under attack and, as a society, we have created less understanding,…… [Read More]
Three Perspectives on Crime
For decades sociologists have debated the causes of crime and criminal behavior and have created three sociological perspectives involving the cause of crime. Schmalleger identifies these three perspectives as Individual esponsibility Perspective, Social Problems Perspective, and Integrated Perspective. A discussion of current criminal activity can easily identify cases in which each of these perspectives can be applied.
The Individual esponsibility Perspective defines criminal behavior as the result of individual personal choices. According to Schmalleger, this perspective states that individuals are ultimately responsible for their own behavior and that some individuals choose to engage in criminal activity as opposed to following the law. HSBC is Europe's third largest bank and in 2013 it agreed to pay a $1.9 Billion fine "to resolve charges it enabled Latin American drug cartels to launder billions of dollars…." (Smythe, 2013) HSBC CEO Stuart Gulliver and Chairman Douglas Flint were accused…… [Read More]
Social Norms and Personal Space
hen people think of communication, they usually think in terms of spoken conversations and words. However, a significant amount of communication occurs on a non-verbal level. The tones and inflections of speech, a person's body language and the proximity between two conversing people are all rife with meaning and messages.
Because of these meanings, non-verbal communication is also governed by unspoken social norms. This paper examines the norms of proximity during interpersonal communication and the effects of breaking these norms.
Norms of proximity
In his seminal work The Silent Language, anthropologist Edward T. Hall (1959) explored how body language and other forms of non-verbal behavior regulate much of interpersonal communication. Among the norms he studied were proxemics, the typical distances people maintained during face-to-face interactions.
Though the concept of proxemics varied across and within various cultures, Hall found four general distance categories people used during…… [Read More]
social structures exert a definite pressure upon certain persons in the society to engage in nonconformist rather than conformist conduct," (Merton, 1938, p. 672). With his own italics emphasizing the stress and strain that social structures can produce in the individual, obert Merton outlines the basis of strain and stress theories. Stress is a natural part of life; it is how people cope with stress or react to it that matters most. Individual differences in background, situational variables, and also personality and psychological traits can also impact how people deal with stress and respond to stressors. However, some people will naturally encounter more stressors and more strain than others. Merton and other sociologists who recognized the value of strain theory showed how poverty and other structural variables cause stress and strain, and can often be the cause for behavioral problems including criminality. Yet once a person has been labeled a…… [Read More]
Current Event Due 11:55p Sunday eek 5 the eek 5 Homework 2 Assignment meets objectives: Apply a sociological perspective social world. Analyze contemporary social issues sociological imagination sociological theories concepts analyze everyday life.
The Ukraine conflict has generated much controversy in recent months as a community of experts has gotten actively involved in discussing the topic and in attempting to provide solution to the crisis. Even with the fact that initial decisions were related to getting an international body to intervene and influence the two belligerent camps to put down their weapons, it gradually became clear that the situation would require more thought and that the people involved are reluctant to yield to their adversaries. Shaun alker and Howard Amos's article "Ukraine civil war fears mount as volunteer units take up arms" provides information with regard to the critical nature of the conflict.
By analyzing matters from a sociological perspective,…… [Read More]
emotionally charged concepts in the study of sociology is that of what constitutes "deviance." In common conversation, to call someone is a "deviant" is usually meant as an insult to that individual's character. It suggests that he or she lives beyond the pale of the law, or engages in aberrant sexual or social behavior. However, in James Henslin's Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach, it becomes clear that our notions of deviance are tied to our culture, and what constitutes deviant behavior as a category is not a pre-existing 'fact.' For example, some Indian tribes accept hallucinogenic drug use as natural, rather than as illegal, unlike our own society (Henslin 2005: 139). The "relativity" of deviance in sociological terms means merely departing from a particular socially constructed norm. The sociological notion of relative deviance implies the relative nature of what constitutes a crime (for example, homosexual acts were deemed criminal not so…… [Read More]
Definition of Concept/Theory: The American Dream is one of the most pervasive elements of American consciousness and identity. It is the cornerstone of the myth of meritocracy in America, as the American Dream suggests that anyone can achieve upward social mobility simply by working hard. The American Dream is one of the chief motivating factors for foreign immigrants, who flee war-torn, poor, or otherwise problematic places abroad to seek asylum and opportunity. Although the American Dream has come true for many Americans, including immigrants, the achievement of upward social mobility and integration with the dominant culture in America remains elusive. The American Dream is more a myth than a dream.
Example 1: Drash, W., Basu, M. & Watkins, T. (2013). Boston suspects: Immigrant dream to American nightmare. CNN. 20 April, 2013. etrieved online: http://www.cnn.com/2013/04/19/us/Massachusetts-bombers-profiles/index.html?iid=article_sidebar
This article is about the suspects in the Boston marathon terrorist attacks. The article focuses…… [Read More]
The work of Chidester explores different types of death, and symbolizes three patterns describing the transcendence of death: ancestral, experiential, and cultural (12). Types of death, and the way death is imagined, can help human beings die in a meaningful way, give life ultimate meaning, and significance (Chidester: 12). The ancestral transcendence represents a type of biological death, meaning this form of transcendence provides a way for the individual to connect with a continuous biological chain of parents and offspring (Chidester: 12). This is significant as the family line is not broken by death; death provides an ongoing continuity of family. The psychological type of death is considered experiential transcendence, and represents "profound and often intense psychological experiences that embrace death in acceptance or ecstasy" (Chidester: 14). Accepting and embracing death signifies death as a psychologically peaceful experience. A third type of death is social, referred to as cultural transcendence,…… [Read More]
e. As waitresses.)
II. Social Action
Max eber developed the concept of social action as a means of describing those actions that take into account actions and reactions of other people, then modifying that action based on those occurrences. Sociologists employ social action as a conceptual model as a means of determining how certain behaviors are modified in specific environments. hen we evaluate the norms of social discourse and the customs that prevail in any given society, we see how social action works.
Importantly, social action takes into consideration reactions of others. hen the reaction of an individual or group is not wanted, then the action will be modified accordingly. Sociology is essentially the study of social action, as it takes into account the way society functions and the way human behavior is established in societal structures. According to social action theory, people change their actions according to what social…… [Read More]
The Sociological Implications of Plato's Allegory of the Cave
Social enlightenment is an abstract concept indeed, and one that is tied closely to collective ways of understanding and perceiving complex cultural dimensions such are hierarchies, forms of governance and variances of individual economic burden. However, our understanding of this abstract concept may be enhanced by Plato's well-known "Allegory of the Cave." Comprising Chapter VII of Plato's critically important The Republic, the allegory examines the experience of socially-imposed ignorance and the consequences of enlightenment. In doing so, it offers an extremely compelling discussion on the human condition that is remarkable in its relevance to our lives today. Namely, the allegory forces us to examine our conceptions of awareness and to reflect on that which we truly know as opposed to that which we believe we know. Indeed, the most compelling aspect of the Plato allegory is the degree to…… [Read More]
We see how their membership in the class and racial group has power over their attitudes and actions. At the time of this film, they were contemporary, but the film was true to the times, so they are now historically correct also. The social mores and customs are well depicted in the forms of dances and music and in the morality of the time. Maria's dress for the dance must have a certain propriety about it, with a proper hem and neckline. She dresses in white to symbolize purity. Anita, a married woman, can dress in red, as she has more freedom and need not be chaperoned. Maria's age, innocence and single status require a chaperone.
Family is very important in this film, as family connections are used as reasons for action. However, the family structure of the Puerto ican culture is the main focus, and its very Catholic cultural…… [Read More]
371). In addition, the cultural strain can result to conflicts like for instance when the fundamentalists denies the proposition to abandon their traditions (Allan, 2005, p. 367), where the strain as an agitation of a cultural anticipation in a system, as it tries to disturb the equilibrium of the system.
Considering a society characterized by different individuals that have varied backgrounds and understanding, shaped by different surroundings, and having understanding that there exists no perfect society, this society from the continuing challenges is experiencing cultural strain, as there exists differences in opinions from the structural constituents of the system thus an abrupt need for social modification. This is from the mechanical solidarity resulting from valued traditional practices as well as values and beliefs, and on the other part organic solidarity where there are differences on individual demands concerning their tasks. From a Parson's approach, this rapid need for change then…… [Read More]
If students are not able to come up with answers the chances are high there is little diversity, or the diversity prevalent is not part of the culture. However, on asking the same question of a culturally diverse organization, sociologists may find students enthusiastic and willing to talk about events, fairs, classes geared toward cultural understanding and an overall sense of multiculturalism and belief systems on campus.
One interesting insight as to the effects of diversity on the educational environment would be to measure student success outcomes, and the presence or lack thereof of support structures including clubs and fraternities that promote diversity and cultural education and acceptance. Sociologists can look at overall attendance rates, it can look at the student population and sociologists may interview or observe students to identify whether they feel included as part of the university culture or whether they feel excluded or like an outsider…… [Read More]
hat is a Concept?
A concept is, by its most basic definition, an idea. ebster's dictionary defines a concept as either "something conceived in the mind" or as "an abstract or generic idea generalized from particular instances" (ebster 2011). A concept is an idea that has been allowed to fester and for other people to input into that idea. Rather than a notion or something less substantial, a concept is something that has been considered carefully. Many people and their theories have gone into the development of this idea until it is something tangible and understandable to the masses.
Society has a way of taking the concepts of physical sex differences and applying them to gender. Boy and girl, man and woman, are terms which people associate with both gender and sex. e use these terms interchangeably but that is wrong. Sex is what is meant by the…… [Read More]
I believe that the goddess concept is vital, especially for the development of our society in modern times. While it is no longer vital to bear children, women have much more than only biology to offer the world. Unfortunately, many men are still grounded in the patriarchic paradigm that women are not to be provided with opportunities to prove themselves, because they are somehow not as good as men. The most important contribution of the Goddess is therefore to prove once again that there need be no battle between men and women; the two can compliment each other.
The idea of matriarchy is a rather alien one in our society. As such, not only men, but also many women believe that positions of power are not for them. The matriarchy concept overrides this idea. Women and men can be equally powerful.
Angier, Natalie. Goddess Theory. ept 17, 2000. http://www.nytimes.com/books/00/09/17/reviews/000917.17angiert.html…… [Read More]
Public Administration Concepts
Babcock Place -- A 6-story subsidized apartment that houses 150 seniors. 20% of the residents requests that the city put in a crosswalk to reach food, library services, and religious centers. The city's traffic engineer said that the crosswalk was not warranted based on need. The Council has postponed voting until an analysis can be done.
There would be a considerable cost to putting in the cross-walk, as well as a reallocation of resources. Essentially, this asks a question of utilitarianism -- what would provide the greatest good for the greatest number. 30 senior citizens might be happier, but if traffic became a problem, thousands might suffer.
There is a fine balance in this situation; certainly no one wishes to deny seniors the ability to walk to services; yet there are larger issues; how will this be funded, what impact will it have economically, and what…… [Read More]
They are words that last forever, and when we face challenges where racial inequities and inhumane horrors cause to pause in stunned silence, often times these words of inspiration come to us and move us take action for social justice. Harrell explains Mandela's gift in this regard saying:
"Mandela exhibited the characteristics that made jeremiad in South Africa social protest feasible: he combined lament and call to consciousness in sustaining South Africa's democratic mission. His ultimate success depended upon his rational appeal to those who saw his course of action would be the most sensible choice (7 of 15)."
Indeed, with words so carefully crafted as to emphasize the essences of democracy, Mandela ensured the support of those in South Africa who had long been deprived democracy. He also appealed to those who understood that the only way to bring about a world peace, was to pursue democratic principles, ensuring…… [Read More]
He is more in agreement with eber. eber analyses religious determinants for capitalism (ibid).
eber disagrees considerably with Marx by claiming that ideology was a legitimate determinant for social organization. On the other hand, Marx felt that ideology was almost exclusively the result of economic determinants where eber considered such a view simplistically naive. Rather, he analyzed the relationship between economy and society in terms of religious belief. He therefore opened the way for analyses of other ideological phenomena such as law, politics, and culture. Although he did not reduce religion to an economic determinant, he did consider it to be a fundamental social phenomenon. From this, he traced its roots to the very beginnings of society in the forms of animism, naturalism and totemism. In totemism, he finds the ultimate origin of social structure. eber appears to follow his lead by a further analysis of the Protestant religion and…… [Read More]
Juvenile Delinquency and Deterrents
Explain how the threat of punishment does or does not deter juvenile delinquency.
Punishment of juvenile delinquents has been a hot button issue in many jurisdictions because of the need to prosecute crime but also the desire to shield young people from harm. Usually when a young person commits a crime, he or she is sentenced to detention in either a juvenile facility or perhaps even an adult prison facility for a length of time appropriate to their crime. General deterrence is a theory that states that the fear of punishment will be enough to prevent crime. For those that are not deterred by the thought of punishment, there is always detention. According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, nearly 70% of juvenile delinquency cases will end in a juvenile court (Shoemaker 2009,-page 39). his means that the offender will receive a lesser…… [Read More]
economic crisis that hit the international community and the world economies has determined, since 2008, a slow, almost invisible shift in the doctrinal preferences of more and more people in terms of deciding on the right economic approach to be followed in order to avoid such crises from taking place in the future. Although there have been numerous attempts to convince on the benefits of capitalism, the economic crises that have taken place since the 70s on a cyclical basis have been used as counterarguments for the efficiency of capitalism and free market economies as we know it today. In this sense, more and more people, scholars, professors, and even politicians, advocate a more moderate approach to capitalism to include several aspects of apparently long-forgotten economic doctrines such as Marxism. However, Marxism in its purest form is not the solution; yet, it offers the justifications for what is now seen…… [Read More]
One of these leaders of nations who had subsisted to the promise of Communism is Vladimir Lenin, Revolutionary leader who became the first leader of Soviet Russia, and eventually, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Under Lenin's leadership, he began realizing Marx's vision of a Communist society, where there is no private property and no class stratification. However, Lenin did not subscribe to Marx' belief that it should be the working class who will induce social reform and revolutionize to build a Communist society, in opposition against capitalism. In "What is to be done?," Lenin argues that revolution under a broad organization of revolutionaries made up of "hardened workers" is not feasible, simply because this organization is "loose," making the revolutionaries of workers more susceptible to outside intervention. These interventions, he states, are the police and gendarmes; hence, a broad organization of workers are not ideal, for it…… [Read More]
Correlation is where there is a relationship between two variables. An example would be that there is a relationship between baseball season and an increase in beer consumption. This may be true, but baseball seasons is also summer, so it is unclear whether baseball is legitimately a causal factor in the increase in beer consumption. Causation is when there is a causal relationship between the two variables. Causation means that one variable is the cause of the change in the other. This is harder to demonstrate. But for example, high temperatures can be found to have a causal relationship with air conditioner use.
Critical sociology is a technique based on the idea that intellectual analysis or interpretation of works can be conducted, so in other words studying in a more structured way. It is basically bringing a more dogmatic approach to the study of certain sociological elements. Structural functionality…… [Read More]
Structural Violence Framework in International Conflict
A Structural Violence Framework for Understanding & Analyzing International Conflict
Introduction to Structural Violence
Structural violence is differentiated from direct violence both in terms of etiology and nature. Direct violence is a result of events or the actions of individuals that kill or harm people. Structural violence, on the other hand, is a phenomenon made manifest through social inequalities (Christie, 1997). The organizational structures of political and economic systems cause and sustain the sort of hierarchical relations that enable dramatic differences between and across sectors of societies. Within these hierarchies, the people at the top have privilege, wealth, and power, while those at the bottom of the hierarchy are dominated, oppressed, and exploited (Christie, 1997). People are harmed and killed as a result of structural violence but, unlike direct violence, it occurs more slowly. The harm or death of oppressed people may…… [Read More]
Jon Spayde analyses our cultural concept of choice in his Utne article, "The Unbearable Lightness of Choosing." The author tries to convey underlying sociological and psychological meanings of personal choice and personal freedom.
In American society, the doctrine of freedom is often conveyed through the ideal of unlimited choices, especially with respect to material goods.
From the dozens of different breakfast cereals to the equally myriad variety of world religions to choose from, Americans value variety and multiple options.
However, Spayde argues that this notion of freedom, expressed through unlimited personal choice, is essentially a self-centered interpretation.
The choices we Westerners make are based on selfish desires: "what do I want?" It removes family, friends, and the community from the decision-making process.
This interpretation of freedom and choice causes many of our societal ills, according to Spayde, who criticizes the American vision of "choicefullness." Instead of becoming fixated on variety…… [Read More]
Sociology, one of the biggest areas that are receiving continuous amounts of focus is the inequalities that exist. Recently, disparities in income levels have become much larger. This is because the top 1% (who controls the majority of the wealth) is earning more at the expense of the other 99%. These are individuals that have to work every day (often controlling little to no amounts of personal assets). Throughout history, this conflict has often been the focus of different labor disputes and social revolutions. (inship)
However, globalization is having a dramatic impact with these divisions becoming even larger. In the article that was written by iniship (2012), he is talking about how these disparities are evolving. Evidence of this can be seen with statistics that were uncovered from the Congressional Budget Office. They found that the income levels of the ultra-wealthy increased from 8% in 1979 to 18% in 2007.…… [Read More]
Within my own community, I have seen this as more and more people travel farther and farther away for college, and settle far away from their parents. Access to expanded opportunities motivates the individual to break his or her existing social ties.
A third and final sociological concept manifested in the McMinden example is seen in the prevalence of drug addiction in the town. As noted by Manuel Mendoza, a Hispanic police officer who has made some inroads into the once almost entirely white town's law enforcement hierarchy, drug use crosses all racial divides, as the town's economic condition has worsened, so has the prevalence of addiction. Individuals who feel they have been denied the opportunity to fully enjoy the American Dream, particularly when confronted with increasingly unrealistic expectations of material success in the media, often experience what obert K. Merton called anomie, or alienation. One of the ways individuals…… [Read More]
When speaking of visibility and demeanor, he refers to the fact that the Saints had access to vehicles to take them out of the eyes of their regular neighborhood, where as the boys did not have this privilege and therefore had to commit their delinquent acts directly under the eyes of the community. When discussing bias, he refers to the class structure and how the elite tend to view the poor as naturally more inclined to deviant and criminal behavior. Although he does not mention strain theory specifically, his suppositions are very much in alignment with Merton's.
Ultimately, the Saints and the oughnecks provide an intriguing scenario upon which to make numerous sociological speculations. Labeling theory, Social Control Theory and Strain theory are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to applicable models which are fitting to this all too familiar societal vignette. While no single theory can…… [Read More]
Furthermore, it is suggested that the roots of the problem lie deeper than the superficial debate about gun control. In sociological terms, this problem is to do with the lack of meaning and the breakdown of inherent normative structures. In this sense the debate about gun control should be seen against the underlying background of these sociological issues. Even if a compromise was be reached about whether or not to have gun control, there would still be underlying structural causative features that would need to be addressed and which are the source of this problem in the first place.
Cukier, V. And Sidel W. 2005.The Global Gun Epidemic: From Saturday Night Specials.
New York: Praeger Publishers.
Deviance and Social Control. etrieved November 21, 2004
Egger, Steven A., et al. 1990.Serial Murder: An Elusive Phenomenon. New York:
Praeger Publishers, 1990.
Lintelman, D. Gun Control. etrieved November 21, 2009…… [Read More]
For his trouble, Murphy receives a frontal lobotomy as a "treatment" for his unwillingness to cooperate and abide by the rules and norms, a touch that gives him a Christ-like quality that gives his ultimate fate as that of a martyr to the cause of the promotion of humanity. Indeed, humanity is ultimately indebted to those brave few in the human race who defiantly dare to confront and challenge the conventional thinking patterns and then willingly (or unwillingly) suffer the ultimate price for their ideals (McEver, 1998).
To recap, the author in this paper, has will applied sociological concepts such as groupthink, doublespeak and doublethink, and sociological experiments that speak to us as social groups about socialization and religion in One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest by Ken Kesey. Although this book was originally made for entertainment purposes, this author finds that it is a key factor in the learning…… [Read More]
In ode to get beyond such shallow viewpoints, they need to meely use such diffeences as the stating point fo thei conception of people fom othe ethnicities, and actually get beyond that bing about an impovement in inteacial elations.
As such, it is extemely inteesting to note how sociological concepts of standpoint theoy and systems of pivilege typify many of the esponses that Chistenson had to opinions and statements voiced by othe men in the video. Fo the most pat, Chistenson's esponses eithe contained an element of ignoance o outight disbelief to many of the social baies and misconceptions that the men of colo spoke about. These poclivities of Chistenson can widely be ationalized via standpoint theoy, which poses the notion that people's system of beliefs is geatly affected by the social goup they ae a pat of. Moeove, this theoem places a fai amount of emphasis on hegemony, a…… [Read More]
The effects of information technology on the society
The social capital framework
In this paper, we evaluate the validity of the statement that IT is radically changing the social world. We perform a critical analysis of the concept of social world and social capital and how it is influenced by information technology. This is carried against the backdrop of the concept of information technology as the conceptual framework. The paper concludes that indeed the statement that IT is radically changing the social world is true.
The contemporary society has witnessed a series of transformations which can directly be attributed to the concept of technological dynamism. Technological dynamism is a concept which was defined by Albu (2009) as the rate of exchange in the level of predictability of new technologies. The technological advancements that we witness today are largely as a result of the lack of knowledge that exists…… [Read More]
Paradoxically, while the entirety of Molina's book argues that a sociological, network-centric analysis of the New Testament is necessary to understand the spread of Jesus groups in the first century AD, Molina does not pay much attention to the sociological and cultural details which organized interpersonal relationships in the first century AD. Aside from broad conceptions of in-group/out-group relations as they apply to Jews centered around Jerusalem and those "Greek" Jews of which Paul and Timothy are likely part, Molina does not examine the contextual realities that would have informed and constrained Paul and Timothy's relationship. In other words, Paul and Timothy's travels throughout the Mediterranean were likely organized by a far more complex set of interpersonal standards than those organizing the interactions between coworkers on an extended business trip. Thessalonica is not Toledo, and the institution of churches practicing an offshoot, apocalyptic Judaism seems a far cry from regional…… [Read More]
statistics showing that English boys are performing worse than their oversees counterparts. Then I list some of the possible reasons boys are falling behind and some of the solutions. I end with what I feel is a viable solution to the problem of boys falling behind.
Are boys in England falling behind there female counterparts? If the answer to this question is yes, then why, and what can be done to address the problem. In an age of fierce competition, it is no longer enough to just let "boys be boys" The question is How can we balance the learning needs of boys with the needs of girls. It seems society is on a pendulum, first favoring boys, then favoring girls. We cannot go back and forth, favoring one gender at a time. The pendulum needs to stop swinging, but how do we balance the needs of boys with the…… [Read More]
college sophomore student, U.S.A. I taking SOC100 (Introduce sociology) semester. I writing assignment called 'Reflection' below guides write reflection: Reflections: Reflections textbook chapter due fulfilling requirements: -1 page, typed, single-spaced, 12 point font, Times New Roman, 1-inch margins.
Textbook chapter and revisiting the quinceaneras
America has long been called a nation of immigrants and is particularly noteworthy because of the diversity of its immigrant population as well as the larger percentage of inhabitants that hail from many different nations, although this immigration pattern is becoming increasingly common worldwide (Giddens 280). The history of various ethnic groups in America is quite varied, given the legacy of slavery (a 'forced' migration) and the different ethnic character of new waves of immigrants flooding into America: Germany, Italian Irish, and European immigrants predominated early on in American history while Hispanic and Asian immigration, for a variety of political and economic reasons has begun to…… [Read More]
Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union is known as such because it was waged not through direct conflict, but in through military and political stand-off between nations. On an international level, the Cold War was waged through techniques such as the U.S.S.R. extending its sphere of influence into Eastern Europe and the United States' Berlin airlift. However, its effects were also felt inside the United States, with the hysteria that resulted in the form of McCarthyism and the often-obsessive fear people expressed in regards to protecting themselves from possible nuclear conflict. The hatred an American expressed for communism was used to validate his or her status as a 'real' American. This line of reasoning can be seen today in issues of discrimination against Arabs and other demonized ethnic groups, as well as upon moral issues as abortion and gay parenting. One's stance on these issues is…… [Read More]
Psychological Foundations Towards Education
Major characteristics of Freud's theory and Erikson's theory
Looking at pages 143-164 of the article, Freud and Erikson address the basic issue of self-definition. According to Freud believes that a person's sense of self stems from parental projections in the course of the genesis of super-ego. In addition, he argues that these introjects form the foundation of a person's self-definition in childhood and that such parental identifications are not significantly updated or revised during childhood or adolescence. Either way, an individual's self-concept is believed to be a function of the fundamental identification process, which takes place during one's pre-school years. Although Freud has extensively written on the human development process, Erikson was the pioneer in writing about the formation of identities. In his works, Erikson has gone far and beyond Freud's parental introjects and childhood identifications (Austrian 37). He argues that the presence of self-selected identity…… [Read More]
achievement, or of influence, that one finds one's self in, regarding education, health, self-esteem, business, politics, housing; class, as a sociological concept, is based upon the relationship an individual has to the means of production and distribution at his or her disposal. The "upper class" is wealthy, and the "lower class" struggles for subsistence. And when a group of "working class" individuals band together to petition management for better wages and working conditions, they may decide to join a union.
"Status" on the other hand refers to the standing a person achieves or experiences with respect to the way in which that person is treated in part of a social order. Everyone has a "status" -- even the person with no money and no home, a "homeless" person has that "status" -- although most people strive to achieve a higher status than what they start out with, with the exception…… [Read More]
ecruiting and etaining Police Officers:
• Discuss the difficulties in recruiting, selecting, and retaining police officers. What suggestions can you offer for improving the recruitment, selection, and retention of qualified police officers? Be specific about the traits you would seek in new recruits, and why.
According to the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) report entitled Hiring and keeping police officers, financial cutbacks and negative publicity (particularly in regards to racial profiling) coupled with increased educational requirements has resulted in greater difficulty in recruiting new police officers nation-wide. Further causing shortages in the ability of police to fulfill essential functions is the corresponding increase in training time, often to specifically to expand education in community policing techniques to improve relationships between the police and historically discriminated-against communities. Attrition rates do not seem to be significantly impacted, however.
egardless, there is a delicate balance that must be maintained between improving the qualifications…… [Read More]