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During the 1850s, Truth moved to Battle Creek, Michigan. At the outset of the American Civil ar, Truth collected supplies for black volunteer regiments; in 1864, she traveled to ashington, D.C., where she worked to integrate streetcars (she was received at the hite House by President Abraham Lincoln) (Sojourner Truth 4). Also in 1864, Truth accepted an appointment to the National Freedmen's Relief Association with responsibilities for counseling former slaves, particularly concerning resettlement issues; in fact, as late as the 1870s, Truth encouraged the migration of freedmen to Kansas and Missouri. Finally, in 1875, Truth retired to her home in Battle Creek, where she lived until her death in 1883 (Sojourner Truth 5).
Impact of Sojourner Truth's Life on American Society. In his book, Speaking Truth to Power: Essays on Race, Resistance, and Radicalism, Manning Marable (1996) reports that, "Part of the historic strengths of the Black Freedom Movement were…
David, Linda and Erlene Stetson. Glorying in Tribulation: The Lifework of Sojourner Truth. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1994.
Fitch, Suzanne Pullon and Roseann M. Mandziuk. Sojourner Truth as Orator: Wit, Story, and Song. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997.
Mandziuk, Roseann M. (2003). "Commemorating Sojourner Truth: Negotiating the Politics of Race and Gender in the Spaces of Public Memory." Western Journal of Communication, 67(3):271.
Marable, Manning. Speaking Truth to Power: Essays on Race, Resistance, and Radicalism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.
Black Women Activism
Women have for a long time been fighting for equality in a patriarchal society. Their every move has been countered by the masculine need to maintain a status quo and led to a revolution given the name "Feminist Movement'. The freedom and understanding women have today is due to the courageous efforts women showed in the past. Discriminated on the base of their gender women has to fight for their very existence in terms of individuality. Yet, in a racist America 'white' women were in a much better position than were the African-American women who had to fight the feminist war on two levels -- the first against the males the second against the racists who saw the color if their skin as a demeaning factor. That women got equality was a great feat considering the barriers they had to face, but that black women emerged in…
Nell Irvin Painter, Sojourner Truth: A Life, a Symbol (New York: W.W. Norton, 1996), 201.
Jacqueline Bernard, Journey Toward Freedom: The Story of Sojourner Truth , (New York: Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 1990), 126.
Ida B. Wells-Barnett, 1909. Speech, National Negro Conference.
As for Frederick Douglass, he was nothing short of brilliant. His speeches were powerful and his writing was extraordinarily skillful, especially given the fact that he was born a slave and taught himself much of what he knew. His narrative is polished and at times understated, which actually adds power to what he says. Because when a reader goes through the Narrative from the Life of Frederick Douglass that reader knows ahead of time he or she is reading something written by a famous African-American who was a slave. The power in the narrative is established in terms of culture and history. But add to that the power of the writing, and Frederick's work takes on an even more dramatic tone.
He explains in relatively calm narrative that he has seen an overseer named "Mr. Plummer...cut and slash the women's heads..." And how he knew that his master Anthony to…
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative From the Life of Frederick Douglass. University of Virginia
Library, Electronic Text Center. Retrieved 11 March, 2007, at http://etext.virginia.edu .
Truth, Sojourner. Ain't I a Woman? Retrieved 11 March, 2007, from Women Writers, http://www.womenwriters.net/domesticgoddess/truth.htm .
She slices through this logic with a great deal of humor and insight, and it is because of this humor and insight that the crowd leapt to its feet when she was done, and why we still talk about her today. Her ability to survive the trauma in her life and view it with total honesty, deep perspective, and sharp wit earned her the respect of her own generation and those to come.
"John Brown's Final Speech" is entirely different in topic and tone, but it too addresses the injustices of society. Like Sojourner Truth, John Brown points out the great hypocrisy of white society -- if he had gone the lengths he did for the sake of rich white people, he would have been deemed a hero. But since he was fighting for the rights of the slaves, those standards did not apply.
The most important point of John…
Weld and Truth: Speaking Their Minds
Angelina Grimke Weld and Sojourner Truth were two 19th century women who spoke up for abolition. Weld was a white Southerner; Truth was a runaway slave who became an itinerant preacher. Both women supported women’s rights and an end to slavery. One was white and from a wealthy family, another was black and poor—but both shared the same spirit and ideas, and both had seen slavery up close and personally. While Truth experienced it, Weld witnessed it, and the experiences of each transformed them and informed their speeches—Weld’s speech in Philadelphia in 1838 and Sojourner’s speech in 1851 in Akron at the Women’s Rights Convention.
The fact that both of them were women was an obstacle enough in 19th century America. It was still a man’s world—but the women population was coming together to fight some of the evils of the day that they…
In fact, Cady Stanton had a significant problem with the role of women as wives, because, once a Jacksonian woman wed, she lost her individual identity: women could not own property, testify against their husbands, sue in their own names, or even be held accountable for crimes committed in their husbands' presences. (Cady Stanton, p.). Most significantly, women have no legal rights regarding their children, despite the fact that women are the ones responsible for rearing and raising children.
Of course, not all women had the same perspective as Cady Stanton, because not all women came from the same position as Cady Stanton. Mary Paul did not voice concerns about suffrage or other esoteric aspects of equality. On the contrary, her letters detailed a very hardscrabble existence. She worked extensive hours for very small amounts of pay. In fact, she was concerned about receiving the pay that she was promised,…
Racial identity plays a strong role in the definition of self; Lorde recognized the importance of racial identity even in the struggle for gender equality. Her argument implicitly supports Jones' assertion that racial equality is "prior" to the cause of gender equality for African-American women. The implicit argument is that feminism could not be a united force because white women did not have the ability through their institutionalized advantages to cogently appreciate the tribulations of African-American women. As a result, there could never have been unity in the first place. In understanding this key point, the justification for African-American unity and the subjugation of the black feminist movement appears to be a more appealing strategy.
A final poignant comparison and relationship between the greater struggle for racial equality and black feminism rests in the internal conflict within African-American culture. One of the greatest ironies of the Civil Rights movement is…
Obstacle omen Face in Pursuit of Equality
hen it comes to overcoming obstacles, two essays, "Ain't I a oman" and "atching Oprah infrey" from Behind the Veil," clearly show that women are encountering hindrances in chase of impartiality all over the world. However, although both essays touch on the same type of injustice which is gender inequality, they each have different themes. For instance, one delves into a country where the sexes are thoroughly kept apart from each other, where topics like sex and race are just about banned for even discussing them openly and where a severe enigma of public morality is imposed by police that are religious. However, the other touches on a period that goes back over a hundred of years where women of color were treated as cattle. Basically bought and sold by a society ran by men. Although these essays are worlds apart, they are…
Cooley, Thomas. The Norton Sampler. New York: Eighth Edition, 2013.
Jacoby, Jeff. Jeff Jacoby: Watching Oprah from behind the veil. 2 March 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/24/opinion/24iht-edjacoby.1.16446161.html?_r=0 . 3 May 2014.
omen in American History
The contribution woman have made to the United States over the years is profoundly important, and probably not recognized to the degree that it should be recognized. This paper reviews and critiques the contributions of women from five periods in history: from 1865 to 1876; from 1877 to 1920; from 1921 to 1945; from 1946 to 1976; and from 1976 to the present day.
omen in America -- 1865 to 1876 -- Sojourner Truth
One of the brightest lights in the movement to free the slaves was Sojourner Truth, likely the best-known person in the abolitionist movement. She was actually very active in the movement to free the slaves before and during the Civil ar, and she helped organize and lead the Underground Railroad movement. The Underground Railroad shepherded runaway slaves away from Southern slave states and up into New York State, Pennsylvania, isconsin, Minnesota and…
Baker, Sara Josephine. (2007). Sara Josephine Baker: Physician and Public Health Worker.
Harvard Square Library / Notable American Unitarians. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from http://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/unitarians/baker.html .
Encyclopedia Britannica. (2006). Hull House. Retrieved June 12, 2011, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/275272/Hull-House .
Jewish Virtual Library. (2006). Golda Meir. Retrieved June 13, 2011, from http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/meir.html .
American Cultural History And Cult of Matthias
There had been many changes occurs in terms of the progress of the economy, population and intellectual abilities during the 18th century and these could be considered as the possible reasons for the evolution of a fresh thinking in all the various spheres of life, and this pertains to religion as well. This was in complete a need for change and a great desire for bring about changes. To a certain extent, this was considered to bring about the end of earlier concepts of religion of pertaining to the thought that it can be handled only by the privileged classes also ended. This led to the emergence of certain new religious thinkers and practical leaders like that of Mathias as leaders like him could not have become popular religious figures in the previous era. The line of thinking of Matthias was very much…
Amazon Book Review: The Kingdom of Matthias/a Story of Sex and Salvation in 19Th-Century
America: A Story of Sex and Salvation in 19Th-Centtury America. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/product-description/0195098358/ref=dp_proddesc_0/102-8894187-2176153?%5Fencoding=UTF8& ; n=283155 Accessed 30 September, 2005
Bush, Perry. The Kingdom of Matthias: A Story of Sex and Salvation in 19th-Century America.
Book reviews. Journal of Social History. Spring, 1997. Retrieved from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2005/is_n3_v30/ai_19409248
Nursing & omen's Roles Pre-and-Post Civil ar
The student focusing on 19th century history in the United States in most cases studies the Civil ar and the causes that led to the war. But there are a number of very important aspects to 19th century American history that relate to women's roles, including nursing and volunteering to help the war wounded and others in need of care. This paper delves into the role nurses played in the Civil ar (both Caucasian and Black nurses), the way in which the Civil ar changed the woman's work roles, the role women (both Black and Caucasian) played before, during, and after the war, and the terrible injustices thrust on women of color in a number of instances throughout the 19th century.
The oman's role in America prior to the Civil ar
"A woman's work is never done," is an old maxim but it…
Brockett, Linus Pierpont, and Vaughan, Mary C. (1867). Woman's Work in the Civil War: A
Record of Heroism, Patriotism and Patience. Chicago, IL: Zeigler, McCurdy & Co.
Child, Lydia. (1837). The Family Nurse [or] Companion of the American Frugal Housewife.
Bedford, MA: Applewood Books (originally published by Charles Hendee in Boston).
Another distinction central to the Black feminist's thoughts is the alienation she suffers due to the omission of her presence in history. This omission is not only found in traditional examples of history, but also in Eurocentric feminist views of history. The following quotation from Lorde in her letter to Daly shows the frustration and lack of understanding about the reason such an omission is propagated even among those of her same sex. "…why doesn't Mary deal with Afreket as an example? hy are her goddess-images only white, western-european, judeo-christian…here are the warrior-goddesses of the Vodun, the Dohomeian Amazons and the warrior-women of Dan…Mary has made a conscious decision to narrow her scope and to deal only with the ecology of western-european women (Lorde, 1979, p. 94)." The exclusion of African goddesses from Daly's text, which described the historical roots of women's power, is only a slight example of the…
1. Carby, H. (1982) "White Woman Listen! Black Feminism and the Boundaries of Sisterhood" in Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies The Empire Strikes Back: Race and Racism in 70s Britain. London: Hutchinson.
2. hooks, b. (1981) Aint I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism. Boston: South End Press.
3. hooks, b. (1990) Yearning: Race, Gender and Cultural Politics. Boston: South End Press.
4. Lourde, A. (1981) "An Open Letter to Mary Daly" in Moraga C. And Azadula G. This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Colour. Watertown: Persephone Press.
racialized slavery change in the early-19th century south? How and/or why were non-Slave holders invested in slavery? On what grounds did antebellum southerners defend slavery?
Slavery was not always a racialized category in the Americas. Many Americans emigrated to the U.S. As indentured servants: these were whites who worked without pay in exchange for learning a trade or their passage overseas. However, gradually, the plantation economy of the south fostered a system in which African-Americans toiled in bondage. It was simply more economically sustainable to employ slaves to harvest cash crops like tobacco and cotton, particularly after the invention of the cotton gin. 'hiteness' became associated with privilege and power, and even poorer whites in the south were above African-American slaves in terms of their social status. Slavery was thus always an ideological as well as an economic and political issue.
Of course, the economics of slavery cannot be overlooked.…
Major Problems in American History: Volume 1: to 1877. (3d Ed.) . Cengage, 2011.
personal recitation of faith and the struggles that come with it. The latter of those two starts on page nine of the book. One thing that jumps out is when the narrator presents to her father that she is a Christian. His reaction is so visceral and borderline violent so as to be appalling. He simply tries to scare his daughter but his reaction is jarring nonetheless. Her feelings about the matter are quite notable as well given that she conflates both his influence on her as it pertains to counteracting the Christian faith and that of Satan doing the same. There is then a shift back to the historical support or persecution (usually the latter) of Christians. Indeed, Christians (and Jews for that matter) have been persecuted a great deal over the years. There were other times where one might say that Christians were doing the persecuting (e.g. the…
Madigan, S. (1998). Mystics, visionaries, and prophets. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.
Racism and the American Ideals
Racial divisions in 19th century American culture excluded African-Americans and Native Americans from the American ideals of liberty and inclusion on a fundamental level. The pushing off the land (and slaughtering) of the Native American tribes by the U.S. government was an exercise in Manifest Destiny (O'Sullivan 5), which later came to be expressed in terms of New Expansionism once the borders of the frontier were at their natural limits. And as for African-Americans -- they may have been freed by Lincoln in order to help the North win the war against the South, but inclusion was never really on the table: Jim Crow laws sprang up in the South and racism continued to be expressed in terms of segregation and mob violence. Liberty was for the ASPs (hite Anglo-Saxon Protestants), the ruling elite of the political, economical and social establishment. No amount of noble…
Crevecœur, J. Hector St. John de. Autobiography. Gutenberg. Web. 26 Feb 2016.
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life. Web. 26 Feb 2016.
Franklin, Ben. "Remarks concerning the Savages of North America." Web. 26 Feb
The lack of a critical analysis of race created a divide between feminist and black activists, as chronicled in the words of feminist and scholar Beverley Guy-Sheftall: "Coming out of the Civil Rights era, black feminism was a contentious, debatable, demonized and divisive notion. It was perceived to be a pro-white, anti-male doctrine that would destroy black families and prohibit unity. I can remember going to all-black gatherings and people asking me whether or not I was a lesbian, because being pro-female translated into a hate for men" (Ofori-Atta 2010). In her book, Ain't I a oman? bell hooks noted that under slavery, abolitionists often said that black men were 'wronged' because slavery emasculated the men and denied them the right to defend their wives against the advances of slave-owners. But this did not recognize the impact that the threat of rape had upon black women. Simply the phrase "the…
Hooks, bell. Ain't I a woman? Boston: South End Press, 1999.
Ofori-Atta, Akoto. "The Root Interview: Beverly Guy-Sheftall on Black Feminism." The Root.
November 2010. December 9, 2010.
Curious young astronomers who ask, "what are stars made of?" And "Why do astronauts float in space?" will find answers here. A brief survey of the universe in a question and answers format.
Reading level: Ages 4-8
Paperback: 28 pages
Tayleur, K. Excuses! Survive and Succeed by David Montimore Baxter. (Mankato, MN) Stone Arch Books: 2007
Young David Mortimore Baxter, who knows how to stay out of trouble, shares excuses for avoiding chores, bullies, homework, and vegetarian dinners. David experiences his fifteen minutes of fame and the impacts it has on his friends and family.
Reading level: 9-12
Paperback: 80 pages
Williams, M. The Velveteen Rabbit. Square Fish: 2008.
By the time the velveteen rabbit is dirty, worn out, and about to be burned, he has almost given up hope of ever finding the magic of love. The original "Toy Story."
Reading level: Ages…
In the cinema, women were often sexual, powerful vamps and flappers, portrayed by actresses like Louise Brooks and Clara Bow. Flappers cut off their long hair and shed their long skirts for a more athletic and empowered appearance. However, although the flapper was culturally significant in terms of her image and power, her time in the limelight was relatively brief. Born of the prosperity of the Roaring 20s, during the Great Depression, women faced more sober circumstances. Still, many women continued to work, often because they were now the primary breadwinners for impoverished households. But working away from the home and female independence was less idealized. Films such as The Gold Diggers of 1933 showed women looking to marriage as a way of relieving their economic despair.
Katherine Hepburn: The Next New oman
hile some of the stars to emerge during the 1930s were decorous and feminine, others, such as…
Adam's Rib. Directed by George Cukor. 1949.
Ali, Atka. "Lesson 10: Separate Spheres. " Women's history." July 12, 2010.
The Gold Diggers of 1933. Directed by Mervyn LeRoy. 1933
Bloss, a Christian evangelist and labor activist who published a newspaper titled "Rights of Man" (Kaye, p. 147).
ere there others whose names are not well-known but who played an important role in the abolitionist movement? According to author Harvey J. Kaye, the co-editor of "Freedom's Journal" was an African-American named Samuel Cornish. Kaye writes (p. 147) that Cornish also launched his own abolitionist newspaper, "The Rights of All." Another free black man, David alker, from North Carolina, was "apparently moved by the Bible, the egalitarian spirit of the Declaration of Independence, and the revolutionary example of Paine's "Common Sense," started his own pamphlet that called on black slaves to "rise up against their white oppressors" (Kaye, p. 148). The pamphlet launched by alker was called: "An Appeal, in Four Articles, Together with a Preamble, to the Colored Citizens of the orld, but in Particular and Very Expressly to Those…
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave.
Charleston, SC: Forgotten Books, 1845.
Kaye, Harvey J. Thomas Paine and the Promise of America. New York: Macmillan, 2006.
Lamme, Ary J. "Commemorative Language in Abolitionist Landscape Texts: New York's 'Burned-Over District'." Southeastern Geographer 48.3 (2008): 356-373.
Much like African-American leaders and reformers that brought about the end of racial discrimination and segregation via the Civil Rights Movement, in 1866, Stanton created the American Equal Rights Association, aimed at organizing women in the long fight for equal rights. In 1868, the U.S. Congress ratified the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution which "defined citizenship and voters as male" and excluded women; in 1870, Congress ratified the Fifteenth Amendment which also excluded women in favor of African-American males ("The History of Women's Suffrage," Internet).
At this point, the women's movement split into two factions, the National Woman
Suffrage Association, headed by Stanton and Susan . Anthony, and the American Woman Suffrage Association, a more conservative organization headed by Julia Ward Howe and Lucy Stone. y 1890, these two opposing factions joined forces to create the National American Woman Suffrage Association under the leadership of Elizabeth Cady Stanton (Gurko, 145).…
Berkeley, Kathleen C. The Women's Liberation Movement in America. New York:
Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999.
Frederick Powledge. We Shall Overcome: Heroes of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.
Gurko, Miriam. Ladies of Seneca Falls: The Birth of the Women's Rights Movement.
It also sought to stop the Atlantic slave trade between those three continents. It has also been referred to as the anti-slavery movement. As a result of the abolitionist movement, slavery was abolished in Europe and America by the last half of the 19th century. Africa finally stopped the practice of slavery by the first quarter of the 20th century.
Women, both white and black, made enormous contributions to the abolitionist movement.
Ann Yearsley, Hannah More, Susan . Anthony, Julia Ward Howe, Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Frances Ellen Watkins, and many others worked against the enslavement of other human beings. While the white women used their status, money and freedom to work against slavery and help the black women to "find their voices," the black women could tell eye-opening stories of their own experiences to elicit sympathy and support.
In the early years of the…
Blashfield, Jean. "A Day on the Trail." Blashfield, Jean. Oregon Tail. Mankato, MN: Compass Point Books, 2000. 11.
Levy, JoAnn. "The Crucible Women on Overland Journey." 1998. Oakland Museum of California. 29 March 2009 .
Perkins, Kathryn. "Real women' who defied stereotype." Sacramento Bee 18 January 1998: Part Three.
During the early 19th century, advocacy for equal suffrage was conducted by few people. Frances Wright first publicly advocated womens suffrage in an extensive series of lectures. In 1836, Ernestine ose carried out a similar lecture series, which eventually resulted in a personal hearing before the New York Legislature. However, the petition contained only five signatures and was subsequently denied. The first true women's movement marks July 13, 1848 as its beginning. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and four female friends had a discussion regarding the limitations imposed upon them by society because of their gender. Several days later, this group picked a date to hold a convention to discuss the "social, civil, and religious condition and rights of woman." The gathering took place at the Wesleyan Chapel in Seneca Falls, New York on July 19 and 20, 1848 (Stodart, 1993).
Elizabeth Cady Stanton constructed a document entitled "Declaration of…
Hektor, L.M. (1994). Florence Nightingale and the women's movement: friend or foe? Nurs Inq, 1(1), 38-45.
Morgan, T.M. (2003). The education and medical practice of Dr. James McCune Smith (1813-1865), first black American to hold a medical degree. J Natl Med Assoc, 95(7), 603-614.
Ramirez, F.O., & McEneaney, E.H. (1997). From women's suffrage to reproduction rights? Cross-national considerations. Int J. Comp Sociol, 38(1-2), 6-24.
Stodart, K. (1993). Suffrage. A pioneer for nursing. Nurs NZ, 1(6), 28-29.
history of the League of Women Voters rightly begins with the very inception of the Women's Movement and the fight for liberation in the United States. During the early history of the United States there was little, if any respect for the principles of women's rights. In an intensely patriarchal society a man " ... virtually owned his wife and children as he did his material possessions. If a poor man chose to send his children to the poorhouse, the mother was legally defenseless to object." (Women's History in America) The history of women's movements in the United States is largely a reaction to this system of exclusion and male-dominance.
The start of the history of the fight for women's rights begins with a tea party hosted by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, in New York. Mrs. Stanton expressed her feelings of discontent at the situation of women in society. This meeting…
A biography of America: The sixties. learner. February 13, 2005.. http://www.learner.org/biographyofamerica/prog24/feature/
Eisenberg B. And Ruthsdotter M. Living the Legacy:
The Women's Rights Movement 1848 -- 1998. February 12, 2005. http://www.legacy98.org/move-hist.html
LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS. Houghton Mifflin. February 13, 2005.
black women contribute to the early abolitionist movement? hat types of restrictions did women (both white and black) face in American society at this point? hy did more people at this point accept the idea of freeing blacks than giving women equal rights and opportunity?
American women, black and white, were prohibited from voting in both the antebellum Northern and Southern states. Yet African-American women still played a prominent role in the early abolitionist movement. The most famous such participant is of course Sojourner Truth, a freed slave who protested, 'ain't I a woman,' after listing the many ways she had been denied the traditional middle-class comforts extended to white females, and still survived, despite being a member of the supposedly weaker sex. However, even before emancipation, many black women were participants in the abolitionist movement.
Often these women were liberated escaped slaves such as Harriet Jacobs, who told her…
"The Influence of Prominent Abolitionists: The African-American Mosaic." The Black Mosaic Library of Congress Website. 2005.
"African-American History." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2005
Jacobs, Harriet. "Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl." University of Virginia Website. Last update 14 Feb 2004.
The Beginning: Nightingale
Although nursing care has been around since the first cave man got a cut, the formal, organized discipline of nursing can be traced to the work of Florence Nightingale. Around the time Nightingale began her research and studies in earnest, a number of medical breakthroughs were being made that impacted the history of nursing. One was the advancement of anesthetics, which greatly enhanced the ability of nurses and doctors to care for their patients and perform surgeries. Anesthesia became especially critical on the battlefield.
US Civil War to WWII
Wartime became a primary arena for nurses to carry out their practice, as the numbers of wounded required attention. Florence Nightingale was a nurse during the Crimean War. Like Nightingale, Dorethea Lynde Dix was one of the profession's first nurse leaders and managers. Dix led teams of nurses during the Civil War in the United States. Along…
Penn Nursing Science (2012). History of nursing timeline. Retrieved online: http://www.nursing.upenn.edu/nhhc/Pages/timeline_1700-1869.aspx?slider1=1#chrome
Speech Is a Carefully Crafted Act of hetoric
Introduction and Biographical Background
An effective speech is a carefully crafted act of rhetoric. The most artless speechless are quite often those that in reality are the most studied in their preparation. We can ourselves come to understand the reasons underlying the effectiveness -- or lack of efficacy - of a speech by studying its structure through careful rhetorical analysis. That is the purpose of this paper, to provide just such an analysis of Hillary odham Clinton' speech, "Women's ights are Human ights."
Clinton's speech can be seen as belonging to a line of similar speeches in American history, include speeches urging women's enfranchisement given by Frederick Douglass and Susan B. Anthony. She relies heavily on the idea of enfranchisement, which lies at the heart of democracy - so much so that we tend to use the word as synonymous with empowerment.…
omen to History
omen have contributed to the history of the world from the beginning of time. Their stories are found in legends, myths, and history books. Queens, martyrs, saints, and female warriors, usually referred to as Amazon omen, writers, artists, and political and social heroes dot our human history. By 1865, women moved into the public arena, as moral reform became the business of women, as they fought for immigrant settlement housing, fought and struggled for the right to earn living wages, and stood up to the threats of the lynch mobs. The years beginning in 1865 is known as the Civil ar era and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. It was a time of great changes, especially for African-American women such as Harriet Tubman and Sojourner Truth. omen of all races had to fight for equal rights, even the right to vote (http://women.eb.com/women/nineteenth09.html).omenhave indeed 'come a long…
Women in American History. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. http://women.eb.com/women/nineteenth09.html. http://women.eb.com/women/crossroads05.html. http://women.eb.com/women/crossroads12.html. http://women.eb.com/women/modernamerica06.html. http://women.eb.com/women/modernamerica02.html.
A accessed 07-04-2002).
Bryson, Donna. "MOTHER TERESA LED LIFE OF HARD WORK AND LOVE DIMINUTIVE NUN NEVER WAVERED FROM HER SELF-IMPOSED MISSION TO BRING COMFORT TO THE WORLD." Denver Rocky Mountain News. September 14, 1997, pp 3A. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Denver_Rocky_Mountain_News&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~InsideDenver.com~S~&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Donna+Bryson&title=MOTHER+TERESA+LED+LIFE+OF+HARD+WORK+AND+LOVE+DIMINUTIVE+NUN+NEVER+WAVERED+FROM+HER+SELF%2DIMPOSED+MISSION+TO+BRING+COMFORT+TO+THE+WORLD++&date=09%2D14%2D1997&query=+Mother+Teresa&maxdoc=90&idx=7.(accessed07-04-2002).
Lloyd, Marion. "Nun's Sainthood effort moves fast; Callers report miracles of Mother Teresa." The Washington Times. August 28, 1999, pp A6. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=The_Washington_Times&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.washtimes.com&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Marion+Lloyd&title=Nun%27s+sainthood+effort+moves+fast%3B+Callers+report+miracles+of+Mother+Teresa++&date=08%2D28%2D1999&query=+Mother+Teresa&maxdoc=90&idx=6 accessed 07-04-2002).
woman's rights were little recognized. As a creative source of human life, she was confined to the home as a wife and mother. Moreover, she was considered intellectually, emotionally and spiritually inferior to man (Compton's 1995), even wicked, as in the case of mythical Pandora, who let loose plagues and misery in a box. This was the early concept of woman in the West as an adjunct to man, although the woman in the East was not without property and individual rights and freedoms. Just the same, a woman was subject to man and could not own property, could not remarry and boys were preferred to girls. ut when allowed some rights, such as during the Middle Ages, a woman proved what she could achieve. A woman from an aristocratic family or line, for example, possessed power and prestige like a man in her class. England's Queen Elizabeth in the…
Barry, Ursula. Gender Issues and the Irish National Employment Action Plan. Final Report. Women's Education Research and Resource Centre. Dublin:University College, 2000. (accessed 15:05:03). http://www2.umist.ac.uk/management/ewerc/egge/egge_publications/lrl_Napev.pdf
Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia. Women's History in America. News Media, Inc., 1995. (accessed 15:05:03)
Evans, Karen. Overcome Barriers to Women's Technical Education. The Commonwealth of Learning, 1995. (accessed 15:05:03). http://www.col.org/barriers.htm
United States is a country that thrives on the achievements of various people groups. The achievements of African-Americans in the United States are particularly significant. African-Americans have contributed greatly to the world of literature, medicine, and business. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the role that African-Americans have played in the formulation of American culture.
lacks in America
Although the history of blacks in America has been steeped in bigotry, hatred, and segregation, the culture has managed to face these adversities with courage and triumph. African-American's have fought for equal rights since their arrival in this country. Initially, they were forced to fight for the right to be free men and to end slavery. Eventually, African-Americans also struggled for integration during the civil rights movement. There were several individuals that were instrumental in ensuring that African-Americans were free from slavery and that they gained their civil rights. These…
Bennet, L. 1989. The 50 most important figures in Black American history; experts list men and women who made indispensable contributions. Ebony. Volume: 44 Issue
Civil War Tensions
The American Civil War was not the culmination of one specific issue, which tore North and South, but rather the culmination of a perfect storm of issues and incidents that formed together to make war between the states "inevitable" (Foote, 1958, p. 29). The issues were various and complex: among them was the primacy of "states' rights" in the Constitution, and the usurpation of those rights (so it was felt by many a Southerner) by the Central government. This feeling was directly tied to the outcome of the Mexican-American War, which resulted in the annexing of large territories to the West. Would they be slave states or free states? If one followed the Missouri Compromise line, there should be no question. Slave states were below, free above. But with John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry and the frenzy of the abolitionist caused at fever pitch, the issue…
Economy in the Civil War. (2014). The Civil War. Shmoop.
Egnal, M. (2001). The Beards Were Right: Parties in the North, 1840-1860. Civil War
History 47(1): 30-56.
Foote, S. (1958). The Civil War: Ft. Sumter to Perryville. NY: Random House.
Women Activists Dilemma to support or Oppose the 15th Amendment as evidenced by the split in the Women’s suffrage Movement
After the Civil war, three amendments were passed which massively transformed the women’s rights movement. These were the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth amendments. The thirteenth amendment approved in the year 1865 declared slavery illegal (Parker, 1849). Thus, all the women who were previously enslaved became free and acquired protection by human rights. The fourteenth amendment declared that everyone born in the U.S was a legal U.S citizen and should not be deprived off their rights including all slaves. Moreover, the law added that all male American citizens had the right to vote (Anderson, 590).
Finally, there was the controversial Fifteenth Amendment, passed in 1870. The amendment granted black American men the right to vote by stating that the rights of U.S citizens to participate in elections must not be…
...liberty to captives and recovery of sight to the blind, to let the oppressed go free,,: (Luke 4: 18)
Summary & Conclusion
The teaching of the Catholic Church in relation to social rights and responsibilities is quite clear however, it has been noted to be critical by the U.S. ishops that the church teaches these social principles more clearly and more persistently to the church in advancing the Kingdom of God and in fulfillment of the Great Commission.
yron, William J. (1998) Ten uilding locks of Catholic Social Teaching. America - the National Catholic Weekly Vol. 196 No. 3-29, January 29. Online available at http://www.americamagazine.org/articles/catholicsocialteachingbryon.cfm.
Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace (2004)) Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church- to Hi Holiness Pope John Paul II Master of Social Doctrine and Evangelical Witness to Justice and Peace. 2004. Libreria Editrice Vaticana
ISN 88-209-7716-8. Online available at: www.vatican.va/roman_curia/p ontifical_councils/justpeace/docum…
Byron, William J. (1998) Ten Building Blocks of Catholic Social Teaching. America - the National Catholic Weekly Vol. 196 No. 3-29, January 29. Online available at http://www.americamagazine.org/articles/catholicsocialteachingbryon.cfm .
Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace (2004)) Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church- to Hi Holiness Pope John Paul II Master of Social Doctrine and Evangelical Witness to Justice and Peace. 2004. Libreria Editrice Vaticana
ISBN 88-209-7716-8. Online available at: www.vatican.va/roman_curia/p ontifical_councils/justpeace/docum ents/rc_pc_justpeace_doc_20060526_compendio-dott-soc_en.html#the%20Church,%20the%20Kingdom%20of%20God%20and% 20 the%20renewal%20of%20social%20relations
Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptor Hominis, 11: AAS 71 (1979), 276: "The Fathers of the Church rightly saw in the various religions as it were so many reflections of the one truth, 'seeds of the Word', attesting that, though the routes taken may be different, there is but a single goal to which is directed the deepest aspiration of the human spirit" Cited in: Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace (2004)) Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church- to Hi Holiness Pope John Paul II Master of Social Doctrine and Evangelical Witness to Justice and Peace. 2004. Libreria Editrice Vaticana
morality of the George Bush administration. The writer looks at classic texts to garner a sense of what political morality should be about and then holds the administration of Bush against the measurement to illustrate the lack of morality and the fact that it failed to promote the happiness of the United States people. In addition, the author explores the negative impact that was felt by other nations under the watchful lack of morality by the Bush administration.
According to the Two Treatises by Locke political power has no other purpose than for the greater good. He wrote that it was the right to make decisions and laws but that it was always and should only be for the greater good of the people that it served.
"Political power, then, I take to be a right of making laws, with penalties of death, and consequently all less penalties for the…
The Bush doctrine.(From The Editor)(Editorial)
Sojourners; 3/1/2005; Wallis, Jim
AGAINST WAR, OR JUST BUSH?(OPINION)(Letter to the Editor)
Wisconsin State Journal (Madison, WI); 3/20/2003
This again stresses that God's love has nothing to do with Israel's attractiveness and everything to do with God's grace.
"Kept the oath" (v. 8). God's love is faithful. We should not be surprised that God chose Israel in its weakness. This is exactly what God did in Genesis 12:1-3. The promise of children and a land made to an old, childless couple seemed impossible. Yet they conceived, and the promise of land is about to be fulfilled for Israel now, on the verge of the Jordan, attesting to God's faithfulness.
"Covenant loyalty" (v. 9) is an excellent rendering of the hendiadys "the covenant and the loyalty." (Hendiadys consists of two nouns joined by "and," expressing a single idea.) The word for "loyalty" (hesed) is of the essence in covenantal situations, since it refers to the mutual commitments pledged by each of the parties. On the human side, it becomes…
"Aseret Hadiberot," Cited in:
Berrigan, D. No Gods But One: Deuteronomy. Eerdmans, 2009.
Bevan, D. Literature and the Bible. Rodopi Press, 2006.
Scientific Approaches to Hookup Culture
On a practically day-to-day basis we are swamped with tales about the collapse of the current star marital relationship-- and cheating is usually the source of those who choose to separate. Is it even possible for 2 individuals to remain together gladly over a prolonged time frame? Since early evolution day, we've been informed that sexual monogamy comes normally to our types. However it does not and never ever has (yan and Jetha, 2010).
Mainstream science-- in addition to spiritual and cultural establishments-- has long propagated the belief that males and females progressed in nuclear households where a guy's possessions and defense were exchanged for a female's fertility and fidelity. However this story is breaking down; now more so than before. Less and less couples are marrying and divorce rates keep climbing up while adultery and flagging sexual libido drag down even relatively strong marital…
Abbey, A., Ross, L.T., McDuffie, D., & McAuslan, P. (1996). Alcohol and dating risk factors for sexual assault among college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 147 -- 169.
Armstrong, E.A., England, P., & Fogarty, A.C.K. (2009). Orgasm in college hookups and relationships. In B.J. Risman (Ed.), Families as they really are (pp. 362 -- 377). New York, NY: Norton.
Backstrom, L., Armstrong, E.A., & Puentes, J. (2012). Women's negotiations of cunnilingus in college hookups and relationships. Journal of Sex Research, 49,1 -- 12.
Bisson, M.A., & Levine, T.R. (2009). Negotiating a friends with benefits relationship. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 66 -- 73.
Timmons (1994) in his study presents a three-dimensional model of practical application of a good idea:
Comprehensive evaluation of the opportunity;
Comprehensive evaluation of one's own expertise and inclination; and Comprehensive evaluation of the resources gathering process to maintain the launch of business venture.
Long and McMullan (1984) propose that application of a good idea depends on two processes; namely, elaboration and evaluation. Singh (1998) found that those entrepreneurs who spend more time studying the pros and cons of an idea before embarking on its application tend to set up fewer businesses than those who spend less time in the elaboration and evaluation phase. However, Singh (1998) points out that higher majority of successful entrepreneurs are those who spend more time in elaboration and evaluation.
1.4 Traits of entrepreneurs
Wright et al. (1997a) studied motivational drivers of entrepreneurs and found that entrepreneurs are primarily driven by either one or both…
Adler, P. & Kwon, S. (2000). Social capital: The good, the bad and the ugly. In E. Lesser (Ed.), Knowledge and social capital: Foundations and applications (pp. 80-115). Boston: Butterworth-Heineman.
Aldrich, H. & Zimmer, C. (1986). Entrepreneurship through social networks. In D. Sexton and R. Smilor (Eds), the art and science of entrepreneurship (pp. 3-23). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
Aldrich, H., Rosen, B., and Woodward, W. (1987) "The impact of social networks on business foundings and profit: a longitudinal study," in Churchill, N.C., Hornaday, J.A., Kirchoff, B.A. et al. (eds) Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Welles-ley, MA: Babson College.
Amabile, T.M. (1988) "A model of creativity and innovation in organizations," in Staw, B. And Cummings, L.L. (eds) Research in Organizational Behavior, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Dante, Boethius, And Christianity
Dante Alighieri, author of the Divine Comedy, of which the Inferno is the first of three books, called Boethius, an early Christian, "The blessed soul who exposes the deceptive world to anyone who gives ear to him." But Boethius was not a non-conflicted Christian, and it seems, neither was Dante, who wrote the Divine Comedy at least partly as a sort of historical-political payback. (For example, in Canto VI of the Inferno, Ciacco mentions Pope Boniface VIII, the reigning Pope of his time, "whose intervention in the affairs of the city was, in Dante's view, a main cause of its miseries" (Sinclair, p. 95). St. John, on the other hand, was a non-conflicted Christian, who believed wholly in Jesus as the son of God, and entertained no other ideas. Although he likely wrote, and therefore thought in Greek, his devotion to Jesus, as one of Jesus'…
Alighieri, Dante. The Inferno (from the Divine Comedy). In The Norton Anthology of World Literature, Vol. B (Pkg. 2). Sarah Lawall et al. (Eds.) New York: Norton,
Boethius. The Consolation of Philosophy. Trans. W.V. Cooper, 1902. Electronic
Text Center, University of Virginia Library. Retrieved May 21, 2005, from:
Slavery in the Bible
In modern estern countries, many Christians and Jews may wish to portray God as the comfortable deity of a middle-class consumer society like the United States, but the Bible demonstrates that nothing could be further from the truth. In the Bible, the God of history from the story of Cain and Abel, through Abraham, Joseph, Moses and the Prophets and of course the ministry of Jesus Christ in the New Testament. Repeatedly, God intervenes on the side of the poor, the weak, the lowly and the outcast, and against the rich and powerful. He has mercy on Joseph when his brothers sell him into slavery in Egypt and elevates him about all others. God takes the side of a young shepherd boy David against the thuggish giant Goliath and then against the evil and corrupt King Saul. ith Jesus, the constant messages is that God shows…
Anderson, Bernard W. The Unfolding Drama of the Bible, 4th Edition. Augsburg Fortress Publishing, 2006.
Cahill, Thomas. The Gifts of the Jews: How a Tribe of Desert Nomads Changed the Way Everyone Thinks and Feels. Anchor Books, 1998.
Throughout American history, the work of American literary artists has helped shape how people think about America and its values. In the modern moment, American literary artists and those involved in other media tend to represent ideals of freedom, autonomy, and individuality. However, this is a perception which has only developed through centuries of artists trying to speak with a unique American voice. Artists who have been oppressed are most successful in their attempts to explain how difficult existence is for people who have to live with some character trait which allows the social setting to suppress. Women writers, in particular, have used their artistry to show the intelligence of females and to help carve a niche in a male-dominated society. Three female poetry writers from three distinct historical periods, Anne Bradstreet who lived in the colonial period, Phillis Wheatley who was a slave living during the first…
Madness in Women
In most of the novels and the works in consideration we see the struggle for expression and the quest to overcome masculine oppression (on the part of the author) finds expression as a deteriorating mental state of the character.
Largely guided by their urge to break off from the shackles of the society and the pining for the freedom that has been sadly denied to them, women exhibit a kind of madness in their effort to restore the balance. This is fairly obvious from the many literary works created by women. These works invariably depict the quest for freedom and very often they end up as the lamenting tones of a deranged personality. In most of the novels and the works in consideration we see the struggle for expression and the quest to overcome masculine oppression (on the part of the author) is expressed as a deteriorating…
Legacy of Sacagawea to a Discovery of American Territories
Sacagawea was a bilingual Shoshone woman who had been remembered for her immense contribution to the American history. Born in 1788, Sacagawea accompanied Clark and Lewis' Corps to assist in the discovery of many parts of Northern America from the Pacific Ocean to the Rocky mountain. Sacagawea skills as a translator were invaluable for the expeditions in passing through the difficult terrain. Her contribution to the United States made Sacagawea become the monument in the American history. Sacagawea was the native American Shoshone tribe and grew up at the surrounding of the Rocky mountain near the Salmon River region now referred as Idaho.
The objective of this essay is to illustrate the contribution of Sacagawea in the U.S. history during the era of Reconstruction.
Sacagawea Contribution in the Reconstruction Era of the U.S. history
Sacagawea was 12 years old when…