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Spina ifida and Nursing Care Interventions
The purpose of this study is to examine spina bifida and nursing care interventions. Spina bifida is a birth defect in central nervous system occurring due to neural tube failure to close during embryonic development. The term spina bifida "comes from Latin and means 'split' or 'open' spine." (Laser Spine Institute, 2009) Spina bifida is reported to occur most commonly at the end of the first month of the pregnancy "when the two sides of the embryo's spine fail to join together, leaving an open area." (Laser Spine Institute, 2009) It is additionally reported that in some cases, "the spinal cord or other membranes may push through this opening in the back. The condition usually id detected before a baby is born and treated right away." (Laser Spine Institute, 2009)
Types of Spina ifida
The types of spina bifida are reported to include the…
Gonzalez, GJ and Garcia, D. (2007) Care Plan in a Patient with Spina Bifida. Case Report. Enferm Clin 2007 Mar-Apr;17(2):90-5. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17683689
Illustrated Manual of Nursing Practice (2002) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 15 Feb 2002. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=dAIHuCJyaVoC&dq=Spina+Bifida+and+Nursing+Care+Interventions&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Kaufman, BA (2004) Neural tube defects.Pediatr Clin North Am. 2004 Apr;51(2):389-419. Review.
Liptak, GS, El Samra, A. (2010) Optimizing health care for children with spina bifida. Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2010;16(1):66-75. Review.
Although most people with Spina ifida have normal intelligence, many have learning disorders. Adequate treatment of hydrocephalus and adaptive physical therapy are necessary to permit access to educational opportunities. This is also an aspect that has affected my sister. One of the central facets that many experts note is that "Psychological, social, and sexual problems occur more often in people with spina bifida than in the general population. "
Another problem that many people with Sinal ifida experience is an allergy to natural rubber of Latex. Latex is used for example in the manufacture of medical gloves and various other common items such as elastic. Research studies have shown that "...up to 73% of children and adolescents with Spina ifida are sensitive to latex as measured by blood test or by a history of an allergic reaction."
This allergy is more than just an irritation and can in fact be…
Hydrocephalus and Shunts in the Person with Spina Bifida; [essay online];
available from; http://www.spinabifidaassociation.org/site/c.liKWL7PLLrF/b.2725875/k.BDDF/Hydrocephalus_and_Shunts_in_the_Person_with_Spina_Bifida.htm:accessed 15 January, 2009.
Latex (natural rubber) Allergy in Spina Bifida; [essay online]; available from;
http://www.spinabifidaassociation.org/site/c.liKWL7PLLrF/b.2700271/k.1779/Latex_Natural_Rubber_Allergy_in_Spina_Bifida.htm . Accessed 15 January, 2009.
Hunt, G.M. (2003). Outcome in people with open spina bifida at age 35: Prospective community-based cohort study. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 326(7403), 1365-1366.
A survey of surviving adults with spina bifida myelomeninocele was conducted. The study looked at multiple aspects of the person's life including hospitalization, independence of lifestyle, associated health problems, and present level of disability. Studies of adults with spina bifida were not well represented in the larger field of research; as such, this article provides invaluable insights into the ongoing care that is required for surviving patients.
Lindgren, C.L., Burke, M.L., Hainsworth, M.A., & Eakes, G.G. (1992). Chronic sorrow:
A lifespan concept. Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice, 6(1), 27-40. Retrieved April 1, 2011, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035235041
A more global perspective on how parents of children with chronic illness channel their grieving. The article addresses myelomenginocele in terms of psychological effects it has on families. It briefly…
Wickelgren, I. (1989). Spina bifida: Paralyzing fluid in the womb? Science News, 135(22),
342. Retrieved April 1, 2011, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3973520
Using the fetuses of lab rats, scientists conducted an experiment to determine whether exposure to amniotic fluid is a risk factor for human fetuses to develop myelomeningocele spina bifida. The ability to translate these results to humans is discussed, with both fetal surgery and premature delivery given as potential future options.
Statistics of Disease
Etiology of Spina Bifida
Pathology and Physiology of Spina Bifida
Signs and Symptoms
Physical Therapy of Spina Bifida
Neural tube defects are the second most common congenital defects in the United States. This occurs due to a defect during early fetal development. These defects are classically of two types, open and closed. Spinal NTDs (spina bifida), anencephaly, and encephalocele are examples of open defects. Common examples of closed NTDs are lipomyelomeningocele, lipomeningocele, and tethered cord. Occasionally more than one type of NTDs can occur simultaneously.
STATISTICS OF SPNIA BIFIDA
Statistics from March, 2011, estimates that averages of 1500 babies with spina bifida are born each year. The incidence is higher for Hispanic women, almost doubling that of non-Hispanics. The bright side of the situation is that the occurrence for spina bifida, in the United States, has been…
Blatter, BM, R Hermens, M Bakker, N Roeleveld, ALM Verbeek, and GA Zielhuis. " Paternal occupational exposure around conception and spina bifida in offspring " American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 32.3 (1997): 283-291. Print.
Browse, Norman L. An introduction to the symptoms and signs of surgical disease. 4th. Gillingham: Bath Press, 2005. 1-123. Print.
Campbell, SK, Linden, DW, Palisano RJ. Physical Therapy for Children 2nd. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders, 2000. 271-292. Print
Fletcher, Jack M, and Timothy Brie. "Dev Disabil Res Rev."Dev Disabil Res Rev. 16.1 (2010): 1-5. Print.
Spina Bifida is one of the many birth defects neonates are at risk of. However, this particular defect is unique because it is characterized by problems in the central nervous system (CNS) and it has a low death rate. The causes of this medical condition are quite difficult to determine as they are subject to hereditary and environmental elements. Simply put, Spina Bifida refers to a situation where the spinal cord is not fully developed. In extreme cases, the spinal vertebrae could be so badly formed that the delicate spinal cord is left unprotected. In most cases, the spinal cord suffers damage due to this. The baby could suffer from reduced brain function and poor transmission of commands to affected organs. This slightly damaged link from the brain to the body tissues and organs leads to poorly developed body systems. There are other associated problems with this spinal defect even…
Crocker, AC (1997) the Impact of Disabling Conditions in Children. Wallace RG, iehl JC, MacQueen, and lackman JA (Eds.), 1997 Mosby's Resource Guide to Children with Disabilities and Chronic Illness. St. Louis: Mosby-Year ook, Inc. 1997.
Evans O, Tew , Laurence KM. The fathers of children with spina bifida. Zeitschrift fur Kinderchirurgie [Surgery in Infancy and Childhood]. 1986;41 Suppl 1:42-44.
Fagan J, Schor D. Mothers of children with spina bifida: factors related to maternal psychosocial functioning. (1993) American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 1993;63:146-152. [
Holmbeck GN, Gorey Ferguson L, Hudson T, Seefeldt T, Shapera W, Turner T, Uhler J. (1997)Maternal, paternal, and marital functioning in families of preadolescents with spina bifida. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 1997;22:167-181. [
Kazak AE. Families with disabled children: stress and social networks in three samples. (1987)Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 1987;15:137-146. doi: 10.1007/F00916471. [
Minnesota Title V MCH Needs Assessment Fact Sheets…
Barakat LP, Linney JA. (1992) Children with physical handicaps and their mothers: The interrelation of social support, maternal adjustment, and child adjustment. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 1992;17:725-739. [
Barakat LP, Linney JA. (1994) Optimism, appraisals, and coping in the adjustment of mothers and their children with spina bifida. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 1995;4:303-320.
Crocker, AC (1997) the Impact of Disabling Conditions in Children. Wallace RG, Biehl JC, MacQueen, and Blackman JA (Eds.), 1997 Mosby's Resource Guide to Children with Disabilities and Chronic Illness. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book, Inc. 1997.
Assistive Technology |
Importance of assistive technology
Assistive technology makes it possible for individuals with disabilities or cognitive impairments to redefine their lives and work towards an independent lifestyle. Assistive technology is also vital for encouraging learning and achievement in the classroom. On August 16, 2006, the federal government approved PL 100-407, otherwise known as the Technology-elated Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act. The definition included in that regulation was slightly modified to be included in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1992), which states that assistive technology is "any item, piece of equipment or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of children with disabilities."
Different conditions and capabilities require, of course, various methods of facilitation. It is important to remember that assistive technology is not limited to computer software, which would be classified…
NASET (n.d.) Assistive Technology. National Association of Special Education Teachers. Retrieved from: http://www.naset.org/assittech2.0.html on June 16, 2011
Blackhurst, A.E. (2006) What is Assistive Technology? National Assistive Technology Institute. Retrieved from: http://natri.uky.edu/resources/fundamentals/defined.html on June 16, 2011
Kelker, K.A., Holt, R., & Moses, K. (1997) Family Guide to Assistive Technology. Retrieved from: http://www.pluk.org/AT1.html on June 16, 2011
Hetzroni, O.E., Schrieber, B. (2004) Word Processing as an Assistive Technology Tool for Enhancing Academic Outcomes of Students with Writing Disabilities in the Classroom. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37 (2), 143-154
Calcium is needed in blood clotting, stability and permeability of the membrane, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, cellular secretion, enzyme activity, and cell growth. Magnesium is needed for the metabolism of potassium and calcium and for the mobilization of calcium from bones. Phosphorus plays and important role in the development and maturation of the bone. Its chief role in bone resorption, mineralization and collagen synthesis makes it essential in calcium homeostasis (Michael's).
Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system include leukemia, bursitis, osteoporosis, sprains, fractures, spina bifida, scurvy, arthritis, scoliosis, talipes equinovarus or clubfoot, tendonitis, kyphosis and poliomyelitis (Family Shock 2001). Leukemia is also called cancer of the blood where abnormally large numbers of white blood cells multiply at an uncontrolled manner so that they interfere with the body's production of red blood cells. The cause is still unknown. ursitis is a painful condition, which most commonly affects the hips and…
Discovery Kids. Skeletal system. Discovery Communications, Inc., 2000. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://yucky.discovery.com/flash/body/pg000124.html
Family Shock. Diseases and Disorders. The Shock Family, December 21, 2001. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://www.shockfamily.net/sksleton/DISEASE.htmL
Michael's. Skeleton Factors. Michael's Naturapathic Programs: Inner Health Group, Inc., 1996 Retrieved on May 30, 2007 at http://www.michaelshealth.com/pdf/skeletalfactors.pdf
ThinkQuest. Skeletal System. Think Quest USA: Oracle Education Foundation, 1999. Retrieved on May 30, 2007 at http://library.thinkquest.org/5777/sked.htm
Maternity Nursing, Labor & Delivery / Newborn
Labor and Delivery Terms
Para: Para refers to the number of live births a woman has had (it might be a stillbirth, or twins, or even triplets) past the 20-week gestation period (Zimmerman, p. 116).
Gravida: this refers to the number of times a woman has been pregnant, whether she actually gave birth, had an abortion or a stillbirth (Zimmerman, p. 116).
Amniotic Sac: this is a membrane around which the fetus is surrounded. It is a strong series of membranes that is visible after 7 weeks of gestation. (Jurkovic, et al., 2011).
Cervical Effacement: this phrase refers to the measurement of the expansion of the cervix as the baby gets closer to being born. hen the cervix is 50% effaced, it is halfway to being ready for the baby to be born (Jurkovic, et al., 2011).
Cervical dilation: Slowly but surely the…
Encyclopedia Britannica. (2010). Childbirth. Retrieved August 17, 2011, from http://www.britannica.com/bps/search?query=childbirth .
Heller, Michelle E., and Veach, Lynette M. (2008). Clinical Medical Assisting: A Professional,
Field Smart Approach to the Workplace. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Jailkhani, R., Patil, VS., Laxman, HB, Shivashankara, AR, Kulkarni, SP, and Ravindra, MS.
disabilities as 'deficits.' Even though I did not harbor prejudices against the disabled or regard people who had disabilities as 'inferior,' I viewed disabilities as challenges that had to be overcome. This class has helped me see persons with disabilities as people with particular conditions or differences, not as people defined by a singular characteristic. Everyone has personal deficits and strengths, but needing 'talking books' to read a book does not make a blind or dyslexic person defined by their condition any more than someone who needs glasses to see the same text. Defining persons with disabilities as people 'with' specific conditions, such as saying that Johnny is a child 'with ADHD' rather than a 'hyperactive kid,' much as you would say someone is 'a person who wears glasses' rather than a 'glasses-wearing friend' has been helpful in changing my mindset.
Before I took this course, I also had a…
Sledge Hockey is a terrific sport that individuals with physical disabilities can participate in. This sport was developed in the 1960s at a Swedish rehabilitation center. By modifying a metal sled (aka sledge) to fit two ice hockey skate blades under the sledge (so that a hockey puck could pass under it, the Swedes allowed themselves to be able to slide around the ice without inhibiting the movement of the hockey puck. They used round poles that had bicycle handles as sticks with which the propelled themselves across the ice—much like skiers use sticks when they are skiing long distance. Their game required no goaltenders, but other than that it was very similar in spirit to regular ice hockey: the goal was to get the puck into the goal—and instead of skating, the players sledged or sledded across the ice in the customized sledges that allowed the puck to…
Jaguars and Were-Jaguars:
Conceptions and Misconceptions in Olmec Culture
There is not a question that jaguars were important to Mesoamerican religion and culture. The Olmecs were no exception to this rule. However, it seems that previous interpretations of Olmec art and architecture have erroneously placed more emphasis on the jaguar than is actually due. While a significant part of Mesoamerican culture, the jaguar did not play quite the all-encompassing role that many archaeologists have attributed to it. Specifically, the so-called "were-jaguar" motif might be representative of something other than a jaguar, or at least, contain elements of other animals in addition to the feline. Among others, it has been suggested that the "were-jaguar" babies were, instead, crocodilians, toads, deformed human children, snakes, or iguanas. This essay will look at the most convincing of these arguments, in particular, the possibility of the "were-jaguar" actually representing congenitally deformed babies, were-crocodilians,…
1969 Olmec Society. In The Olmec World, pp.86-106. University of California Press, Berkeley.
2002 Mexico: from the Olmecs to the Aztecs. Thames and Hudson, New York.
I chose the LABB School because it seems so innovative. They have a preschool program designed for children with special needs, but they also enroll children with no difficulties. Because of this, preschoolers who attend The LABB School get both specialized services and the normality of attending preschool with children who have no disabilities. I was very curious to see how The LABB School makes this concept work.
When I went in I expected to see the children with disabilities separated in some way from the children without disabilities. I also wanted to know how well both groups progressed. I observed in detail and interviewed a teacher, an occupational therapist and a teacher aid to gather information. I did not ask to interview a parent.
The LABB School is spacious and set against woods. The rooms are airy and bright. They have a playground that is brightly colored…
Deliberate self-harm (DSH) or self-injurious behavior (SI) involves intentional self-poisoning or injury, irrespective of the apparent purpose of the act. (Vela, Harris and Wright, 1983) Self-mutilation is also used interchangeably with self-mutilation, though self-mutilation is one aspect of DSH. Approximately 1% of the United States population uses physical self-injury as a way of dealing with overwhelming feelings or situations, often using it to speak when no words will come. There are different ways in which DSH is manifested: cutting, burning, and abusing drugs, alcohol or other substances. This occurs at times of extreme anger, distress and low self-esteem, in order to either create a physical manifestation of the negative feelings which can then be dealt with, or alternatively to punish yourself. Extremely emotional distress can also cause DSH -- this is sometimes linked with hearing voices, particularly as a way of stopping the voices.
DSH is also often called parasuicide,…
Vela, J., Harris, J., and Wright, J.K. "Self-Mutilation." Journal of Trauma 23 (1983): 165-67.
Favazza, A.R. "What Do We Know About Affective Disorders?" Am J. Psychiatry 143.10 (1986): 1328.
Why Patients Mutilate Themselves." Hospital Community Psychiatry 40 (1989): 137-45.
Pies, R.W., and Popli, A.P. "Self-Injurious Behavior: Pathophysiology and Implications for Treatment." J. Clin Psychiatry 56.12 (1995): 580-8.
Having a baby is a dream that many families have. Women in particular are associated with the idea and "dream" of having a child but men are pretty excited about it to when it comes, albeit also nervous. However, there is a danger when it comes to waiting too long before starting a family in terms of age. Whether it is career concerns, finding the right, the delaying of the marriage or what have you, there are multiple reasons that are common in today's society whereby women put off having families. An unfortunate byproduct of this pattern is that the risk of birth defects is much higher with children born of women over the age of 35. This report shall explore the precise and specific reasons that these birth defects why it is more common for women beyond the line stated in this proposal. Even with the increasing…