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Studies have shown that a relationship exists between individual's satisfaction with their life after a spinal cord injury and their access to the environment, including the work environment (ichards, Bombardier, Tate, Kijkers, Gordon, Shewchuk & DeVivo, 1999). In particular access to a life that can be considered normal and "outside of the person" or their injury is an important predictor of satisfaction with life for individuals with spinal cord injury (ichards, et. al, 1999). Occupational status is a tremendous element of personal satisfaction.
acial disparities have been identified in employment and job placement patterns among individuals with spinal cord injuries, however these differences are found by some researchers to mirror the patterns that exist among the population at large (Meade, Lewis, Jackson & Hess, 2004). Studies conducted show that racial disparities in employment rates and job placement are found to be similar before and after injury, and in one study…… [Read More]
I just wanted to write you a letter letting you know a little bit about stem cells. I know the doctors have identified you as a good candidate for a trial using stem cell therapy, and -- since you asked -- I thought this would be a good opportunity to share with you what I have learned on this subject. Like all subjects, it can be simplified or made complex. I will try to strike a balance between the two extremes in this letter.
First off, stem cells are not like ordinary cells. When I say "ordinary" I mean the kind of cells you are probably used to thinking about -- cells that perform a special function -- like red blood cells (they carry oxygen through the blood stream). Stem cells are unspecialized. They have no physiological properties that define them per se. What they can do, however,…… [Read More]
Brain vs. Spinal Cord
Anatomically, the brain or central nervous system (CNS) is distinct from the spinal cord. The CNS is encased in the skull, while one end of the spinal cord is attached at the base of the brain and the other end extends down the spinal column to the lumbar region. A rough visual and functional analogy would be the cables from the keyboard, mouse, internet connection, and monitor (spinal column) connecting to the processor inside a computer (CNS).
The CNS and spinal cord are functionally distinct as well. The spinal cord collects the nerve fibers carrying peripheral sensory information and relays it to the CNS. These sensory nerve fibers are called afferent or ascending fibers. There are four main types of information transmitted through afferent fibers: mechanoreceptors (touch), proprioreceptors (muscle movement), thermoreceptors (temperature), and nocioceptors (pain). The information provided by these afferent fibers would be analogous to…… [Read More]
Signs and symptoms of serious problems include: Loss of consciousness or memory, a headache that worsens or won't go away, confusion, mood swings, drowsiness, numbness, weakness, slurred speech, vision changes and changes in the pupils' size, shape, and reaction to light, dizziness, vertigo, difficulty standing or walking, nausea and vomiting (Safety, 2009, Brain and spinal cord.org).. After any forceful blow to the head, the coach or referee should ensure that the game is stopped, and the player should be told to not to nod or shake his head during the assessment, but to say yes or no. If conscious, the player should be asked if he or she is aware of the day and time, his or her location, what quarter or part of the game he or she is playing, and other questions to assess his or her bearings. If a serious injury is suspected, the student…… [Read More]
Fawcett compares uses a freeway analogy to describe this, saying the axons have no problem with the onramp (growing onto the PNS bridge), but get stuck at the off-ramp (leaving the PNS tissue). Why axons can't simply get "on" from both sides and meet in the middle is not addressed in this paper; presumably the axons grow only in one direction.
Davies and colleagues created two different types of astrocytes using the same stem-cell derived precursors. One proved to be an effective bridge, the other actually inhibited axon growth but stimulated the growth o pain receptors, increasing pain at the injury site. The fact that the two astrocytes are so closely related is worrisome, as it may lead to complications in large-scale or human applications. Also, there could be problems in obtaining the useful kind of astrocyte. Right now, all work is being conducted on rats in a lab, where…… [Read More]
This was finding of a research conducted on rats at the University of Rochester Medical Center in 2004. The research team, led by Dr. Maiken Nedergaard, worked on the premise that inflammation causes more irreversible and inevitable damage than the initial trauma (Henrich, Kelly, Reinhardt et al.).
The team injected the blue food dye into some of the experimental rats with spinal cord injuries (Reuters 2009, Takahiro 2009, Michaud 2009, Ehrenberg 2009). The rats at first began to move, hobbled about and turned blue. Rats, which did not receive the injection, did not walk or move at all. A substance, called ATP, is the source that keeps cells alive. The research showed that ATP runs out of control in spinal cord injury, activates an inflammation-causing molecule and kills spinal neuron cells. Treatment must be administered immediately after the injury. The experiment showed that rilliant lue G. blocks the action of…… [Read More]
Spinal Disc Herniation, also called slipped disc or herniated disc, is a medical condition that affects the spine. This may be caused by trauma, injury, or idiopathic causes that are combinations of issues. Physiologically, an injury causes a tear in the outer ring of the intervertebral disc, more specifically in the fibrous ring that surrounds the disc. This injury then allows the softer, central portion of the disc to bulge out beyond the damaged outer rings. This tear sometimes causes the release of inflammatory chemicals causing intense pain, even with there is no severe root compression. In addition, herniated discs are almost always postero-lateral because of the way the ligaments are attached to the spinal cord (Postacchini, 1999).
Most minor herniations heal within several weeks using anti-inflammatory treatment for pain and swelling. However, severe herniations, the so-called slipped disc, even though it is not accurate from a medical…… [Read More]
Scientists have been aware of the existence of these stem cells for many years but have only recently realized the potential medical applications of the cells. More than a decade ago, scientists discovered that if the normal connections between the early cellular progeny of the fertilized egg were disrupted, the cells would fall apart into a single cell progeny that could be maintained in a culture. These dissociated cells, otherwise known as embryonic stem cell lines, continue to divide in culture, producing large numbers of cells at a fast pace. However, these early embryonic cells would lose the coordinated activity.
Scientists quickly discovered that these cells retain the ability to generate a great number of mature cell types in culture if they are provided with appropriate molecular signals (Reaves, 2001). Scientists have made significant progress in discovering these signals and are still working on it. hile it is a difficult…… [Read More]
For example, because different etiologies require corresponding therapeutic designs and mechanisms (Spector, 2000; Steefel, 2002), specific support group makeup must consider the need to develop different strategies and methodologies for the following types of patients at a minimum if support groups are to provide equal benefit to all patients:
Elderly Patients and Lifelong Laborers - This group typically presents with psychological issues in the realm of a direct link between their sense of purpose and self-worth and their ability to continue to function productively in their community. Their need for acute medical and ancillary services, particularly in the Longview/East Texas community are often precipitated by chronic physical deterioration from a lifetime of relatively hard labor. Therefore, support group rehabilitation services must address the issues of self-esteem as a function of vocational productivity and lifestyle changes necessitated by medical conditions.
Prime-of-Life Victims of Traumatic Injury - This group typically presents with…… [Read More]
functional relationship of the PNS to the CNS?
The CNS effectively "controls" the PNS, and the PNS' main function is to connect the CNS to the limbs and organs. The PNS transmits nerve impulses produced by the CNS.
List the structural components of the PNS, and briefly describe the function of each component.
The structural components of the PNS are sensory receptors, which receive external stimuli; motor endings, which act to innervate muscle fibers and glands; and nerves and ganglia, which act as pathways for impulses to travel through the PNS.
How many different types of sensory receptors does the nervous system express and briefly, what kind of stimulus does each class respond to?
According to which way you might go about classifying, there are either five different types of sensory receptors or three different types of receptors. The group of five looks like this: 1) mechanoreceptors -- receptors that…… [Read More]
People with family histories of blood disease, for example, could benefit greatly from a private supply of compatible blood cells. Mixed-ethnicity children could also stand to benefit, since this population often experiences difficulty finding genetically compatible donors for organs or bone marrow (Peterson 56).
The sad reality is that despite its many benefits, the use of stem cells from umbilical cords is hampered by a lack of supply. There are private banks that extract and store a baby's umbilical stem cells for private use, but the costs are too prohibitive for most families. For many private banks, parents have to pay $1,300 up front for the extraction, and an additional $95 each year for storage. Also, many parents are simply unaware of the importance of umbilical stem cells. Sprage, a beneficiary of a cord stem cell transplantation, finds it disturbing that "most cord blood ends up as medical waste." (Peterson…… [Read More]
Hello, my friend. I am truly sorry and sympathize as much as I can regarding your traumatic car accident and subsequent spinal injury. I appreciate that you have kept me abreast of your treatment options. Your team of physicians agree that you would be a fine candidate for treatment specifically with stem cells. Most people have heard of stem cells and are aware of the scientific and ethical controversies surrounding them, but not as many people have performed productive research to find out what they really are and what the possible medical applications (and pitfalls) that come with stem cells. I have taken it upon myself to do some research for you, so that you are in a better position to make a more informed decision regarding this option for treatment of your spinal cord injury. In the next couple of pages, I will do my best to…… [Read More]
1st Method Psychomotor Assessment
Neurological observation as relating to psychomotor Assessment framework revolves around collecting data about the CNS or brain and spinal cord of a patient. Some of the areas that are assessed include Level of Conscious, Alertness, Pupillary esponse, Vitals, and Motor esponse (Mooney and Comerford, 2003).
In categorizing the level of consciousness some of the observations include alertness, being aware of surrounding environment, in contrast to drowsiness or slower responses. As stimuli is applied, it is important to record not only if there is a response, but the rate or speed of the response could indicate there is an uncharacteristic condition. If a patient is not conscious, there is no response even to a pain induced stimuli such as heat, pressure, or light. A problem could exist when there is pressure on the brain caused by excess fluid or a head trauma of some type.…… [Read More]
physiological perspective, the first trimester of pregnancy is when the majority of fetal development occurs, and also when the full development of the placenta occurs. The first twelve weeks or so after conception see the transformation of a fertilized egg cell into a fetus that shares blood flow with the placenta through the umbilical arteries and vein. As a result, these twelve weeks are particularly crucial for the health and development of the fetus at its most vulnerable stage. Among numerous other physiological changes, the mother's nutritional intake needs (which include vitamins and minerals) increase substantially, so nutrition is crucial. The avoidance of alcohol is necessary to avoid birth defects caused by the substance: as Blackburn notes, "drinking alcohol at any stage of pregnancy can affect the brain and other areas of development" (Blackburn 2007, 221).
Zoey's preganancy undergoes what is termed induced labor, in which she is given a…… [Read More]
Obama endorsed an Illinois handgun ban while he was serving in the Illinois state legislature and also supports a ban on semi-automatic weapons. However, the current President professed his support for the Second Amendment, stating that he supports restrictions to keep guns out of the wrong hands, not a full prohibition. In Illinois he co-sponsored a 2000 to limit consumer purchases of firearms to one gun per month -- although he also supported 'conceal carry' laws for retired police officers ("Gun control," on the Issues, 2008).
The spike in gun sales has more to do with political posturing than reality: gun owners wish to demonstrate their opposition to Obama's system of values, as conceptualized in the red-blue divide that currently exists in the United States. In this polarized media positioning, Obama represents urban elitism and government control, despite his actual policies. The NRA and the gun industry has used this…… [Read More]
Spina Bifida is one of the many birth defects neonates are at risk of. However, this particular defect is unique because it is characterized by problems in the central nervous system (CNS) and it has a low death rate. The causes of this medical condition are quite difficult to determine as they are subject to hereditary and environmental elements. Simply put, Spina Bifida refers to a situation where the spinal cord is not fully developed. In extreme cases, the spinal vertebrae could be so badly formed that the delicate spinal cord is left unprotected. In most cases, the spinal cord suffers damage due to this. The baby could suffer from reduced brain function and poor transmission of commands to affected organs. This slightly damaged link from the brain to the body tissues and organs leads to poorly developed body systems. There are other associated problems with this spinal defect even…… [Read More]
Deliberate self-harm (DSH) or self-injurious behavior (SI) involves intentional self-poisoning or injury, irrespective of the apparent purpose of the act. (Vela, Harris and Wright, 1983) Self-mutilation is also used interchangeably with self-mutilation, though self-mutilation is one aspect of DSH. Approximately 1% of the United States population uses physical self-injury as a way of dealing with overwhelming feelings or situations, often using it to speak when no words will come. There are different ways in which DSH is manifested: cutting, burning, and abusing drugs, alcohol or other substances. This occurs at times of extreme anger, distress and low self-esteem, in order to either create a physical manifestation of the negative feelings which can then be dealt with, or alternatively to punish yourself. Extremely emotional distress can also cause DSH -- this is sometimes linked with hearing voices, particularly as a way of stopping the voices.
DSH is also often called parasuicide,…… [Read More]
However, recently, anesthesiologists have suggest a low to mid thoracic epidural combined with adequate general anesthesia. This anesthetic technique will allow for adequate inter-operative monitoring. After the operation, the anesthesiologist must continue to monitor the patient for either hypertension, hypotension and hypoglycemia. The presence of either of these conditions may alter the course of the medication given to the patient once the patient is removed from the anesthesia.
Neurofibroma can cause systemic problems within the various components of the Respiratory System. As has already been presented, Neurofibromas can cause partial blockages within upper parts of the trachea. However, Neurofibromas can also pose challenges or the anesthesiologist when dealing with nasal, sinus or maxilofacial cavities with Neurofibromas present within. One example of how devastatingly complex the Neurofibroma can become is seen when a benign neurofibroma can cause a superior vena cava compression. Such was the case of a 21-year-old…… [Read More]
SENSOY INDOO/OUTDOO ENVIONMENT
What further questions do you have for Laura at this visit?
1,) Are you having frequent urination?
Do you have any pain in your abdomen?
Do you noticed that there is a change in color and odor of your urine?
Do you have painful intercourse?
Do you have any nausea, vomiting?
Do you have any fever, or chills?
Any history of mental illness?
Do you have any changes in sleep pattern?
Do you have any kind of abnormal uterine bleeding?
What is your differential diagnosis list for this visit thus far with rationale?
Cystitis in Females
Spinal Cord Neoplasms
Spinal Cord Trauma and elated Diseases
Spinal Epidural Abscess
Urinary Tract Infection in Males
Uterine Prolapse in Emergency Medicine
Based on your differential diagnoses list, identify what body systems you'd examine along with pertinent positive/negatives in each system and any diagnostic…… [Read More]
According to Gutmann et al. (2017) neurofibromatosis is a group of three conditions whereby tumors grow in the nervous system. These conditions are neurofibromatosis type I (NF1), neurofibromatosis type II (NF2), and schwannomatosis. It is considered to be a genetic disorder of the nervous system. Neurofibromatosis mainly affects the development and growth of nerve cell tissue. The tumors can develop anywhere in the nervous systems including spinal cord, brain, and nerves. These tumors are mostly noncancerous, however, there have been instances when they do become cancerous. The most common condition is NF1. Schwannomatosis is the most recent and it is a rare type of neurofibromatosis. Little is known about schwannomatosis.
NF1 manifests at birth or in early childhood. It is characterized by multiple café-au-lait (light brown) spots that are concentrated in the groin and underarms (Gutmann et al., 2017). It is also manifested by benign tumors under the skin.…… [Read More]
Magnetic esonance System on patients
Magnetic resonance System (Imaging), here after referred to as (MS), or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMI), is a medical imaging technique widely used in radiology to visualize detailed internal structure and limited function of the body. It provides great contrast between the different soft tissues of the body, making it particularly useful in neurological (brain), musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and ontological (cancer) imaging. MS uses a powerful magnetic field to align the nuclear magnetization of (usually) hydrogen atoms in water in the body (Adams, 1989). To systematically alter the alignment of this magnetization, adio frequency (F) fields are used, enhancing the generation of a rotating magnetic field by the hydrogen nuclei that can be detected using a scanner.
MS can detect the chemical composition of diseased tissue and produce color images of brain function. This signal can be controlled by more magnetic fields to build up adequate…… [Read More]
History of RSD
The history and the discovery of RSD (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy) Syndrome and its symptoms have typically been associated with wars. While there is no doubt that RSD from physical stress and injury existed earlier, it was left up to war physicians to assign pathology to it. Silas Weir Mitchell, an army doctor during the Civil War, described the symptoms of "burning pain" left in soldiers long after the bullets have been removed. He attributed these residual and long lasting pains to major nerve injury. Weir was the first to call RSD causalgia (currently, specifically known as CRPS-2), which is Greek for "burning pain." He wrote that, "Under such torments, the temper changes, the most amiable grow irritable, the soldier becomes a coward, and the strongest man is scarcely less nervous than the most hysterical girl." Weir accurately reflected the symptoms. (PARC, 2004). Mitchell accurately described the symptoms…… [Read More]
Muscles are an important part of our body, and without muscles, one would neither be able to walk nor to talk, and, quite literally, the blood would stop flowing within the body if our muscles did not work. In fact, muscles can be referred to as the 'engine' within our body, which we utilize in order to 'propel' ourselves by converting 'energy' into 'motion'. Anything that the brain conceives of doing is in fact carried out by muscles, and since they are long lasting, as well as self healing, and will keep growing stronger if they are used more, they form an incredibly sophisticated piece of machinery within the living body, and must be treated as such. There are three unique types of muscles within a mammal's body, and these are: the skeletal muscles that contract voluntarily, and are attached to the skeleton and come in pairs, the…… [Read More]
Safety Decisions in High School Football
This paper focuses on one aspect of high school football safety. The study explores the issue of higher levels of injury being associated with a particular brand or brands of football helmets worn by high school athletes who play football, and the institutional decisions and actions that follow disclosure of such information. A recent study by Virginia Tech rated helmets worn by professional football players -- helmets worn by high school students have not yet been rated by the university. The study compared helmets manufactured by three companies. High ratings were given to the iddell Speed, the iddell evolution, the iddell evolution IA, the Schutt Ion 4D, the Schutt DNA, and the Xenith X1. Medium ratings were given to the Schutt Air XP and Schutt Air Advantage. Players were warned by Virginia Tech not to wear the iddell VS4 and the Adams A2000. No…… [Read More]
From the fact that two individuals were able to keep their hands in for 5 seconds longer than that of the other participants it seems as though the motivational approach may be more effective than sensory discriminative in quelling pain. Nonetheless, this study is severely limited in that the sample was extremely small, and that I was a biased facilitator (ideally such a study should be conducted with at least three other experimenters who are unaware of the purpose and hypothesis of the study), as well as in the fact that it was conducted in limiting circumstances (the bathroom near a bathtub).
Also to be considered is the fact that other confounding circumstances may have induced the resilient individual to have kept her hands in for longer. he may, for instance, be thicker-skinned than the others, or have some other physiological characteristic that may make her naturally more resilient to…… [Read More]
Nature and nature psychology explains the behavior of man and the origin of individual differences and their personalities. Nature and nature theories explain the origin of individual differences and type development of personality. In the history of developmental psychology, heredity- environment issue has been identified as the central touchstone of theoretical differences between nature and nurture. Darwin's theory of evolution has impact on notions of human origin and their abilities. In this theory the environment does the selecting on organisms and not vice versa; natural selection dictates that organisms will survive best in the environments they find themselves. Nature- nurture discussions imply that Darwin's evolutionary theory is nature driven, while it contains an interaction of both nature and nurture. Galton (a psychologist) uses twins in his studies to differentiate between nature and nurture. The study shows that twins had little variation on their similarities despite exposure to different environments.…… [Read More]
80s and the 90s, an unknown but virulent cattle disease, called "Mad Cow," destroyed 180,000 livestock in the United Kingdom and some other European countries and plunged other major cattle-producing nations - including the United States - into global panic (Freudenrich 2004). Health experts assured the public that humans were not prone to it. Nonetheless, its symptoms resemble those of an already existing and similarly deadly human nervous condition called Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), believed to afflict only those 50 years old and older. CJD was then linked to Mad Cow, but believed to be limited to the older population. In the mid 90s, however, several ritish young people, died of a new variety of disease with similar symptoms to both Mad Cow's and CJD's, this time plaguing the young (nvCJD). In all those troubled years, contaminated ritish cattle were exported to as many as countries, including the U.S.A., as animal…… [Read More]
In addition to the therapeutic armamentarium, CAM reported to have a great role to treat interstitial cystitis (IC). It is multimodal and individualized and includes various treatment methods including: Neuromodulation, dietary modification, acupuncture, surgical methods, medications etc. The objective of this literature review is to discuss the possible causes of the IC, diagnosis, prevalence, the symptoms, and CAM treatment options.
Interstitial cystitis (IC) also called as painful bladder syndrome is an inflammatory disease of the bladder wall with typical ulceration of the urothelium. The interstitial cystitis (IC) is generally regarded as an elusive disease picture with inadequate therapeutic options. Critical to improving the prospects for therapy is the early diagnosis of the disease, which may involve only a careful history taking and clinical examination. CAM suggests multimodal treatment strategies in the early stage of disease (Abrams, Cardozo, & Fall, 2002).
Due to definition similarity, IC is often referred…… [Read More]
Risky behaviors like smoking or drug use could increase because of these assumptions, creating greater burdens of healthcare costs and other social and medical issues. The good that these therapies lead to is thus somewhat tempered by the bad they may encourage.
Other Applications of Regenerative Therapies
Regenerative therapies do not solely consist of age-reversing and life-saving applications. An examination of some other real and imagined uses to which these therapies can be put reveals the true breadth of these therapies' power and scope in everyday life. In the field of dentistry, where artificial implants have become increasingly sophisticated and well-integrated with the natural body, "the therapeutic potential of platelets in promoting and accelerating tissue regeneration" has led to a new trajectory in oral implantology because it allows for the growth of the body's own tissue at a faster rate that incorporates more completely and more efficiently with dental implants…… [Read More]
There are specialized cells called receptors that receive information about the environment and changes in that environment. Each kind of receptor reacts to a different kind of stimulus. For example, the receptors on the retina in the eye detect light. Receptors are all connected to nerve cells, and the nerve cells carry information from the receptor to the brain, where the signal is processed. The brain makes the decision about what to do with the information, such as move a part of the body to cause a reaction based on the information the receptors sent. However, in the case of an emergency situation, this normal interpretation process takes too long even though it is extremely fast, and instead another emergency plan is followed by the nervous system. When burned the body will experience a reflex reaction.
The skin has receptors that detect both pressure and temperature. In the case…… [Read More]
Dimitrios Karussis and Ibrahim Kassis, in the article, "Use of Stem Cells for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis," conclude,
"In the current review, the various types of stem cells, which were mainly studied in animal models, will be reviewed as a potential therapeutic approach for MS. The main and common mechanisms of action of all stem cells include induction of neuroregeneration and remyelination through the activation of resident stem cells, or production of new CNS cell lineage progenitors, paralleled by local and systemic immunomodulating effects" (Karussis & Kassis, 2007, Conclusion ¶).
The other diseases that are showing promise in treatments resulting from stem cells usage includes: as cancer, diabetes, osteopetrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries, heart disease, immune system disorders, blood disorders; the list goes on (Diseases Treated by Cord lood, 2010).
Stem cells are a valuable weapon in the future treatment of disease and in…… [Read More]
Genetic Components of the Disease
Metabolic Components of the Disease
Causes of the disease
Symptoms of the disease
Diagnosis of the disease
Treatment of the disease
Cord lood Transfusion
Treatment for Late on-set Form
Incidence and Longevity of the disease
Krabbe disease, also referred as globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), causes a deficiency in galactocerebrosidase (GALC), the enzyme responsible for preventing a build-up of galactolipids in the brain. Without the regulation of galactolipids, the growth of the myelin sheath around the nerve cells is severely impaired. Krabbe disease usually presents in first 6 months of the life. A child in the last stages of Krabbe disease is immobilized and has decreased level of responsiveness. Most of them die at the age of 2. (Lantos, 2011)
Genetic Components of the Disease
GLD is one of the subgroup of metabolic disorders called leukodystrophies. The leukodystrophies are caused…… [Read More]
When evaluating completions rates involved with PWA, radial tonometry had a 66% and carotid tonometry had a 99%. The radial tonometry was determined to be easier on the patient.
Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI)
Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) has increased significance over previous single probe techniques. lood flow is no longer measured at a single site but between an area and the LDI due to being non-contact cannot interfere with the final results. LDI is a 1mm laser beam that uses a mirror to scan in two dimensions. A small amount of light penetrates the skin; the depth depends on wavelength and absorption, of area scanned and interacts with cells and tissues. Speed and density of moving cells determine the signal sent to detector. Discovery Technology International defines the amount of tissue measured as:
we have estimated that for well-perfused tissue such as muscle, the mean sampling depth for our probes…… [Read More]
An impulse opens "gates" in the membrane that allow the positive sodium ions to rush in, which pushes the impulses along by moving electrons. When the impulse passes, the sodium moves out again and the nerve cells basically resets itself back to its resting potential.
When the nerve impulses reach the muscles they are meant to move, a similar use of ions inside and outside the muscle fibers occurs. In this case, sodium and potassium are used to spread the impulse across the muscle, but it is the influx of calcium into muscle fibers that reacts with the tropomyosin present in the cells, causing the fibers to contract, which pulls on the bones of the skeletons creating movement. The specific leg muscles necessary for stepping up in a step are the biceps femoris, which flexes the knee and extends the hip, the pectneus, which flexes the hip and raises the…… [Read More]
Calcium is needed in blood clotting, stability and permeability of the membrane, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, cellular secretion, enzyme activity, and cell growth. Magnesium is needed for the metabolism of potassium and calcium and for the mobilization of calcium from bones. Phosphorus plays and important role in the development and maturation of the bone. Its chief role in bone resorption, mineralization and collagen synthesis makes it essential in calcium homeostasis (Michael's).
Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system include leukemia, bursitis, osteoporosis, sprains, fractures, spina bifida, scurvy, arthritis, scoliosis, talipes equinovarus or clubfoot, tendonitis, kyphosis and poliomyelitis (Family Shock 2001). Leukemia is also called cancer of the blood where abnormally large numbers of white blood cells multiply at an uncontrolled manner so that they interfere with the body's production of red blood cells. The cause is still unknown. ursitis is a painful condition, which most commonly affects the hips and…… [Read More]
Maternity Nursing, Labor & Delivery / Newborn
Labor and Delivery Terms
Para: Para refers to the number of live births a woman has had (it might be a stillbirth, or twins, or even triplets) past the 20-week gestation period (Zimmerman, p. 116).
Gravida: this refers to the number of times a woman has been pregnant, whether she actually gave birth, had an abortion or a stillbirth (Zimmerman, p. 116).
Amniotic Sac: this is a membrane around which the fetus is surrounded. It is a strong series of membranes that is visible after 7 weeks of gestation. (Jurkovic, et al., 2011).
Cervical Effacement: this phrase refers to the measurement of the expansion of the cervix as the baby gets closer to being born. hen the cervix is 50% effaced, it is halfway to being ready for the baby to be born (Jurkovic, et al., 2011).
Cervical dilation: Slowly but surely the…… [Read More]
How long this process takes and whether it will prevent the loss of seeded cells probably depends to a significant extent on the surrounding tissue and therefore represents another unknown.
HIF-1? And VEGF are also involved in osteogenesis, so the influence of these growth factors on the differentiation choices being made by the seeded stem cells is unknown (Polzer 7). The impact of prolonged hypoxic conditions on the seeded cells is another. Although Polzer and colleagues examined the timing of cell seeding relative to prevascularization, they discovered that the artificial scaffold rapidly filled with connective tissue. This process effectively clogged the matrix and prevented efficient seeding.
By comparison, researchers conducting spinal cord injury research into the efficacy of regenerative medicine techniques have been producing promising results (Sykova et al. 1113-1114). Hydrogels seeded with mesenchymal stem cells or bone marrow stem cells have produced positive results in both animal models and…… [Read More]
Teratogens and Fetal Development
Teratogens can be described as agents that contribute to fetal injury and birth defects or an abnormality because of fetal exposure during pregnancy. Some of these agents that lead to fetal injury or birth defects include chemicals, environmental contaminants, infections, and drugs. These agents tend to result in such abnormality in fetal development when a woman is exposed to them during the term of the pregnancy. The agents are always discovered following an increased prevalence of a specific birth defect or abnormality. Pregnant women are increasingly susceptible to teratogens since these agents can be found in various settings at home in the working environment. Notably, the effect of the agents on fetal development is dependent on the kind of agent, duration, and extent of the exposure. Generally, teratogens and fetal development can be about legal and/or illegal drugs and the effects on the fetus while in…… [Read More]
network of lymph vessels and lymph nodes in the human body termed the lymphatic system that is an important component of the immune system (Lymph system, 2015). The lymphatic network collects waste materials, fluid, and pathogens such as bacteria and viruses in the body and carries lymph, a clear watery fluid that contains white blood cells called lymphocytes that help fight infections (Lymph system, 2015). To gain some additional insights into its purpose and operation, this paper provides an explanation concerning why the lymphatic system is not found in some parts of the body and describes what areas have no lymph or lymphatic vessels. A summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
In 1652, the Danish physician Thomas Bartholin (1616 -- 1680) published a description of the human thoracic duct, noting that these lacteal vessels created another bodily circulatory…… [Read More]
One might consider fibromyalgia to be one of the most confounding conditions around today. It is debilitating. It results in several quality of life issues. The confounding aspect of this condition is that it is difficult to diagnose. It is also difficult to treat. Most treatment modalities today recourse to treating one or more specific symptoms -- but there is no treatment that can comprehensively treat all the symptoms. (NIAMS, 2004) More holistic treatment modes however, are being researched, explored and considered. Fibromyalgia often presents symptoms of other diseases. Essentially therefore, fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain that cannot be localized to any part of the body. It is also associated with fatigue and other specific (though not necessarily widespread) symptoms that will be discussed later in this work.
Fibromyalgia syndrome is often referred to in its abbreviation FMS. Some of the symptoms (though not all) enjoy significant overlap…… [Read More]
ithout a doubt, one of the most controversial topics of popular discourse is stem cell research. Indeed, one would be hard pressed to peruse the newspaper or magazine stand without encountering some reference to the global stem cell debate -- but what, exactly, are stem cells, and why are they so controversial?
Stem cells intended for use in human applications are harvested from humans, umbilical cords and embryos. The reason these cells are so valuable is because of their capability to produce or "become" other cell types -- for example, brain cells, heart cells, skin, etc. In short, these are "master cells," holding the ability to divide in cultures, and to be manipulated allowing it to transform into any type of cell. Of course, this is extremely important due to the fact that scientists can use this capability to either create organs (thereby helping to meet the tremendous…… [Read More]
An interesting view of the immune system with particular implications for the current review and collation of information is provided by the field of computer science. The immune system makes many series of continual trade-offs, distributing resources in a way that necessarily leaves certain vulnerabilities in the system as a whole while providing greater comprehensiveness in coverage and protection when necessary (Hofmeyr 1997). This makes the immune system an adaptive and continually evolving and self-improving system; with little outside direction it is capable of assessing changing needs, and altering itself not only in particular instances but even in some of its general responses in order to provide greater long-term efficacy for the task of protecting the human organism from disease (Hofmeyr 1997). This view of the immune system as a contained and self-informing system is not entirely accurate, but it is a very useful perspective for our purposes herein.
The…… [Read More]
Since the war in Iraq, thousands of American soldiers have been injured, and some of them paralyzed by explosions that shattered their spinal columns.
Traumatic paralysis is often irreversible because the network of nerves in the human spinal cord cannot repair themselves when they are badly damaged.
Applications of cloning technology will allow us to grow new nerve tissue for implantation into damaged spinal cords to restore their functions (Sagan, 1997).
Seventh Point - Cloned Human Organs Can Save Thousands of Lives Every Year:
Medical applications of cloning technology already allows doctors to grow human skin for burn victims.
The exact same technology will allow us to make human organs by actually cloning the cells from the same person to make replacement organs (Soares, 2002).
This means an end to long waiting lists for donor organs and will make the difference between life and death for thousands of people every…… [Read More]
In addition, it is not apparent whether the injections may relieve pain, but for those without surgical lesions the injections may delay requisite surgery and result to permanent neurological deficits. It is evident that some risks associated with infectious epidural steroid injections result to fatal meningitis, but those performing epidural do not make pregnant women opting for epidural aware. I feel that such risks are matters of life and death and women must know them before considering epidurals. In addition, there are common risks of these injections. They include; increased neurological deterioration, paralysis, and quadriplegia Epstein (2013, p. 74-93).
All these researches provide information on the risks of epidurals in different aspects. The epidural procedure may also affect the child. The drugs administered to the mother directly enter the child. The levels may be as high as those of the mother may, and because of the immature liver of the…… [Read More]
Safety and Health Issues in Meat Processing Industry
In the meat processing industry, health and safety issues are of vital importance, in view of the several risks arising out of microbial contamination of meat and the occupational hazards faced by workers. Past experiences have shown that microbial reproduction in meat and meat products can reach alarming proportions traversing across countries and even continents. The infamous mad cow disease and the foot and mouth disease in cattle has rattled the British meat industry for a considerable period, resulting in loss of image, confidence and erosion of profits. North America's main problem is the widespread prevalence of eschericia coli in meat, more commonly known as the hamburger disease. It is well-known that meat is highly susceptible to attack of bacteria and virus and hence there is a constant need to address this risk. When microbial activity sets in, the quality of meat…… [Read More]
The author of this report has been asked to write up a summary of multiple sclerosis. The subjects that will be talked about will include the definition, the methods of diagnosis, the symptoms of the disorder, the complications of the disorder, the treatments for the disorder, the methods of prevention (if any) and the directions of future research. While multiple sclerosis is not a death sentence by any means, it can still be a debilitating disease and it affects a good number of people.
As explained by the WebMD website, multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disorder that affects the brain and the spinal cord. The major symptoms of multiple sclerosis include weakness, tingling, numbness and blurred vision. Other signs and symptoms that can point to multiple sclerosis include muscle stiffness, urinary issues, thinking problems and so forth. There are treatments that exist for the relieving of multiple sclerosis…… [Read More]
(iii) in the United States, Brazil, Germany and France, humans have been receiving their own stem cells to re-grow heart muscle in the unforeseen incident of heart attack or injury. This was found to be successful in majority of the cases. (iv) in one more incident, the vision of 23 patients was restored after limbal adult stem cell transplants. This line of therapeutic care has assisted a lot of people who have been suffering from blindness for years together that includes the sufferers of mustard gas attacks in Iraqi. (Life Issues Institute, 2006) v) Crohn's disease patients have in fact been treated with stem cells evolved from their own blood. (vi) Among the 90% of the 19 patients having several autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus has been on the path to recovery following treatment with their own blood stem cells. (vii) a research of Parkinson's disease displayed an average improvement…… [Read More]
hat treatments did the individual seek? ere any available at the time?
Reeve had to have a major operation a few days after his accident to replace the shattered vertebrae through artificial means. After his operation, he was put through physical rehabilitation and occupational therapy. Eventually he was able to move his wrist, fingers, and feet (Hecht & Hecht 2004). He could also breathe without assistance for up to 90 minutes. Intense physical therapy continued throughout the remainder of his life. Other treatments he received included: weight-bearing exercises, calcium supplements, and medication to reverse osteoporosis, or thinning of the bones which happens frequently to paraplegics.
Reeve sought further means of overcoming his disability, particularly with stem cell research. In this therapy, embryonic stem cells or, less often, adult stem cells are introduced to the damaged body which and allows the body to regenerate damaged tissue. It has been shown to…… [Read More]
Grants for science education are provided to schools and individuals, with the objective of helping to inspire careers in science. ("About HHMI," 2010) When you put these different elements tougher, this shows how HHMI is involved in medical research funding from: working directly with researchers to providing funding on a host of projects and initiatives. This is important, because it allows the nonprofit to fund a number of different research studies, while giving scientists the flexibility to effectively conduct their projects. As a result, this has helped HHMI to support a number of different medical breakthroughs to include: making significant progress in spinal cord injuries, HIV / AIDS research and medication that can be used to effectively treat leukemia. At the same time, the organization is focused on identifying the genes that are responsible for: cystic fibrosis, colon cancer and muscular dystrophy. (Leung, 2004)
The Impact of how HHMI's: Mission,…… [Read More]
Emotional reactions to the onset of injuries as well as a patient's attitude toward the injury itself and the proposed treatment have great impacts on the length of time it will take for the patient to recover (VAN RIJN 2007). Therefore, it is in the medical staff's best interest to maintain the patient in a positive, reinforcing paradigm in order to create an atmosphere of positive goal-orientation so the patient may experience significantly reduced levels of anxiety during post-operative procedures as well as reduced rehabilitation time.
N.A.. (2010). Ligament Injury Recovery. Available: http://www.sportsinjurybulletin.com/archive/ligament-injury.html. Last accessed 17th Nov 2010.
Researchers at the University of Wisconsin, the University of Houston and NASA severed the medically collateral ligaments in the knees of lab rates. Three to seven weeks after the incision mechanical and morphological properties were measured in ligaments, bones and muscles. Ligament testing revealed that there were significant reductions in…… [Read More]
The symptoms and signs of chronic schistosomiasis are mostly the body's reaction to the eggs retained in the tissues. S. mansoni or S. japonicum can cause mucosal ulcerations, bloody diarrhea, focal fibrosis, strictures, fistulas and papillomatuous growths. Ulcerations in the bladder by S. haematobium may bring on dysuria, hematuria, frequent urination, and chronic cystitis. Secondary bacterial infections in the genitor-urinary tract may also develop. S. mansoni can induce persistent Salmonella septicemia. S. haematorium may cause genital disease or infertility. Their eggs can cause fibrosis and cirrhosis, portal or pulmonary hypertension in the liver or transverse myelitis and seizure in the central nervous system (Pearson).
Diagnosis and Treatment
Schistosomiasis is diagnosed through a urine or stool test for parasites (DHPE, 2010;
DPDx, 2010). The Centers for Disease and Control uses a blood test on a sample taken 6-
8 weeks after exposure. It can be cured with praziquantel taken for 1…… [Read More]
The condition was shown to be the second-most common cause of older adults being institutionalized because of the inordinately demanding nature of caring for them that is typically beyond the ability of many spouses or other family members. In the final analysis, the chances of older adults suffering from urinary incontinence are fairly high given that the population will increasingly include older adults, many of whom will be among the very old.
Beling, J. (2004). Impact of service learning on physical therapist students' knowledge of and attitudes toward older adults and on their critical thinking ability. Journal of Physical
Therapy Education, 18(1), 13-14.
Burke, M. & Laramie, J.A. (2000). Primary care of the older adult: A multidisciplinary approach. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Ebersole, P. & Hess, P. (1999). Toward healthy aging: Human needs and nursing response.
St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Fantl, J.A., Newman, D.K., Colling, J. et al. (1996).…… [Read More]
To find out if you have ALS, your doctor will do a physical exam and will ask you about your symptoms and past health. You will also have tests that show how your muscles and nerves are working." (ebMD, 1) These tests may given the physician cause to observe the nerve cells where atrophy has occurred. Because ALS will generally prove debilitating to both upper and lower motor neurons, symptoms demonstrating a degeneration in both capacities will frequently be a tip-off that ALS is present.
Host/Intermediate host or Life
The individual who is host to this condition will have a limited life expectancy. ALS is a fatal disease which may run its course in a period of months or over a number of years. But as with the namesake of the condition in the U.S., Lou Gehrig, even those in peak physical condition may be struck by an aggressive advancement…… [Read More]
So far, we have accomplished stepping up one step, but this is only half of the process necessary for reaching something on a high shelf. The second step, of course, is reaching up with the arm to grasp the desired object. The beginning of the process is pretty much the same -- a nerve impulse originates in the brain (possibly in the motor cortex for this more complex and less-often performed task), and then travels along the spinal cord and periphery nerves to the proper muscles (pbs.org). Again, the neuromuscular junction is the site of chemical/electrical messaging between he nerve and the muscle fiber, and the same process activates the muscle tissue.
It is worthwhile to examine exactly what process takes place in the muscle tissue once activated that actually enables movement. muscles work by contracting; at the cellular level, the muscle fibers actually cling together and shorten when activated,…… [Read More]
anatomical position, the person will access information stored in the hippocampus regarding the object's position, height, etc. The brains motor system in areas such as the motor cortex, primary visual cortex and the motor homunculus then activate to control the motor functions via the muscle movements. Electrical impulses via neurons connected to each other via axons and dendrites travel from the brain along the spinal cord and nerve fibers to the muscles with the spinal cord which make up the central nervous system. The impulses are then transferred to the peripheral nervous system under our control to the nerves in the hands, hips, shoulders, knees, feet, etc. To perform the step up motion.
The chemical activities in synaptic vesicles in the hippocampus activate synaptic terminals in the dendrites. The dendrites then activate neurotransmitters that impulse rapidly toward the neuron's cell body. Each nerve impulse begins in the dendrites…… [Read More]
Chimpanzees and gorillas can be taught human sign language, and sign with one another even without humans present. (MMMC, 2002) They argue that to use intelligence and compassion as a sliding scale of the right to life would cause many humans to be justified out of existence.
However, even if one accepts that too many animals are experimented upon, and researchers should use other means, it is similarly hard to justify the elimination of all animal experimentation, altogether, as this would have meant the end of such recent drug developments in AIDS research, as well as more questionable animal tests, as for instance, the use of rabbits in cosmetic testing, for which there are acceptable substitutes that do not require animals.
Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research/projects/project04.php
BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q &…… [Read More]
Magic Johnson and HIV
Science knows that although HIV can transition into AIDS, it does not automatically become AIDS. Magic Johnson, new president of the Los Angeles Dodgers and a member of the NBA Hall of Fame, was diagnosed with HIV several years ago. One of the immediate responses from Magic Johnson's body (with HIV) was the weakening of his immune system, which made him -- and makes all HIV-positive patients -- susceptible to the following infections and cancers:
Tuberculosis: an infectious disease "caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis" (Medical News Today).
Salmonellosis Enterocolitis: a very common kind of food poisoning that causes severe dehydration (NCBI)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV): this is a virus infection from a "member of the herpesvirus family" (Medline Plus).
Candidiasis: an infection of the mouth and tongue (Mayo Clinic).
Cryptococcal meningitis: this is an inflammation of those membranes and the fluid that is found around the…… [Read More]
mith, CA & Crowther, CA (2009) Acupuncture for induction of labour, Cochrane Database of ystematic Reviews, 1, 1-26
The pregnant woman is induced when the pregnancy is becoming dangerous either for herself or for the unborn child. Generally done by drugs, mith and Crowther (2009) reviewed the effects of induction that has been impelled by acupuncture which has been historically used to help induce labor and to reduce labor pain. mith and Crowther (2009) conducted a review that included three trials involving 212 women. They concluded that clinical evidence of the effectiveness of acupuncture as applied to this situation is limited, although some qualitative small studies do suggest that women who receive acupuncture receive fewer methods of induction than do women who receive the standard care of induction.
This article is particularly significant given that we are living in a period when increasingly more people turn to holistic or alternative…… [Read More]
Healing Touch Annotated Bib
Bardia, A., et.al. (2006). Efficacy of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Therapies in elieving Cancer Pain: A Systematic eview. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 24 (34): 457-64.
Anecdotal evidence abounds regarding the use of complementary and alternative medicine therapies when dealing with issues of pain. One of the clear issues is that there is a lack of rigorous and well-developed scholarly literature on the subject. In this study, 18 trials were reviewed totaling 1,499 patients. Seven trials reported significant benefits using CAM, seven reported intermediate or short-term benefits, and four studies reported no benefits. The researchers conclude that there are a number of variables and a number of types of CAM, all which require more methodologically sound studies in order to determine actual efficacy of individual interventions.
Jones, T., Glover, L. (2012). Exploring the Psychological Processes Underlying Touch:
Lessons From the Alexander Technique. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy. EPub:…… [Read More]
Fault: An Alternative to the Current Tort-Based System in England and Wales
The United Kingdom
statistics regarding claims
THE NATIONAL HEALTH SYSTEM
OBSTACLES TO DUE PROCESS
THE CASE FOR REFORM
THE REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT
THE RISING COST OF LITIGATION
LORD WOOLF'S REFORMS
MORE COST CONTROLS
THE UNITED STATES
THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY
TORT REFORM IN AMERICA
STATISTICS FOR ERROR, INJURY AND DEATH
THE CALL FOR REFORM IN 2003: A FAMILIAR REFRAIN
THE UNITED STATES SITUATION, IN SUMMARY
NEW ZEALAND CASE STUDIES
THE SWEDISH SCHEME
COMPARISON: WHICH SYSTEM IS BETTER?
FIRST: UNDERLYING DIFFERENCES
TALKING TORT: AMERICAN PECULIARITIES
AMERICANS CONSIDER NO-FAULT
BRITAIN CONSIDERS NO-FAULT
Appendix A THE UNITED KINGDOM
At issue is the economic effectiveness of tort law in the common law legal system of England and Wales, as applied to medical and clinical negligence and malpractice cases. In response to economic concerns and a continual…… [Read More]