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We have over 162 essays for "Spinal Cord"

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Brilliant Blue G On Spinal

Words: 1446 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 60749023

This was finding of a research conducted on rats at the University of Rochester Medical Center in 2004. The research team, led by Dr. Maiken Nedergaard, worked on the premise that inflammation causes more irreversible and inevitable damage than the initial trauma (Henrich, Kelly, Reinhardt et al.).

The team injected the blue food dye into some of the experimental rats with spinal cord injuries (Reuters 2009, Takahiro 2009, Michaud 2009, Ehrenberg 2009). The rats at first began to move, hobbled about and turned blue. Rats, which did not receive the injection, did not walk or move at all. A substance, called ATP, is the source that keeps cells alive. The research showed that ATP runs out of control in spinal cord injury, activates an inflammation-causing molecule and kills spinal neuron cells. Treatment must be administered immediately after the injury. The experiment showed that rilliant lue G. blocks the action of…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ehrenberg, Rachel. Brilliant Blue for the Spine. Vol 176 # 5. Science News: Society

for Science and the Public, 2009. Retrieved on January 16, 2010 from http://www.siencenews.org/view/generic/id/4593/title/Brilliant_blue_for_the_spine

Hendrich, Bill. Blue Dye in M & M. Helps Spinal Cord Injuries? Web MD Health News:

WebMD LLC, 2009. Retrieved on January 16, 2010 from  http://www.webmd.com/brain/news/20090729/blue-dye-mms-helps-spinal-cord-injuries
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Herniated Disc Spinal Disc Herniation Also Called

Words: 1161 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98690804

Herniated Disc

Spinal Disc Herniation, also called slipped disc or herniated disc, is a medical condition that affects the spine. This may be caused by trauma, injury, or idiopathic causes that are combinations of issues. Physiologically, an injury causes a tear in the outer ring of the intervertebral disc, more specifically in the fibrous ring that surrounds the disc. This injury then allows the softer, central portion of the disc to bulge out beyond the damaged outer rings. This tear sometimes causes the release of inflammatory chemicals causing intense pain, even with there is no severe root compression. In addition, herniated discs are almost always postero-lateral because of the way the ligaments are attached to the spinal cord (Postacchini, 1999).

Most minor herniations heal within several weeks using anti-inflammatory treatment for pain and swelling. However, severe herniations, the so-called slipped disc, even though it is not accurate from a medical…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Herniated Disc. (2012) MedlinePlus. Retrieved from:  http://www.nlm.nih.gov 

/medlineplus/ency/article/000442.htm

Baldwin, J., et.al., (2011). Lumbar (Intervertebral) Disk Disorders. Medscape Reference.

Retrieved from:  http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/827016-overview
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Stem Cells and Umbilical Cords

Words: 4604 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68647678

Scientists have been aware of the existence of these stem cells for many years but have only recently realized the potential medical applications of the cells. More than a decade ago, scientists discovered that if the normal connections between the early cellular progeny of the fertilized egg were disrupted, the cells would fall apart into a single cell progeny that could be maintained in a culture. These dissociated cells, otherwise known as embryonic stem cell lines, continue to divide in culture, producing large numbers of cells at a fast pace. However, these early embryonic cells would lose the coordinated activity.

Scientists quickly discovered that these cells retain the ability to generate a great number of mature cell types in culture if they are provided with appropriate molecular signals (Reaves, 2001). Scientists have made significant progress in discovering these signals and are still working on it. hile it is a difficult…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Colino, Stacey. (2001). Making Sense of Stem Cells. Lifetime.

Prescott, Bonnie. (2001). Animal Study Find Embryonic Stem Cells Can Repair Heart Muscle. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

Reaves, Jessica. (2002). The Great Debate Over Stem Cell Research. Time Magazine.

Recer, Paul. (2002). Study says stem cells have fewer mutations than previously thought. AP Online.
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Organization Assessment Good Shepherd Medical

Words: 1323 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 8650987



For example, because different etiologies require corresponding therapeutic designs and mechanisms (Spector, 2000; Steefel, 2002), specific support group makeup must consider the need to develop different strategies and methodologies for the following types of patients at a minimum if support groups are to provide equal benefit to all patients:

Elderly Patients and Lifelong Laborers - This group typically presents with psychological issues in the realm of a direct link between their sense of purpose and self-worth and their ability to continue to function productively in their community. Their need for acute medical and ancillary services, particularly in the Longview/East Texas community are often precipitated by chronic physical deterioration from a lifetime of relatively hard labor. Therefore, support group rehabilitation services must address the issues of self-esteem as a function of vocational productivity and lifestyle changes necessitated by medical conditions.

Prime-of-Life Victims of Traumatic Injury - This group typically presents with…… [Read More]

References

Clark, C., Robinson, T. (2000). "Multiculturalism as a Concept in Nursing" Journal of the Black Nurses Association, 11(2), 39-43.

Spector, R. (2000). Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness (5th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Stanhope, M., Lancaster, J. (2004). Community and Public Health Nursing (6th ed.)

St. Louis: Mosby.
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Functional Relationship of the Pns to the

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75492490

functional relationship of the PNS to the CNS?

The CNS effectively "controls" the PNS, and the PNS' main function is to connect the CNS to the limbs and organs. The PNS transmits nerve impulses produced by the CNS.

List the structural components of the PNS, and briefly describe the function of each component.

The structural components of the PNS are sensory receptors, which receive external stimuli; motor endings, which act to innervate muscle fibers and glands; and nerves and ganglia, which act as pathways for impulses to travel through the PNS.

How many different types of sensory receptors does the nervous system express and briefly, what kind of stimulus does each class respond to?

According to which way you might go about classifying, there are either five different types of sensory receptors or three different types of receptors. The group of five looks like this: 1) mechanoreceptors -- receptors that…… [Read More]

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Value of Umbilical Stem Cell

Words: 1182 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73891278

People with family histories of blood disease, for example, could benefit greatly from a private supply of compatible blood cells. Mixed-ethnicity children could also stand to benefit, since this population often experiences difficulty finding genetically compatible donors for organs or bone marrow (Peterson 56).

The sad reality is that despite its many benefits, the use of stem cells from umbilical cords is hampered by a lack of supply. There are private banks that extract and store a baby's umbilical stem cells for private use, but the costs are too prohibitive for most families. For many private banks, parents have to pay $1,300 up front for the extraction, and an additional $95 each year for storage. Also, many parents are simply unaware of the importance of umbilical stem cells. Sprage, a beneficiary of a cord stem cell transplantation, finds it disturbing that "most cord blood ends up as medical waste." (Peterson…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Peterson, Holly. "Cord-blood Controversy." Newsweek. August 18, 2003: 56.

Seppa, Natan. "Baby Rescue." Science News. May 21, 2005: 323-324.

Smith, Wesley J. "Umbilical Accord." Human Life Review. 31:4, Fall 2005: 87-89.

Value of Umbilical Stem Cell Research in Curing Disease
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Biology and Technology in the Real World

Words: 775 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 60692352

Stem Cells

Hello, my friend. I am truly sorry and sympathize as much as I can regarding your traumatic car accident and subsequent spinal injury. I appreciate that you have kept me abreast of your treatment options. Your team of physicians agree that you would be a fine candidate for treatment specifically with stem cells. Most people have heard of stem cells and are aware of the scientific and ethical controversies surrounding them, but not as many people have performed productive research to find out what they really are and what the possible medical applications (and pitfalls) that come with stem cells. I have taken it upon myself to do some research for you, so that you are in a better position to make a more informed decision regarding this option for treatment of your spinal cord injury. In the next couple of pages, I will do my best to…… [Read More]

References:

Mayo Clinic. (2013). Stem Cells: What They Are and What They Do. Mayo Clinic, Web, Available from:  http://www.mayoclinic.com /health/stem-cells/CA00081. 2013 May 31.

National Institute of Health. (2013). Basic Questions about Stem Cells. NIH, Web, Available from:  http://stemcells.nih.gov/research/Pages/Default.aspx . 2013 May 31.
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Psychomotor Assessment 1st Method Psychomotor Assessment Neurological

Words: 1120 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46417807

Psychomotor Assessment

1st Method Psychomotor Assessment

Neurological observation as relating to psychomotor Assessment framework revolves around collecting data about the CNS or brain and spinal cord of a patient. Some of the areas that are assessed include Level of Conscious, Alertness, Pupillary esponse, Vitals, and Motor esponse (Mooney and Comerford, 2003).

In categorizing the level of consciousness some of the observations include alertness, being aware of surrounding environment, in contrast to drowsiness or slower responses. As stimuli is applied, it is important to record not only if there is a response, but the rate or speed of the response could indicate there is an uncharacteristic condition. If a patient is not conscious, there is no response even to a pain induced stimuli such as heat, pressure, or light. A problem could exist when there is pressure on the brain caused by excess fluid or a head trauma of some type.…… [Read More]

References

Mooney, G.P., Comerford, D., M. (2003). Neurological observations. Nursing Times Volume 99. Iss. 17.

Rhoads, J. (2006). Advanced health assessment and diagnostic reasoning. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Tellefson, J. (2010) Clinical psychomotor skills: assessment tools for nursing students. (4th ed).
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Physiological Perspective the First Trimester of Pregnancy

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79022915

physiological perspective, the first trimester of pregnancy is when the majority of fetal development occurs, and also when the full development of the placenta occurs. The first twelve weeks or so after conception see the transformation of a fertilized egg cell into a fetus that shares blood flow with the placenta through the umbilical arteries and vein. As a result, these twelve weeks are particularly crucial for the health and development of the fetus at its most vulnerable stage. Among numerous other physiological changes, the mother's nutritional intake needs (which include vitamins and minerals) increase substantially, so nutrition is crucial. The avoidance of alcohol is necessary to avoid birth defects caused by the substance: as Blackburn notes, "drinking alcohol at any stage of pregnancy can affect the brain and other areas of development" (Blackburn 2007, 221).

Zoey's preganancy undergoes what is termed induced labor, in which she is given a…… [Read More]

References

Blackburn, ST. (2007). Maternal, fetal, and neonatal physiology: A clinical perspective. St. Louis: Elsevier.

Childress, J. (1997). Practical reasoning in bioethics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
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Philosophy Required in High School

Words: 1096 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75998237

Obama endorsed an Illinois handgun ban while he was serving in the Illinois state legislature and also supports a ban on semi-automatic weapons. However, the current President professed his support for the Second Amendment, stating that he supports restrictions to keep guns out of the wrong hands, not a full prohibition. In Illinois he co-sponsored a 2000 to limit consumer purchases of firearms to one gun per month -- although he also supported 'conceal carry' laws for retired police officers ("Gun control," on the Issues, 2008).

The spike in gun sales has more to do with political posturing than reality: gun owners wish to demonstrate their opposition to Obama's system of values, as conceptualized in the red-blue divide that currently exists in the United States. In this polarized media positioning, Obama represents urban elitism and government control, despite his actual policies. The NRA and the gun industry has used this…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Gun control." On the issues. 2008. June 5, 2010.

 http://www.ontheissues.org/gun_control.htm 

Kinzie, Susan. "GWU adds ethical focus to business school." The Washington Post.

September 15, 2008. June 5, 2010.  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/09/15/AR2008091502975.html
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Spina Bifida

Words: 1780 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70054953

Spina Bifida is one of the many birth defects neonates are at risk of. However, this particular defect is unique because it is characterized by problems in the central nervous system (CNS) and it has a low death rate. The causes of this medical condition are quite difficult to determine as they are subject to hereditary and environmental elements. Simply put, Spina Bifida refers to a situation where the spinal cord is not fully developed. In extreme cases, the spinal vertebrae could be so badly formed that the delicate spinal cord is left unprotected. In most cases, the spinal cord suffers damage due to this. The baby could suffer from reduced brain function and poor transmission of commands to affected organs. This slightly damaged link from the brain to the body tissues and organs leads to poorly developed body systems. There are other associated problems with this spinal defect even…… [Read More]

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Self-Injurious Behavior

Words: 5019 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41574937

Deliberate self-harm (DSH) or self-injurious behavior (SI) involves intentional self-poisoning or injury, irrespective of the apparent purpose of the act. (Vela, Harris and Wright, 1983) Self-mutilation is also used interchangeably with self-mutilation, though self-mutilation is one aspect of DSH. Approximately 1% of the United States population uses physical self-injury as a way of dealing with overwhelming feelings or situations, often using it to speak when no words will come. There are different ways in which DSH is manifested: cutting, burning, and abusing drugs, alcohol or other substances. This occurs at times of extreme anger, distress and low self-esteem, in order to either create a physical manifestation of the negative feelings which can then be dealt with, or alternatively to punish yourself. Extremely emotional distress can also cause DSH -- this is sometimes linked with hearing voices, particularly as a way of stopping the voices.

DSH is also often called parasuicide,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Vela, J., Harris, J., and Wright, J.K. "Self-Mutilation." Journal of Trauma 23 (1983): 165-67.

Favazza, A.R. "What Do We Know About Affective Disorders?" Am J. Psychiatry 143.10 (1986): 1328.

Why Patients Mutilate Themselves." Hospital Community Psychiatry 40 (1989): 137-45.

Pies, R.W., and Popli, A.P. "Self-Injurious Behavior: Pathophysiology and Implications for Treatment." J. Clin Psychiatry 56.12 (1995): 580-8.
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Neurofibroma Genetic Traits and Impact

Words: 5537 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 52789543

However, recently, anesthesiologists have suggest a low to mid thoracic epidural combined with adequate general anesthesia. This anesthetic technique will allow for adequate inter-operative monitoring. After the operation, the anesthesiologist must continue to monitor the patient for either hypertension, hypotension and hypoglycemia. The presence of either of these conditions may alter the course of the medication given to the patient once the patient is removed from the anesthesia.

Respiratory System

Neurofibroma can cause systemic problems within the various components of the Respiratory System. As has already been presented, Neurofibromas can cause partial blockages within upper parts of the trachea. However, Neurofibromas can also pose challenges or the anesthesiologist when dealing with nasal, sinus or maxilofacial cavities with Neurofibromas present within. One example of how devastatingly complex the Neurofibroma can become is seen when a benign neurofibroma can cause a superior vena cava compression. Such was the case of a 21-year-old…… [Read More]

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Genitourinary in Women the Things to Expect

Words: 457 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 94202555

Genitourinary

SENSOY INDOO/OUTDOO ENVIONMENT

What further questions do you have for Laura at this visit?

1,) Are you having frequent urination?

Do you have any pain in your abdomen?

Do you noticed that there is a change in color and odor of your urine?

Do you have painful intercourse?

Do you have any nausea, vomiting?

Do you have any fever, or chills?

Any history of mental illness?

Do you have any changes in sleep pattern?

Do you have any kind of abnormal uterine bleeding?

What is your differential diagnosis list for this visit thus far with rationale?

Cystitis in Females

Multiple Sclerosis

Prostatitis

Spinal Cord Neoplasms

Spinal Cord Trauma and elated Diseases

Spinal Epidural Abscess

Urinary Obstruction

Urinary Tract Infection in Males

Uterine Prolapse in Emergency Medicine

Vaginitis

Based on your differential diagnoses list, identify what body systems you'd examine along with pertinent positive/negatives in each system and any diagnostic…… [Read More]

References

Genitourinary Assessment. (2016, February 15). Retrieved from  https://www.crnbc.ca/Standards/CertifiedPractice/Documents/FirstCall/713GenitourinaryAssessmentAdultDST.pdf 

J. Maxwell White, J. (2012, May 7). Chapter 180An Overview of the Genitourinary System. Retrieved from Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition.:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK290/ 

Medscape. (2016, February 15). Retrieved from  http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/797295-treatment
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Neurofibromatosis

Words: 1513 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21567499

Introduction
According to Gutmann et al. (2017) neurofibromatosis is a group of three conditions whereby tumors grow in the nervous system. These conditions are neurofibromatosis type I (NF1), neurofibromatosis type II (NF2), and schwannomatosis. It is considered to be a genetic disorder of the nervous system. Neurofibromatosis mainly affects the development and growth of nerve cell tissue. The tumors can develop anywhere in the nervous systems including spinal cord, brain, and nerves. These tumors are mostly noncancerous, however, there have been instances when they do become cancerous. The most common condition is NF1. Schwannomatosis is the most recent and it is a rare type of neurofibromatosis. Little is known about schwannomatosis.
NF1 manifests at birth or in early childhood. It is characterized by multiple café-au-lait (light brown) spots that are concentrated in the groin and underarms (Gutmann et al., 2017). It is also manifested by benign tumors under the skin.…… [Read More]

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Magnetic Resonance System on Patients Magnetic Resonance

Words: 1278 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80574645

Magnetic esonance System on patients

Magnetic resonance System (Imaging), here after referred to as (MS), or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMI), is a medical imaging technique widely used in radiology to visualize detailed internal structure and limited function of the body. It provides great contrast between the different soft tissues of the body, making it particularly useful in neurological (brain), musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and ontological (cancer) imaging. MS uses a powerful magnetic field to align the nuclear magnetization of (usually) hydrogen atoms in water in the body (Adams, 1989). To systematically alter the alignment of this magnetization, adio frequency (F) fields are used, enhancing the generation of a rotating magnetic field by the hydrogen nuclei that can be detected using a scanner.

MS can detect the chemical composition of diseased tissue and produce color images of brain function. This signal can be controlled by more magnetic fields to build up adequate…… [Read More]

References

Adams, R.D. & Victor, M. (1989). Intracranial neoplasm: Principles of neurology. (4th Ed.) New

York. McGraw-Hill.

Clark, C.A., et al. (2003). White Matter Fiber Tracking in Patients with Space-Occupying Lesions of the Brain: A New Technique for Neurosurgical Planning? Neuroimage 20: 1601-1608.

Hammell K. (1994). Psychosocial outcome following spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 32: 771 -- 779.
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Rsd Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy AKA CRPS or Complex Regional Pain Syndrome CRPS

Words: 4914 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18797249

History of RSD

The history and the discovery of RSD (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy) Syndrome and its symptoms have typically been associated with wars. While there is no doubt that RSD from physical stress and injury existed earlier, it was left up to war physicians to assign pathology to it. Silas Weir Mitchell, an army doctor during the Civil War, described the symptoms of "burning pain" left in soldiers long after the bullets have been removed. He attributed these residual and long lasting pains to major nerve injury. Weir was the first to call RSD causalgia (currently, specifically known as CRPS-2), which is Greek for "burning pain." He wrote that, "Under such torments, the temper changes, the most amiable grow irritable, the soldier becomes a coward, and the strongest man is scarcely less nervous than the most hysterical girl." Weir accurately reflected the symptoms. (PARC, 2004). Mitchell accurately described the symptoms…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allen, G., Galer, B.S., & Schwartz, L. (1999). Epidemiology of complex regional pain syndrome: a retrospective chart review of 134 patients. Pain, 80(3), 539-544.

Aronoff, G.M., Harden, N., Stanton-Hicks, M., Dorto, A.J., Ensalada, L.H., Klimek, E.H., Mandel, S., & Williams, J.M. (2002). American Academy of Disability Evaluating Physicians (AADEP) Position Paper: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I (RSD): Impairment and Disability Issues. Pain Med, 3(3), 274-288.

Bakewell, S. (1995). The Autonomic Nervous System. Update in Anesthesia, 6(5), 1.

Barolat, G., Schwartzman, R., & Woo, R. (1989). Epidural spinal cord stimulation in the management of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg, 53(1), 29-39.
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Discover Biology

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43392336

Discover Biology

Muscles are an important part of our body, and without muscles, one would neither be able to walk nor to talk, and, quite literally, the blood would stop flowing within the body if our muscles did not work. In fact, muscles can be referred to as the 'engine' within our body, which we utilize in order to 'propel' ourselves by converting 'energy' into 'motion'. Anything that the brain conceives of doing is in fact carried out by muscles, and since they are long lasting, as well as self healing, and will keep growing stronger if they are used more, they form an incredibly sophisticated piece of machinery within the living body, and must be treated as such. There are three unique types of muscles within a mammal's body, and these are: the skeletal muscles that contract voluntarily, and are attached to the skeleton and come in pairs, the…… [Read More]

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Fundamentals of Social Sciences

Words: 5347 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 84621325

Safety Decisions in High School Football

This paper focuses on one aspect of high school football safety. The study explores the issue of higher levels of injury being associated with a particular brand or brands of football helmets worn by high school athletes who play football, and the institutional decisions and actions that follow disclosure of such information. A recent study by Virginia Tech rated helmets worn by professional football players -- helmets worn by high school students have not yet been rated by the university. The study compared helmets manufactured by three companies. High ratings were given to the iddell Speed, the iddell evolution, the iddell evolution IA, the Schutt Ion 4D, the Schutt DNA, and the Xenith X1. Medium ratings were given to the Schutt Air XP and Schutt Air Advantage. Players were warned by Virginia Tech not to wear the iddell VS4 and the Adams A2000. No…… [Read More]

References

Di Scala, C., S. Scavo Gallagher, and S.E. Schneps. (1997). Causes and outcomes of pediatric injuries occurring at school, Journal of School Health, 67, 384-9.

FACTS About Certified Athletic Trainers and The National Athletic Trainers' Association Retrieved  http://www.vata.us/aboutvata/FactsaboutATCS.pdf 

International Federation of Sports Medicine, Excessive physical training in children and adolescents, (1991). Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 1, 262-4.

Gerberich, Susan Goodwin, et al., (1983). Concussion incidences and severity in secondary school varsity football players, American Journal of Public Health, 73, 1370-5.
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Abundant Research Conducted on Humans

Words: 2003 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 14425263

From the fact that two individuals were able to keep their hands in for 5 seconds longer than that of the other participants it seems as though the motivational approach may be more effective than sensory discriminative in quelling pain. Nonetheless, this study is severely limited in that the sample was extremely small, and that I was a biased facilitator (ideally such a study should be conducted with at least three other experimenters who are unaware of the purpose and hypothesis of the study), as well as in the fact that it was conducted in limiting circumstances (the bathroom near a bathtub).

Also to be considered is the fact that other confounding circumstances may have induced the resilient individual to have kept her hands in for longer. he may, for instance, be thicker-skinned than the others, or have some other physiological characteristic that may make her naturally more resilient to…… [Read More]

Sources

Brewer, B.W, & Karoly, P. (1989). Effects of attentional focusing on pain and perception. Motivation and Emotion, 13, 193-203.

Gentle, M.J. (2001). Attentional shifts alter pain perception in the chicken. Consciousness, cognition and animal welfare, 10, S187-S194.

Hackett, G., & Horan, J.J. (1980). Stress inoculation for pain: What's really going on? Journal of Counseling Psychology

Melzack, R. (1993). Pain: Past, present, and future. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47, 615.
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Biopsychology Nature and Nature Psychology Explains the

Words: 2533 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39058309

Biopsychology

Nature and nature psychology explains the behavior of man and the origin of individual differences and their personalities. Nature and nature theories explain the origin of individual differences and type development of personality. In the history of developmental psychology, heredity- environment issue has been identified as the central touchstone of theoretical differences between nature and nurture. Darwin's theory of evolution has impact on notions of human origin and their abilities. In this theory the environment does the selecting on organisms and not vice versa; natural selection dictates that organisms will survive best in the environments they find themselves. Nature- nurture discussions imply that Darwin's evolutionary theory is nature driven, while it contains an interaction of both nature and nurture. Galton (a psychologist) uses twins in his studies to differentiate between nature and nurture. The study shows that twins had little variation on their similarities despite exposure to different environments.…… [Read More]

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Mad Cow

Words: 2122 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34318618

80s and the 90s, an unknown but virulent cattle disease, called "Mad Cow," destroyed 180,000 livestock in the United Kingdom and some other European countries and plunged other major cattle-producing nations - including the United States - into global panic (Freudenrich 2004). Health experts assured the public that humans were not prone to it. Nonetheless, its symptoms resemble those of an already existing and similarly deadly human nervous condition called Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), believed to afflict only those 50 years old and older. CJD was then linked to Mad Cow, but believed to be limited to the older population. In the mid 90s, however, several ritish young people, died of a new variety of disease with similar symptoms to both Mad Cow's and CJD's, this time plaguing the young (nvCJD). In all those troubled years, contaminated ritish cattle were exported to as many as countries, including the U.S.A., as animal…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dealler, Steve. BSE Statistics. The Pathology Laboratory: Burnley General Hospital, 1999. http://bse.airtime.co.uk/statb.htm

Department of Health. Monthly CJD Statistics. Jan 2004, http://www.doh.gov.uk/cjd/stats/jan04.htm

Freundenrich, Craig C. How Mad Cow Disease Works. HowStuffWorks, 2004.  http://science.howstuffworks.com/mad~cow-disease.htm 

Lohn, Martiga. Why Mad Cow Could Happen in America. Natural Health: Weider Publications, Oct-Nov 2001.  http://www.findarticles.com
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Interstitial Cystitis in Addition to the Therapeutic

Words: 4522 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89702040

Interstitial Cystitis

In addition to the therapeutic armamentarium, CAM reported to have a great role to treat interstitial cystitis (IC). It is multimodal and individualized and includes various treatment methods including: Neuromodulation, dietary modification, acupuncture, surgical methods, medications etc. The objective of this literature review is to discuss the possible causes of the IC, diagnosis, prevalence, the symptoms, and CAM treatment options.

Interstitial cystitis (IC) also called as painful bladder syndrome is an inflammatory disease of the bladder wall with typical ulceration of the urothelium. The interstitial cystitis (IC) is generally regarded as an elusive disease picture with inadequate therapeutic options. Critical to improving the prospects for therapy is the early diagnosis of the disease, which may involve only a careful history taking and clinical examination. CAM suggests multimodal treatment strategies in the early stage of disease (Abrams, Cardozo, & Fall, 2002).

Due to definition similarity, IC is often referred…… [Read More]

References

Ahrams, P., Cardozo, L., & Fall, M. (2002). The standardization of terminology of lower urinary tract function: Report from the Standardization Sub-Committee of the International Continence Society [Electronic version]. Neurourology & • Urodynamics, 21(2), 167-178.

Astroza Eulufi, C, Velasco, P.A., Watson, A., & Guzman, K.S. (2008). Enterocistoplastia por cystitis intersticial: Resultados diferidos [Enterocystoplasty for interstitial cystits: Deferred results] (Electronic version]. Actas Urologicas Espanolas, .32(10), 1019-1023.

Elizawahri, A., Bissada, N.K., Herchorn, S., Aboul-Enein. H., Ghoneim, M., Bissada, M.A.Glazer. A.A. (2004). Urinary conduit formation using urinary diversion of intestinal augmentations: II. Does it have a role in patients with interstitial cystitis? The Journal of Urology, 171, 1559- 1562.

Fall, M., Oberpenning, F.. & Pecker, R. (2008). Treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis 2008: Can we make evidence-based decisions? European Urology, 54, 65-78.
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Regenerative Therapies Though the Media

Words: 1403 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59992766

Risky behaviors like smoking or drug use could increase because of these assumptions, creating greater burdens of healthcare costs and other social and medical issues. The good that these therapies lead to is thus somewhat tempered by the bad they may encourage.

Other Applications of Regenerative Therapies

Regenerative therapies do not solely consist of age-reversing and life-saving applications. An examination of some other real and imagined uses to which these therapies can be put reveals the true breadth of these therapies' power and scope in everyday life. In the field of dentistry, where artificial implants have become increasingly sophisticated and well-integrated with the natural body, "the therapeutic potential of platelets in promoting and accelerating tissue regeneration" has led to a new trajectory in oral implantology because it allows for the growth of the body's own tissue at a faster rate that incorporates more completely and more efficiently with dental implants…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cytomedix. Autologel System, 2009. Accessed 20 October 2010. http://www.cytomedix.com/

Fugazzotto, Paul. Implant and Regenerative Therapy in Dentistry: A Guide to Decision Making. Ames, IA: Wiley Blackwell, 2009.

Isaac, James (dir.). Jason X. New Line Cinema, 2002. Film.

Longevity Meme. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, 2010. Accessed 20 October 2010.  http://www.longevitymeme.org/topics/stem_cells_and_regenerative_medicine.cfm
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What Happens When I Get Burned

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8974263

Burned

There are specialized cells called receptors that receive information about the environment and changes in that environment. Each kind of receptor reacts to a different kind of stimulus. For example, the receptors on the retina in the eye detect light. Receptors are all connected to nerve cells, and the nerve cells carry information from the receptor to the brain, where the signal is processed. The brain makes the decision about what to do with the information, such as move a part of the body to cause a reaction based on the information the receptors sent. However, in the case of an emergency situation, this normal interpretation process takes too long even though it is extremely fast, and instead another emergency plan is followed by the nervous system. When burned the body will experience a reflex reaction.

The skin has receptors that detect both pressure and temperature. In the case…… [Read More]

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Stem Cells Are Non-Specializing Cells

Words: 1687 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 11451725

Dimitrios Karussis and Ibrahim Kassis, in the article, "Use of Stem Cells for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis," conclude,

"In the current review, the various types of stem cells, which were mainly studied in animal models, will be reviewed as a potential therapeutic approach for MS. The main and common mechanisms of action of all stem cells include induction of neuroregeneration and remyelination through the activation of resident stem cells, or production of new CNS cell lineage progenitors, paralleled by local and systemic immunomodulating effects" (Karussis & Kassis, 2007, Conclusion ¶).

The other diseases that are showing promise in treatments resulting from stem cells usage includes: as cancer, diabetes, osteopetrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries, heart disease, immune system disorders, blood disorders; the list goes on (Diseases Treated by Cord lood, 2010).

Conclusion

Stem cells are a valuable weapon in the future treatment of disease and in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"Adult stem cell Plasticity and Transdifferentiation." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.studentsguide.in/animal-biotechnology/stem-cell-technology/adult-stem-cell-plasticity-and-transdifferentiation.html

"Asymmetric Division of Stem Cells." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.molecular-plant-biotechnology.info/animal-biotechnology-genomics/pluripotent-stem-cell-lines/asymmetric-division-of-stem-cells.html

"Diseases Treated by Cord Blood." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from  http://www.womens-health.co.uk/diseases_treated.html 

Jessen, W. "Exactly What are Stem Cells?" 7, July 2008. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.highlighthealth.com/did-you-know/exactly-what-are-stem-cells/
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Krabbe Disease

Words: 1378 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90314131

Krabbe Disease

Genetic Components of the Disease

Metabolic Components of the Disease

Causes of the disease

Symptoms of the disease

Diagnosis of the disease

Treatment of the disease

Cord lood Transfusion

Treatment for Late on-set Form

Gene Therapy

Incidence and Longevity of the disease

Socioeconomic Factors

Krabbe disease, also referred as globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), causes a deficiency in galactocerebrosidase (GALC), the enzyme responsible for preventing a build-up of galactolipids in the brain. Without the regulation of galactolipids, the growth of the myelin sheath around the nerve cells is severely impaired. Krabbe disease usually presents in first 6 months of the life. A child in the last stages of Krabbe disease is immobilized and has decreased level of responsiveness. Most of them die at the age of 2. (Lantos, 2011)

Genetic Components of the Disease

GLD is one of the subgroup of metabolic disorders called leukodystrophies. The leukodystrophies are caused…… [Read More]

Bibliography

(2011). The Case of Krabbe Disease. In J. Lantos, Dangerous and Expensive Screening and Treatment for Rare Childhood Diseases. Kansas City, Missouri.

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2011, June). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved March 2013, from Krabbe Disease:  http://www.mayoclinic.com /health/krabbe-disease/DS00937/DSECTION=risk-factors

Orchard, P. (2013). National Marrow Donor Program. Krabbe Disease.

Rosenberg, R.N. (2008). The Molecular and Genetic Basis of Neurologic and Psychiatric Disease. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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Measuring Arterial Stiffness Arterial Stiffness

Words: 3813 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 93992174

When evaluating completions rates involved with PWA, radial tonometry had a 66% and carotid tonometry had a 99%. The radial tonometry was determined to be easier on the patient.

Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI)

Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) has increased significance over previous single probe techniques. lood flow is no longer measured at a single site but between an area and the LDI due to being non-contact cannot interfere with the final results. LDI is a 1mm laser beam that uses a mirror to scan in two dimensions. A small amount of light penetrates the skin; the depth depends on wavelength and absorption, of area scanned and interacts with cells and tissues. Speed and density of moving cells determine the signal sent to detector. Discovery Technology International defines the amount of tissue measured as:

we have estimated that for well-perfused tissue such as muscle, the mean sampling depth for our probes…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Arnett, D. (n.d.). Arterial Stiffness and Hypertension. Retrieved on April 12, 2010 from  http://www.fac.org.ar/scvc/llave/hbp/arnett/arnetti.htm 

Bailey, B.; Jacobsen, D.; LeCheminant, J.; Kirk, E.; & Donnelly, J. (2003). The Effect of Analysis Method in Determining Change in Post Exercise Oxygen Consumption.

Retrieved on April 12, 2010 from  http://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2003/05001/The_Effect_of_Analysis_Method_in_Determining.1004.aspx 

Balmain, S., Padmanabhan, N., Ferrel, W., Morton, J. & McMurray, J. (2007). Differences in arterial compliance, microvascular function and venous capacitance between patients with heart failure and either preserved or reduced left ventricular systolic function. Retrieved on April 12, 2010 from http://eurjhf.oxfordjournals.org/content/9/9/865.full
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Stepping Up Tracing a Nerve

Words: 332 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 80966191

An impulse opens "gates" in the membrane that allow the positive sodium ions to rush in, which pushes the impulses along by moving electrons. When the impulse passes, the sodium moves out again and the nerve cells basically resets itself back to its resting potential.

When the nerve impulses reach the muscles they are meant to move, a similar use of ions inside and outside the muscle fibers occurs. In this case, sodium and potassium are used to spread the impulse across the muscle, but it is the influx of calcium into muscle fibers that reacts with the tropomyosin present in the cells, causing the fibers to contract, which pulls on the bones of the skeletons creating movement. The specific leg muscles necessary for stepping up in a step are the biceps femoris, which flexes the knee and extends the hip, the pectneus, which flexes the hip and raises the…… [Read More]

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Skeletal System Purpose and Functions

Words: 1351 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41575906

Calcium is needed in blood clotting, stability and permeability of the membrane, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, cellular secretion, enzyme activity, and cell growth. Magnesium is needed for the metabolism of potassium and calcium and for the mobilization of calcium from bones. Phosphorus plays and important role in the development and maturation of the bone. Its chief role in bone resorption, mineralization and collagen synthesis makes it essential in calcium homeostasis (Michael's).

Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system include leukemia, bursitis, osteoporosis, sprains, fractures, spina bifida, scurvy, arthritis, scoliosis, talipes equinovarus or clubfoot, tendonitis, kyphosis and poliomyelitis (Family Shock 2001). Leukemia is also called cancer of the blood where abnormally large numbers of white blood cells multiply at an uncontrolled manner so that they interfere with the body's production of red blood cells. The cause is still unknown. ursitis is a painful condition, which most commonly affects the hips and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Discovery Kids. Skeletal system. Discovery Communications, Inc., 2000. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at  http://yucky.discovery.com/flash/body/pg000124.html 

Family Shock. Diseases and Disorders. The Shock Family, December 21, 2001. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://www.shockfamily.net/sksleton/DISEASE.htmL

Michael's. Skeleton Factors. Michael's Naturapathic Programs: Inner Health Group, Inc., 1996 Retrieved on May 30, 2007 at http://www.michaelshealth.com/pdf/skeletalfactors.pdf

ThinkQuest. Skeletal System. Think Quest USA: Oracle Education Foundation, 1999. Retrieved on May 30, 2007 at http://library.thinkquest.org/5777/sked.htm
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Maternity Nursing Labor and Delivery and Newborn

Words: 3389 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 35692201

Maternity Nursing, Labor & Delivery / Newborn

Labor and Delivery Terms

Para: Para refers to the number of live births a woman has had (it might be a stillbirth, or twins, or even triplets) past the 20-week gestation period (Zimmerman, p. 116).

Gravida: this refers to the number of times a woman has been pregnant, whether she actually gave birth, had an abortion or a stillbirth (Zimmerman, p. 116).

Amniotic Sac: this is a membrane around which the fetus is surrounded. It is a strong series of membranes that is visible after 7 weeks of gestation. (Jurkovic, et al., 2011).

Cervical Effacement: this phrase refers to the measurement of the expansion of the cervix as the baby gets closer to being born. hen the cervix is 50% effaced, it is halfway to being ready for the baby to be born (Jurkovic, et al., 2011).

Cervical dilation: Slowly but surely the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2010). Childbirth. Retrieved August 17, 2011, from  http://www.britannica.com/bps/search?query=childbirth .

Heller, Michelle E., and Veach, Lynette M. (2008). Clinical Medical Assisting: A Professional,

Field Smart Approach to the Workplace. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.

Jailkhani, R., Patil, VS., Laxman, HB, Shivashankara, AR, Kulkarni, SP, and Ravindra, MS.
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Regenerative Medicine Healing Thy Self

Words: 1014 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10626599

How long this process takes and whether it will prevent the loss of seeded cells probably depends to a significant extent on the surrounding tissue and therefore represents another unknown.

HIF-1? And VEGF are also involved in osteogenesis, so the influence of these growth factors on the differentiation choices being made by the seeded stem cells is unknown (Polzer 7). The impact of prolonged hypoxic conditions on the seeded cells is another. Although Polzer and colleagues examined the timing of cell seeding relative to prevascularization, they discovered that the artificial scaffold rapidly filled with connective tissue. This process effectively clogged the matrix and prevented efficient seeding.

By comparison, researchers conducting spinal cord injury research into the efficacy of regenerative medicine techniques have been producing promising results (Sykova et al. 1113-1114). Hydrogels seeded with mesenchymal stem cells or bone marrow stem cells have produced positive results in both animal models and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Park, Alice. "Cancer Patient Received a Man-Made Windpipe." Time.com, 12 Jan. 2012, Online. Internet. 1 Jul. 2013. Available  http://healthland.time.com/2012/01/13/cancer-patient-receives-a-man-made-windpipe/ .

Polzer, Hans et al. "Comparison of Different Strategies for in Vivo Seeding of Prevascularized Scaffolds." Tissue Engineering: Part C, published online May 21 ahead of print. Online.

Sifferlin, Alexandra. "Toddler gets New Windpipe from Her Own Stem Cells." Time.com, 1 May 2013, Online. CNN.com. Internet. 1 Jul. 2013. Available  http://www.cnn.com/2013/05/01/health/toddler-stem-cells-windpipe .

Sykova, Eva et al. "Bone Marrow Stem Cells and Polymer Hydrogels -- Two Strategies for Spinal Cord Injury Repair." Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 26.7-8 (2006): 1113-1129.
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Effects of Teratogenic Agents on Fetal Development

Words: 2018 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33963352

Teratogens and Fetal Development

Teratogens can be described as agents that contribute to fetal injury and birth defects or an abnormality because of fetal exposure during pregnancy. Some of these agents that lead to fetal injury or birth defects include chemicals, environmental contaminants, infections, and drugs. These agents tend to result in such abnormality in fetal development when a woman is exposed to them during the term of the pregnancy. The agents are always discovered following an increased prevalence of a specific birth defect or abnormality. Pregnant women are increasingly susceptible to teratogens since these agents can be found in various settings at home in the working environment. Notably, the effect of the agents on fetal development is dependent on the kind of agent, duration, and extent of the exposure. Generally, teratogens and fetal development can be about legal and/or illegal drugs and the effects on the fetus while in…… [Read More]

References

Aboubakr et. al. (2014). Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Norfloxacin in Pregnant

Female Albino Rats. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences, 2014, 1-6.

Bercovici, E. (2010). Prenatal and Perinatal Effects of Psychotropic Drugs on Neuro-cognitive

Development in the Fetus. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 11(2), 1-20.
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Why the Lymphatic System Is Not Present in Certain Organs

Words: 600 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73475658

network of lymph vessels and lymph nodes in the human body termed the lymphatic system that is an important component of the immune system (Lymph system, 2015). The lymphatic network collects waste materials, fluid, and pathogens such as bacteria and viruses in the body and carries lymph, a clear watery fluid that contains white blood cells called lymphocytes that help fight infections (Lymph system, 2015). To gain some additional insights into its purpose and operation, this paper provides an explanation concerning why the lymphatic system is not found in some parts of the body and describes what areas have no lymph or lymphatic vessels. A summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are provided in the conclusion.

eview and Discussion

In 1652, the Danish physician Thomas Bartholin (1616 -- 1680) published a description of the human thoracic duct, noting that these lacteal vessels created another bodily circulatory…… [Read More]

References

Cavendish, M. (2004). Encyclopedia of life sciences. Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish.

Lymph system. (2015). American Cancer Society. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.

org/cancer/cancerbasics/lymph-nodes-and-cancer.

Lymphatic system. (2015). Virtual Medical Center. Retrieved from  http://www.myvmc.com  / medical-centres/cancer/lymphatic-system/.
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Fibromyalgia One Might Consider Fibromyalgia to Be

Words: 6457 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37868620

Fibromyalgia

One might consider fibromyalgia to be one of the most confounding conditions around today. It is debilitating. It results in several quality of life issues. The confounding aspect of this condition is that it is difficult to diagnose. It is also difficult to treat. Most treatment modalities today recourse to treating one or more specific symptoms -- but there is no treatment that can comprehensively treat all the symptoms. (NIAMS, 2004) More holistic treatment modes however, are being researched, explored and considered. Fibromyalgia often presents symptoms of other diseases. Essentially therefore, fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain that cannot be localized to any part of the body. It is also associated with fatigue and other specific (though not necessarily widespread) symptoms that will be discussed later in this work.

Fibromyalgia syndrome is often referred to in its abbreviation FMS. Some of the symptoms (though not all) enjoy significant overlap…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adiguzel, O., Kaptanoglu, E., Turgut, B., & Nacitarhan, V. (2004). The possible effect of clinical recovery on regional cerebral blood flow deficits in fibromyalgia: a prospective study with semiquantitative SPECT. South Med J, 97, 7, 651-655

Baldry, P. (1993). Complementary medicine. The practice of acupuncture needs tighter safeguards. Bmj, 307, 6899, 326

Baumgartner, E., Finckh, A., Cedraschi, C., & Vischer, T.L. (2002). A six-year prospective study of a cohort of patients with fibromyalgia. Ann Rheum Dis, 61, 7, 644-645

Bennet, Robert. (2000). The Scientific Basis for Understanding Pain in Fibromyalgia. Myalgia.com. Retrieved August 21, 2004, from the World Wide Web:  http://www.myalgia.com/Scientific%20basis.htm
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Stem Cells Without a Doubt One of

Words: 2215 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2707824

Stem Cells

ithout a doubt, one of the most controversial topics of popular discourse is stem cell research. Indeed, one would be hard pressed to peruse the newspaper or magazine stand without encountering some reference to the global stem cell debate -- but what, exactly, are stem cells, and why are they so controversial?

Stem cells intended for use in human applications are harvested from humans, umbilical cords and embryos. The reason these cells are so valuable is because of their capability to produce or "become" other cell types -- for example, brain cells, heart cells, skin, etc. In short, these are "master cells," holding the ability to divide in cultures, and to be manipulated allowing it to transform into any type of cell. Of course, this is extremely important due to the fact that scientists can use this capability to either create organs (thereby helping to meet the tremendous…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hall, MiMi and Kiely, Kathy. "Proponents of Stem-Cell Research Put on Pressure." USA Today. Online. July 2001. 10 April 2002. Retrieved from Web site on 15 March, 2004
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Immune Biopsychology Interactions of the

Words: 4188 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47766172



An interesting view of the immune system with particular implications for the current review and collation of information is provided by the field of computer science. The immune system makes many series of continual trade-offs, distributing resources in a way that necessarily leaves certain vulnerabilities in the system as a whole while providing greater comprehensiveness in coverage and protection when necessary (Hofmeyr 1997). This makes the immune system an adaptive and continually evolving and self-improving system; with little outside direction it is capable of assessing changing needs, and altering itself not only in particular instances but even in some of its general responses in order to provide greater long-term efficacy for the task of protecting the human organism from disease (Hofmeyr 1997). This view of the immune system as a contained and self-informing system is not entirely accurate, but it is a very useful perspective for our purposes herein.

The…… [Read More]

References

Buske-Kirschbaum, a. (2009). "Cortisol Responses to Stress in Allergic Children: Interaction with the Immune Response." Neuroimmunomodulation 16, pp. 325-32.

Coe, C. & Laudenslager, M. (2007). "Psychosocial influences on immunity, including effects on immune maturation and senescence." Brain, behavior, and immunity 21(8), pp. 1000-8.

Dugdale, D. (2008). "Immune response -- overview." University of Maryland medical center. Accessed 22 May 2010.  http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/000821.htm 

Dunigan, J.; Carr, B. & Steel, J. (2007). "Posttraumatic Growth, Immunity and Survival in Patients with Hepatoma." Digestive diseases and sciences 52(9), pp. 2452-9.
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Speech on the Benefits of

Words: 1420 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1325449



Since the war in Iraq, thousands of American soldiers have been injured, and some of them paralyzed by explosions that shattered their spinal columns.

Traumatic paralysis is often irreversible because the network of nerves in the human spinal cord cannot repair themselves when they are badly damaged.

Applications of cloning technology will allow us to grow new nerve tissue for implantation into damaged spinal cords to restore their functions (Sagan, 1997).

Seventh Point - Cloned Human Organs Can Save Thousands of Lives Every Year:

Medical applications of cloning technology already allows doctors to grow human skin for burn victims.

The exact same technology will allow us to make human organs by actually cloning the cells from the same person to make replacement organs (Soares, 2002).

This means an end to long waiting lists for donor organs and will make the difference between life and death for thousands of people every…… [Read More]

References

Krock, L. (2001) on Human Cloning: Three Views. (NOVA/PBSonline)

Accessed November 1, 2007 at www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/cloning.html

Sagan, C. (1997) Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. Random House: New York

Soares, C. Why Human Clones Won't Work Yet. Discover (Jan/02)
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Risks of Epidural Anesthesia in

Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90362301

In addition, it is not apparent whether the injections may relieve pain, but for those without surgical lesions the injections may delay requisite surgery and result to permanent neurological deficits. It is evident that some risks associated with infectious epidural steroid injections result to fatal meningitis, but those performing epidural do not make pregnant women opting for epidural aware. I feel that such risks are matters of life and death and women must know them before considering epidurals. In addition, there are common risks of these injections. They include; increased neurological deterioration, paralysis, and quadriplegia Epstein (2013, p. 74-93).

All these researches provide information on the risks of epidurals in different aspects. The epidural procedure may also affect the child. The drugs administered to the mother directly enter the child. The levels may be as high as those of the mother may, and because of the immature liver of the…… [Read More]

References

Akbas, Mert and Akcan, a Baris, "Epidural analgesia and lactation," Eurasian Journal of Medicine 43, (2010): 45-49.

Wilson, M. J, MacArthur, C, and Shennan, a. "Catheterization in labor with high dose vs. mobile Epidural analgesia: a randomized controlled trial." British Journal of Anesthesia 102, no. 2 (2009): 97-103.

Epstein, Nancy, "The risks of epidural and transforominal steroid injections in the spine: commentary and a comprehensive review of literature," Surgical Neurology International 4, (2013): 74-93.

Gwen Lewis, "Epidurals and child cancer," Journal of Childbirth and Medical Research, (2010): 30.
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Meat Packing Industry

Words: 6838 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17615196

Safety and Health Issues in Meat Processing Industry

In the meat processing industry, health and safety issues are of vital importance, in view of the several risks arising out of microbial contamination of meat and the occupational hazards faced by workers. Past experiences have shown that microbial reproduction in meat and meat products can reach alarming proportions traversing across countries and even continents. The infamous mad cow disease and the foot and mouth disease in cattle has rattled the British meat industry for a considerable period, resulting in loss of image, confidence and erosion of profits. North America's main problem is the widespread prevalence of eschericia coli in meat, more commonly known as the hamburger disease. It is well-known that meat is highly susceptible to attack of bacteria and virus and hence there is a constant need to address this risk. When microbial activity sets in, the quality of meat…… [Read More]

References

American Meat Industry Fact Sheet: 'Worker Safety in the Meat and Poultry Industry', (2002) Available at www.meatami.com/content/presscentre/factsheets_infobits/FactSheetWorkerSafety.pdf. Accessed 11/28/2003

Brodeur, C. (n.d) Agriculture and Agri-food Canada - 'Meat Safety: The war on bacteria', Available at http://www.res2.agr.gc.ca/orda/pubs/art8_e.htm. Accessed 11/28/2003

Cannon, J.E et. al (1996) 'Pork Chain Quality Audit Survey: Quantification of Port Quality Characteristics', Journal of Muscle Foods (7), 56-62

Chesworth, N (1997) 'Food Hygiene Auditing', Blackie Academic & Professional, London
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Future for MS Patients

Words: 890 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 67062643

Multiple Sclerosis

The author of this report has been asked to write up a summary of multiple sclerosis. The subjects that will be talked about will include the definition, the methods of diagnosis, the symptoms of the disorder, the complications of the disorder, the treatments for the disorder, the methods of prevention (if any) and the directions of future research. While multiple sclerosis is not a death sentence by any means, it can still be a debilitating disease and it affects a good number of people.

As explained by the WebMD website, multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disorder that affects the brain and the spinal cord. The major symptoms of multiple sclerosis include weakness, tingling, numbness and blurred vision. Other signs and symptoms that can point to multiple sclerosis include muscle stiffness, urinary issues, thinking problems and so forth. There are treatments that exist for the relieving of multiple sclerosis…… [Read More]

References

HealthLine. (2015). Multiple Sclerosis: What the Future Holds. Healthline. Retrieved 5 June 2015, from  http://www.healthline.com/health/multiple-sclerosis/what-the-future-holds 

NIH. (2015). Future research directions in multiple sclerosis therapies. - PubMed - NCBI. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 5 June 2015, from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18256992 

WebMD. (2015). Multiple Sclerosis Health Center. WebMD. Retrieved 5 June 2015, from  http://www.webmd.com/multiple-sclerosis/
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Genome Human Cloning Human Cloning

Words: 3339 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19327581

(iii) in the United States, Brazil, Germany and France, humans have been receiving their own stem cells to re-grow heart muscle in the unforeseen incident of heart attack or injury. This was found to be successful in majority of the cases. (iv) in one more incident, the vision of 23 patients was restored after limbal adult stem cell transplants. This line of therapeutic care has assisted a lot of people who have been suffering from blindness for years together that includes the sufferers of mustard gas attacks in Iraqi. (Life Issues Institute, 2006) v) Crohn's disease patients have in fact been treated with stem cells evolved from their own blood. (vi) Among the 90% of the 19 patients having several autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus has been on the path to recovery following treatment with their own blood stem cells. (vii) a research of Parkinson's disease displayed an average improvement…… [Read More]

References

AAAS Center for Science, Technology and Congress. (2007) "AAAS Policy Brief: Human

Cloning" Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at  http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/cloning/ 

Barnes, Deborah. (n. d.) "Research in the News: Creating a cloned sheep named Dolly"

Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://science-education.nih.gov/home2.nsf/Educational+ResourcesTopicsGenetics/BC5086E34E4DBA0085256CCD006F01CB
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Christopher Reeve Case Study Christopher

Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66192310

hat treatments did the individual seek? ere any available at the time?

Reeve had to have a major operation a few days after his accident to replace the shattered vertebrae through artificial means. After his operation, he was put through physical rehabilitation and occupational therapy. Eventually he was able to move his wrist, fingers, and feet (Hecht & Hecht 2004). He could also breathe without assistance for up to 90 minutes. Intense physical therapy continued throughout the remainder of his life. Other treatments he received included: weight-bearing exercises, calcium supplements, and medication to reverse osteoporosis, or thinning of the bones which happens frequently to paraplegics.

Reeve sought further means of overcoming his disability, particularly with stem cell research. In this therapy, embryonic stem cells or, less often, adult stem cells are introduced to the damaged body which and allows the body to regenerate damaged tissue. It has been shown to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crews, C. (1998, May 3). The role he can't escape. Washington Post. Washington Post

Company.

Hall, F. (2005). Christopher Reeve. UU World: The Magazine of the Unitarian Universalist

Association.
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Non Profit Management the Purpose

Words: 3002 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48633365

Grants for science education are provided to schools and individuals, with the objective of helping to inspire careers in science. ("About HHMI," 2010) When you put these different elements tougher, this shows how HHMI is involved in medical research funding from: working directly with researchers to providing funding on a host of projects and initiatives. This is important, because it allows the nonprofit to fund a number of different research studies, while giving scientists the flexibility to effectively conduct their projects. As a result, this has helped HHMI to support a number of different medical breakthroughs to include: making significant progress in spinal cord injuries, HIV / AIDS research and medication that can be used to effectively treat leukemia. At the same time, the organization is focused on identifying the genes that are responsible for: cystic fibrosis, colon cancer and muscular dystrophy. (Leung, 2004)

The Impact of how HHMI's: Mission,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

About HHMI. (2010). HHMI. Retrieved from:  http://www.hhmi.org/about/ 

Developing New Knowledge. (2010). HHMI. Retrieved from:
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Mr Khan-Sprained Ankle This Case

Words: 2538 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 53258834

Emotional reactions to the onset of injuries as well as a patient's attitude toward the injury itself and the proposed treatment have great impacts on the length of time it will take for the patient to recover (VAN RIJN 2007). Therefore, it is in the medical staff's best interest to maintain the patient in a positive, reinforcing paradigm in order to create an atmosphere of positive goal-orientation so the patient may experience significantly reduced levels of anxiety during post-operative procedures as well as reduced rehabilitation time.

Annotated Bibliography

N.A.. (2010). Ligament Injury Recovery. Available: http://www.sportsinjurybulletin.com/archive/ligament-injury.html. Last accessed 17th Nov 2010.

Researchers at the University of Wisconsin, the University of Houston and NASA severed the medically collateral ligaments in the knees of lab rates. Three to seven weeks after the incision mechanical and morphological properties were measured in ligaments, bones and muscles. Ligament testing revealed that there were significant reductions in…… [Read More]

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Schistosomiasis 200 Million People Afflicted

Words: 1210 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14665432

The symptoms and signs of chronic schistosomiasis are mostly the body's reaction to the eggs retained in the tissues. S. mansoni or S. japonicum can cause mucosal ulcerations, bloody diarrhea, focal fibrosis, strictures, fistulas and papillomatuous growths. Ulcerations in the bladder by S. haematobium may bring on dysuria, hematuria, frequent urination, and chronic cystitis. Secondary bacterial infections in the genitor-urinary tract may also develop. S. mansoni can induce persistent Salmonella septicemia. S. haematorium may cause genital disease or infertility. Their eggs can cause fibrosis and cirrhosis, portal or pulmonary hypertension in the liver or transverse myelitis and seizure in the central nervous system (Pearson).

Diagnosis and Treatment

Schistosomiasis is diagnosed through a urine or stool test for parasites (DHPE, 2010;

DPDx, 2010). The Centers for Disease and Control uses a blood test on a sample taken 6-

8 weeks after exposure. It can be cured with praziquantel taken for 1…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

DHPE (2010). Schistosomiasis fact sheet. Infectious Facts: Directors of Health Promotion

and Education. Retrieved on November 5, 2010 from  http://www.dhpe.org/infect/schisto.html 

DPDx (2010). Schistosomiasis. Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria: Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved November 5, 2010 from  http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/html/schistosomiasis.htm 

Kogulan, P. And Lucey, D.R. (2010). Schistosomiasis. eMedicine Specialties: Infections.
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Evidence-Based Care for Urinary Incontinence

Words: 2065 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99966280

The condition was shown to be the second-most common cause of older adults being institutionalized because of the inordinately demanding nature of caring for them that is typically beyond the ability of many spouses or other family members. In the final analysis, the chances of older adults suffering from urinary incontinence are fairly high given that the population will increasingly include older adults, many of whom will be among the very old.

eferences

Beling, J. (2004). Impact of service learning on physical therapist students' knowledge of and attitudes toward older adults and on their critical thinking ability. Journal of Physical

Therapy Education, 18(1), 13-14.

Burke, M. & Laramie, J.A. (2000). Primary care of the older adult: A multidisciplinary approach. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Ebersole, P. & Hess, P. (1999). Toward healthy aging: Human needs and nursing response.

St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Fantl, J.A., Newman, D.K., Colling, J. et al. (1996).…… [Read More]

References

Beling, J. (2004). Impact of service learning on physical therapist students' knowledge of and attitudes toward older adults and on their critical thinking ability. Journal of Physical

Therapy Education, 18(1), 13-14.

Burke, M. & Laramie, J.A. (2000). Primary care of the older adult: A multidisciplinary approach. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Ebersole, P. & Hess, P. (1999). Toward healthy aging: Human needs and nursing response.
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Lou Gehrig's Disease Etiology and

Words: 1440 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 2512052

To find out if you have ALS, your doctor will do a physical exam and will ask you about your symptoms and past health. You will also have tests that show how your muscles and nerves are working." (ebMD, 1) These tests may given the physician cause to observe the nerve cells where atrophy has occurred. Because ALS will generally prove debilitating to both upper and lower motor neurons, symptoms demonstrating a degeneration in both capacities will frequently be a tip-off that ALS is present.

Host/Intermediate host or Life

The individual who is host to this condition will have a limited life expectancy. ALS is a fatal disease which may run its course in a period of months or over a number of years. But as with the namesake of the condition in the U.S., Lou Gehrig, even those in peak physical condition may be struck by an aggressive advancement…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Aebischer, P. & Kato, a.C. (2007). Playing Defense Against Lou Gehrig's Disease. Scientific American.

Ray, S.S. & Lansbury, P.T. (2004). A Possible Therapeutic Target for Lou Gehrig's Disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(16), 5701-5702.

Reichenberg, E. (2008). Understanding ALS. ALS Hope Foundation.

Walling, a.D. (2006). Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Lou Gehrig's Disease. American Academy of Family Physicians.
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Stepping Up One Step and

Words: 1008 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 39410551



So far, we have accomplished stepping up one step, but this is only half of the process necessary for reaching something on a high shelf. The second step, of course, is reaching up with the arm to grasp the desired object. The beginning of the process is pretty much the same -- a nerve impulse originates in the brain (possibly in the motor cortex for this more complex and less-often performed task), and then travels along the spinal cord and periphery nerves to the proper muscles (pbs.org). Again, the neuromuscular junction is the site of chemical/electrical messaging between he nerve and the muscle fiber, and the same process activates the muscle tissue.

It is worthwhile to examine exactly what process takes place in the muscle tissue once activated that actually enables movement. muscles work by contracting; at the cellular level, the muscle fibers actually cling together and shorten when activated,…… [Read More]

References

Cluett, J. (2009). "Information About Anatomy: Orthopedics." Accessed 17 May 2009. http://orthopedics.about.com/od/anatomy/Information_About_Anatomy.htm

Freudenrich, C. (2009). "How Muscles Work." Accessed 17 May 2009.  http://health.howstuffworks.com/muscle1.htm 

Pbs.org. "The Secret Life of the Brain." Accessed 17 May 2009.  http://www.pbs.org/wnet/brain/3d/
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Anatomical Position the Person Will Access Information

Words: 566 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3032335

anatomical position, the person will access information stored in the hippocampus regarding the object's position, height, etc. The brains motor system in areas such as the motor cortex, primary visual cortex and the motor homunculus then activate to control the motor functions via the muscle movements. Electrical impulses via neurons connected to each other via axons and dendrites travel from the brain along the spinal cord and nerve fibers to the muscles with the spinal cord which make up the central nervous system. The impulses are then transferred to the peripheral nervous system under our control to the nerves in the hands, hips, shoulders, knees, feet, etc. To perform the step up motion.

Part 2:

The chemical activities in synaptic vesicles in the hippocampus activate synaptic terminals in the dendrites. The dendrites then activate neurotransmitters that impulse rapidly toward the neuron's cell body. Each nerve impulse begins in the dendrites…… [Read More]

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Genetics and Development As a Discipline of

Words: 1306 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5342752

Genetics and Development:

As a discipline of biology, genetics is basically considered as the science of genes, inheritance, and differences in living organisms. Since genes are common characteristics in living organisms, genetics is used in the study of all living systems including plants, humans, domestic animals, bacteria, and viruses. Generally, this biological discipline focuses on the molecular structure and operation of genes whose behaviors are in the context of organisms or cells. Additionally, genetics also deals with distribution of genes, differences and changes in population, and heredity patterns from parent to offspring. One of the main characteristics of the contemporary science of genetics is its focus on explaining the heredity process because living things inherit individuality from their parents. With the increasing discoveries by geneticists, this science of biology plays an integral role in the process of human development.

Genetics and Human Development:

As genetics has continued to capture popular…… [Read More]

Reference: Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions. Retrieved from National Library of Medicine -- Department of Health & Human Services website:  http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/tay-sachs-disease
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Controversial Bioethical Issues of the

Words: 1788 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3993568

Chimpanzees and gorillas can be taught human sign language, and sign with one another even without humans present. (MMMC, 2002) They argue that to use intelligence and compassion as a sliding scale of the right to life would cause many humans to be justified out of existence.

However, even if one accepts that too many animals are experimented upon, and researchers should use other means, it is similarly hard to justify the elimination of all animal experimentation, altogether, as this would have meant the end of such recent drug developments in AIDS research, as well as more questionable animal tests, as for instance, the use of rabbits in cosmetic testing, for which there are acceptable substitutes that do not require animals.

orks Cited

Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research/projects/project04.php

BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q &…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at  http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research/projects/project04.php 

BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q & A: Cloned Embryos." BBC Official Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3481159.stm 

Bird, Gloria W. And Sporkowuski, Michael J. (1992) Taking Sides. The Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc. Guilford, CT.

CNN.com. (Feb 12, 2004)" Scientists 'cloned human embryos' CNN News Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.cnn.com/2004/HEALTH/02/12/science.clone/
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Magic Johnson and HIV Science Knows That

Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88093176

Magic Johnson and HIV

Science knows that although HIV can transition into AIDS, it does not automatically become AIDS. Magic Johnson, new president of the Los Angeles Dodgers and a member of the NBA Hall of Fame, was diagnosed with HIV several years ago. One of the immediate responses from Magic Johnson's body (with HIV) was the weakening of his immune system, which made him -- and makes all HIV-positive patients -- susceptible to the following infections and cancers:

Tuberculosis: an infectious disease "caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis" (Medical News Today).

Salmonellosis Enterocolitis: a very common kind of food poisoning that causes severe dehydration (NCBI)

Cytomegalovirus (CMV): this is a virus infection from a "member of the herpesvirus family" (Medline Plus).

Candidiasis: an infection of the mouth and tongue (Mayo Clinic).

Cryptococcal meningitis: this is an inflammation of those membranes and the fluid that is found around the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aidsinfonet.org. Fact Sheet 801: "Vitamins and Minerals." Retrieved June 23, 2012, from http://www.aidsinfonet.org/fact_sheets/view.801. 2012.

Cancer.org. "Kaposi Sarcoma: What is Kaposi Sarcoma?" Retrieved June 23, 2012, from  http://www.cancer.org . 2009.

Mayo Clinic. "HIV / AIDS" Retrieved June 23, 2012, from  http://www.mayoclinic.com . 2011.

Medical News Today. "What is Tuberculosis? What Causes Tuberculosis?" Retrieved June 24,
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Smith CA & Crowther CA 2009 Acupuncture

Words: 1079 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34818684

mith, CA & Crowther, CA (2009) Acupuncture for induction of labour, Cochrane Database of ystematic Reviews, 1, 1-26

The pregnant woman is induced when the pregnancy is becoming dangerous either for herself or for the unborn child. Generally done by drugs, mith and Crowther (2009) reviewed the effects of induction that has been impelled by acupuncture which has been historically used to help induce labor and to reduce labor pain. mith and Crowther (2009) conducted a review that included three trials involving 212 women. They concluded that clinical evidence of the effectiveness of acupuncture as applied to this situation is limited, although some qualitative small studies do suggest that women who receive acupuncture receive fewer methods of induction than do women who receive the standard care of induction.

This article is particularly significant given that we are living in a period when increasingly more people turn to holistic or alternative…… [Read More]

Sources

Ernst, E. (2002), A systematic review of systematic reviews of homeopathy, British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 54 (6): 577 -- 82

Eysenck, HJ (1994) Systematic Reviews: Meta-analysis and its problems BMJ,309:789

Livestrong.com. How does massage therapy work?

 http://www.livestrong.com/article/234372-how-does-massage-therapy-work/
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Healing Touch Annotated Bib Bardia A et al

Words: 1673 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8043171

Healing Touch Annotated Bib

Bardia, A., et.al. (2006). Efficacy of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Therapies in elieving Cancer Pain: A Systematic eview. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 24 (34): 457-64.

Anecdotal evidence abounds regarding the use of complementary and alternative medicine therapies when dealing with issues of pain. One of the clear issues is that there is a lack of rigorous and well-developed scholarly literature on the subject. In this study, 18 trials were reviewed totaling 1,499 patients. Seven trials reported significant benefits using CAM, seven reported intermediate or short-term benefits, and four studies reported no benefits. The researchers conclude that there are a number of variables and a number of types of CAM, all which require more methodologically sound studies in order to determine actual efficacy of individual interventions.

Jones, T., Glover, L. (2012). Exploring the Psychological Processes Underlying Touch:

Lessons From the Alexander Technique. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy. EPub:…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Bardia, A., et.al. (2006). Efficacy of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Therapies in Relieving Cancer Pain: A Systematic Review. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 24 (34): 457-64.

Jones, T., Glover, L. (2012). Exploring the Psychological Processes Underlying Touch:

Lessons From the Alexander Technique. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy. EPub: doi 10.1002/cpp.1824.

Kelly, A., et.al. (2004). Therapeutic Touch, Quiet Time, and Dialogue: Perceptions of Women With Breast Cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum. 31 (3): 625-31.