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Performance in Sports
Attribution theory posits that ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck are the major attributional factors that cause success and failure in sport. Effort is considered an internal factor while task difficulty is considered an external factor. Ability is considered a permanent factor while luck is a changeable factor. The reformulated learned helplessness model sought to come up with the most relevant causal dimensions. The model suggests that the specificity of attributions combines with causal internality and stability to influence emotions and behavior. The model avers that global factors influence events like laziness while specific factors influence particular events like temporary fatigue. Adaptive reactions, according to helplessness theory, are occasioned by negative outcomes that are attributed to external, unstable, and specific factors. Adaptive reactions can also be facilitated when positive outcomes are attributed to internal, stable, and global factors. Outcomes that suggest that an athlete has high ability…
Aldridge, L.J. & Islam, M.R. (2011). Cultural Differences in Athlete Attributions for Success
and Failure: The Sports Pages Revisited. International Journal of Psychology, 47(1), 67-75.
Allen, M.S., Jones, M.V., & Sheffield, D., (2009). Attribution, Emotion, and Collective Efficacy
in Sports Teams. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 13(3), 205-217.
Flow States and Sport Performance
The attention of an individual focus on the movements of the body, power of the muscles, force of the lungs, and the strength beneath the feet in the context of running a race,. This is an indication that an individual is living in the moment utterly absorbed in the present activity. It is essential to note that time seems to fall away. According to the description by the positive psychologists, the encounter or experience during the running process is known as the flow. It is vital to note that the flow refers to the state of complete immersion in an activity. The mental state of the flow relates to the ability of an individual to be involved in the activity for its own sake.
Understanding the Psychology of the Flow
It is ideal to note that people experience diverse or different flow states. Some might…
Cowen, L.W. (2004). What Is Hypnosis? Journal of The Australian Traditional-Medicine
Society, 10(3), 105-107.
Faymonville, M., Boly, M., & Laureys, S. (2006). Functional neuroanatomy of the hypnotic state. Journal Of Physiology (09284257), 99(4-6), 463-469.
Ferrell, M.D., Beach, R.L., Szeverenyi, N.M., Krch, M., & Fernhall, B. (2006). An fMRI
SUCCESS & AILURE IN SPORT PERORMANCE
Sports can be attributed to drastic changes of emotions and expectations by sports fans from their favourite teams or players, based on their performances. These performeances represent the strength, capability and potential of a sportsman or a team. Sports is one of those things where it is almost inevitable to get a result where there is a victor and loser. Sports can be understood as a non-lethal, healthy combat or duel amongst two sportsmen or teams who fight for awards, honours or even bragging rights over each other. This makes the notions of success and failure an integral function of the nature of sports. Through this paper, it is targeted to carry out a thorough analysis and understand the various reasons for which the success and failure in sports performances are witnessed by sportmen and fans. This discussion would aid in determining and developing…
For sport achievement, a greater influence might be exerted on subsequent attributions and effort related to sport may be more quantifiable and salient. In sport behavior, the abilities related to the cardiovascular fitness and strength is fluctuating over time and unstable, in accordance to the analysis of the sport situation. In intellectual tasks, it was perceived that the ability attributions for failure were precluded by the motivational bias, however in sport tasks, the motivational bias will be reduced in attributions for failure (Rejeski & Lowe, 1980). For failure outcomes in sport, this will result in an increase in perceived personal responsibility.
In compare to intellectual tasks, the perception of effort levels must be more quantitative in sport tasks. In compare to attributions for academic achievement, the epistemological status of effort and ability might be different for sport achievement. In sport settings, the relationship between task difficulty and the outcome might be mediated by the effort information suggested by the significant effort obtained on task difficulty by outcome interaction (Allen & Et.al, 2009). In sport tasks, the effort information is both more quantifiable and more phenomenally salient.
A fundamental role is played by causal ascriptions in the proposed theory about emotion and motivation. Few dominant causal perceptions are found in contexts related to achievement. With globality and intentionality as other possible causal structures, controllability, stability and locus are the three common properties that have been shared by the perceived causes of failure and success (Weiner, 1985). Shame, pride, hopelessness, gratitude, pity, guilt and anger are the variety of general emotional experiences that affect all three dimensions of causality. In expectancy of
Similar sport-specific performance improvement was found in the earlier study conducted by Smith, Wright, Allsopp, and Westhead (2007).
Smith, Wright, Allsopp, and Westhead (2007) compared the effects of PETTLEP-based imagery against the improvements found with the use of traditional imagery, in hockey players and gymnasts. In the first study, 48 varsity hockey players were divided into four groups. These groups included: 'sport-specific' imagery, 'clothing' imagery, 'traditional' imagery, and a control group. Following a six-week period, the sport-specific group saw the most improvement in penalty flicks. Other than the control group, the traditional imagery group experienced the least amount of improvement. The author's second study featured 40 junior gymnasts. These participants were divided into four groups that included: PETTLEP, stimulus only imagery, physical practice, and a control group. As was found in both Wright and Smith's (2009) and Smith, Wright, and Cantwell's (2008) research, there was significant improvement in both the…
Holmes, P. & Collins, D. (Mar 2001). The PETTLEP approach to motor imagery. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 13(1). pp. 60-83.
Smith, D., Wright, C., Allsopp, A., & Westhead, H. (Jan 2007). It's all in the mind: PETTLEP-based imagery and sports performance. Journal of Applied Sport Psycholgoy, 19(1). pp. 80-92.
Smith, D., Wright, C., & Cantwell, C. (Sep 2008). Beating the bunker: The effect of PETTLEP imagery on golf bunker shot performance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 79(3). Retrieved June 5, 2009, from ProQuest.
Wright, C. & Smith, D. (Mar 2009). The effect of PETTLEP imagery on strength performance. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psycholgoy, 7(1). Retrieved June 5, 2009, from General OneFile.
The research suggests that sport psychology is useful to athletes because it provides them with the tools needed to fully exploit their physical talents by controlling their mental processes. The research found that here are several techniques associated with sports psychology. These techniques include MPSE, thought stopping, mental rehearsal (imagery) self-talk, visuo-motor behavior rehearsal (VMBR) and establishing goals. All of these techniques can be used to assist the athlete in focusing on the goal that they are attempting to accomplish.
Arvinen-Barrow M., Penny G.,Hemmings B., Corr S. (2010) UK chartered physiotherapists' personal experiences in using psychological interventions with injured athletes: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 11 (2010) 58 -- 66
"Careers in Sports Psychology." Retrieved February 16, 2010 from: http://www.wcupa.edu/_Academics/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Sports/Career07.htm
De Petrillo, L.A., Kaufman, K.A. Glass, C.R. And Arnkoff D.B. (2009) Mindfulness for Long-Distance Runners: An Open Trial Using Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE).…
Arvinen-Barrow M., Penny G.,Hemmings B., Corr S. (2010) UK chartered physiotherapists' personal experiences in using psychological interventions with injured athletes: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 11 (2010) 58 -- 66
"Careers in Sports Psychology." Retrieved February 16, 2010 from: http://www.wcupa.edu/_Academics/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Sports/Career07.htm
De Petrillo, L.A., Kaufman, K.A. Glass, C.R. And Arnkoff D.B. (2009) Mindfulness for Long-Distance Runners: An Open Trial Using Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE). Journal of Clinical Sports Psychology, 2009, 4, 357-376
Dreyer, D. (2004). ChiRunning: A revolutionary approach to effortless, injury-free running. Retrieved February 16, 2009 from: http://www.chirunning.com .
Matt gave Ed two eggs on toast with half-a-grapefruit and orange juice for breakfast (Independent on Sunday, 2002). Ed took fish oils and multivitamins on a daily basis. These were immediately followed by a good fiber and protein meal in minutes or strength during his warm-up sessions. Matt gave Stu chicken, basmati rice, couscous and egg and Jaffa cakes for his "insulin." Matt's intention was to bring extra protein straight into Stu's tired muscles. He also served Stu with nuts for his snacks (Independent on Sunday).
Commercial high-carbohydrate electrolyte sports drinks fill the football player's need, especially within the first 15 minutes after strenuous activity. These drinks also appeal more than plain water while contributing their value (Mannie, 2001).
usiness Wire (2004). 3-a-day dairy teams up with national football league to tackle kids' nutrition and fitness in schools. usiness Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning.
Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from…
Business Wire (2004). 3-a-day dairy teams up with national football league to tackle kids' nutrition and fitness in schools. Business Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning.
Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOEIN/is_2004_Sept_8/ai_n6185691/?tag=content;col1
Independent on Sunday (2002). The programme. Independent Newspapers UK Limited
ProQuest Information and Learning Company. Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4159/is_20020922/ai_n1266483/?tag=content;col1
Drugs and sports [...] performance-Enhancing drugs, and their effect on athletes and the sports they play.
Athletes who use performance-enhancing drugs compromise the integrity of their sports for a number of reasons. First, there is the issue of the records they set. For example, Barry Bonds has set numerous home run records, including hitting more than Hank Aaron. However, now these records are suspect, because of his use of these drugs. He might not have set these records without the help of the drugs. In addition, baseball is doing very little, if anything, to punish the players who are using drugs, so there is little incentive for them to stop. It makes the players look bad, it makes the sport look bad, and it makes the entire sport suspect, because fans can no longer trust that their favorite players are not enhancing their performance not with hard work and dedication,…
Prizes have always been a part of contests, a tradition that can be traced back for centuries. In Homer's the Iliad, Achilles hosts a contest in honor of the fallen Patroclus, "The first prize he offered was for the Chariot races -- a woman skilled in all the useful arts, and a three legged cauldron that had ears for handles, and would hold twenty two measures. This was for the man who came first," (Iliad).
Modern day athletes continue to receive prizes for their successes. They receive monetary compensation through endorsements and contracts for their participation in professional programs. The compensation is much more than a useful woman and a cauldron in recent times. The 2006 Top National Football League salaries reached insane heights. According to USAToday.com, Richard Seymour from the NFL Patriots earned a whopping $24,691,160. Another New England Patriot who is a household name thanks to his quarter…
Homer. The Iliad. Book xxiii. Found at: http://classics.mit.edu/Homer/iliad.23.xxiii.html . On Friday September 21, 2007.
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Shakespeare, William. Troilus and Cressida. Penguin Books. New York. 2000.
Athletics and Academics
In the current economic climate of the United States, public institutions are finding themselves having to make harsher and harsher budget cuts. Teaching positions are minimized, class sizes are increased, and fees are rising to nearly unaffordable regions. The English Department at a certain university or high school may drop from twenty-five professors to a dozen or so. It is the harsh reality of living in an era of economic downturn. However, even as the college school would lose more and more financial assistance from the government, athletic programs at schools continue to expand and provide more and more incentives for prospective recruits. This is symptomatic of a flawed philosophy in college institutions: the ability to perform athletic skills has more importance than the ability to think. This perspective not only jades the graduating classes but teaches the wrong principles for when a student needs to learn…
Larimore, David (2007). "Non-Economic Societal Impacts of Intercollegiate Athletics." The
Sport Journal. United States Sports Academy.
Meier, K.J., Eller, W.S., Marchbanks III, M.P., Robinson, S., Polinard, J.L., Wrinkle, R.D.
(2004). "A Lingering Question of Priorities: Athletic Budgets and Academic Performance Revisited. Review of Policy Research," 21(6), 799 -- 807. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.
One of the most pressing problems with the doping incidents is that punishment is so lax in many arenas. The WADA recommends a two-year ban from the sport, but increasing the time could reduce the number of doping incidents. An athlete might be less likely to turn to performance enhancing drugs of any kind if they knew they could face a ban for life, or a five-year or more ban from their chosen sport. Laws regarding the use of banned substances should be reviewed and updated so they are the same for each sport, and so they increase the culpability of the players involved. Since many of these athletes serve as heroes and role models to the children of the world, they owe it to them to come clean, stay clean, and support stricter enforcement in their specific sports. Lance Armstrong, in his comeback maneuver, could serve as a catalyst…
Editors. "Anti-Doping Expert Promises to Test Armstrong for 'Everything'." ESPN.com. 2008. 26 Sept. 2008.
Murphy, Austin. "Armstrong Returns With a New Team and a Winning Cause." Sports Illustrated.com. Sept. 2008, 26 Sept. 2008.
But despite these strides, the negative as well as the positive legacy of sports in American culture cannot be ignored.
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). unning through Kenya. Slate.com. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
Johnson, Jenna. (2010). NCAA graduation rates. The Washington Post. etrieved September 20,
2010 at http://voices.washingtonpost.com/campus-overload/2010/03/another_ncaa_bracket_player_gr.html
Lehrer, Jonah. (2010, August 24). How to raise a superstar. Wired Science. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/08/how-to-raise-a-superstar/#ixzz107NwUSGh
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2010 at http://www.marathonguide.com/history/olympicmarathons/chapter25.cfm
Williams, Kam. (2006). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves. AALBC.
etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://aalbc.com/reviews/forty_million_dollar_slaves.htm
Witt, Jon. (2006). The…
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutRE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). Running through Kenya. Slate.com. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). Review of William C. Rhoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
In many cases, the sports that are largely ignored in the U.S. are equally deserving of national exposure and coverage, because they demand the same level of natural talent, skill, and expertise as those high-profile sports that enjoy extensive national coverage.
Especially in the wake of recent revelations and scandals arising in the major American sports involving use of steroids, violent assaults on women, driving under the influence of alcohol, and federal convictions for those types of crimes as well as for cruelty to animals have undermined the traditional reputation of professional athletes as role models in modern American society. To date, no such controversies have plagued any of the lesser-appreciated sports in the U.S. In that regard, surfing in particular is associated with health, vitality, and natural physical fitness that is not at all likely to fall prey to illegal or performance-enhancing drug use in the sport. Furthermore, unlike…
Sport Stadium Risk Assessment
Sport venue management face challenges in determining the level of a potential threat (Hall). Risk must be identified, measured, and evaluated to be effectively managed. It should include assessments for threats, vulnerabilities, and criticalities for information that helps to protect critical assets, physical and human, against terrorist attacks and other threats, such as fan behavior that can cause harm to others or physical assets. Protection measures can include access control, use of CCTV security cameras, adding lighting, performance of background checks, credentialing, checking backpacks, enhancing communication networks, as well as developing and updating emergency response and evacuation plans.
There are three types of risks that need to be assessed. Mission risk prevents the organization from accomplishing goals and missions. Asset risk can harm physical assets. And, security risks can potentially cripple actual data and people. These risks are identified by surveys, inspections, employee interviews, and the…
Hall, S., Marciani, L. Cooper, W.E., & Rolen, R. "Introducing a Risk Assessment Model for Sport Venues." The Sport Journal, 10(2), ISSN: 1543-9518 (2007). Retrieved from http://www.thesportjournal.org/article/introducing-risk-assessment-model-sport-venues .
Hall, S., Marciani, L., & Cooper, W. "Sport Venue Security: Planning and Preparedness for Terrorists-related incidents." The Smart Journal, 4(2) (Spring/Summer 2008). Retrieved from http://www.thesmartjournal.com/venues.pdf .
Elliot, D.L., Moe, E.L., Goldberg, L., Defrancesco, C.A., Durham, M.B., & Hix-mall, H. (2006). Definition and Outcome of a Curriculum to Prevent Disordered Eating and Body haping Drug Use. Journal of chool Health, 76(2), 67+. Retrieved February 15, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5028537762
Maletto, Pete. (2008, October 1). ports nutrition: past, present and future: in order to understand where this market is headed it's important to know where it's been. Nutraceuticals World. Rodman Publications, Inc. Retrieved February 14, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-188444472.html
Ray, Tracy R., & Fowler, Rachel. (2004, eptember 1). Current issues in sports nutrition in athletes. outhern Medical Journal. outhern Medical Association. 2004. Retrieved February 14, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1123332696.html
haw, Greg, Cox, Greg, & Barnard. Janelle. (2007). ports nutrition: case studies 2. Nutrition & Dietetics: The Journal of the DietitiansAssociation of Australia. Dietitians Association of Australia. Retrieved February 15, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-165578876.html…
Sports nutrition vital for athletes.(2005, May 15). New Straits Times. Retrieved February 14, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1-108754539.html
Tallon, Mark J. (2007, November 1). Enzymes' new potential in an emerging wellness market. Functional Ingredients. Penton Media OH & IL. Retrieved February 15, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1399950491.html
2008, March 1). Sports nutrition goes natural. Functional Ingredients. Penton Media OH & IL. Retrieved February 14, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P31456902041.html
This mechanism will ultimately save the firm money as it is more efficient with its resources. More important however, feedback insures that the strategic planning process remains focused on the metrics of success rather than diverging from its intended purpose. Sporting organizations need focus in order to maintain their funding constituency. This comes in the form of ticket, merchandise, and television ad sales.
Furthermore, performance measures are important in regards to the overall benchmarking process. Performance measures provide a means of evaluation of both personnel and the strategic plan itself. With these measures of success management can better identify performance relative to strategic planning benchmarks. Also, through the use of performance measures, coupled with appropriate feedback mechanisms management can better ascertain initiatives. If performance is a substantial departure from management standards, organizational leaders can better determine what areas need improvement and coach to those specific areas. Through performance measures, management…
1) Martin, D.C. & Bartol, K.M. (1998). Performance appraisal: Maintaining system effectiveness. Public Personnel Management, 27(2), 223-230.
2) Schweitzer, ME., Ordonez, L., & Douma, B. (2004) Goal setting as a motivator of unethical behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 47, 422-432
Motor Processes in Sport
Tom is an 18-year-old goalkeeper who recently moved up in class from youth to adult football. He was an early maturer and has a history of being more advanced in soccer than his peers but now a weakness is exposed. He never learned to kick with his left foot and this has been a problem at this level. The current paper discusses the proposed reasons for his difficulty and outlines a plan of intervention.
Understanding the Effects of Early Maturation as They Apply to Tom
The traditional view holds that early maturation in boys has more positive consequences for psychosocial adaptation than late maturation. The early literature by researchers like Mussen and Jones (1957) described early-maturing boys during late adolescence (17 -- 18 years) as having higher self-esteem and self-confidence, a more positive self-image, and as being more socially mature, which may have led to more…
Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory: Looking back and looking forward. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience 4 (10), 829 -- 839.
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Brewer, J., Balsom, P.D., & Davis, J. (1995). Season birth distribution amongst European soccer players. Sports Exercise Injury, 1, 154-157.
Castaneda, B. & Gray, R. (2007). Effects of focus of attention on baseball batting performance in players of differing skill levels. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 29 (1), 60-77.
The "Sport for All" program was initiated by the reformist Labour Government during the 1970s. Its aims and objectives included the increased community involvement of underrepresented groups (such as the unemployed) and the breaking down some of the exiting barriers to participation in sports. To a large extent, those initiatives consisted of financial and other resource investment in large-scale sports facilities. Unfortunately, the comparative absence of sports development structures within those facilities has greatly reduced their ability to provide the benefits envisioned for their communities, notwithstanding the dedication and professional experience of facility managers.
Explain difference in the roles of the Community Sports Development Officer and the traditional Sports Development Officer.
In keeping with the fundamental purpose of community sports development in general, the role of the community sports development officer relates substantially to the use of sport as a means to achieve other (i.e. non-sport-related) objectives. Conversely, the role…
Scandal/Controversy in Sports
The following will take a look to see if scandal and controversy benefit sports.
Background of Sports Industry and Scandals
Sports in the U.S. is a multi-billion-dollar industry. Companies try to engage with clients by aligning the services and products they offer with this well-known industry via sports funding and endorsement. The benefit of this involvement has been well-recorded in the sports marketing literature (Hughes and Shank, 2005). The effect on business brands in case a scandal surfaces regarding an athletic supporter like a player, coach, or a team however, is less well-known. Several sports scandals, for instance, the rape case surrounding Kobe Bryant and the University of Colorado recruitment scandal raise very serious questions regarding the effect of sports scandals on amateur and professional athletic institutions, participants, sponsors, as well as other stakeholders.
Whereas conventional corporate sports supporters like Nike maintain omnipresence, several other different kinds…
Alessi. (2014). TheRichest - The World's Most Entertaining Site. Top 10 Sports Betting Scandals and Controversies - TheRichest. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.therichest.com/sports/top-10-sports-betting-scandals-and-controversies/
Doorty, A. (2016). Odyssey. Is Scandal Good for Baseball? Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.theodysseyonline.com/are-scandals-good-for-baseball
Fisher, R., & Wakefield, K. (1998). Factors leading to group identification: A field study of winners and losers. Psychology & Marketing, 15(1). Retrieved, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199801)15:1%3C23::AID-MAR3%3E3.0.CO;2-P/abstract
Garg. (2010). The Hoya. Scandals Show Need to Pay College Athletes. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.thehoya.com/scandals-show-need-to-pay-college-athletes/
D., What is Altitude Training section). The Website promoting products that Hypoxico Altitude Training Systems offers, reports that when a person is exposed to hypoxia, oxygen reduced environments, his/her body "struggles to produce required amounts of energy with less available oxygen. This struggle triggers the onset of a range of physiological adaptations geared towards enhancing the efficiency of the body's respiratory, cardiovascular and oxygen utilization systems" (Hypoxico Altitude Training, N.D., Why it Works section). In consideration of controversial perceptions regarding ethical conclusions relating to hypoxico, Lippi, Guides and Franchini stress that the "spirit of sport" needs to be developed to include the notion of ethics and authenticity. Lippi, Guides and Franchini, nevertheless, report that they do not entirely agree with the assumption that teleologically, no evidence suggests that more harm than good comes from these particular devices. They note that a universal ban on passive training regimens, such as hypoxic,…
Avans, D.E. (2007). Youth and ethical dilemmas in sport. Research Quarterly for Exercise
and Sport. American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.
Retrieved June 04, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1160166064.html
Bach, G. (2006). The Parents association for youth sports: A proactive method of spectator behavior management. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 77(6), 16+. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017424445
Proteins are often called the building blocks of life. In fact, the very word "protein" implies their importance in the body: it is a Greek word meaning "first place." Approximately fifty percent of the dry weight in animal cells is comprised of protein (Campbell 71). They play a roll in almost everything the body does and "are used for support, storage, transport of other substances, signaling from one part of the organism to another, movement, and defense against foreign substances." (Campbell 71). Proteins are essential to the proper functioning of every organism known to man.
The human genetic code holds the instructions for the making of over ten thousand different types of proteins; all with specific purposes. Additionally, "Proteins are the most structurally sophisticated molecules known." (Campbell 71). In comparison to other molecules, proteins are enormous and come in nearly every shape imaginable. However, despite their variety and size, proteins…
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3. Ronzio, Robert, PHD. The Encyclopedia of Nutrition and Good Health: Second Edition. New York: Facts On File Inc., 2003.
4. Ryan, Monique. Complete Guide to Sports Nutrition. Boulder: VELO Press, 1999.
The sportsmen and the team enter competition to win prizes and they end up as winners, runner ups, or other positions, which are crucial in sports; they come in first place or second place and yet score that many goals. The performances of the sportsmen are records to be remembered for years to come and these are all quantitative variables, rather than qualitative.
Also, at the level of the increased attention offered by the business community on sports and sporting events, the measures used are again quantitative ones. Some examples in this sense include the money brought in by the investors in the sports teams, the number of people attracted by a sports event, the commercial value of a sports events and so on; for instance, the Olympic games can also be measured in terms of the investments allocated to improve the infrastructure in the region, the increase in the…
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athletic coach I have garnered a wide variety of skills, as well as an extensive understanding of the standard practices and procedures an individual in the field of exercise science should possess. My past experiences have provided me with substantial knowledge of the principles involved in the prevention and care of athletic injuries. With the following, I hope to illustrate that my experiences and subsequent research have provided me with a broad awareness of typical athletic injuries and treatments as they apply to exercise science.
When a member of my dance squad sprained her ankle it became necessary for me to tape it as to provide additional support. I employed the traditional Gibney basket weave procedure. This consists of an interwoven network of stirrup strips "which cover the plantar surface of the hindfoot and extend proximally on both the medial and lateral aspects of the leg, and horseshoe strips, which…
Boyle, Daniel J.M.D. Sports Medicine for Parents and Coaches. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1999.
Brown, Lee E. And Vance A. Ferrigno. Training for Speed, Agility, and Quickness. New York: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, 2000.
Garrick, James G.M.D. And Peter Radetsky, Ph.D. Anybody's Sports Medicine Book. Toronto: Ten Speed Press, 2000.
Levy, Allan M.M.D. And Mark L. Fuerst. Sports Injury Handbook. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993.
sports betting. Discussed are the problems with the betting, players getting gifts from betting agents, and effect of sports betting on the economy. Seven sources are used.
Sports and Betting
More Americans play more sports than in any other country in the world. Moreover, we watch more sports than anyone else on earth. Football and figure skating, two sports that could not be more different have drawn the biggest TV audiences in history. Sports bind us together as Americans. It has the ability more than just about anything else to tear down the barriers of race, class, gender, politics and geography (McDonald 1998). Sports is part of our national culture. It's part of our national conversation. A waitress at the local cafe talks Friday-night football with the cop and the banker. A Democratic gardener, trimming the greens at the country club, discusses golf swings or last week's tournament with a…
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A accessed 05-12-2002).
Gopal, Arun; Pettypiece, Shannon. "Michigan considers possibility of NCAA sanctions."
University Wire. March 25, 2002. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=University_Wire&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.uwire.com&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Arun+Gopal+%26amp&title=Michigan+considers+possibility+of+NCAA+sanctions++&date=03%2D25%2D2002&query=athletes+and+gifts+from+agents&maxdoc=50&idx=31.(accessed05-12-2002).
The 1960s are remembered for the wonderful acts that he put across as he eventually led the Philadelphia 76 ers to an NBA title. He is known as the only basketball player to have scored 100 points in a single game.
Wilma Rudolph is yet another person who generated much controversy in the world of sports during the 1960s as a result of her outstanding performances. Similar to Chamberlain, she experienced a great deal of health problems as she was growing up. However, this did not stop her from winning three Olympic gold medals as she demonstrated that determination was the key to success, regardless of the circumstances. In spite of the fact that she had polio and pneumonia, the athlete struggled until she became the best in her field of work. She was not discouraged by doctors who expressed doubt regarding her regaining her ability to walk consequent to…
Social Change Through omen's Sports
Promoting Social Change Through omen's Sports Leadership
The problems that cry out for social change solutions
No one who is intelligent, literate, and who is paying attention could avoid the fact that much of the world today is in need of fresh and creative ways to resolve cultural and social conflicts and to build better communities where families feel safe and futures seem secure. ar, bloodshed, racial rage, and mindless military carnage -- in addition to the disturbing, ongoing violence against women -- make up too much of the front pages of daily newspapers. Dramatic social changes are desperately needed, and the plans for those changes have yet to be drawn up by present political leadership in the United States and elsewhere.
Over the first week in October, for example: suicide bombers killed 19 innocent tourists in Bali; car bomb blasts killed numerous citizens and…
American Association of University Women. (2004). Report Card on Gender Equity. Retrieved October 5, 2005, from http://www.aauw.org .
Christofides, Nicola J.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Webster, Naomi; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Abrahams,
Naeema & Martin, Lorna J. (2005). "Other patients are really in need of medical attention" the quality of health care services for rape survivors in South Africa. Bulletin of the World
Health Organization, 83(7), 495-502.
Football players can be evaluated using a player evaluation form like the one appearing in American Football Monthly:http://www.americanfootballmonthly.com/Subaccess/Magazine/2013/May/images/04_Loney_Nichols_EvaluationForm.jpg
This form can be used in a formal evaluation process, either on intake or during considerations for lineup changes, as well as providing ongoing feedback and assessment for players on the roster. While this form is actually quite thorough, providing both psychological and physical feedback, it lacks a few skills that could be important for receivers. For example, the form could be improved on by simply adding an assessment box for how high the player can jump from a standing position. There would also be some need to specialized skills. Otherwise, the form provides for the breadth of skills a player will need to succeed, including attitude, work ethic, and leadership ability. Any additional comments can be placed in the "notes" section or in the side bars related to player's best quality…
5. The authos conclude that, "Maintaining an enegy balance and a nutient dense diet, undetaking pudent taining, appopiately timing nutient intake, and obtaining adequate est ae the conestones to enhancing pefomance and/o taining adaptations," (Pamukova, 2011, p. 109). Some spots nutitional supplements have also been poven effective in the liteatue. Some of those supplments incease enegy availability and othes aid in ecovey.
6. The oiginal hypotheses wee boad and theefoe easily poven by pefoming a eview of liteatue. Scientific data on spots nutition is a complex subject aea, and a summay of infomation highlights majo findings.
7. Pamukova, B., Szabadosova, V. & Soltesova, A. (2011). Cuent knowledge about spots nutition. Austalasian Medical Jounal 4(3): 107-110.
8. The authos efeence thei souces heavily thoughout each section of the eseach analysis, using footnotes that coespond to the efeences section at the end of the epot.
9. Thee ae no tables, chats, figues,…
references section at the end of the report.
9. There are no tables, charts, figures, or any other visual aids used in the current article.
10. There are no tables used, and therefore no legends.
11. No direct quotations are used in the article. The research consists of skillful summaries and paraphrasing.
Supply Chain Management Study eview
Singhry (2015) identifies a number of issues that affect supply chain management effectiveness. This identification serves as the problem or gap in literature that the study attempts to address. The problems are several, from "weak corporate technological culture" to "technological paradox" (a phrase that is not defined), and the apparent issues are technology-related (Singhry, 2015, p. 259). However, Singhry (2015) also cites the conflicting data produced by studies related to the relationship of supply chain tech and performance. The main goal of the study is to provide a guide for how to improve performance in the supply chain management area.
Singhry's research (2015) is effective in its ability to address specific issues, such as establishing a theoretical background for the study. He defines technology adequately by stating that it is a "dynamic capability" against the concept of collaboration which he posits is a "dynamic process."…
Baron, R., Kenny, D. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6): 1173-1182.
Panayides, P., Lun, Y. (2009). The impact of trust on innovativeness and supply chain performance. International Journal of Production Economics, 122(1): 35-46.
Singhry, H. (2015). Effect of supply chain technology, supply chain collaboration and innovation capability on supply chain performance of manufacturing companies. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 7(2): 258-273.
Taylor, D. (2006). Towards a framework for improvement in the management of demand in agri-food supply chains. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 11(5): 379-384.
Moortown Sports and Leisure Centre
The Moortown Sports and Leisure Centre (MSLC) has many challenges and obstacles to overcome to better serve the community in which it operates. In order for the organization to meet the needs of the local population, both now and into the future, MSLC will have to redesign and improve many of its operational processes to make more efficient and effective use of its current capabilities. The current facilities have unable to accommodate the local demand for their use however with a more efficient system of booking and facilities transfer the organization could meet more of the local demand. It is recommended that the organization build an IT system that can help manage scheduling of the facilities. This would effectively increase the capacity of the facilities through better management and communication.
Amazon Web Services, 2015. Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2). [Online]
Available at: http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/
[Accessed 30 March 2015].
Liew, A., 2007. Understanding Data, Information, Knowledge And Their Inter-Relationships. [Online]
Given that people engage in sporting events for a wide range of reasons, the authors assert that it is time for athletes to develop a moral code that embraces higher standards of conduct that will help reverse these recent trends and once again provide American sports with a sense of fair play and respect.
Fredenburg, Karen, Rafer Lutz, Glenn Miller et al. (2005). "Dismissals and Perceptions of Pressure in Coaching in Texas High Schools: Similarities and Differences with Previous Studies Show the Contemporary Face of Coaching Pressure." JOPERD-- The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 76(1):29.
In this essay, the authors report that there have been a number of recent studies and reports that suggest that the pressure in high school sports is growing, rather than declining. The authors cite an article in Sports Illustrated that described the alarming trends of parental misbehavior at youth sport events. The president…
For instance, an employee of any company -- sports team or not -- chooses whether disclosure of information is an ethical duty or not.
Sports that are highly physical raise their own set of ethical issues that reflect the commonsense ethics of everyday life. The use of performance-enhancing drugs might be an ethical one. Players often claim that steroid use is so prevalent that it is becoming normalized and therefore no longer unethical. Gambling on sports is another example of how sports are about the commonsense ethics of everyday life.
Sports can demonstrate how to treat opponents with respect and how to lose or win with dignity. Respecting opponents is a valuable tool for everyday life, being able to confront adversity with strength and power. Some athletes embody graceful winning, whereas others show how greed and egotism can come in the way of good sportsmanlike behavior.
Sports sometimes allow the…
Anabolic Steroid and Performance Enhancing Drug Use
Among High School Athletes
Anabolic steroid use has, at least in the past, been prevalent among major college and, especially, professional sports. Major League Baseball implemented a drug testing regimen very recently after backlash from fans made it an issue that the sport believed it had to listen to. The National Football League has a testing program that has been in place since 1989, and other sports have also begun programs to test for anabolic steroids and other performance enhancing drugs (PED) to ensure that there is a level playing field among all of their athletes. Unfortunately this testing has led to consequences for some athletes.
Some notable case of athletes being either stripped of honors or not being selected for honors because they acknowledged PED or steroid use have occurred in recent times. Lance Armstrong was recently stripped of all of his…
Denham, BE. (2006). Effects of mass communication on attitudes toward anabolic steroids: An analysis of high school seniors. Journal of Drug Issues, 36(4), 809- 823.
Green, G.A. (2007). The prevalence of anabolic steroid use by Southern California high school athletes. LA84 Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.la84foundation.org/3 CE/AnabolicSteroidsSouthernCaliforniaHighScho ol.pdf
Liberatore, S. (2009). Q: I have a lot of competitive athletes in my classes. If they decide to use steroids, what effect will this have on their health? The Science Teacher, 76(1), 70.
Martin, J., & Govender, K. (2011). Making muscle junkies: Investigating traditional masculine ideology, body image discrepancy, and the pursuit of muscularity in adolescent males. International Journal of Men's Health, 10(3), 220-233.
Intermittent Hypoxia, Erythropoiesis, Mitochondrial Biogenesis, Effects on Behavior (including Endurance in Athletics
A test of fourteen senior male national squad rowers was conducted by Telford and co-workers (1994) in order to ascertain whole blood viscosity at higher 100 s-1 (BVH) shear rate and low 0.1 s-1 (BVL), red blood cell mean cell volume, white and red blood cell count, blood parameters of haemoglobin concentration. In order to evaluate the performance of rower, rowing ergometer was used for the 2500 m continuous effort. The results of rowers included Hb 15.5 g.dL-1, Hct 45.5%, BVL 64.1 cP, BVH 4.2 cP, and a BMI (Body Mass Index) of 24.6. BVH demonstrated by the rowers was significantly (p
Wu H, Kanatous SB, Thurmond FA, Gallardo T, Isotani E, BasselDuby R, Williams RS. Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle by CaMK. Science 296: 349 -- 352, 2002.
Wu Z, Puigserver P, Andersson U, Zhang C, Adelmant G, Mootha V, Troy A, Cinti S, Lowell B, Scarpulla RC, Spiegelman BM. Mechanisms controlling mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration through the thermogenic coactivator PGC-1. Cell 98: 115 -- 124, 1999.
Zhang, Y., Hu, Y., Zhou, F., Kong, Z. (2005). Effects of 'living high, training low' on the immune function of red blood cells and on endurance performance in soccer players. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness: Vol 3, No 2.
The sports center at the newly opened high school has to employ at least the following:
Two coaches, preferably one male and one female, each to manage the same gender teams. This measure is to be implemented in order to reduce the chances of immoral conduct on school premises, but no discriminations would be committed during the selection and hiring processes.
One medic is required to be easily reachable and assist sports injuries or otherwise medical necessities. Hiring a new medical professional would be redundant and meaningless, coming as such to a conclusion that the already hired school medic would also assist the medical needs of the sports center.
One counselor. Similar to the school medic, it could initially be stated that the role of sports counselor would be played by the already hired school counselor. However, such a solution is not the most viable one in the…
Conrad, M., 2006, the business of sports: a primer for journalists, Routledge
Delaney, T., Madigan, T., 2009, the sociology of sports: an introduction, McFarland
Mac, B., 2010, Code of ethics and conduct for sports coaches, BrainMac, http://www.brianmac.co.uk/ethics.htm last accessed on July 6, 2010
2010, Sports and exercise safety, Kids Health, http://kidshealth.org/teen/safety/safebasics/sport_safety.html# last accessed on July 6, 2010
Interscholastic Sports & Academics
hat effect if any do interscholastic sports have on a young person's academic achievements? A great deal of the literature indicates that playing interscholastic sports can help a student become more proficient and successful in his or her academic pursuits. This paper references studies that present the facts regarding the mainly positive effects that interscholastic sports can have on a middle school or high school student's success in the classroom.
An article in Kappa Delta PI Record (Lumpkin, et al., 2010, p. 124) references the National Federation of State High School Associations' (NFHS) data that shows "…more than 7,000,000 interscholastic athletes in the United States" are doing better academically than students that are not out for sports. Lumpkin refers to NFHS data that shows: a) those seven million students overall "have higher grade-point averages"; b) they also have "lower dropout rates, better daily attendance, and fewer…
Din, Feng S. (2006). Sport Activities vs. Academic Achievement for Rural High School
Students. National Forum of Applied Educational Research Journal-Electronic, 19(3E),
Lumpkin, Angela, and Stokowski, Sarah. (2011). Interscholastic Sports: A Character-Building
Boyhood, Organized Sports, and the construction of Masculinities" offers insight into a study he completed regarding male attributes and how masculinity is defined within organized sports. Following is a summary of the article denoting the hypothesis, dependent and independent variables if identifiable as such, the data source, methodology and answers to the posited hypothetical question(s).
Messner makes it very clear from the outset what the questions or hypotheses are in his study and the answers that he seeks in conducting the study. The questions Messner raises includes: "In what ways do males construct masculine identities within the institution of organized sports? In what ways do class and racial differences mediate this relationship and perhaps led to the construction of different meanings and perhaps different masculinities?" And the last hypothetical question is "what are some of the problems and contradictions within these constructions of masculinities?" (Messner, p. 88).
Messner is also…
Messner (the source article needs to be cited here)
he answer to the prayers of sport fans seemed to have come in 1982, with the implementation of the Action Sport program. It stood as the first official proposal related to sports development in the country. he program brought significant improvements to the sports scene in England and in several other countries neighboring it, considering that it made it possible for numerous people to get jobs and for more professionals to get actively involved in promoting sports.
he Sports Development Continuum plan came as a method to elaborate the concept of sports development. Derek Casey introduced theories relating to Foundation, Participation, Performance, and Excellence, influencing individuals engaged in sports to gain a better understanding of what sport development meant. he plan was later modified so as for people to comprehend the level to which they could participate and assist the domain. It became obvious that none of the principles put…
The answer to the prayers of sport fans seemed to have come in 1982, with the implementation of the Action Sport program. It stood as the first official proposal related to sports development in the country. The program brought significant improvements to the sports scene in England and in several other countries neighboring it, considering that it made it possible for numerous people to get jobs and for more professionals to get actively involved in promoting sports.
The Sports Development Continuum plan came as a method to elaborate the concept of sports development. Derek Casey introduced theories relating to Foundation, Participation, Performance, and Excellence, influencing individuals engaged in sports to gain a better understanding of what sport development meant. The plan was later modified so as for people to comprehend the level to which they could participate and assist the domain. It became obvious that none of the principles put across by Casey would have any effectiveness if it were not for the others.
The establishment of the National Lottery program in 1994 would practically revolutionize sports as they were perceived by Englishmen. Whereas the program was initially believed to have little effects on the sports development, it brought some of the most important improvements in the domain. The New Laborers plan worked brilliantly and made it possible for sports development to become what it is today -- a booming domain that provides numerous benefits for the people of England.
Ironically, as we have seen, we live in a capitalistic society. A sometimes unwilling engine of this equity has been revenue generating sports. hat will be absolutely necessary will be the demand of female consumers who will vote with their wallets in favor of equity. However, they will only do so if they are properly educated. The portrayal of women as equal partners of women in society appears to be a permanent feature of American society. Baring some major social change in society, this trend is likely to continue. As noted above, the place for gender integration in sports on the playing field and court will ironically probably take place on the living room couch in front of the television or in front of the computer. Non-athletes will determine for good or ill the status of gender in sports. They have before and this will certainly continue into the foreseeable…
Eastman, Susan Tyler, and Andrew C. Billings. "Biased Voices of Sports: Racial
and Gender Stereotyping in College Basketball Announcing." Howard
Journal of Communications. 12. (2001): 183-208. Print.
"HR and Employment Law News." Hr.blr.com. HR BLR, 3 October 2003. Web. 4
234). Culturally, trainers may simply be paying more attention to girls' injuries due to our culture's tendency to protect females more than males (Tierney, et al., 2005, p. 278) and/or boys may simply under-report concussions due to "macho" tendencies to play through pain in order to continue playing (Covassin, et al., 2012, p. 926). Hormones may contribute to the greater incidence of concussions among female high school athletes because researchers have found that estrogen protects male rats from brain trauma but actually makes female rats more vulnerable to brain trauma (Makdissi, et al., 2013, p. 319). Whether caused anatomically, culturally, hormonally or for some other reason, the fact remains that girls are reportedly highly more likely to sustain concussions in sports such as soccer and basketball. Consequently, gender matters in the sports injury of concussion.
Development of a masculine identity is psychologically fundamental for males and particularly for…
Allan, E.J., Gordon, S.P. & Iverson, S.V., Fall 2006. Re/thinking Practices of Power: The Discursive Framing of Leadership in the Chronicle of Higher Education. Review of Higher Education, 30(1), pp. 41-68.
Bourdieu, P., 1978. 'Sport and Social Class,' Social Science Information, 17(6): 819-840. [Online]
Available at: http://ssi.sagepub.com/content/17/6/819.ciatation [Accessed 21 May 2013].
Chesebro, J.W. & Fuse, K., Summer 2001. The Development of a Perceived Masculinity Scale. Communication Quarterly, 49(3), pp. 203-278.
Competitive sports participation opportunities for children continue to grow. Nowadays, children begin their regular sport participation between the ages of 4 to 8 years. Most children enjoy sports and show great enthusiasm for participation. However, the situation changes when young athletes get involved in the elite-level championships organized and directed by adults. Children's play becomes transformed from informal playground games to highly organized sporting events that mirror adult professional sports.
The effects of such intensive training and participation in elite-level competition on young athletes have been investigated. However, most of the research has been devoted to athletes above 10 years of age who are involved in individual sports. Little has been done to explore the impact of the elite-level competition on children under 10 years old participating in team sports.
Indeed, the idea that organized, supervised athletic competition benefits pre-pubertal children is very controversial. However, since more and…
AAP. "Organized Athletics for Preadolescent Children." Pediatrics 84, 1989:583-4.
Ad Hoc Committee on Sports and Children of the FIMS Education Commission. Sports and children. Position stand of the International Federation of Sports Medicine and World Health Organization on "Organized Sport for Children." Olympic Coach, Summer 1997: 6-8.
Backx, F. "Injuries in persons and high-risk sports; a longitudinal study of 1,818 school
Children." The American Journal of Sports Medicine 19, 1991:124-30.
Not unlike the wold of business, many eseaches and pundits have evaluated and looked at the wold of spots as a way to analyze whethe and how cetain coaching styles ae beneficial o non-beneficial in tems of the pefomance and outcomes of the team in question. Of couse, the question is a multi-faceted one and analyzing such a question in a contolled envionment can be difficult. Samples sizes and "apples to apples" compaisons can be difficult. Even so, thee ae many takeaways and points of analysis that can and should be undetaken so as to gauge the efficacy of a team if it is subjected to the suppotive-autonomy coaching ac as opposed to othe methods.
The subject of this epot is an analysis of whethe autonomy-suppotive coaching is o is not beneficial and effective in boosting pefomance of the athletes subjected to the method.…
references for male and female coaches. Women in Sport and Activity Journal,
Hodge, K., & Lonsdale, C. (2011). Pro-social and antisocial behavior in sport: The role of coaching style, autonomous vs. controlled motivation, and moral disengagement. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33(4), 527
Klomsten, A.T., Skaalvik, E.M., and Espnes, G.A. (2004). Physical self-concept and sports: Do gender differences still exist?. Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum
Publishers, 50(1-2), 119-127
Legal Structure and Management of a National Level Sporting Organisation
Sports activities in the world today are becoming more popular and are attracting huge crowd. This is one of the reasons that have made sponsors to come in so as to help such clubs that are not able to support themselves financially. Through sponsoring, the sponsor is able to market and advertise its products within the stadium where the club is playing among other benefits. It is worth noting that sports are viewed as a means of income to each stakeholder including the players. Essendon football club has made Australia to be known worldwide because of the good performance the club has exhibited over the years.
Essendon Football Club is rated as a dynamic world class club in the Australian sporting arena. The success and competitiveness of the club is dependant on its set legal structure and proper management that…
Books, H. 2011. Articles on Essendon Football Club Including: List of Essendon Football Club, Honours, Anzac Day Class. America, AM: Hephaestus Books.
Bools, L., & LLC, G.B. 2010. Essendon Football CLub: Essendon Football Club, List of Essendon Football CLub Honours. United States, U.S.: General Books LLC.
Clark, T. 2007. Stick This in Your Memory Hole. Doncaster East Victoria, VIC: aduki independent press.
Devaney, J.P. 2009. Full Points Footy: Encyclopedia of Australian Football Clubs. Lincoln, LN: Lulu.com.
African-American Fixation and Modern Superiority in Sports
Sports are significant in many ways to any individual of the society and their values can notarize any political ideology. Sports have often been considered as a missionary tool of liberation, as anti-hegemonic. Fascists, communists, liberal marketers and filibusters have always revered sports. Even political group of dissidents has also vituperated sports, paradoxically. Sports have marked itself as the most powerful form of human expression during all of man's time. Sadly, sports fail to serve the United States ideology in any ways people decided to define democratic values during this, the American Century, when we became the most powerful purveyors of sports in all history (Gerald Early, Performance And Reality Race, Sports and the Modern orld).
Race does not comprise of a system consisting of the privileged or discredited abilities. It is rather an entirety of clashing rumination of what it means to…
Gerald E. 17 Aug. 1998. Performance And Reality Race, Sports and the Modern World.
The Nation, Sports: A View From Left To Right.
The African-American Sports Fixation. Available on the address http://istsocrates.berkeley.edu/~africam/sportsfix.pdf. Accessed on 14 Mar. 2003.
Black Children Still Victimized By Savage Inequalities. Available on the address http://www.blackcommentator.com/13_education.html . Accessed on 14 Mar. 2003.
The writer asserts that an ensuring study incororating a number of factors, external to team members deliberate contributions, may roffer additional insight to further enhance knowledge about rugby alications for coaches to consider with their ractices.
In the case study, "Effects of consecutive basketball games on the game-related statistics that discriminate winner and losing teams," Sergio-Jose Ibanez, Javier Garcia, and Sebastian Feu, all with the University of Extremadura, and Alberto Lorenzo, Technical University of Madrid, with Jaime Samaio (2009), University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro at Vila Real, analyzed data they obtained from the Sanish Basketball Federation; including games layed during the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 seasons in the Under20 league. Ibanez, Garcia Feu, Lorenzo and Samaio used the observational method to conduct their study which analyzed a total of 223 games with the following variables, "selected according to the FIBA (International Basketball Federation) normative for game analysis" (Ibid.,…
players somatic characteristics, taller and stronger players secure more rebounds;
technical and tactical preparation, pivoting, blocking, anticipation, securing and pulling the ball away, and, muscular fitness, particularly in stretch-shortening-cycle jumping performances.
The writer perceives the quality of the research invested into the second study to reflect the researcher's dedication to some details, which contributed their development of a somewhat detailed study that continues to leave unanswered questions regarding "the game-related statistics that discriminate winner and losing teams" (Ibanez, Garcia Feu, Lorenzo, & Sampaio, 2009, Title excerpt). The study left the writer wanting to
Caffeine Improves Visual-Motor Performance
Acute Caffeine Ingestion Improves Visual-Motor esponses
Caffeine represents the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, so understanding how this chemical affects an individual's physiology is essential to providing the best healthcare advice for the general public. Towards this goal, the response times of college students were studied before and after ingestion of water, ed Bull, or coffee. The task involved clicking a mouse button as fast as possible in response to a computer monitor screen changing color. Compared to water, response times improved by almost 6 and 13 seconds for ed Bull and coffee, respectively. Based on published information, which suggests the ed Bull and coffee ingestion would provide approximately 80 and 122 mg of caffeine, respectively, these results indicate a dose-dependent improvement in task performance as the caffeine dosage increased. Although between subjects variability was high, these results are remarkably consistent…
Bruce, M., Scott, N., Lader, M., & Marks, V. (1986). The psychopharmacological and electrophysiological effects of single doses of caffeine in healthy human subjects. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 22, 81-7.
Brunye, T.T., Mahoney, C.R., Leiberman, H.R., & Taylor, H.A. (2010). Caffeine modulates attention of network function. Brain and Cognition, 72, 181-8.
Caffeineinformer. (2014). Drip Coffee: Caffeine levels. Retrieved 16 Mar. 2014 from http://www.caffeineinformer.com/caffeine-content/coffee-drip .
Jacobson, B.H. & Thurman-Lacey, S.R. (1992). Effect of caffeine on motor performance by caffeine-naive and -- familiar subjects. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 74, 151-157.
Octagon Sports Organization Structure
Octagon Sports Organizational Structure
The most fundamental aspect and/or tool for establishing a successful organization is the organizational structure. Organizational structure is a typical and hierarchical arrangement of lines of authority, rights, duties, and communications within an organization, thereby defining how powers, roles, and responsibilities are assigned, coordinated, and controlled, and how information flows between the diversified levels of management. All these aspects are thereby directed towards the attainment or achievement of an organization's aims and/or goals. An organization's structure depends on the organization's core objectives and strategies. There are two categories of organizational structure comprising (i) centralized structure, and (ii) decentralized structure. Within a centralized structure, the top management owns, if not all then, most of the decision making powers, as well as staunch control over the organization's departments and divisions. On the contrary, in a decentralized organizational structure, the power for decision making is…
Hoffer, C.W., Hunt, C. & Collins, W. (2009). Strategic approach to sports globalization.
Journal of International Marketing, 12(1), 57-74.
Job, P., Woods, J. & Howard, C. (2008). Description of roles of sports agencies, operational and educational programs to prepare for a successful organizational and field performance. Journal of Sports and Entertainment, 45, 27-34.
Octagon Worldwide, (2013). Octagon executive biographies. Retrieved on 15th March, 2014
Octagon Sports Marketing Plan
Octagon Sports Marketing
Octagon Sports Company has been proud to be an industry leader in terms of events management, sports and entertainment marketing, and representation of athletes and personalities al over the world. It was founded in the year 1983 and after wards acquired as sports and entertainment event marketing arm of the Interpublic Group of Companies (IPG) in 1997 by the same company (IPG). Currently Octagon Company is able to employ more than 1000 professionals in the more than 60 offices across the globe.
Octagon Sports Marketing Company has been a pioneer in terms of full service sports and entertainment corporate consulting, bringing together various marketing disciplines and services in a single roof for the benefit of our clients. The in-house resources that our company offers are efficiency and convenience and this is apart from traditional and specialized services offered. In several occasion the company…
Davis. The business of sports agents. University of Pennsylvania Press. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
Frank Craighili (2000) Despite costs, buying binge not over yet Retrieved March 15, 2014. http://www.sportsbusinessdaily.com/Journal/Issues/2000/05/20000529/No-Topic-Name/Despite-Costs-Buying-Binge-Not-Over-Yet.aspx
Los Angeles (CA) 2009) Entertainment PR/Marketing/Celebrity Consulting (First Call). Retrieved March 15, 2014 www.octagonfirstcall.com
McLean (2013) Athlete and Property Marketing. Retrieved March 15, 2014 www.octagon.com/AthletesPersonalities/13.
In his preparation for a career in sports, an unethical coach or teammate may present the boy with steroids to enhance his physical performance, with the claim that Rodriguez advocates the use of such substances.
Furthermore, Rodriguez's apparent lack of remorse and his adherence to the claim that he was "young and stupid" creates a poor image for both the sport, its stars, and its followers. It furthermore indicates that being young precludes a person from making wise choices, and that only a maturity in years could bring the wisdom necessary to say no to performance-enhancing drugs.
This also has an effect upon parenting, and the ability of parents to influence children for their best benefit. tars such as Rodriguez indirectly promote drugs by means of their behavior. Jeopardizing good parenting in this way also influences the stability of the family and hence of society as a whole. It is…
Inman, Cam. (2009, Feb 17). Candid Cam: A*Rod, steroids and "My Cousin Vinny." http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=1646806551&SrchMo de=1&sid=21&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1236294835 & clientId=29440
Schneider, Angela J. (2007) Doping in Sport: Global Ethical Issues. Routledge.
Enticing more people to come into the area could provide for more economic development, because some of the tourists would likely decide to relocate there - and a growing number of residents would also bring in more businesses and a better economy for those residents.
Having sport tourism as part of the "scene" in Belfast could attract sports teams wanting to make that their home base.
Anyone who is a promoter for sports events and can bring in a lot of tourism with those events will likely get booked for other things, providing more business.
There is a lot of money that can be made when it comes to the merchandising of the event.
There are threats with any endeavor, and when it comes to sport tourism in Belfast these threats include:
There may not be enough people interested in a specific sport (or interested in sports at all)…
Adorno, T. (2000). Problems of moral philosophy (T. Schroder, Ed. & R. Livingstone, Trans.). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Backer, W. (1973) - Motivating workers. Johannesburg: McGraw-Hill: New York.
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Job Analysis and Performance Appraisal Methods: Practical Applications
My current circumstances could be grooming me for a totally different profession but deep inside, I have always admired the work journalists do. I particularly like how news reporters go out to the field, gather real time information, and interact with newsmakers. In addition to enjoying themselves, these ladies and gentlemen play a very significant role in the creation of a more open and just society. For this assignment, I will address a number of issues with regard to the job I would be interested in pursuing, i.e. news reporting.
Job analysis according to Werner, Schuler, and Jackson (2010) is essentially "a systematic process of describing and recording information about job behaviors, activities, and worker specifications" (p. 122). In that regard therefore, a job analysis seeks to generate information regarding both those performing the job and the job itself. It…
Mathis, R.M. & Jackson, J.H. (2010). Human Resource Management (13th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Snell, S.A. & Bohlander, G.W. (2011). Managing Human Resources (16th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Werner, S., Schuler, R.S. & Jackson, S.E. (2012). Human Resource Management (11th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Grade Level in Texas
The Physical Education (PE) curriculum guide for Texas provides different knowledge and skills for every grade level K-8. The objective for kindergarten level is the learning basic body control while moving across different settings (Texas Education Agency, n.d.). For grade 1, the objective is the objective is to continue enhancing basic body control while developing essential movement skills and fitness components that relate to health. The objective for grade 2 is to demonstrate vital components of essential movement skills and become more effective in locomotive skills. For grade 3, the objective is to show maturity in more essential movement patterns while for grade 4 it is to learn to detect the elements of health-related fitness and sources of information for health fitness. For grade 5, the objective is to demonstrate competence like enhanced accuracy in calculating skills in dynamic situations and grade 6's objective is to…
HIGH5 Sports Nutrition. (n.d.). Drugs Free Statement. Retrieved November 17, 2016, from http://highfive.co.uk/drugs-free/
Texas Education Agency. (n.d.). Chapter 116. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Physical Education. Retrieved from Texas Government website: http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter116/ch116a.html
World Wrestling Entertainment. (2013, July 23). Abuse and Drug Testing Policy. Retrieved November 17, 2016, from http://corporate.wwe.com/what-we-do/talent/abuse-and-drug-testing-policy#C10s
FAMILY DOLLA & MODELLS ANALYSIS
Family Dollar & Modell's Sporting Goods Analysis
Family Dollar & Modell's Sporting Goods Analysis
The award winning series Undercover Boss is a CBS reality show series that is about a senior management boss of a corporation who works as an undercover in a bid to discover, along with understanding the operation of the whole business. This likewise helps them to be able to recognize if there are any gaps in the corporation so that they can come up with the best way of speaking to them as a result. However, As CEO of Family Dollar, I am going to compare 2 positions from Undercover- Boss season 5 episodes 7. I would compare distribution center "warehouse" and Sales associate.
My name is Xavier Lewis, CEO of Family Dollar. Since 1959, when Family Dollar first swung its doors open to the public their doors (Leonard,…
Lambert, S. (Director). (2014). Undercover Boss Modell's Sporting Goods [Motion Picture].
Lambert, S. (Director). (2014). Undercover Boss S05E07 Family Dollar [Motion Picture].
Leonard, J. (2009). Family dollar stores.
Thompson Jr., A. S. (2008). Crafting and executing strategy. . New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Foremost, unlike the previous alternative solution, the profitability of the sports equipment manufacturer would not be negatively affected by problems in the vendor-supplier relationship.
A b) Supplier-vendor relationship
Unlike changes in the priority of payments, the contracting of a bank loan would not affect the relationship between Lawrence Sports Inc. And its purveyors. The suppliers would still receive their payments at regular dates and would therefore continue delivering high quality commodities in a timely and efficient manner. If something, the relationship would improve as more orders would be made and the company would have a better possibility of honouring its obligations to the suppliers.
A c) Ability to resolve the problem now and in the future
The immediate future could pose some threats as the company would also have to pay the bank loan. However, the additional financial resources would allow the company to further invest in their human resource…
Cameron, E., Green, M., April 2004, Making Sense of Change Management: A Complete Guide to Methods, Tools and Techniques of Organizational Change, Kogan Page Limited
Mathis, R.L., Jackson, J.H., January 2005, Human Resource Management, 11th Edition, South-Western
It was after this season that Phil Jackson left the Platoons of Albany and joined the Chicago Bulls as an Assistant Coach, and as it is generally said, the 'rest is history'. (Lakers Coach Phil Jackson signs with WMA and Original Entertainment)
In a nutshell, a leader can be seen as a person or an individual who is inevitably the most important person within the group or organization where he is working or associated with in any way. It is this very leader who is most often responsible for the successes and the failures of the group or the team, which is under him. However, it is sometimes said that success and failure also lies in the hands of the followers, and in nay sort of organization or group, it is in the hands of the follower that the leader's goals and dreams are generally carried out or executed. Chris…
DuPree, David. Phil Jackson, Zen and Now. USA TODAY. 6 June, 2002. Retrieved at http://www.usatoday.com/sports/nba/02playoffs/2002-06-05-cover-jackson.htm . Accessed on 24 January, 2004
Empowerment: Developing Effective Followers. Retrieved From www.surcon.com/Surcon_Empowerment.doc+the+career+and+leadership+of+Phil+Jackson&hl=en" http://www.surcon.com/Surcon_Empowerment.doc . Accessed on 24 January, 2004
Evaluate Performance Constantly. Retrieved From www.teamsthatwin.com/ftp/EVALUATE%2520PERFORMANCE%2520CONSTANTLY.pdf+how+was+Coach+Phil+Jackson+effective+in+enabling+players+to+reach+their+peak+performance+levels+&hl=en" http://www.teamsthatwin.com/ftp/EVALUATE%20PERFORMANCE%20CONSTANTLY.pdf . Accessed on 24 January, 2004
Lakers Coach Phil Jackson signs with WMA and Original Entertainment. William Morris Agency, Press Releases. Retrieved at http://www.wma.com/0/press/pressreleases/Phil_Jackson_Final.html . Accessed on 24 January, 2004
Odor Beaters Athletic Shoes
The market for athletic shoes has grown into a multi-billion dollar global enterprise in the last several decades. Athletic shoes comprise about 33% of a $48 billion market, growing annually (National Shoe Retailers Association, 2012)
Athletic footwear includes athletic, sport, and active lifestyle footwear for men, women and children. It may be performance oriented, outdoor oriented, or even casual, but is designed to aid individuals in sporting activities.
One interesting fact about athletic footwear is that it has evolved over the last few decades to also become a fashion statement. Basketball shoes, for example, are worn not just on the court, but as everyday "urban" outfits, thus drastically increasing the size of the market.
Odor in shoes, particularly those worn in sporting events in which there is heavy perspiration, are considered one of the most irksome issues for athletic shoe wear, requiring regular inserts, use of…
Bible, L., Kerr, S., & Zanini, M. (2006). The Balanced Scorecard - Here and Back. Management Accounting Quarterly, 7(4), 18-29.
Bulgarella, C. (2005, February). Employee Satisfaction & Customer Satisfaction. Retrieved from Guidestar Research: http://meetingmetrics.com/research_papers/whitepaper_cs_es_relationships.pdf
Gruenwald, T., & Genz, D. (1999). Modern Methods of Ice Fishing. Channhassen, MN: Creative Publishing.
Kaplan, R., & Nortin, D. (1992, March). The Balanced Scorecard - Measures that Drive Performance. Retrieved from Harvard Business Review: http://www.stevens-tech.edu/MSISCourses/450/Articles/ValueOfIT/TheBalancedScoreCard.pdf
Marketing Research on Athletic Shoe- Industry
The brand caters a promise of reliability, in effect that one stand behind their product. Branding is not an action we can realize overnight. A successful brand is built over time from the hundreds of little things we do right. . The brand is, at its core, an declaration of a standard performance. It guarantees that the product or service carrying that brand will live up to its reputation. The merit of a brand rises or falls with the integrity of the people behind it. The principles of the principals build or rupture a brand.
When running shoes first came on the market, it was a marvelous development over the old sneakers and high-tops. But soon the market became crowded with shoes bearing a wide variety of features, at a wide range of price points. The main players in the sports shoe industry are…
Lawrence Sports Simulation
Lawrence Sports are facing a challenge; they have a single buyer for their goods and deal with two main suppliers. he firm is facing delays in collecting the accounts receivable from the buyer; Mayo, while the payments for the suppliers; Garner Products and Murray Leather Works remain due. he strategy suggested is to readjust the credit terms with Lawrence and the suppliers to reduce the pressure o the cash flow and decrease the requirement for borrowing. he strategy requires the balancing of the different stakeholders needs in order to retain the good business relationships. he strategy of tightening the credit policy is to be accompanied by the use of the balanced scorecard which will help the firm focus on the overall performance and Cash Conversion Cycle
he cash conversion cycle measures the time between a firm spending cash and collect cash from the sales. he longer…
The alterative many be to review the payment terms offered to Mayo in order to reduce the time they are taking to pay their invoices, even offering a small discount may be preferable to the incurring of interest charges on large amounts of outstanding capital. Mayo may also resist, so this would also take negotiation and may place the business prelateship under strain; especially if Mayo has low switching costs and other suppliers are available (Mintzberg et al., 2008). A combination of the two may be advisable as it would allow for moves at both ends of the cash conversion cycle.
Balanced Scorecard Measures
The balanced scorecard is being introduced as a way of guiding and measuring the firm performance. If implemented it is necessary to assess the measures which may
This would considerably simplify matters for Lawrence Sports. Such financing methods are best suited for alimenting short-term objectives.
The reason behind implementing an electronic payments system relies on the fact that the company would count on receiving and making timely payments. This alternative is also designed for simplifying the cash flow.
Preparing and effective cash budget is another alternative solution that must be taken into consideration by the company's managers. The reason that sustains this alternative consists in the fact that companies prefer not to keep big amounts of cash available, but, at the same time, companies are also afraid of keeping amounts of money that are too small for whatever unexpected issues might emerge. Handling large inventories of cash is a strategy that his its advantages and its disadvantages (Brealy, Myers & Allen, 2005).
Another alternative solution mentioned above consists in implementing a factoring system. This financial tool is…
Brealy, Myers & Allen (2005). Principles of Corporate Finance: Working Capital Management. New York, McGraw - Hill. Retrieved March 11, 2009.
Bernstein & Maksy (1985). Again Now: How Do We Measure Cash Flow from Operations? Retrieved March 12, 2009.
Ross, Westerfield & Jaffee (2005). Corporate Finance. New York, McGraw - Hill. Retrieved March 12, 2009.
Issue and Opportunity Identification
Multi-Use Sports Venue
The trend in modern-day professional sports is for teams to make their mark -- to brand themselves into giants with millions of fans and followers wearing the jerseys of the athletes they love. Part and parcel with this devotion is the concept of a sports team having its own arena or stadium -- just like a god or goddess in ancient Athens would have had its own temple dedicated just to their worship. Indeed, of the 30 Major League Baseball teams, 22 of them have their own publicly-owned single-purpose stadiums. In the NFL, a similar ratio is found. Among pro-sports clubs where arenas can be shared in cities that host NBA and NHL, multi-purpose venues are not uncommon -- but when it comes to strict observance of devotion -- the lone stadium designated specifically for 8 games a year -- such as the Cincinnati Bengals' Paul Brown…
First, all efforts should be made toward reducing our reliance on fossil fuels instead of encouraging continued reliance on automobiles in the future. Therefore, the available funds should be used to develop alternate transportation methods such as modernized rail systems and even traditional public transportation systems that damage the environment and consume gasoline less than private automobiles on a per-passenger basis.
Second, we should be striving to reduce the trend of working in urban areas and living in suburban areas that developed throughout the 20th century in the United States. That is one of the reasons we became so dependent on automobiles as a nation in the first place. Therefore, the money should be spent on developing better, cleaner, and more efficient public transportation systems and on maintaining existing infrastructure such as bridges and tunnels that are in tremendous states of disrepair across the nation. Conversely, developing new highways is…