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Sports played either by professionals, amateurs, or just for leisure, are a large part of all industrialized societies. Nonetheless, early on sociologists have looked at sports with distain. For instance Emile Durkheim thought of sports as simply ritualized civic ceremonies, whereas early feminists viewed them as masculine cultural displays (Giulianotti, 2005). However, Bourdieu, Elias, and Dunning were among the first sociologists to take a serious approach in viewing sports as sociological phenomena, although they understood that there were issues involved as Bourdieu (1990, p. 156) notes: "The sociology of sport: It is disdained by sociologists and despised by sportspeople."
Karen and Washington (2001) reviewed the sports sociology literature between the late 1980s to the early 1990s and found that the field was oriented more towards micro-level analyses about gender, ethnicity, sexuality, and the media. Macro-oriented level research during that period was underrepresented and mostly oriented toward gender and…… [Read More]
Sociology of Sport: The Ideals of Sport as a Reflection of Society
Sport has become a central part of society, introduced to children at a young age and often continuing to be part of a person's life throughout their lifetime. Sport impacts on people in a number of ways. In childhood, the focus of sport is often on participating, working with other people and aspiring to be the best you can be. Successful sports people also become heroes for children, something that continues into adulthood. As individuals grow older their focus may change from playing sport to watching sport. At the same time, sports people continue to be respected and viewed as heroes, the fact that successful sports people get paid millions in sponsorship money is evidence that they must have a major impact on consumers. There are few other aspects of society that begin so early in childhood and…… [Read More]
sport has come to be the leading definer of masculinity in mass culture." ob Connell, 1995
This statement covers such a huge amount of sociological assertions, a doctoral dissertation would not be able to do it justice. What is "masculinity" defined as and how has that definition evolved? What about "mass culture?" How far back shall we trace "historically recent times," and what was the situation before said times? What are some other definers of masculinity? Does the word only apply to those who are physiologically male, or is it a more general term used to describe certain personality traits?
Instead, it will examine the basic premise of the statement that sport is a major defining factor of what it means to be masculine in today's culture, and how and why that statement is true. It will do so first by giving a general history how we as society define…… [Read More]
It is this struggle to maximize benefits that leads to such movements of social change in both politics and social revolutions. Conflict theory exists in direct opposition to the tenets of functionalist theory, arguing that instead of a society where everyone plays are particular part, society instead exists as a pyramid structure, with a group of elites that dictate the rules to the masses. Thus, all major societal institutions, including laws and traditions, exist for the sole purpose of maintaining this structure. Thus, according to the conflict theory, colleges and universities exist in order to perpetuate this status quo. On the one hand, colleges ensure that the elite become educated and thus capable of carrying on their leadership roles. On the other hand, students at the college are indoctrinated with the traditions of society.
Finally, the theory of interactionsim is based on the idea that nothing in society is determined…… [Read More]
Anti-discrimination laws are enforced and companies are rated by their policies of tolerance. Homophobia is gradually being extricated from the American consciousness and so is sexism. The media plays a major role in how the American consciousness changes and those changes have an indelible impact on the character of the American Dream.
Thomspon also notes that Thrice was well-loved by his teammates. The community rallied in support of Thrice and there was a general outcry after he died. Being American has always entailed appreciation for grassroots movements. The social and political realities that evolve depend on grassroots movements. Grassroots movements precede legislation and policy changes. America becomes more of a real democracy as grassroots movements offer a voice for the most disenfranchised elements of society. Grassroots movements prevent tyrannnies of the majority and enable minority opinions to make their way into public policy. The American government remains a government of…… [Read More]
But despite these strides, the negative as well as the positive legacy of sports in American culture cannot be ignored.
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). unning through Kenya. Slate.com. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
Johnson, Jenna. (2010). NCAA graduation rates. The Washington Post. etrieved September 20,
2010 at http://voices.washingtonpost.com/campus-overload/2010/03/another_ncaa_bracket_player_gr.html
Lehrer, Jonah. (2010, August 24). How to raise a superstar. Wired Science. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/08/how-to-raise-a-superstar/#ixzz107NwUSGh
Lovett, C. (1997). The fight to establish the women's Olympic marathon race. Olympic Marathon, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., Westport, CT. etrieved September 21,
2010 at http://www.marathonguide.com/history/olympicmarathons/chapter25.cfm
Williams, Kam. (2006). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves. AALBC.
etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://aalbc.com/reviews/forty_million_dollar_slaves.htm
Witt, Jon. (2006). The…… [Read More]
I enjoy baseball, the World Series (go Sox!) and the Super Bowl. I also enjoy ice hockey and figure skating. In a world where most of these sports are seen as decidedly masculine, I am often a rarity, a woman who enjoys watching sports (minus the beer, of course). In my own family I am an anomaly, too. I don't know where this enjoyment of sports came from, but I do enjoy many of these televised events, and it sets me apart from many of my friends and family. Looking at gender issues such as these can teach me more about life, about how we all relate to each other, and about our own prejudices and misunderstandings. A woman in a sports bar without a man is somewhat like a woman in a locker room - it happens, but a few eyebrows are still raised at the thought. I like…… [Read More]
Social norms are occasionally explicit or even codified into law: we are not supposed to walk around naked; talk to ourselves; or show up an hour late to a meeting. When we break any one of the explicit social norms we pay, either by being criticized, ostracized, or penalized. Breaking a subtle social norm by standing around doing nothing is more difficult to target. No one can point a finger and say, "You shouldn't be doing that," even though some people might think I look funny.
The concept of the sociological imagination as well as Cooley's "looking glass self" illustrate how identity and self-image are sociological constructs. When standing around doing nothing, I felt like an outsider because I was not participating in the normative behavior of the crowd around me. Being alone is in itself not a problem but without at least appearing to have a purpose in standing…… [Read More]
Sociology and Socialization: Gender Differences Examined
Go to any card shop and take a look at the birthday cards. Birthday cards display numerous messages about society's attitudes toward gender, age, mental status and more. Most of the birthday cards available in a typical Hallmark store, the store examined, display what might be considered gender 'norms'. For example, girl's birthday cards are mostly offered in pink, showing pictures of flowers or bunnies or other soft items. Male birthday cards often depict pictures of sporting items, blue colors, or even women. The cards available suggest that differences exist between what men and women like, and emphasize that these 'norms' have become social institutions. The messages provided in cards suggest that women want to hear flowery messages of love and caring, whereas men would rather here a good joke or look at a picture of a member of the opposite sex.…… [Read More]
Sociology of Women
Family, as sociology recognizes is one of the most important institutions that contribute to the process of primary socialization of an individual. However, like all other institutions, family is one of the crucial grounds where feminists have a lot to argue about and they fight for the rights of women and the need to be given an appropriate space and respect in the household.
As the distribution of work in the household goes, the traditional belief and concept is that the women are the ones who need to stay home and monitor all the necessary chores and the domestic work needed around the house. However, the feminists seem to be highly critical about this particular thought. They have begun to question why it is seen as the women's sole responsibility to look after the needs of the children and tend to every individual in the household.…… [Read More]
Sociology and Req. For a Dream
ARequiem for a [email protected] takes sociological deviation to the extreme. Deviation is defined as behaviors which do not conform to significant norms held by most members of a society or group. This movie uses drugs as the deviation and shows how it destroys the four main character's lives. Harry and his girlfriend start out as ambitious young adults with dreams of starting their own clothing store. Tyrone just wants happiness with his girlfriend. Lastly Sara Goldfarb, Harry's mom wants to be on television. The three friends end alone, with nothing but their addiction to heroin and Sara is committed to an asylum because of the effects of the speed she uses to lose weight in order to be on TV. There are many specific sociological principles that apply to things that happen within deviant subcultures. This movie illustrates a good many of them in…… [Read More]
Sociology Discussion Responses
Response to Post #
I agree completely with your post. All of us have a natural tendency toward loss of objective perspective and we tend to view the world through the prism of our own lives and in a manner framed by our personal experiences and standards of living. I admit to having caught myself many times worrying too much about things that, in reality, are extremely minor compared to the challenges and hardships faced by others. Sometimes, I am embarrassed at the types of concerns that can preoccupy my thoughts until I am confronted by those whose concerns obviously dwarf mine and who would probably give anything just to have the opportunities and comforts in my life that I sometimes take for granted. On those occasions, I try to use the experience as a way of helping me refocus my perspective from my self-centered needs and…… [Read More]
Some feminists argue that all pornography is bad for women because it is degrading to women (Peterson, 1998). The "victims" need protection, they claim, which, ironically, they say comes in the form of laws restricting what women legally can and cannot do with their own bodies.
While it can be argued that pornography reinforces negative male attitudes towards women in society and it increases the incidence of sex crimes, these are unfair claims (Peterson, 1998). While men may bring deep-rooted attitdevelop negative attitudes towards women. Even if pornography were banned, negative attitudes towards women would not disappear. In addition, there is little evidence to suggest that widespread distribution and use of soft-core pornography increases numbers of sex crimes.
In addition, it is important to note that many men who support feminism and women's rights enjoy pornography (Peterson, 1998). In addition, many successful heterosexual couples in committed relationships use soft-core pornography…… [Read More]
everal authors like ullivan (2001) point out the hypocrisy in drawing arbitary lines around certain classes of drugs. In fact, all drugs are potentially harmful. Even caffeine is bad for health when abused. Legally acquired pharmaceutical drugs can be lethal, whereas marijuana has no known cases of overdose. The discrepancy in laws and sentencing policies should be eradicated in order to create a more just society. As Walsh & Hemmens (2008) point out in the chapter on "Law and ocial Change," the prohibition on drugs is no different than the prohibition on alcohol. Both have caused the proliferation of organized crime and neither solved the underlying issues related to mental and physical health. One of the main reasons to legalize drugs is to reduce the market power of organized crime syndicates. Prohibition of alcohol "literally kick-started organized crime in the United tates, and ushered in a decade of gang wars…… [Read More]
Sociology- Social Work
Aboriginal Social Work
Why does Judge Murray Sinclair note that the legal concept of innocence/guilt is not granted by Aboriginal societies as it is in the Canadian Justice System?
In Aboriginal communities, guilt is typically secondary to the main issue: the main concern is that something is erroneous and it has to be corrected. Since the main purpose is the reinstatement of accord rather than the imposition of reprimand, the accused is more likely to confess bad behavior. Judge Sinclair proposes that possibly this explicates why so many Aboriginal people plead guilty when in court. The Canadian criminal justice system is founded on Euro-Canadian principles and, as a consequence, frequently clashes with Aboriginal values. High levels of imprisonment, augmented focus from law enforcement, language hurdles, conflicting values and theoretical frameworks concerning crime and punishment, as well as certain issues faced by youth, all add to the breakdown…… [Read More]
Probable causes accounting for this are a holdup in the identification of cardiovascular ailment in women might not be enough to reveal medical implication. Variation in the accepted chronology of coronary arterial ailments is found in the genders, especially connected with the effect of menopause. Age of appearance, appearing of signs, influence of different causes of danger, and results of treatment vary between the sexes. (Tecce; Dasgupta; Doherty, 22)
In general, coronary artery ailment occurs 10 years past in life in women compared to men, and the median age for MI in case of women is approximately 20 years older, branding coronary heart ailment which affects elderly women. The causes for these disparities is not wholly intelligible, even if the prevalence of the sickness of coronary artery in women in the fertility years becomes low, signifying that endogenous hormones seems to exercise a defensive part beyond menopause. Postmenopausal women rapidly…… [Read More]
Customers entered the establishment carrying shoulder bags and computer notebook bags and proceeded directly to the counter to make purchases. The vast majority of customers arrived alone and most of them left the establishment shortly after receiving their purchases. The customers who opted to take seats did not make any eye contact with other customers and proceeded to use their cell phones or notebook computers (apparently) to send text messages and emails. Some of them took out folders or paperwork from their bags and appeared to check through them. The observer also noted that all of the customers who occupied seats checked their watches fairly frequently; in many cases, they first glanced up at the clock on the wall before checking their own watches immediately afterwards.
On the basis of these observations, the observer concluded that the vast majority of the Starbucks Customers frequenting the establishment on the occasion of…… [Read More]
Sociology of Popular Culture
A popular culture is a complex term defined by a number of already existing definitions which explore the different spectrums associated with the term. The initial understanding of this culture was based on the lifestyle adopted by the masses; the subordinate, lower class, which made them separate from the elite class. However, today, it is considered to be a lifestyle which includes different cultural practices, artifacts and other cultural commodities, that is widely accepted by the population. Therefore, in order to study a popular culture, it is important to focus on the varying aspects such as identity, representation, regulation, production and consumption where the latter two have an interdependent relationship. For this reason, this paper would look into the underlying fact of the contemporary popular culture where the producers are also the consumers.
The theorists of the cultural studies started studying popular culture when…… [Read More]
In terms of the plainness of gendered inequalities in the health and longevity of women, compared with men, the majority world demands our notice. The world-wide toll in terms of women's raised levels of mortality and morbidity corroborates that limited or negligible access to political power, land-ownership, education, sexual self-determination and earning ability has detrimental bodily effects (Bradby, 2009).
While sociologists have long studied the aspect of illness, it has only been recently that they have turned their attention to the development of sociology of health. Sociologists' interest in health emerged in part in reaction to the biomedical mode, which focused primarily on disease. A more holistic approach to health and healing, sociologists argued, must also encompass the idea of positive health and well-being. The concept of health itself needs to be explored, and such exploration must take lay perspectives into account. A holistic, or socio-environmental, model of health also…… [Read More]
Both what make up a race and how one recognizes a racial difference is culturally determined. Whether two individuals consider themselves as of the same or of different races depends not on the degree of similarity of their genetic make up but on whether history, tradition, and personal training and experiences have brought them to think of themselves as belonging to the same group or to different groups (Spickard, Fong and Ewalt, 1995).
Prejudices, stereotypes, insults, pejorative labels and other things are usually articulated in racist communications. Explicit racism helps to legitimize individual and collective action that creates and sustains inequality and oppression between social groups. The history of mankind provides thousands of examples of racist violence: genocide, colonialism, repressive immigration policies and all kinds of discriminatory behavior. This kind of racism is explicit and visible. Unfortunately, racism can also be invisible. acism is totally embedded in the social structures…… [Read More]
A few managed some whispered comments as he headed toward the back of the line.
Food Line at the School Cafeteria
This attempt was not very successful. The researcher cut in front of a female student in her late teens. She was appeared to be alone, and was carrying a laptop. She was looking down at the floor and did not seem like she was paying attention to anyone. She said nothing as the researcher stepped in front of her, though he saw her grimace slightly and then return to looking at the floor. Nevertheless, a group of seven or eight students behind her quickly noticed the researcher's presence. One of them turned loudly to his friends and cried, "Did you just see that? This guy cut in front." The researcher pretended not to notice and tried to continue looking blankly ahead. Almost immediately, he felt a strong tap on…… [Read More]
Sociology Discussion Responses
Response to Post #1
I agree completely with almost everything in your post about the importance of preventing and responding to instances of domestic violence. However, I think it might be s slight exaggeration to characterize domestic violence as the single greatest societal challenge facing our society. That is not to suggest that it is not crucial, only that various other problems may be equal to or even greater in magnitude. In fact, I would suggest that child abuse and other forms of bad parenting are more important issues, particularly since those issues are directly causally related to the domestic violence problem. In general, domestic abusers suffer from some aspect of low self-esteem and were probably subjected to some degree of parental abuse that predisposes them to becoming abusive as adults. In that sense, I would suggest that domestic partner abuse, while an extremely important problem in…… [Read More]
There is an idea of cognitive and valuation confusion in the book. The writer is a professor yet the book is not academic.
There are many inconsistencies in the book yet it is something that gives a different opinion about the combination or working and leisure in the American context. Hence I will recommend this book to peers (ichard, 2008). However, there are a few things I will be telling about the books that they do not develop high expectations from the book. The book is conditionally recommended. The book offers a unique perspective on advantages of leisure time and the blessings of working less. The money we earn more is seldom spent on productive areas and normally falls prey to mere consumerism. People work more normally to be able to shop more. Besides that the people that I recommend the book will be told that the book does…… [Read More]
Dated November 7, 2002, it speaks about the fact that, as of that date - and for the first time in Senate history - three currently-serving Senators had actually belonged to that body for more than forty years continuously. ("New Seniority Record," 7 November 2002) the stature of these three men? Very great, I imagine, but as of that date - unassailable. The creator of this web site did not dare to give any sort of heavy or overly critical analysis of any still-serving U.S. senators. A living incumbent, and his actions, bear a very different status from the legislator of the past. He, after all, does not have to worry about re-election!
Certainly, there is quite a bit to be learned from these examples of status information. As stated earlier, each of us carries with herself or himself certain assumptions about other people, places... even ideas. The example concerning…… [Read More]
Within my own community, I have seen this as more and more people travel farther and farther away for college, and settle far away from their parents. Access to expanded opportunities motivates the individual to break his or her existing social ties.
A third and final sociological concept manifested in the McMinden example is seen in the prevalence of drug addiction in the town. As noted by Manuel Mendoza, a Hispanic police officer who has made some inroads into the once almost entirely white town's law enforcement hierarchy, drug use crosses all racial divides, as the town's economic condition has worsened, so has the prevalence of addiction. Individuals who feel they have been denied the opportunity to fully enjoy the American Dream, particularly when confronted with increasingly unrealistic expectations of material success in the media, often experience what obert K. Merton called anomie, or alienation. One of the ways individuals…… [Read More]
American football is a professional sport that was derived from the game of Rugby by Walter Camp in 1879 (ellis). Walter played football at Yale University where he attended college. He was involved in developing the football rules as we know them today. The rules of football were taken from the sports of Rugby and Soccer. Football has grown into a sport that is widely viewed and attended in the American society. Today, people go to football games at middle schools, high schools, and college stadiums. The college games have become professional games that are attended and viewed through media by millions of fans across the American nation.
The rules that were adopted and changed included; one side, or team, retained the undisputed possession of the ball until that side gives up the ball as a result of violations. The line of scrimmage was also created. The number of…… [Read More]
While I truly value and appreciate Smith's specific views, I find her outlook just a bit too
Three questions I have after analyzing these readings are:
With so many feminist theories, is there one that stands out as more "right" or applicable to today's society? Which of these theories has passed its' prime, and which are still viable for today's women and society?
Is society really that much different in the future? In "The Matrix," the men are still the dominant gender in society. Trinity and "The Oracle" are based on traditional female stereotypes. Trinity is strong and can fight, but she is still the minority in the underground, and the Oracle is based on a grandmotherly "seer" who is wise, but hands out cookies at the end of her wisdom. In addition, the "woman in the red dress" is a sexual fantasy for the character who creates her in…… [Read More]
This ethnographic observation comprises two separate visits to a NHL hockey game, during the regular season. Both of the observations took place at an evening game, which began at 7PM. There are several predispositions of how I believe people will look and behave in this setting. For example, I believed that men would outnumber women. I also believed that about half of the people at the hockey game would be with groups, and especially with families. I believed that roughly half of the attendants would be wearing a hockey team jersey, and that a quarter of the fans would have purchased beer from the stadium kiosks. Shouting and other signs of fan participation and enthusiasm was also expected. I have been to several NHL hockey games, as well as minor league games. This is why I have some expectations of the game but still tried to keep an open…… [Read More]
sociology in indigenous populations. Specifically it will discuss what the terms ethnicity and racism mean, and critically examine how these terms apply to Indigenous Australians? Ethnicity and racism apply to Indigenous Australians (Aborigines) throughout their history, sad but true. Since the English first settled Australian in the 1700s, the Indigenous population has suffered greatly, and it is one of Australia's greatest shames that it went on so long.
The Indigenous people of Australia (Aborigines and Torres Straight Islanders) are one of the oldest cultures on Earth. Archaeologists believe their lineage goes back at least 50,000 years, and some believe it could go as far back as 65,000 years ago. They were the original occupants of Australia, and have a deep and abiding respect for the land and its many different environments. An Aboriginal Web site notes, "For Indigenous Australians, the land is the core of all spirituality and this relationship…… [Read More]
It doesn't take a rocket scientist to note that there have been disturbing trends in schools recently. While the spate of extreme violence appears to be waning, schools are still troubled places, with both students and teachers seemingly failing to get out of them what they expect or need, and suffering stress and trauma in the meantime. Society wants 'instant' gratification, TV is full of 'reality shows' that depend on people doing disgusting things to win a huge fortune, relatively speaking, so they can go do and buy more stuff. The most recent presidential race offered us a three-years-and-counting national discussion over who really won the presidency. And we have rushed headlong to send troops into two sovereign nations without benefit of the United Nations' sanctioning the acts, after the United Nations -- located on U.S. soil -- was founded to smooth out relationships between the world's peoples.
All…… [Read More]
symbolizes the sum total of qualitative and quantitative values on which the degree and extent of exploitability of the region for the purpose of tourism depends. It Is difficult to explain the 'potential' in numerical terms as it involves many factors in the context of tourism.
Tourism deals with the physical, psychological and sometimes even spiritual demands of the people from diverse geographical, socio-cultural and economic background that travel under different motives, interests, preferences and immediate needs. In other words, tourism development in any area depends on availability of recreational resources, in addition to factors like climate, seasons, accessibility, attitude of the local people, planning and 'tourist plant' facility. All this put together creates a 'tourism magnetic atmosphere', which is resource base for the tourism
Factors influencing tourism and assist in exploiting the complete potential of an area, therefore vary from socio-economic to political and evolution of demand. These factors…… [Read More]
ports and popular culture (NFL/NBA)
Popular culture entails all forms of mass communication such as:
Books and Cartoons and comics
It is somewhat different compared to higher forms of cultural art such as:
In terms of mass communication, popular culture means messages which are intellectually and artistically limited primarily designed to entertain and humor the viewers (Hollander, 2014). Following the industrial revolution, the people had a lot of time to spare which led to a huge demand for entertainment and amusement and gave height to media. The increasing supply of goods also made it necessary for the advertisers to attract the consumers and mass media could reach a large number of audiences at the same time (Hollander, 2014).
The physical activities have always been in the life of human beings in the form of different leisure…… [Read More]
Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies
Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"
In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.
Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…… [Read More]
There are four different levels of sociological analysis, including meso. The micro level focuses on "the social dynamics of intimate, face-to-face interactions" (Little et al., p. 4), the macro level focuses on "large-scale, society-wide social interactions" (Little et al., 4) and the global level is higher still, looking at more universal sociological themes. The same event can be viewed through these different lenses, because many sociological interactions will occur at both micro and macro levels, and there are often global elements to such interactions as well.
For instance, the book discusses the 2011 Stanley Cup riots in Vancouver. On an individual level, the event can be studied in terms of what drove any individual person to join the riot, in particular what factors might contribute to somebody who would not normally break the law to join the riot. A more macro-level analysis might wish to examine what in the…… [Read More]
Boyhood, Organized Sports, and the construction of Masculinities" offers insight into a study he completed regarding male attributes and how masculinity is defined within organized sports. Following is a summary of the article denoting the hypothesis, dependent and independent variables if identifiable as such, the data source, methodology and answers to the posited hypothetical question(s).
Messner makes it very clear from the outset what the questions or hypotheses are in his study and the answers that he seeks in conducting the study. The questions Messner raises includes: "In what ways do males construct masculine identities within the institution of organized sports? In what ways do class and racial differences mediate this relationship and perhaps led to the construction of different meanings and perhaps different masculinities?" And the last hypothetical question is "what are some of the problems and contradictions within these constructions of masculinities?" (Messner, p. 88).
Messner is also…… [Read More]
Given that people engage in sporting events for a wide range of reasons, the authors assert that it is time for athletes to develop a moral code that embraces higher standards of conduct that will help reverse these recent trends and once again provide American sports with a sense of fair play and respect.
Fredenburg, Karen, Rafer Lutz, Glenn Miller et al. (2005). "Dismissals and Perceptions of Pressure in Coaching in Texas High Schools: Similarities and Differences with Previous Studies Show the Contemporary Face of Coaching Pressure." JOPERD-- The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 76(1):29.
In this essay, the authors report that there have been a number of recent studies and reports that suggest that the pressure in high school sports is growing, rather than declining. The authors cite an article in Sports Illustrated that described the alarming trends of parental misbehavior at youth sport events. The president…… [Read More]
234). Culturally, trainers may simply be paying more attention to girls' injuries due to our culture's tendency to protect females more than males (Tierney, et al., 2005, p. 278) and/or boys may simply under-report concussions due to "macho" tendencies to play through pain in order to continue playing (Covassin, et al., 2012, p. 926). Hormones may contribute to the greater incidence of concussions among female high school athletes because researchers have found that estrogen protects male rats from brain trauma but actually makes female rats more vulnerable to brain trauma (Makdissi, et al., 2013, p. 319). Whether caused anatomically, culturally, hormonally or for some other reason, the fact remains that girls are reportedly highly more likely to sustain concussions in sports such as soccer and basketball. Consequently, gender matters in the sports injury of concussion.
Development of a masculine identity is psychologically fundamental for males and particularly for…… [Read More]
Upward Mobility Through Sports
Stanley Eitzen's article "Upward Mobility Through Sports" is an analysis of the ability of individuals to raise themselves upward through the social stratification that currently exists in America. Sports are often seen by those on the lower end of the social strata as a means of rising up and becoming economically successful. However, Eitzen points out that the chances of rising socially and economically through a career in professional sports is not likely. This article fits in with the readings from our textbook as they discuss the existence of social stratification and the effects on an individual of their position within that society.
Chapter 7 in our textbook opens with Murray Milner's theories on high school social structure as a means to begin a discussion on social stratification; or the inequalities among individuals and groups within society. This leads to a listing of the three characteristics…… [Read More]
The sports center at the newly opened high school has to employ at least the following:
Two coaches, preferably one male and one female, each to manage the same gender teams. This measure is to be implemented in order to reduce the chances of immoral conduct on school premises, but no discriminations would be committed during the selection and hiring processes.
One medic is required to be easily reachable and assist sports injuries or otherwise medical necessities. Hiring a new medical professional would be redundant and meaningless, coming as such to a conclusion that the already hired school medic would also assist the medical needs of the sports center.
One counselor. Similar to the school medic, it could initially be stated that the role of sports counselor would be played by the already hired school counselor. However, such a solution is not the most viable one in the…… [Read More]
There is no significant relationship between having a higher perception of a sport as elite and having a lower willingness to participate.
Here the key concerns will consist of social and cultural perceptions of a sport and how these impact on willingness to try the sport.
Summary. The committee believes that in order to successfully offer archery and fencing as sports in the community program, these level-of-difficulty and social-psychological concerns about the two possible sport offerings must be understood. Obviously, the study of each research question above will inform the other, as both archery and fencing have had similar prestige perceptions in the general public for decades (See for example, Crawford, 1977; and Riess, 1980). As Jones and Gratton (2004) point out, research in sports science constitutes a systematic consideration of a problem as it relates to a situational need for information. In order to study the way potential…… [Read More]
The simplification of issues will often cloud the challenges and prevent comprehensive understanding of problems.
The third contribution relates to the role of gender and power on a wider scale. Wells-Barnett was able to elucidate an elusive relationship. Power is prepared to evoke gender to accomplish its purposes. Thus, within gendered conflict the overarching power structure is more concerned about maintaining and survival than addressing concerns. Both men and women become pawns in that power structure and gender becomes subservient to the wider cause of control.
The work of Wells-Barnett provided impetus to several issues. Her tenacity and determination meant that she was virtually unstoppable once she was convicted of a cause. With the use of sharp logic and purposeful argumentation, she addressed the concerns of her era. Thus, her propitious contribution to the modern feminist movement is deniable. Women both black and white owe a debt of gratitude to…… [Read More]
With the death of the male member of the family, this family is forced to be together, and it is through their unity that they are only able to make themselves stronger individually. The image of a grieving family demonstrated the strength of the dead soldier (male) as an individual and the helplessness of each member of the family (specifically, women and children) he has left behind.
Picture 4, meanwhile, highlighted a common stereotype associated against males as more dangerous and suspicious in character than females. This picture of Iraqi males being searched by soldiers serves to reinforce the concept of males being inherently physically threatening to society. They are thereby discriminated against and are met with greater caution and scrutiny in the society. Though it demonstrated male physical strength, it also portrayed society's inherent hostility and antagonism towards males.
The last picture evoked a similar effect as was shown…… [Read More]
Sustainability Process in the Design of Construction of Sports Venues
In the United States, the construction and operation of sports stadiums create certain numbers of environmental problems. The construction projects including the sports projects consume 60% of the U.S. raw materials yearly. Moreover, the physical facilities in the United States consume 14% of the country's potable water, responsible for 38% of CO2 emissions, 30% of waste output, and 72% of electricity consumption. In most cases, construction of sports projects fails to integrate sustainable protocols in their design strategies during and after the constructions leading to the environmental degradations. Many products used to construct the facilities exteriors and interiors after or during the construction affect the environment negatively. Over the years, the U.S. government introduces series of legislations such as the Clean Water Act (CWA) and Clean Air Act (CAA) mandating the sport events stakeholders to integrate sustainability into the design…… [Read More]
One of the most difficult paradigms in research is defining what exactly constitutes the idea of "theory." There are many different authors with many different views on this.
Harlow (2009) articulates the problem associated with defining "theory" is that there is no fixed, universal meaning for this concept. One of the guides towards identifying the components that constitute a theory could be the specific research direction at issue. In the natural science, for example, "theory" could refer to the law or system of laws. In a social sciences discipline, "theory" might suggest a construct or set to order and understand the phenomena under study.
While it is difficult to explain or define the concept of theory, Harlow also points towards the importance of understanding the concept of "theory" in terms of research, since it forms the central concept around which the research is conducted. Hence, understanding what is meant…… [Read More]
Men from the Girls: The Gendered Language of Televised Sports, Michael Messner, Margaret Carlisle Duncan, and Kerry Jensen discuss the different ways that men and women are presented in television broadcasts of sporting events. To do this, they analyzed the commentary that accompanied specific gendered sports events: the "Final Four" games of the men's and women's 1989 National Collegiate Athletic Association championships and the mixed doubles matches of the 1989 U.S. Open Tennis Tournament. What they found is that sports commentators use different types of speech to describe male and female athletes, in a manner that they believed would result in the marginalization of those athletes.
They began the article by describing the history of men's and women's sports coverage. What prior research revealed is that men received a greater amount of coverage for sports. This gives the impression that men are participating in sports to a much greater extent…… [Read More]
Personal Values in Sports
As with most dimensions of life, personal values and beliefs have a demonstrable effect on what is rendered in the form of behavior on the sports field of play and with the activities that surround the same. Beyond that, this paradigm is clear and visible irrespective of whether one is talking about the athletes, the coaches or even the parents of child (or sometimes college) athletes in some instances. This research report shall focus on the factors that most significantly engage and affect people when they are operating within the sports realm. The work of Donghun Lee (2011) will be a major focal point of this report but other sources will be looped in as well. While there are many factors and things that can influence somebody when it comes to sports, it is the free will and moral fortitude of an individual and the resolve…… [Read More]
The concept of dividing a mass market into homogeneous segments and targeting one or more with a distinct product offering and unique marketing communication is a fundamental precept of marketing theory. Market segmentation recognizes that different customer groups have different wants and needs that justify the development and offering of different products and services. The process of segmentation theoretically results in a much better understanding of users' needs, their decision criteria, and their approaches. Although much of the theory of market segmentation is appreciated and understood by sport marketers, it remains one of the more difficult marketing concepts to turn into profitable reality.
Consumer segmentation can help the sport marketer in the following areas. First, it allows an analysis of the marketplace, including a knowledge of competitors as well as how and why customers buy. Second, it can contribute to the strategic management of an organization in that it allows…… [Read More]
Building social skills and character in young children of all socioeconomic backgrounds, race and genders through junior golf programs.
Golf is a game of learned behavior and learned skills. When youths are taught golf, it enables the weaving of junior golf and character building activities into lessons that help prepare kids and teens to perform better in the real world. This is due in part to the core values instructors teach and develop in junior golfers that are incorporated throughout junior golf programs. Parents are encouraged to reinforce these behaviors through reflection and discussion, covering the topics and lessons learned in the program. Junior golf programs like The First Tee teaches participants integrity, teamwork, communication, and a handful of other valuable skills via hands-on activities and reflects Albert Bandura's social learning theory in that through observation or direct instruction can help children learn. (Thesis Statement)
Games that require…… [Read More]
Nike apparel company is a steadfast company in the minds of most athletic gear and apparel consumers and in the industry as a whole, with substantial earnings growth even in the last few years of recession it has still managed to record substantial growth. The company has even coined household phrases like "Just Do It" a mark of American influence over the global market. Much of this success has long been attributed to the solid nature of its upper management, namely its long time CEO and co-founder Phillip H. Knight. Nike recently made international news when it announced the retirement of Knight to the press, which in the business world can mean at least short-term trouble. The announcement was made with less than sixty days to pass before what would call a revolutionary change for the company. Though Knight will stay on as Chairman of the board, his intention is…… [Read More]
Details are provided in the primary accounts from men's experiences teaching as elementary school teachers- details that help answer the challenge at hand facing public perception and gender bias in the school system. Coulter and McNay, of the University of Western Ontario, help tease out the intimate details of "various issues these men confronted as they attempted to create for themselves in a work world traditional thought more suited for women" (Coulter and McNay, 1993). Through these male's personal accounts, as supplied in a primary source in the article, the "assumptions and stereotypes" about men are brought to the surface and discussed (Coulter and McNay, 1993). The individual nuances that these teachers discuss helps shed light on the problems at hand and how to overcome these gender stereotypes and public perception of who should be an elementary or primary school teacher.
Finally, given the definition and issues surrounding masculinity and…… [Read More]
politics that suggests the making of the New World Order. his paper provides evidence for this statement between the lines. In addition, the paper discusses the foreign policies of United States towards Israel and Iraq within the historical and the current context.
Any country's foreign policy towards other states is symbolic of common goals of the two. Moreover, any foreign policy is shaped by a country's interests in that particular region which can range from economic to political. In addition to the above, a foreign policy towards a country is also influenced by the fear of some threat from the same. As a result of which, the policy can take any antagonistic form- legitimate or otherwise but largely negative that aims to dominate rather than collaborate. One example of the first kind of policy mentioned above is that of United States towards Israel. An example of the second…… [Read More]
, 1999). In many areas of the country this may be very accurate.
Another problem that comes into the picture where obesity in children is concerned is that many parents must work very long hours today to pay bills and have money for what their family needs (Mokdad, et al., 1999). ecause of this, many children are latchkey kids and are not watched as closely by their parents as they used to be (Mokdad, et al., 1999). Children used to come home from school and go and play with others, but many now live in neighborhoods where this is unsafe or where there are no children their age so they remain inside watching TV or playing video games and snacking on whatever is available (Mokdad, et al., 1999).
If there is healthy food in the house this is often not a problem, but many households are full of potato chips,…… [Read More]
More recently, Miedzian (1991) has studied peer pressure, the socialization process, and military impact that has resulted in violence becoming standard behavior in males, and Thompson (1991) has demonstrated that violent acts are more often performed by males with greater masculine gender orientations.
Another slant on this topic was placed by West and Zimmerman (1987) in "Doing Gender," that looked at gender not in terms of a set of traits that are held by individuals, but rather as something people do together in their social interactions. In this case, gender is basically about social interaction and establishing relationships. It is an integral part of all daily interactions. Where a person's actions in "doing gender" simultaneously produce, reproduce, sustain and legitimate the social meanings accorded to gender. The authors state that gender is a fundamental aspect of all social relationships, in terms that no one can possibly not do gender if…… [Read More]
Globalization arguably began even before Marco Polo’s expeditions, possibly being traceable to Alexander the Great’s establishment of overland routes between Eastern Europe and India. The assumption that globalization equals Americanization is profoundly arrogant, and is also ignorant of the history, meaning, and implications of globalization. Globalization implies integration and interdependence of the world. Predating the United States of America, globalization nevertheless reached a peak in the 20th century, when a globalized economic, political, and cultural landscape became inevitable and entrenched. While it seemed that McDonald’s, Coca Cola, Shell, and other proudly American companies have dominated the corporate landscape of a globalized international economy, a wealth of non-American companies have likewise participated in the dissemination and distribution of ideas and neoliberal policies that characterize postmodern globalization.
In some ways, globalization is the antithesis of Americanization. As Collins (2015) points out, globalization “has led to the continuing deindustrialization of America,” as labor…… [Read More]
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…… [Read More]
At first glance the world of sports looks simplistic and unencumbered. Regardless of the sport in question the fans come, they watch the sport take place and then they leave. It is only when one takes a closer look that the complicated underpinnings of sports fan behavior becomes evident. Sports fans support their teams in many ways. They purchase millions of dollars of merchandise each year, they attend games and cheer their teams on, and they remain loyal in the face of losing seasons. Individually most sports fans are law abiding, calm and reasonable members of society, but when they get into a group, or they attend a sport events they often become loud and behave in ways that they never behave elsewhere. Sports fans have caused injury to other fans, to players and to the other team. They have rushed onto the field at games, as well…… [Read More]
State-Level Challenges and Issues
In the course of social worker's in Indiana performing clinical duties they are likely to provide service to Impaired Professionals. Impaired professionals bring to the clinical atmosphere additional clinical contemplations and challenges, not the least of which is their potential for endangerment or harm to the public (Supporting the Wellness and ecovery of Impaired Professionals, 2011). Impairment on the part of a professional is sure to contribute to unproductive service delivery, possibly even to bringing real harm to the client, and malpractice with all its consequences. Impairment may manifest itself in a number of ways, among them, chemical dependency, stress responses, and inadequate attention to the professionals own emotional troubles (The Impaired Helper, 2011).
Impaired professionals often experience inappropriate anger or resentment in the form of: intimidation, insulting or demeaning language, blaming or shaming others for mistakes or errors, needless sarcasm or pessimism and threats…… [Read More]
Sociology -- Social Work
Values & Ethics International Social Work
In the article Dilemmas of international social work: a paradoxical process in indigenisation, universalism and imperialism (Gray, 2005), international social work is discussed in regards to a three branched dilemma. The dilemma comes from the inconsistent directions or opposing procedures surrounding indigenisation, universalism and imperialism in social work. Cross-cultural conversation and exchange is forming and shaping new kinds of social work (indigenisation) while social work is, at the same time, trying to hang on to some form of ordinary identity (universalism). This is happening at the same time as labors toward internationalizing social work raise the vision of Westernization and imperialism.
In the article Professional Contributions Social Work and International Development Practice (Wilson & Whitmore, 2000), the authors investigate the association between accompaniment, social work theory and feminist procedures. Accompaniment unites both structural and conjunctural examination with the interpersonal abilities…… [Read More]
Functionalism is usually defined as viewing society from the aspect of its different parts, and how those parts relate to each other and society as a whole. Many functionalists liken society to a biological form, such as the human body, with its different organs all working in conjunction to keep the body as a whole functioning. Each of the elements of the body has a "function- to maintain the whole, so ensuring the stability or order of the system." (Bissell, 2005, p.41) But while each element has a manifest function, or the function that is expected from it, there are also unexpected functions called latent functions.
On the other hand, Conflict Theory states that the different parts of a society are in a state of conflict over the limited resources available to society. While Functionalism stresses the unity between the different groups, "conflict theory emphasizes strife and friction"…… [Read More]
The Fun Principle stated that as "we take the fun out of physical activities, we take the kids out of them" (Martens, 1996, p. 306). Martens said that learning should be enjoyable and that when winning is pursued in the extreme, it produces behaviors that destroy children's self-worth and rob them of fun. However, adults frequently violate this principle by over organizing, constantly instructing and evaluating, over drilling and routinizing the learning of skills, replacing unstructured play with calisthenics, and using physical activity as a form of punishment. Martens noted that the irony in youth sports is that "we turn young people off of the very thing we want to turn them on to" (p. 309). If lifelong participation in physical activity is the goal, then the emphasis should shift from the outcome to the quality of experiences, according to Martens. (Brady, 2004, p. 48)
Differences in Youth Who Withdraw…… [Read More]