Sports Sociology Essays (Examples)

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Sociology One of the Most

Words: 511 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49574339

It is this struggle to maximize benefits that leads to such movements of social change in both politics and social revolutions. Conflict theory exists in direct opposition to the tenets of functionalist theory, arguing that instead of a society where everyone plays are particular part, society instead exists as a pyramid structure, with a group of elites that dictate the rules to the masses. Thus, all major societal institutions, including laws and traditions, exist for the sole purpose of maintaining this structure. Thus, according to the conflict theory, colleges and universities exist in order to perpetuate this status quo. On the one hand, colleges ensure that the elite become educated and thus capable of carrying on their leadership roles. On the other hand, students at the college are indoctrinated with the traditions of society.

Finally, the theory of interactionsim is based on the idea that nothing in society is determined…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Coser, L. Masters of Sociological Thought: Ideas in Historical and Social Context. For Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. 1977.

Harrington, a. Modern Social Theory: An Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.
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Sports in Epic of America

Words: 1929 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39673625

Anti-discrimination laws are enforced and companies are rated by their policies of tolerance. Homophobia is gradually being extricated from the American consciousness and so is sexism. The media plays a major role in how the American consciousness changes and those changes have an indelible impact on the character of the American Dream.

Thomspon also notes that Thrice was well-loved by his teammates. The community rallied in support of Thrice and there was a general outcry after he died. Being American has always entailed appreciation for grassroots movements. The social and political realities that evolve depend on grassroots movements. Grassroots movements precede legislation and policy changes. America becomes more of a real democracy as grassroots movements offer a voice for the most disenfranchised elements of society. Grassroots movements prevent tyrannnies of the majority and enable minority opinions to make their way into public policy. The American government remains a government of…… [Read More]

References

The Declaration of Independence." Indiana University School of Law. Retrieved April 1, 2007 at  http://www.law.indiana.edu/uslawdocs/declaration.html 

Library of Congress (2002). What is the American Dream? Retrieved April 1, 2007 at http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/lessons/97/dream/thedream.html

United States Constitution: Fourteenth Amendment. Retrieved April 1, 2007 at
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Sports Race and Gender Sports

Words: 1706 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77228108

But despite these strides, the negative as well as the positive legacy of sports in American culture cannot be ignored.

eferences

About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutE.html

Douglas, Scott. (2005). unning through Kenya. Slate.com. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/

Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.

Mother Jones. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves

Johnson, Jenna. (2010). NCAA graduation rates. The Washington Post. etrieved September 20,

2010 at http://voices.washingtonpost.com/campus-overload/2010/03/another_ncaa_bracket_player_gr.html

Lehrer, Jonah. (2010, August 24). How to raise a superstar. Wired Science. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/08/how-to-raise-a-superstar/#ixzz107NwUSGh

Lovett, C. (1997). The fight to establish the women's Olympic marathon race. Olympic Marathon, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., Westport, CT. etrieved September 21,

2010 at http://www.marathonguide.com/history/olympicmarathons/chapter25.cfm

Williams, Kam. (2006). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves. AALBC.

etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://aalbc.com/reviews/forty_million_dollar_slaves.htm

Witt, Jon. (2006). The…… [Read More]

References

About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at  http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutRE.html 

Douglas, Scott. (2005). Running through Kenya. Slate.com. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/

Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). Review of William C. Rhoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.

Mother Jones. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
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Sociology Who Am I An

Words: 693 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15788695

I enjoy baseball, the World Series (go Sox!) and the Super Bowl. I also enjoy ice hockey and figure skating. In a world where most of these sports are seen as decidedly masculine, I am often a rarity, a woman who enjoys watching sports (minus the beer, of course). In my own family I am an anomaly, too. I don't know where this enjoyment of sports came from, but I do enjoy many of these televised events, and it sets me apart from many of my friends and family. Looking at gender issues such as these can teach me more about life, about how we all relate to each other, and about our own prejudices and misunderstandings. A woman in a sports bar without a man is somewhat like a woman in a locker room - it happens, but a few eyebrows are still raised at the thought. I like…… [Read More]

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Sociology Standing Still for Ten

Words: 630 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70164782

Social norms are occasionally explicit or even codified into law: we are not supposed to walk around naked; talk to ourselves; or show up an hour late to a meeting. When we break any one of the explicit social norms we pay, either by being criticized, ostracized, or penalized. Breaking a subtle social norm by standing around doing nothing is more difficult to target. No one can point a finger and say, "You shouldn't be doing that," even though some people might think I look funny.

The concept of the sociological imagination as well as Cooley's "looking glass self" illustrate how identity and self-image are sociological constructs. When standing around doing nothing, I felt like an outsider because I was not participating in the normative behavior of the crowd around me. Being alone is in itself not a problem but without at least appearing to have a purpose in standing…… [Read More]

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Sociology and Socialization Gender Differences Examined Birthday

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42265882

Sociology and Socialization: Gender Differences Examined

Birthday Cards

Go to any card shop and take a look at the birthday cards. Birthday cards display numerous messages about society's attitudes toward gender, age, mental status and more. Most of the birthday cards available in a typical Hallmark store, the store examined, display what might be considered gender 'norms'. For example, girl's birthday cards are mostly offered in pink, showing pictures of flowers or bunnies or other soft items. Male birthday cards often depict pictures of sporting items, blue colors, or even women. The cards available suggest that differences exist between what men and women like, and emphasize that these 'norms' have become social institutions. The messages provided in cards suggest that women want to hear flowery messages of love and caring, whereas men would rather here a good joke or look at a picture of a member of the opposite sex.…… [Read More]

Reference:

Shepard, J.M. (2001). Sociology, 9th ed. West Publishing Company.
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Sociology of Women

Words: 1406 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41291129

Sociology of Women

Family

Family, as sociology recognizes is one of the most important institutions that contribute to the process of primary socialization of an individual. However, like all other institutions, family is one of the crucial grounds where feminists have a lot to argue about and they fight for the rights of women and the need to be given an appropriate space and respect in the household.

As the distribution of work in the household goes, the traditional belief and concept is that the women are the ones who need to stay home and monitor all the necessary chores and the domestic work needed around the house. However, the feminists seem to be highly critical about this particular thought. They have begun to question why it is seen as the women's sole responsibility to look after the needs of the children and tend to every individual in the household.…… [Read More]

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Sociology and Req For a Dream Arequiem

Words: 1990 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91004589

Sociology and Req. For a Dream

ARequiem for a Dream@ takes sociological deviation to the extreme. Deviation is defined as behaviors which do not conform to significant norms held by most members of a society or group. This movie uses drugs as the deviation and shows how it destroys the four main character's lives. Harry and his girlfriend start out as ambitious young adults with dreams of starting their own clothing store. Tyrone just wants happiness with his girlfriend. Lastly Sara Goldfarb, Harry's mom wants to be on television. The three friends end alone, with nothing but their addiction to heroin and Sara is committed to an asylum because of the effects of the speed she uses to lose weight in order to be on TV. There are many specific sociological principles that apply to things that happen within deviant subcultures. This movie illustrates a good many of them in…… [Read More]

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Sociology Discussion Responses Response to Post

Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42531630

Sociology Discussion Responses

Response to Post #

I agree completely with your post. All of us have a natural tendency toward loss of objective perspective and we tend to view the world through the prism of our own lives and in a manner framed by our personal experiences and standards of living. I admit to having caught myself many times worrying too much about things that, in reality, are extremely minor compared to the challenges and hardships faced by others. Sometimes, I am embarrassed at the types of concerns that can preoccupy my thoughts until I am confronted by those whose concerns obviously dwarf mine and who would probably give anything just to have the opportunities and comforts in my life that I sometimes take for granted. On those occasions, I try to use the experience as a way of helping me refocus my perspective from my self-centered needs and…… [Read More]

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Sociology Race Is a Set

Words: 1130 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26039379



Some feminists argue that all pornography is bad for women because it is degrading to women (Peterson, 1998). The "victims" need protection, they claim, which, ironically, they say comes in the form of laws restricting what women legally can and cannot do with their own bodies.

While it can be argued that pornography reinforces negative male attitudes towards women in society and it increases the incidence of sex crimes, these are unfair claims (Peterson, 1998). While men may bring deep-rooted attitdevelop negative attitudes towards women. Even if pornography were banned, negative attitudes towards women would not disappear. In addition, there is little evidence to suggest that widespread distribution and use of soft-core pornography increases numbers of sex crimes.

In addition, it is important to note that many men who support feminism and women's rights enjoy pornography (Peterson, 1998). In addition, many successful heterosexual couples in committed relationships use soft-core pornography…… [Read More]

References

Feigelman, Bill. Young, Jim. (2003). Sociology: Fourth Edition. Chapter 11: Race and Ethnicity.W.W. Norton.

Kent, Raymond. (2004). What is Social Work? The Occupational Outlook Handbook. Retrieved from the Internet at http://stats.bls.gov/oco/ocos060.htm.

Peterson, Patricia. (August 14, 1998). Pornography's legitimate place in society. Courier Mail.

Wikipedia. (2004). Feminism. Retrieved from the Internet at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feminism.
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Sociology Whether or Not to

Words: 847 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65440825



everal authors like ullivan (2001) point out the hypocrisy in drawing arbitary lines around certain classes of drugs. In fact, all drugs are potentially harmful. Even caffeine is bad for health when abused. Legally acquired pharmaceutical drugs can be lethal, whereas marijuana has no known cases of overdose. The discrepancy in laws and sentencing policies should be eradicated in order to create a more just society. As Walsh & Hemmens (2008) point out in the chapter on "Law and ocial Change," the prohibition on drugs is no different than the prohibition on alcohol. Both have caused the proliferation of organized crime and neither solved the underlying issues related to mental and physical health. One of the main reasons to legalize drugs is to reduce the market power of organized crime syndicates. Prohibition of alcohol "literally kick-started organized crime in the United tates, and ushered in a decade of gang wars…… [Read More]

Sullivan, a. (2001). The Distinction betwen legal and illegal drugs is arbitrary. In Rolleff, Tamara L. 2004. The War of Drugs: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.

Walsh, a. & Hemmens, C. (2008). Law and Social Change. Walsh & Hemmens.

Wisher, R. (2001) Illegal Drugs Should Not Be Legalized. In Rolleff, Tamara L. 2004. The War of Drugs: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
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Sociology- Social Work Aboriginal Social Work Why

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76217792

Sociology- Social Work

Aboriginal Social Work

Why does Judge Murray Sinclair note that the legal concept of innocence/guilt is not granted by Aboriginal societies as it is in the Canadian Justice System?

In Aboriginal communities, guilt is typically secondary to the main issue: the main concern is that something is erroneous and it has to be corrected. Since the main purpose is the reinstatement of accord rather than the imposition of reprimand, the accused is more likely to confess bad behavior. Judge Sinclair proposes that possibly this explicates why so many Aboriginal people plead guilty when in court. The Canadian criminal justice system is founded on Euro-Canadian principles and, as a consequence, frequently clashes with Aboriginal values. High levels of imprisonment, augmented focus from law enforcement, language hurdles, conflicting values and theoretical frameworks concerning crime and punishment, as well as certain issues faced by youth, all add to the breakdown…… [Read More]

References

Family Violence. (1996). Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, vol. 3,

Gathering Strength. Minister of Supply and Services, Canada.ISBN: 0-660-16415 -- 9.

Stolen Sisters: A Human Rights Response to Discrimination and Violence Against Indegenous

Women. (2004). Retrieved from http://www.amnesty.ca/stolensisters/amr2000304.pdf
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Sociology Gender Is a Vital

Words: 4274 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2966477

Probable causes accounting for this are a holdup in the identification of cardiovascular ailment in women might not be enough to reveal medical implication. Variation in the accepted chronology of coronary arterial ailments is found in the genders, especially connected with the effect of menopause. Age of appearance, appearing of signs, influence of different causes of danger, and results of treatment vary between the sexes. (Tecce; Dasgupta; Doherty, 22)

In general, coronary artery ailment occurs 10 years past in life in women compared to men, and the median age for MI in case of women is approximately 20 years older, branding coronary heart ailment which affects elderly women. The causes for these disparities is not wholly intelligible, even if the prevalence of the sickness of coronary artery in women in the fertility years becomes low, signifying that endogenous hormones seems to exercise a defensive part beyond menopause. Postmenopausal women rapidly…… [Read More]

References

Barnett, Rosalind C. Gender, Job Stress and Illness. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors. Volume 2; No: 1; 2000; pp: 1-34; 77

Carmel S; Bernstein JH. Gender Differences in Physical Health and Psychosocial Well Being among Four Age-Groups of Elderly People in Israel. International Journal of Age and Human Development. Volume: 56; No; 2; 2003; pp: 113-131

Deborah, Gesensway. Reasons for Sex-Specific and Gender-Specific Study of Health Topics. The Annals of Internal Medicine. 2001; Volume: 135; No: 1; pp: 935-938.

Evangelista LS; Kagawa-Singer, M; Dracup K. Gender Differences in Health Perceptions and Meaning in Persons Living with Heart Failure. Heart Lung. Volume: 30; No: 3; May-June 2001; pp: 167-176
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Sociology -- Observational Case Study

Words: 1360 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26940174

Customers entered the establishment carrying shoulder bags and computer notebook bags and proceeded directly to the counter to make purchases. The vast majority of customers arrived alone and most of them left the establishment shortly after receiving their purchases. The customers who opted to take seats did not make any eye contact with other customers and proceeded to use their cell phones or notebook computers (apparently) to send text messages and emails. Some of them took out folders or paperwork from their bags and appeared to check through them. The observer also noted that all of the customers who occupied seats checked their watches fairly frequently; in many cases, they first glanced up at the clock on the wall before checking their own watches immediately afterwards.

On the basis of these observations, the observer concluded that the vast majority of the Starbucks Customers frequenting the establishment on the occasion of…… [Read More]

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Sociology of Popular Culture

Words: 2411 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81906617

Sociology of Popular Culture

Popular Culture

A popular culture is a complex term defined by a number of already existing definitions which explore the different spectrums associated with the term. The initial understanding of this culture was based on the lifestyle adopted by the masses; the subordinate, lower class, which made them separate from the elite class. However, today, it is considered to be a lifestyle which includes different cultural practices, artifacts and other cultural commodities, that is widely accepted by the population. Therefore, in order to study a popular culture, it is important to focus on the varying aspects such as identity, representation, regulation, production and consumption where the latter two have an interdependent relationship. For this reason, this paper would look into the underlying fact of the contemporary popular culture where the producers are also the consumers.

The theorists of the cultural studies started studying popular culture when…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Bielby D, 2001, Popular culture: production and consumption, Wiley-Blackwell, United States.

Douglas, S, 1994, Where the girls are: Growing up female with the mass media. New York: Random House

Kellner, D, 1995, Media culture: Cultural studies, identity, and politics between the modern and the postmodern. New York: Routledge

Leadbeater, 1996, Urban Girls: Resisting Stereotypes, Creating Identities. New York: New York University Press
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Sociology Social Influences on Health

Words: 2570 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77807695

In terms of the plainness of gendered inequalities in the health and longevity of women, compared with men, the majority world demands our notice. The world-wide toll in terms of women's raised levels of mortality and morbidity corroborates that limited or negligible access to political power, land-ownership, education, sexual self-determination and earning ability has detrimental bodily effects (Bradby, 2009).

While sociologists have long studied the aspect of illness, it has only been recently that they have turned their attention to the development of sociology of health. Sociologists' interest in health emerged in part in reaction to the biomedical mode, which focused primarily on disease. A more holistic approach to health and healing, sociologists argued, must also encompass the idea of positive health and well-being. The concept of health itself needs to be explored, and such exploration must take lay perspectives into account. A holistic, or socio-environmental, model of health also…… [Read More]

References

Albrecht, Gary L., Fitzpatrick, Ray and Scrimshaw, Susan. 2003. "Handbook of Social Studies

in Health and Medicine." Sage Publications: California.

Bradby, Hannah. 2009. "Virtual Special Issue on feminism and the sociology of gender, health and illness." Sociology of Health and Wellness. Available at:

http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/shil_enhanced/virtual2_full.asp
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Sociology Racism Throughout History Racism

Words: 2011 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1062240

Both what make up a race and how one recognizes a racial difference is culturally determined. Whether two individuals consider themselves as of the same or of different races depends not on the degree of similarity of their genetic make up but on whether history, tradition, and personal training and experiences have brought them to think of themselves as belonging to the same group or to different groups (Spickard, Fong and Ewalt, 1995).

Prejudices, stereotypes, insults, pejorative labels and other things are usually articulated in racist communications. Explicit racism helps to legitimize individual and collective action that creates and sustains inequality and oppression between social groups. The history of mankind provides thousands of examples of racist violence: genocide, colonialism, repressive immigration policies and all kinds of discriminatory behavior. This kind of racism is explicit and visible. Unfortunately, racism can also be invisible. acism is totally embedded in the social structures…… [Read More]

References

Hier, Sean E. And Walby, Kevin 2006. "Competing Analytical Paradigms in the Sociological Study of Racism in Canada." Canadian Ethnic Studies. 38(1), p83-104.

La Parra Casado, Daniel and Perez, Miguel Angel Mateo 2007, "Scientifically Correct Racism: Health Studies' Unintended Effects against Minority Groups. 2007." Language & Intercultural Communication. 7(2), p152-162.

Paradies, Yin 2005, "Anti-Racism and Indigenous Australians." Analyses of Social Issues & Public Policy. 5(1), p1-28.

"Racism." 2010. Viewed 1 April 2010,
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Sociology Advance at Your Own

Words: 1971 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21367753



A few managed some whispered comments as he headed toward the back of the line.

Food Line at the School Cafeteria

This attempt was not very successful. The researcher cut in front of a female student in her late teens. She was appeared to be alone, and was carrying a laptop. She was looking down at the floor and did not seem like she was paying attention to anyone. She said nothing as the researcher stepped in front of her, though he saw her grimace slightly and then return to looking at the floor. Nevertheless, a group of seven or eight students behind her quickly noticed the researcher's presence. One of them turned loudly to his friends and cried, "Did you just see that? This guy cut in front." The researcher pretended not to notice and tried to continue looking blankly ahead. Almost immediately, he felt a strong tap on…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001761999

Schneider, I.E. (2000). Revisiting and Revising Recreation Conflict Research. Journal of Leisure Research, 32(1), 129.

Norm Violation
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Sociology Discussion Responses Response to Post 1

Words: 1153 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47363437

Sociology Discussion Responses

Response to Post #1

I agree completely with almost everything in your post about the importance of preventing and responding to instances of domestic violence. However, I think it might be s slight exaggeration to characterize domestic violence as the single greatest societal challenge facing our society. That is not to suggest that it is not crucial, only that various other problems may be equal to or even greater in magnitude. In fact, I would suggest that child abuse and other forms of bad parenting are more important issues, particularly since those issues are directly causally related to the domestic violence problem. In general, domestic abusers suffer from some aspect of low self-esteem and were probably subjected to some degree of parental abuse that predisposes them to becoming abusive as adults. In that sense, I would suggest that domestic partner abuse, while an extremely important problem in…… [Read More]

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Sociology Work and Leisure Work

Words: 1560 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25774762



There is an idea of cognitive and valuation confusion in the book. The writer is a professor yet the book is not academic.

ecommending

There are many inconsistencies in the book yet it is something that gives a different opinion about the combination or working and leisure in the American context. Hence I will recommend this book to peers (ichard, 2008). However, there are a few things I will be telling about the books that they do not develop high expectations from the book. The book is conditionally recommended. The book offers a unique perspective on advantages of leisure time and the blessings of working less. The money we earn more is seldom spent on productive areas and normally falls prey to mere consumerism. People work more normally to be able to shop more. Besides that the people that I recommend the book will be told that the book does…… [Read More]

References

Gini, Al. (2006). The Importance of Being Lazy. NY: Taylor & Francis . ISBN: 0415978696.

O'Brien, T., (2009), "Review - the Importance of Being Lazy," Retrieved from:

http://metapsychology.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=book&id=3434

Richard, C., (2008), "The Importance of Being Lazy: In Praise of Play, Leisure, and Vacation,"
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Sociology Will the Real Individual

Words: 2611 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87614075

Dated November 7, 2002, it speaks about the fact that, as of that date - and for the first time in Senate history - three currently-serving Senators had actually belonged to that body for more than forty years continuously. ("New Seniority Record," 7 November 2002) the stature of these three men? Very great, I imagine, but as of that date - unassailable. The creator of this web site did not dare to give any sort of heavy or overly critical analysis of any still-serving U.S. senators. A living incumbent, and his actions, bear a very different status from the legislator of the past. He, after all, does not have to worry about re-election!

Certainly, there is quite a bit to be learned from these examples of status information. As stated earlier, each of us carries with herself or himself certain assumptions about other people, places... even ideas. The example concerning…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Associated Press. (20 April 2005). "Judge to Accept Guilty Plea from Moussaoui." New York Times.

Cholo, Ana Beatriz. (20 April 2005). "Schools to Replace Westinghouse." Chicago Tribune.

Frankel, Daniel. (8 May 1998). "Hispanics Seething Over 'Seinfeld'." E! Online. URL: http://www.eonline.com/News/Items/0,1,2976,00.html.

Graff, Christopher. (20 April 2005). "Sen. Jeffords will not Seek Reelection." Washington Post.
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Sociology Mcminden A Fictional Town

Words: 745 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1946114

Within my own community, I have seen this as more and more people travel farther and farther away for college, and settle far away from their parents. Access to expanded opportunities motivates the individual to break his or her existing social ties.

A third and final sociological concept manifested in the McMinden example is seen in the prevalence of drug addiction in the town. As noted by Manuel Mendoza, a Hispanic police officer who has made some inroads into the once almost entirely white town's law enforcement hierarchy, drug use crosses all racial divides, as the town's economic condition has worsened, so has the prevalence of addiction. Individuals who feel they have been denied the opportunity to fully enjoy the American Dream, particularly when confronted with increasingly unrealistic expectations of material success in the media, often experience what obert K. Merton called anomie, or alienation. One of the ways individuals…… [Read More]

References

Deviance. (2010). Sociology Guide. Retrieved November 25, 2010 at  http://www.sociologyguide.com/basic-concepts/Deviance.php 

Ethnocentrism. (2010). Sociology Guide. Retrieved November 25, 2010 at  http://www.sociologyguide.com/basic-concepts/Ethnocentrism.php 

Urban sociological theory. (2010). Sociology Guide. Retrieved November 25, 2010 at  http://www.sociologyguide.com/industrial-and-urban-society/Urban-sociological-theories.php
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Sociology and Sports

Words: 630 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62554587

Football

American football is a professional sport that was derived from the game of Rugby by Walter Camp in 1879 (ellis). Walter played football at Yale University where he attended college. He was involved in developing the football rules as we know them today. The rules of football were taken from the sports of Rugby and Soccer. Football has grown into a sport that is widely viewed and attended in the American society. Today, people go to football games at middle schools, high schools, and college stadiums. The college games have become professional games that are attended and viewed through media by millions of fans across the American nation.

The rules that were adopted and changed included; one side, or team, retained the undisputed possession of the ball until that side gives up the ball as a result of violations. The line of scrimmage was also created. The number of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bellis, M. (n.d.). History of Football. Retrieved from About.com Inventors: http://inventors.about.com/fstartinventions/a/HistoryFootball.htm

Ormeland, B. (2012, July 10). NFL Dynasties and Hall of Famers. Retrieved from Sports Central:  http://www.sports-central.org/sports/2012/07/10/nfl_dynasties_and_hall_of_famers.php
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Sociology Specific Readings and Their

Words: 1529 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94629369

While I truly value and appreciate Smith's specific views, I find her outlook just a bit too

Three questions I have after analyzing these readings are:

With so many feminist theories, is there one that stands out as more "right" or applicable to today's society? Which of these theories has passed its' prime, and which are still viable for today's women and society?

Is society really that much different in the future? In "The Matrix," the men are still the dominant gender in society. Trinity and "The Oracle" are based on traditional female stereotypes. Trinity is strong and can fight, but she is still the minority in the underground, and the Oracle is based on a grandmotherly "seer" who is wise, but hands out cookies at the end of her wisdom. In addition, the "woman in the red dress" is a sexual fantasy for the character who creates her in…… [Read More]

References

Smith, Dorothy. Chapter 12: Feminist Theory.
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Sports Team Ethnography

Words: 1422 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97901208

Ethnography

This ethnographic observation comprises two separate visits to a NHL hockey game, during the regular season. Both of the observations took place at an evening game, which began at 7PM. There are several predispositions of how I believe people will look and behave in this setting. For example, I believed that men would outnumber women. I also believed that about half of the people at the hockey game would be with groups, and especially with families. I believed that roughly half of the attendants would be wearing a hockey team jersey, and that a quarter of the fans would have purchased beer from the stadium kiosks. Shouting and other signs of fan participation and enthusiasm was also expected. I have been to several NHL hockey games, as well as minor league games. This is why I have some expectations of the game but still tried to keep an open…… [Read More]

References

Cherry, K. (n.d.). The three types of psychology research. Introduction to Research Methods. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/researchmethods/ss/expdesintro.htm

Munro, C.E.S. (2006). Sports fan culture & brand community: an ethnographic case study of the Vancouver Canucks Booster Club. University of British Columbia [Thesis].

Noto, C.S. (2008). The ethnography: What it is and how to write it. Retrieved online: http://voices.yahoo.com/the-ethnography-write-it-1913940.html

"Writing an Ethnography," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.bethelcollege.edu/users/blowers/writing%20an%20ethnography.htm
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Sociology in Indigenous Populations Specifically it Will

Words: 1953 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46381443

sociology in indigenous populations. Specifically it will discuss what the terms ethnicity and racism mean, and critically examine how these terms apply to Indigenous Australians? Ethnicity and racism apply to Indigenous Australians (Aborigines) throughout their history, sad but true. Since the English first settled Australian in the 1700s, the Indigenous population has suffered greatly, and it is one of Australia's greatest shames that it went on so long.

The Indigenous people of Australia (Aborigines and Torres Straight Islanders) are one of the oldest cultures on Earth. Archaeologists believe their lineage goes back at least 50,000 years, and some believe it could go as far back as 65,000 years ago. They were the original occupants of Australia, and have a deep and abiding respect for the land and its many different environments. An Aboriginal Web site notes, "For Indigenous Australians, the land is the core of all spirituality and this relationship…… [Read More]

References

Adams, M. (2006). Raising the profile of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men's health: An Indigenous man's perspective. Australian Aboriginal Studies, 2006(2), 68+.

Author not Available. (2006). Indigenous Australians. [Online] Available at: http://www.aihw.gov.au/indigenous/index.cfm.

Clarke, F.G. (2002). The history of Australia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Editors. (2008). Australian Indigenous cultural heritage. [Online]. Available at: http://www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au/articles/indigenous / [Accessed 17 June 2009].
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Sociology it Doesn't Take a Rocket Scientist

Words: 2496 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7519214

Sociology)

It doesn't take a rocket scientist to note that there have been disturbing trends in schools recently. While the spate of extreme violence appears to be waning, schools are still troubled places, with both students and teachers seemingly failing to get out of them what they expect or need, and suffering stress and trauma in the meantime. Society wants 'instant' gratification, TV is full of 'reality shows' that depend on people doing disgusting things to win a huge fortune, relatively speaking, so they can go do and buy more stuff. The most recent presidential race offered us a three-years-and-counting national discussion over who really won the presidency. And we have rushed headlong to send troops into two sovereign nations without benefit of the United Nations' sanctioning the acts, after the United Nations -- located on U.S. soil -- was founded to smooth out relationships between the world's peoples.

All…… [Read More]

References

Bean, J.P. (1998). Alternative models of professorial roles: New languages to reimagine faculty work. Journal of Higher Education, 69(5), 496+.

Bertoch, M.R. (1989). Reducing teacher stress. Journal of Experimental Education, 57(2), 117-128.

Fatt, J.P. (1998). Innovative teaching: Teaching at its best. Education, 118(4), 616+.

Iannone, R.V., & Obenauf, P.A. (1999). Toward spirituality in curriculum and teaching. Education, 119(4), 737.
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Sociology and Anthropology in Tourism

Words: 2357 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68540323

symbolizes the sum total of qualitative and quantitative values on which the degree and extent of exploitability of the region for the purpose of tourism depends. It Is difficult to explain the 'potential' in numerical terms as it involves many factors in the context of tourism.

Tourism deals with the physical, psychological and sometimes even spiritual demands of the people from diverse geographical, socio-cultural and economic background that travel under different motives, interests, preferences and immediate needs. In other words, tourism development in any area depends on availability of recreational resources, in addition to factors like climate, seasons, accessibility, attitude of the local people, planning and 'tourist plant' facility. All this put together creates a 'tourism magnetic atmosphere', which is resource base for the tourism

Factors influencing tourism and assist in exploiting the complete potential of an area, therefore vary from socio-economic to political and evolution of demand. These factors…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brown, F. (1998) 'Tourism: Blight or Blessing?' Butterworth Heinemann: UK, HB, ISBN 075063989X.

Borocz, J. (1996), 'Leisure migration: A Sociological Study on Tourism', Pergamon Press: UK, ISBN 0080425607 HB

Butler, R. And Hinch, T. (eds) (1996) 'Tourism and Indigenous Peoples', ITBP: UK, HB, ISBN 1861522096

Butler, R., Hall, R. And Jenkins, M. (eds) (1998) 'Tourism and Recreation in Rural Areas', Wiley: UK, HB, ISBN 0471976806
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American Sports of NFL and NBA and Their Influence in Popular Culture

Words: 2030 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70386722

ports and popular culture (NFL/NBA)

Prelude

Pop Culture

Popular culture entails all forms of mass communication such as:

Newspapers

Radio

Magazines

Music

Books and Cartoons and comics

Advertising

It is somewhat different compared to higher forms of cultural art such as:

Classical music

Artworks

Conventional theatre

In terms of mass communication, popular culture means messages which are intellectually and artistically limited primarily designed to entertain and humor the viewers (Hollander, 2014). Following the industrial revolution, the people had a lot of time to spare which led to a huge demand for entertainment and amusement and gave height to media. The increasing supply of goods also made it necessary for the advertisers to attract the consumers and mass media could reach a large number of audiences at the same time (Hollander, 2014).

ports

The physical activities have always been in the life of human beings in the form of different leisure…… [Read More]

Sports have played a huge role in the American society on the whole as they have become a necessary part of the popular culture. American football is quite a popular game which brings NFL (National Football League) in limelight. NFL is same to same as other sports have an off season too when they are on a season break. Leagues such as NBA (National Basketball Association), MLB (Major League Baseball) and NHL (National Hockey League) follow the same pattern which builds the hype for them (Lee, 2012). It enables the public to forget all about sports for a while until it swings back in action again. The off season usually consists of training sessions, gym, trading players, NFL Combine and NFL Draft. These activities are heavily kept watch of by loyal fans followed by intense discussions (House, 2012).

Super Bowl is intensely popular in United States. Even the non-followers are somehow influenced by it as they hear news about it or by viewing it. The news channels mention regularly and social media is definitely on fire with news and updates. A famous band plays during halftime while a draw exists for watching the advertisements during the game and halftime (Lee, 2012). Companies are compelled to dish out loads of cash to display advertise themselves as the Super Bowl progresses. These ads are usually creative and funny and sometimes mixed. People for the sake of fun choose a particular team and cheer it till the end or otherwise friends pick a team and contend that it will win the title. It's sort of a public gathering event where food is enjoyed and drinks are taken in huge quantities. Tostitos and Doritos are chips found mostly at super Bowl parties while in case of drinks Coke, Pepsi and Budweiser. For the sports fans, it's their day off as they spend the entire day in front of a TV or mocking the opponent's team for fun. TV shows often give reference to Super Bowl just as Christmas and Halloween. Betting on a high level is also involved for the winning team, people are cut some slack from office, schools and colleges as it's the biggest event of the year (Hollander, 2014).

In 'Popular culture and the rituals of American Football' by Mark Axelrod, several cultural practices in America regarding football are mentioned. Before the ports went global, there were a lot of rituals and myths
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Sociological Theories Sociology of Gender

Words: 1087 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29285085

Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies

Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"

In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.

Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…… [Read More]

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Four Intro Sociology Questions

Words: 1573 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74859794

Sociology

There are four different levels of sociological analysis, including meso. The micro level focuses on "the social dynamics of intimate, face-to-face interactions" (Little et al., p. 4), the macro level focuses on "large-scale, society-wide social interactions" (Little et al., 4) and the global level is higher still, looking at more universal sociological themes. The same event can be viewed through these different lenses, because many sociological interactions will occur at both micro and macro levels, and there are often global elements to such interactions as well.

For instance, the book discusses the 2011 Stanley Cup riots in Vancouver. On an individual level, the event can be studied in terms of what drove any individual person to join the riot, in particular what factors might contribute to somebody who would not normally break the law to join the riot. A more macro-level analysis might wish to examine what in the…… [Read More]

References

Little, W., McGiven, R., Keirns, N., Strayer, E., Griffiths, H., Cody, S., Scaramuzzo, G., Vyain, S. (2013). Introduction to Sociology, 1st Canadian Edition. In possession of the author.
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Boyhood Organized Sports and the Construction of

Words: 1089 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22499068

Boyhood, Organized Sports, and the construction of Masculinities" offers insight into a study he completed regarding male attributes and how masculinity is defined within organized sports. Following is a summary of the article denoting the hypothesis, dependent and independent variables if identifiable as such, the data source, methodology and answers to the posited hypothetical question(s).

Messner makes it very clear from the outset what the questions or hypotheses are in his study and the answers that he seeks in conducting the study. The questions Messner raises includes: "In what ways do males construct masculine identities within the institution of organized sports? In what ways do class and racial differences mediate this relationship and perhaps led to the construction of different meanings and perhaps different masculinities?" And the last hypothetical question is "what are some of the problems and contradictions within these constructions of masculinities?" (Messner, p. 88).

Messner is also…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Messner (the source article needs to be cited here)
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Violence in American Sports Today

Words: 3564 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28418040

Given that people engage in sporting events for a wide range of reasons, the authors assert that it is time for athletes to develop a moral code that embraces higher standards of conduct that will help reverse these recent trends and once again provide American sports with a sense of fair play and respect.

Fredenburg, Karen, Rafer Lutz, Glenn Miller et al. (2005). "Dismissals and Perceptions of Pressure in Coaching in Texas High Schools: Similarities and Differences with Previous Studies Show the Contemporary Face of Coaching Pressure." JOPERD-- The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 76(1):29.

In this essay, the authors report that there have been a number of recent studies and reports that suggest that the pressure in high school sports is growing, rather than declining. The authors cite an article in Sports Illustrated that described the alarming trends of parental misbehavior at youth sport events. The president…… [Read More]

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Gender Matter in Sports There

Words: 2514 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10104952

234). Culturally, trainers may simply be paying more attention to girls' injuries due to our culture's tendency to protect females more than males (Tierney, et al., 2005, p. 278) and/or boys may simply under-report concussions due to "macho" tendencies to play through pain in order to continue playing (Covassin, et al., 2012, p. 926). Hormones may contribute to the greater incidence of concussions among female high school athletes because researchers have found that estrogen protects male rats from brain trauma but actually makes female rats more vulnerable to brain trauma (Makdissi, et al., 2013, p. 319). Whether caused anatomically, culturally, hormonally or for some other reason, the fact remains that girls are reportedly highly more likely to sustain concussions in sports such as soccer and basketball. Consequently, gender matters in the sports injury of concussion.

3. Conclusion

Development of a masculine identity is psychologically fundamental for males and particularly for…… [Read More]

References

Allan, E.J., Gordon, S.P. & Iverson, S.V., Fall 2006. Re/thinking Practices of Power: The Discursive Framing of Leadership in the Chronicle of Higher Education. Review of Higher Education, 30(1), pp. 41-68.

Bourdieu, P., 1978. 'Sport and Social Class,' Social Science Information, 17(6): 819-840. [Online]

Available at:  http://ssi.sagepub.com/content/17/6/819.ciatation  [Accessed 21 May 2013].

Chesebro, J.W. & Fuse, K., Summer 2001. The Development of a Perceived Masculinity Scale. Communication Quarterly, 49(3), pp. 203-278.
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Upward Mobility Through Sports Stanley Eitzen's Article

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74563496

Upward Mobility Through Sports

Stanley Eitzen's article "Upward Mobility Through Sports" is an analysis of the ability of individuals to raise themselves upward through the social stratification that currently exists in America. Sports are often seen by those on the lower end of the social strata as a means of rising up and becoming economically successful. However, Eitzen points out that the chances of rising socially and economically through a career in professional sports is not likely. This article fits in with the readings from our textbook as they discuss the existence of social stratification and the effects on an individual of their position within that society.

Chapter 7 in our textbook opens with Murray Milner's theories on high school social structure as a means to begin a discussion on social stratification; or the inequalities among individuals and groups within society. This leads to a listing of the three characteristics…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Eitzen, Stanley. "Upward Mobility Through Sports? The myths and realities."

Z Magazine, March 1999. Web. 26 Oct. 2013.

http://www.zcommunications.org/upward-mobility-through-sport-by-d-stanley-eitzen
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Motivation in Sport

Words: 19272 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9769558

Motivation in Sport

Take a look at the animal world and you will find the proof that game is an inherent feature of the virtually evaluated species. This has an important part in literacy and evolution. We witness many a mock fights between kittens and pups so as to enhance their stamina, speed, tolerance and will. Through such hatred free games, they rub their hands for survival and satisfy their urge for challenge and ecstasy. The human species is not just a species of animals based on reason. There is an unquenchable thirst in the humans for wisdom, truth and joy. These spiritual features are the ones which differentiate human beings from animals. In the proceeding development of human civilization, sports and games have had a part in revealing the human ability.

At each and every phase of the evolutionary process, sport has had an important part in giving a…… [Read More]

References

Anshel, M.H. (1997). Sport Psychology: from Theory to Practice. (Third Edition). Scottsdale, Arizona: Gorsuch Scarisbrick

Bakker, F.C., De Koning, J.J., Van Ingen Schenau, G.J., & Gert, D.G. (1993).

Motivation of young elite speed skaters. International Journal of Sports Psychology, 24, 432-

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
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Starting a Sports Program at

Words: 2797 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42154822



8. Staffing

The sports center at the newly opened high school has to employ at least the following:

Two coaches, preferably one male and one female, each to manage the same gender teams. This measure is to be implemented in order to reduce the chances of immoral conduct on school premises, but no discriminations would be committed during the selection and hiring processes.

One medic is required to be easily reachable and assist sports injuries or otherwise medical necessities. Hiring a new medical professional would be redundant and meaningless, coming as such to a conclusion that the already hired school medic would also assist the medical needs of the sports center.

One counselor. Similar to the school medic, it could initially be stated that the role of sports counselor would be played by the already hired school counselor. However, such a solution is not the most viable one in the…… [Read More]

References:

Conrad, M., 2006, the business of sports: a primer for journalists, Routledge

Delaney, T., Madigan, T., 2009, the sociology of sports: an introduction, McFarland

Mac, B., 2010, Code of ethics and conduct for sports coaches, BrainMac,  http://www.brianmac.co.uk/ethics.htm  last accessed on July 6, 2010

2010, Sports and exercise safety, Kids Health, http://kidshealth.org/teen/safety/safebasics/sport_safety.html# last accessed on July 6, 2010
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Community Sports Center Director Has

Words: 704 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24623969



H20:

There is no significant relationship between having a higher perception of a sport as elite and having a lower willingness to participate.

Here the key concerns will consist of social and cultural perceptions of a sport and how these impact on willingness to try the sport.

Summary. The committee believes that in order to successfully offer archery and fencing as sports in the community program, these level-of-difficulty and social-psychological concerns about the two possible sport offerings must be understood. Obviously, the study of each research question above will inform the other, as both archery and fencing have had similar prestige perceptions in the general public for decades (See for example, Crawford, 1977; and Riess, 1980). As Jones and Gratton (2004) point out, research in sports science constitutes a systematic consideration of a problem as it relates to a situational need for information. In order to study the way potential…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bowker, A. (2006). "The relationship between sports participation and self-esteem during early adolescence." Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science. 38(3) (July): 214-229.

Crawford, S. (1977). Occupational prestige rankings and the New Zealand Olympic athlete." International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 12 (1): 5-16

Reiss, S. (1980). "Sport and the American Dream," Journal of Social History 14 (2): 295-303
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Ida Wells-Barnett and Sociology Ida

Words: 1753 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54556854

The simplification of issues will often cloud the challenges and prevent comprehensive understanding of problems.

The third contribution relates to the role of gender and power on a wider scale. Wells-Barnett was able to elucidate an elusive relationship. Power is prepared to evoke gender to accomplish its purposes. Thus, within gendered conflict the overarching power structure is more concerned about maintaining and survival than addressing concerns. Both men and women become pawns in that power structure and gender becomes subservient to the wider cause of control.

The work of Wells-Barnett provided impetus to several issues. Her tenacity and determination meant that she was virtually unstoppable once she was convicted of a cause. With the use of sharp logic and purposeful argumentation, she addressed the concerns of her era. Thus, her propitious contribution to the modern feminist movement is deniable. Women both black and white owe a debt of gratitude to…… [Read More]

References

Carby, H.V. (1985). "On the Threshold of Woman's Era": Lynching, empire, and sexuality in black feminist theory. Critical Inquiry 12(1) 262-277.

Guy-Sheftall, B. (1992). Black women's studies: The interface of women's studies and black studies. Phylon 49(1) 33-41.

Perloff, R.M. (2000). The press and lynchings of African-Americans. Journal of Black Studies,

30(3) 315-330.
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Visual Sociology Social Roles Gender

Words: 854 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46373704

With the death of the male member of the family, this family is forced to be together, and it is through their unity that they are only able to make themselves stronger individually. The image of a grieving family demonstrated the strength of the dead soldier (male) as an individual and the helplessness of each member of the family (specifically, women and children) he has left behind.

Picture 4, meanwhile, highlighted a common stereotype associated against males as more dangerous and suspicious in character than females. This picture of Iraqi males being searched by soldiers serves to reinforce the concept of males being inherently physically threatening to society. They are thereby discriminated against and are met with greater caution and scrutiny in the society. Though it demonstrated male physical strength, it also portrayed society's inherent hostility and antagonism towards males.

The last picture evoked a similar effect as was shown…… [Read More]

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Sustainable Design of Sports Venues

Words: 1303 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71275396

Sustainability Process in the Design of Construction of Sports Venues

In the United States, the construction and operation of sports stadiums create certain numbers of environmental problems. The construction projects including the sports projects consume 60% of the U.S. raw materials yearly. Moreover, the physical facilities in the United States consume 14% of the country's potable water, responsible for 38% of CO2 emissions, 30% of waste output, and 72% of electricity consumption. In most cases, construction of sports projects fails to integrate sustainable protocols in their design strategies during and after the constructions leading to the environmental degradations. Many products used to construct the facilities exteriors and interiors after or during the construction affect the environment negatively. Over the years, the U.S. government introduces series of legislations such as the Clean Water Act (CWA) and Clean Air Act (CAA) mandating the sport events stakeholders to integrate sustainability into the design…… [Read More]

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International Marketing in Sports Apparel

Words: 3703 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54065745

THEOY

One of the most difficult paradigms in research is defining what exactly constitutes the idea of "theory." There are many different authors with many different views on this.

Harlow (2009) articulates the problem associated with defining "theory" is that there is no fixed, universal meaning for this concept. One of the guides towards identifying the components that constitute a theory could be the specific research direction at issue. In the natural science, for example, "theory" could refer to the law or system of laws. In a social sciences discipline, "theory" might suggest a construct or set to order and understand the phenomena under study.

While it is difficult to explain or define the concept of theory, Harlow also points towards the importance of understanding the concept of "theory" in terms of research, since it forms the central concept around which the research is conducted. Hence, understanding what is meant…… [Read More]

References

Best, H. (2013). Theories of Social Changes by Raymond Boudon.

Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (2009). On Being a Scientist: A

Guide to Responsible Conduct in Research. Washington D.C.: National

Academies Press
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Gender and Sociology

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38303124

Men from the Girls: The Gendered Language of Televised Sports, Michael Messner, Margaret Carlisle Duncan, and Kerry Jensen discuss the different ways that men and women are presented in television broadcasts of sporting events. To do this, they analyzed the commentary that accompanied specific gendered sports events: the "Final Four" games of the men's and women's 1989 National Collegiate Athletic Association championships and the mixed doubles matches of the 1989 U.S. Open Tennis Tournament. What they found is that sports commentators use different types of speech to describe male and female athletes, in a manner that they believed would result in the marginalization of those athletes.

They began the article by describing the history of men's and women's sports coverage. What prior research revealed is that men received a greater amount of coverage for sports. This gives the impression that men are participating in sports to a much greater extent…… [Read More]

References

Messner, M., Duncan, M.C., & Jensen, K. (1993). Separating the men from the girls: The gendered language of televised sports. Gender & Society, 7(1), 121-137.

Parks, J. & Roberton, M. (2005). Explaining age and gender effects on attitudes towards sexist language. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 24(4), 401-411.
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Good and Bad in Sports

Words: 3151 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28455055

Personal Values in Sports

As with most dimensions of life, personal values and beliefs have a demonstrable effect on what is rendered in the form of behavior on the sports field of play and with the activities that surround the same. Beyond that, this paradigm is clear and visible irrespective of whether one is talking about the athletes, the coaches or even the parents of child (or sometimes college) athletes in some instances. This research report shall focus on the factors that most significantly engage and affect people when they are operating within the sports realm. The work of Donghun Lee (2011) will be a major focal point of this report but other sources will be looped in as well. While there are many factors and things that can influence somebody when it comes to sports, it is the free will and moral fortitude of an individual and the resolve…… [Read More]

References

Baby, B. (2016). Art Briles, Baylor officially part ways in wake of sexual assault scandal --

SportsDay. SportsDay. Retrieved 25 June 2016, from http://sportsday.dallasnews.com/college-sports/collegesports/2016/06/24/art-briles-baylor-officially-part-ways-wake-sexual-assault-scandal

Biography. (2016). Tim Duncan Biography. Biography.com. Retrieved 25 June 2016, from http://www.biography.com/people/tim-duncan-40996

CBS. (2016). The Penn State Scandal - CBS News. CBSNews.com. Retrieved 25 June 2016,
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Components of Sport Marketing and

Words: 2675 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17471111

The concept of dividing a mass market into homogeneous segments and targeting one or more with a distinct product offering and unique marketing communication is a fundamental precept of marketing theory. Market segmentation recognizes that different customer groups have different wants and needs that justify the development and offering of different products and services. The process of segmentation theoretically results in a much better understanding of users' needs, their decision criteria, and their approaches. Although much of the theory of market segmentation is appreciated and understood by sport marketers, it remains one of the more difficult marketing concepts to turn into profitable reality.

Consumer segmentation can help the sport marketer in the following areas. First, it allows an analysis of the marketplace, including a knowledge of competitors as well as how and why customers buy. Second, it can contribute to the strategic management of an organization in that it allows…… [Read More]

Wann, D.L., Hamlet, M.A., Wilson, T.M., & Hodges, J.A. (1995). Basking in reflected glory, cutting off reflected failure, and cutting off future failure: The importance of group identification. The Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 23, 377-388.

Zimbalist, A. (1992). Baseball and Billions. New York: Basic Books.

Larengectomy
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The Importance of Sports

Words: 1364 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35561437

osemary ivera

Building social skills and character in young children of all socioeconomic backgrounds, race and genders through junior golf programs.

Golf is a game of learned behavior and learned skills. When youths are taught golf, it enables the weaving of junior golf and character building activities into lessons that help prepare kids and teens to perform better in the real world. This is due in part to the core values instructors teach and develop in junior golfers that are incorporated throughout junior golf programs. Parents are encouraged to reinforce these behaviors through reflection and discussion, covering the topics and lessons learned in the program. Junior golf programs like The First Tee teaches participants integrity, teamwork, communication, and a handful of other valuable skills via hands-on activities and reflects Albert Bandura's social learning theory in that through observation or direct instruction can help children learn. (Thesis Statement)

Games that require…… [Read More]

References

Bean, E., Whitley, M., & Gould, D. (2014). Athlete Impressions of a Character-Based Sports Program for Underserved Youth. Journal Of Sport Behavior, 37(1), 3-23.

Messner, M. (2011). Gender Ideologies, Youth Sports, and the Production of Soft Essentialism.Sociology Of Sport Journal, 28, 151-170.

Psychology Today, (2016). Social Learning Theory -- Psychology Today. Psychologytoday.com. Retrieved 11 June 2016, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/basics/social-learning-theory

Rosenstock, I., Strecher, V., & Becker, M. (1988). Social Learning Theory and the Health Belief Model.Health Education & Behavior, 15(2), 175-183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019818801500203
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Nike Athletic Apparel Company

Words: 2254 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47425071

Nike apparel company is a steadfast company in the minds of most athletic gear and apparel consumers and in the industry as a whole, with substantial earnings growth even in the last few years of recession it has still managed to record substantial growth. The company has even coined household phrases like "Just Do It" a mark of American influence over the global market. Much of this success has long been attributed to the solid nature of its upper management, namely its long time CEO and co-founder Phillip H. Knight. Nike recently made international news when it announced the retirement of Knight to the press, which in the business world can mean at least short-term trouble. The announcement was made with less than sixty days to pass before what would call a revolutionary change for the company. Though Knight will stay on as Chairman of the board, his intention is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, Carolyn M. "Serena Williams Aces Nike Deal Worth Approximately $40 Million." Black Enterprise Apr. 2004: 26. Questia. 8 Dec. 2004 .

Dionne, E.J. "A Victory over Nike: And a Win for Sweatshop Workers." Commonweal 5 June 1998: 7. Questia. 8 Dec. 2004 .

Hage, J.T. "Organizational Innovation and Organizational Change." Annual Review of Sociology (1999): 597. Questia. 8 Dec. 2004 .

Haley, Eric. "Exploring the Construct of Organization as Source: Consumers' Understandings of Organizational Sponsorship of Advocacy Advertising." Journal of Advertising 25.2 (1996): 19+. Questia. 8 Dec. 2004 .
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Male Primary Elementary Teachers Sociology for

Words: 1067 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59366717



Details are provided in the primary accounts from men's experiences teaching as elementary school teachers- details that help answer the challenge at hand facing public perception and gender bias in the school system. Coulter and McNay, of the University of Western Ontario, help tease out the intimate details of "various issues these men confronted as they attempted to create for themselves in a work world traditional thought more suited for women" (Coulter and McNay, 1993). Through these male's personal accounts, as supplied in a primary source in the article, the "assumptions and stereotypes" about men are brought to the surface and discussed (Coulter and McNay, 1993). The individual nuances that these teachers discuss helps shed light on the problems at hand and how to overcome these gender stereotypes and public perception of who should be an elementary or primary school teacher.

Finally, given the definition and issues surrounding masculinity and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Coulter, Rebecca P., & McNay, Margaret. (1993). Exploring men's experiences as elementary school teachers. Canadian Journal of Education, 18(4), 398-412.

Mills, Martin, Martino, Wayne, & Lingard, Bob. (2004). Attracting, recruiting, and retaining male teachers: policy issues in the male teacher debate. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 25(3), 355-369.

Montecinos, Carmen, & Nielsen, Lynn. (2004). Male elementary preservice teachers' gendering of teaching. Multicultural Perspective, 6(2), 3-9.

Skelton, Christine. (2003). Male primary teachers and perception of masculinity. Educational Review, 55(2).
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Sociology and Sports and Race

Words: 2030 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35580596

politics that suggests the making of the New World Order. his paper provides evidence for this statement between the lines. In addition, the paper discusses the foreign policies of United States towards Israel and Iraq within the historical and the current context.

POLIICAL SCIENCE

Any country's foreign policy towards other states is symbolic of common goals of the two. Moreover, any foreign policy is shaped by a country's interests in that particular region which can range from economic to political. In addition to the above, a foreign policy towards a country is also influenced by the fear of some threat from the same. As a result of which, the policy can take any antagonistic form- legitimate or otherwise but largely negative that aims to dominate rather than collaborate. One example of the first kind of policy mentioned above is that of United States towards Israel. An example of the second…… [Read More]

The U.S. response to Iraq's invasion on Kuwait was, however an exception. Israel, so far has violated many more UN Security Council resolutions than any other nation but United States has never responded to those violations in the same manner. In fact the U.S. government has always supported Israel even in defiance of UN resolutions. Not only is Israel the "most extensive violator" but also the "largest recipient of U.S. military and economic aid" (Zunes, 2002) and "even before Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, Americans favored Israel over Arab nations by a wide margin -- 40 per cent to 19 per cent" (Eizenstat, 1990). For instance recently, Israel refused to accept the suggestions regarding peace out forward by the Arab League, literally in violation of UN Security Council resolutions 242 and 338 which are the basis for Middle East peace. Violation of other UN Security Council resolutions consist of resolutions 262 and 267 that ordered Israel to withdraw its forces from East Jerusalem, as well as those of the Fourth Geneva Convention. These violations came in the form of deportations, destruction of civilian homes, collective punishment, and capture of private property. In addition to the above, UN Security Council resolutions 446 and 465 require that Israel withdraw all of its forces from the illegal occupied Arab lands. In face of such violations, the United States continues to be mute or actively support if circumstances permit. For instance, the U.S. government argues that the outcome of the illegal Israeli settlements is a function of Israeli-Palestinian negotiations. Furthermore, "the Clinton Peace Plan of December 2000 would have allowed Israel to illegally annex most of these settlements and surrounding areas into Israel" (Zunes, 2002). Not only has the U.S. government been aiding the economy and military budgets of Israel generally, it has also funded Israel's construction of Jewish-only "bypass roads" in the occupied West Bank. By doing this, the U.S. has provided Israel with a way to connect the illegal settlements with itself. Not only has Israel violated UN resolutions but also the United States by breaching Article 7 of resolution 465, which disallows member states from helping Israel in its colonization drive.

US RESPONSE TO THE 1948 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE

Apart from the recent examples of U.S. policy towards Israel, there have been historical instances as well. As early as the 1948 War of Independence, when Jews engaged in large-scale offensives against Arabs following the UN announcement of partition of Palestine, America has been its ally. After the battle at Deir Yassin, the partition of Palestine was confirmed and Israel the Jewish State, was born on May 14, 1948 (Bard, 1998). However the Arab countries of Egypt, Syria, Transjordan, Lebanon, and Iraq wanted to save the Holy Land and hence a war began between these Arab armies and the Jews of Palestine. Though the combined forces of Arab armies were in smaller in number as compared to the Jewish forces, they had the advantage of terrain.
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School-Based Intervention Trials for the

Words: 14493 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7664904

, 1999). In many areas of the country this may be very accurate.

Another problem that comes into the picture where obesity in children is concerned is that many parents must work very long hours today to pay bills and have money for what their family needs (Mokdad, et al., 1999). ecause of this, many children are latchkey kids and are not watched as closely by their parents as they used to be (Mokdad, et al., 1999). Children used to come home from school and go and play with others, but many now live in neighborhoods where this is unsafe or where there are no children their age so they remain inside watching TV or playing video games and snacking on whatever is available (Mokdad, et al., 1999).

If there is healthy food in the house this is often not a problem, but many households are full of potato chips,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

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Arlin, M. (1976). Causal priority of social desirability over self-concept: A cross-lagged correlation analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 267-272.

Averill, P. (1987). The role of parents in the sport socialization of children. Unpublished senior thesis, University of Houston.

Bandura, a. (1969). A social-learning theory of identificatory processes. In D.A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 213-262). Chicago: Rand McNally.
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Messerschmidt That the Prisons in

Words: 3714 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42977606

More recently, Miedzian (1991) has studied peer pressure, the socialization process, and military impact that has resulted in violence becoming standard behavior in males, and Thompson (1991) has demonstrated that violent acts are more often performed by males with greater masculine gender orientations.

Another slant on this topic was placed by West and Zimmerman (1987) in "Doing Gender," that looked at gender not in terms of a set of traits that are held by individuals, but rather as something people do together in their social interactions. In this case, gender is basically about social interaction and establishing relationships. It is an integral part of all daily interactions. Where a person's actions in "doing gender" simultaneously produce, reproduce, sustain and legitimate the social meanings accorded to gender. The authors state that gender is a fundamental aspect of all social relationships, in terms that no one can possibly not do gender if…… [Read More]

References

Carrigan, C., Connell, R.W., & Lee, J. (1985), Toward a new sociology of masculinity, Theory and Society, 14 (5), 551-604.

Cloward, Richard a. And Lloyd E. Ohlin. 1960. Delinquency and Opportunity: a theory of delinquent gangs. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.

Connell, RW. 1985. Masculinities. Cambridge, Polity Press.

Connell, R.W. And Messerschmidt, J. (2005) Hegemonic Masculinity, Rethinking the Concept Gender and Society. Gender & Society, 19(6), 829-859
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Globalization is not Americanization

Words: 2534 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20372620

Globalization arguably began even before Marco Polo’s expeditions, possibly being traceable to Alexander the Great’s establishment of overland routes between Eastern Europe and India. The assumption that globalization equals Americanization is profoundly arrogant, and is also ignorant of the history, meaning, and implications of globalization. Globalization implies integration and interdependence of the world. Predating the United States of America, globalization nevertheless reached a peak in the 20th century, when a globalized economic, political, and cultural landscape became inevitable and entrenched. While it seemed that McDonald’s, Coca Cola, Shell, and other proudly American companies have dominated the corporate landscape of a globalized international economy, a wealth of non-American companies have likewise participated in the dissemination and distribution of ideas and neoliberal policies that characterize postmodern globalization.

In some ways, globalization is the antithesis of Americanization. As Collins (2015) points out, globalization “has led to the continuing deindustrialization of America,” as labor…… [Read More]

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History of Economic of the 4 Periods in Ancient Civilization

Words: 5166 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16341967

Economics in Ancient Civilization

It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.

Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.

Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.

Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
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Concept of Karma and Rebirth in Hinduism and Buddhism

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72235983

Sports Fandom

At first glance the world of sports looks simplistic and unencumbered. Regardless of the sport in question the fans come, they watch the sport take place and then they leave. It is only when one takes a closer look that the complicated underpinnings of sports fan behavior becomes evident. Sports fans support their teams in many ways. They purchase millions of dollars of merchandise each year, they attend games and cheer their teams on, and they remain loyal in the face of losing seasons. Individually most sports fans are law abiding, calm and reasonable members of society, but when they get into a group, or they attend a sport events they often become loud and behave in ways that they never behave elsewhere. Sports fans have caused injury to other fans, to players and to the other team. They have rushed onto the field at games, as well…… [Read More]

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State Level Challenges and Issues

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75028835

Sociology

State-Level Challenges and Issues

In the course of social worker's in Indiana performing clinical duties they are likely to provide service to Impaired Professionals. Impaired professionals bring to the clinical atmosphere additional clinical contemplations and challenges, not the least of which is their potential for endangerment or harm to the public (Supporting the Wellness and ecovery of Impaired Professionals, 2011). Impairment on the part of a professional is sure to contribute to unproductive service delivery, possibly even to bringing real harm to the client, and malpractice with all its consequences. Impairment may manifest itself in a number of ways, among them, chemical dependency, stress responses, and inadequate attention to the professionals own emotional troubles (The Impaired Helper, 2011).

Impaired professionals often experience inappropriate anger or resentment in the form of: intimidation, insulting or demeaning language, blaming or shaming others for mistakes or errors, needless sarcasm or pessimism and threats…… [Read More]

References

Ethical Standards for Human Service Professionals. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.nationalhumanservices.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id

=43

Supporting the Wellness and Recovery of Impaired Professionals. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.naswin.org/displayconvsceduledesc.cfm?SessionId=1988418B-FB48-2FAD-

F596D9FA08444EC6&schedulenbr=34749&convnbr=10397
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Values and Ethics in International Social Work

Words: 622 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95897542

Sociology -- Social Work

Values & Ethics International Social Work

In the article Dilemmas of international social work: a paradoxical process in indigenisation, universalism and imperialism (Gray, 2005), international social work is discussed in regards to a three branched dilemma. The dilemma comes from the inconsistent directions or opposing procedures surrounding indigenisation, universalism and imperialism in social work. Cross-cultural conversation and exchange is forming and shaping new kinds of social work (indigenisation) while social work is, at the same time, trying to hang on to some form of ordinary identity (universalism). This is happening at the same time as labors toward internationalizing social work raise the vision of Westernization and imperialism.

In the article Professional Contributions Social Work and International Development Practice (Wilson & Whitmore, 2000), the authors investigate the association between accompaniment, social work theory and feminist procedures. Accompaniment unites both structural and conjunctural examination with the interpersonal abilities…… [Read More]

References

Gray, Mel. (2005). Professional Contributions Social Work and International Development

Practice. Int J. Soc Welfare, 14: 231 -- 238.

Wilson, M and Whitmore, E. (2000). Professional Contributions: Social Work and International

Development Practice (130-140). From Seeds of Fire: Social Development in an Era of Globalism. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing.
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Sociological Theories Functionalism Is Usually Defined as

Words: 1073 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46881781

Sociological Theories

Functionalism is usually defined as viewing society from the aspect of its different parts, and how those parts relate to each other and society as a whole. Many functionalists liken society to a biological form, such as the human body, with its different organs all working in conjunction to keep the body as a whole functioning. Each of the elements of the body has a "function- to maintain the whole, so ensuring the stability or order of the system." (Bissell, 2005, p.41) But while each element has a manifest function, or the function that is expected from it, there are also unexpected functions called latent functions.

On the other hand, Conflict Theory states that the different parts of a society are in a state of conflict over the limited resources available to society. While Functionalism stresses the unity between the different groups, "conflict theory emphasizes strife and friction"…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, Margaret, Howard Francis Taylor. (2008). Sociology: Understanding a Diverse Society. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. Print.

Bissell, Paul, Janine Morgall Traulsen. (2005). Sociology and Pharmacy Practice. London: Pharmaceutical Press. Print.

Ritzer, George. (1992). Sociological Theory. New York: McGraw Hill. Print.

Sifferlin, Alexandra. (9 Dec. 2013). "Sandy Hook Families Seek Privacy On Anniversary