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Statistical Analysis of Police Arrest Decisions

What are the central variables that Smith and Visher studied?

Smith and Visher (1981) analyzed a series of independent variables that were found by previous studies to influence dependent variable 'likelihood of being arrested'. Although a Chi square test revealed several factors to be significantly associated with likelihood of being arrested (Table 1), the aim of their research was to reveal the relative contributions of the many independent variables examined. Towards this goal the authors used a multivariate probit model to gauge relative contributions from a set of independent variables on arrest likelihood. These variables are as follows: police contact initiated by a victim or the police, contact with suspect took place in a public or private location, presence of bystanders, victim is present or absent, victim's choice of how to handle the contact, suspect's race, age, and gender, suspect's demeanor, relationship between victim…

References

Smith, Douglas A. And Visher, Christy A. (1981). Street-level justice: Situational determinants of police arrest decisions. Social Problems, 29, 167-177.

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Many patrons tip based on how quickly their food is delivered, and if it is hot or not, how it tastes, did it meet the patrons' expectations or not for this specific type of food, what is the frequency of the patrons' dining on this specific type of food.

There are also an entire series of attitudinal questions regarding why this specific restaurant was chosen, and these could range from convenience for a family meal together, or for a special occasion. Clearly expectations are significantly higher for those respondents going out to dinner for an anniversary, birthday, or significant family event - all instances were respondents would be going to more upscale restaurants.

There is the entire price/quality aspect of this research. It is one experience to dine at McDonalds' or Burger King and have the expectation of the burger and fries tasting like they have in the past, and…

References

ResearchMethods (2007) - Web Center for Social Research Methods. Research Methods Knowledge Base. Accessed from the Internet on July 11, 2007 from location: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/measlevl.php

SPSS Files:

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Statistical analysis of the data is to be carried out using technique sof analyzing categorical data. In this process a contingency table analysis is employed in order to examine the nature of relationship existing between two categorical variables (financial stability and customer spending).In this process, the McNemer's test will be used in analyzing if the pair is dichotomous (Elliot & Woodword,2007,p.113).This test is done on the categorical variables in order to detect any change or disagreements between them. The Mantel-Haenszel test is also employed in order to determine the nature of relationship between the dichotomous variables while controlling for or within the specific levels of the third variable (declining economy).Also to be carried out is the interatter reliability test so as to determine if the two raters provide consistent ratings. A goodness-of-fit test is also used in measuring whether an given observed group of counts matches a given theoretical pattern.…

References

Elliot, AC and Woodward, WA (2007).Statistical Analysis-Quick Reference Guide with SPSS examples. Sage Publications, Inc.

Rubin, A. (2009). Statistics for Evidence-Based Practice. Belmont, CA: Cengage.

Sears Holdings. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.searsholdings.com/about/kmart/history.htm

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In addition to this analysis, the findings of the Pew Research Center's 2012 Values Survey, which observed that party affiliation ranks as the most influential demographic factor when determining value differentiation between individual voters, and that this political polarization has intensified during the last four election cycles. The fact that the most divisive cable news outlets, FOX News and MSNBC, both began broadcasting to a national audience in 1996 provides a further basis for empirical research designed to evaluate the hypothesis that long-term viewership of ideologically inspired news sources decreases one's willingness to alter voting patterns, and is thus responsible for the reduced impact of news consumption on voting choice.

The primary survey to be used in this research project would involve telephonically contacting a sample group of 1,500 voters who have previously identified as long-term viewers of either FOX News of MSNBC, to determine whether or not their voting…

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Their pricing approaches, while in the boundaries of solid statistical analysis, are somewhat opportunistic. For Zillow to be more accurate, the use of a range of valuations for each property could be included. This would be more realistic to the true conditions of the market. Finally, the methodology used for this analysis is based on the latest 30 home sales; therefore the data itself and analysis are much timelier in reflecting the market conditions..

Zillow Analysis

In evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of Zillow.com, it is immediately apparent that this website is much more navigable than realtor.com, and also gets away from the troublesome opt-in screens realtors use before allowing properties to be sold. The mash-up with Google Maps is also very well done. In summary, the strengths and weaknesses of Zillow.com are provided here:

Strengths

Excellent mash-up using Google Maps and their own pricing databases to provide an easy-to-navigate…

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The author did not apprise the reader of the measure of poverty, so it is assumed that the way poverty is measured is the same over the decades. This may not be true so in this instance the comparison can be misleading.

The use of the median as a measure of income level is a consistent use of a statistical measure. The median is a more robust measure of national income than the mean since it is not as susceptible to the influence of outliers in the data (Gravetter & Wallnau, 2008). The use of the median provides a more precise measure of the middle class challenge. The conclusion that the middle class is stagnating is a legitimate conclusion based on the lack of income growth within that group. In this instance, the statistics were used appropriately.

The use of data to show increases while legitimate can provide an inaccurate…

References

Eckholm, E. (2010). Recession raises poverty rate to a 15-year high. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/17/us/17poverty.html?hp

Gravetter, F.J., & Wallnau, L.B. (2008). Statistics for the behavioral sciences 8th ed. California:

Wadsworth Publishing.

RECOMMENDED ESSAY

The median is the mid-point of a given data set; rather than the mean, which produces a single number that takes into account the extremes of the data set as well as the middle, the median tends to be more stable, finding the half-way point between extremes rather than directly incorporating them. For wage comparisons, especially over time, the median is useful and an excellent choice of statistical tool precisely for this stability and lack of influence by extremes that are exceptions to the general findings of the data set.

Conclusion

The examinations of the statistical tools herein have been brief, but hopefully effective. Understanding the different methods of analysis and presentation that are at one's disposal is essential in order to carry out effective research in a way that is meaningful to other researchers and practitioners, in the filed of human resource management and in all other areas of…

References

Edwards, C. (2009). "The pursuit of happiness (human resource management)." Engineering & technology 4(4), pp. 76-9.

Gill, G. (2004). "Perception of safety, safety violation, and improvement of safety in aviation: Findings of a pilot study." Journal of air transportation 9(3), pp. 43-55.

Hwang, J. & Chang, H. (2009). "Work climate perception and turnover intention among Korean hospital staff. International nursing review 56(1), pp. 73-80.

Mathuaer, I. & Imhoff, I. (2006). "Health worker motivation in Africa: the role of non-financial incentives and human resource management tools. Human Resources for Health [NLM - MEDLINE] 4, pp. 24-36.

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Statistical Analysis eport for the A-CAT

A-CAT was one of the Indian leading producers of electrical appliance within the medium-scale industry. The A-CAT manufactured and distributed domestic appliance to the rural population India. Moreover, A-CAT had two medium-sized manufacturing units in a small town of Gondia located at the remote district in Vidarbha, a less develop area in India. The company primary flagship product was 500 kilovolt amps voltage regulator branded with V-500 tag. Established in 1986, the company could boast of 40 employees. A-CAT had established a partnership alliance with Jupiter Inc. and Global Electricals for the production of cabinets and TV signal boosters respectively. Since 1986, the A-CAT had been in operation and the company budget between 2010 and 2011 provided the annual sales of s. 9,800,000 ($147,128). The functional company department are design department, manufacturing department, purchasing department, and sales and service department. Contrary to other companies…

Reference

Dhoot, A.V. (2015). Opportunities and Challenges in Consumer Electronics & Home Appliances. CEAMA. Consumer Electronics and Appliances Manufacturers Association.

Ernst & Young (2015).Study on Indian electronics and consumer durables segment (AC, refrigerators, washing machines, TVs). Ernst & Young Pvt. Ltd.

Heale, R. & Twycross, A.(2015). Validity and reliability in quantitative studies. Evid-Based Nurs:1-3.

Korb, K. (2012). Conducting Educational Research. Validity of Instruments. 2012. Korbed. Psychology

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t is worth noting that batting was not strongly associated with attendance. High-scoring, offensive baseball did not resonate with baseball fans in a statistically significant way. Stadium size also did not have a strong correlation. This is a critical insight because stadium size has often been viewed as a constraint for attendance, especially when a team has a high degree of popularity. n fact, our data shows that teams in smaller stadiums were more likely to have sellouts, even when that team had a poor won-lost record, such as the Pittsburg Pirates. Most teams fell well short of maximum capacity, indicating that for all but a small minority of teams stadium capacity was not a significant constraint on attendance.

The mean attendance in major league baseball in 2005 was 2,496,457.9 for a team, or 30,820.5 per game. There was no mode. The median attendance was 2,523,082 or 31,149 per game.…

It is worth noting that batting was not strongly associated with attendance. High-scoring, offensive baseball did not resonate with baseball fans in a statistically significant way. Stadium size also did not have a strong correlation. This is a critical insight because stadium size has often been viewed as a constraint for attendance, especially when a team has a high degree of popularity. In fact, our data shows that teams in smaller stadiums were more likely to have sellouts, even when that team had a poor won-lost record, such as the Pittsburg Pirates. Most teams fell well short of maximum capacity, indicating that for all but a small minority of teams stadium capacity was not a significant constraint on attendance.

The mean attendance in major league baseball in 2005 was 2,496,457.9 for a team, or 30,820.5 per game. There was no mode. The median attendance was 2,523,082 or 31,149 per game. The difference between the median and mean is 328.5 fans per game, which is only marginally significant (1.06% of the mean). The data is therefore considered to be well-dispersed. The standard deviation from the mean is 661,569.7 people, which indicates a fairly high degree of disparity in the results. The range has no skew.

The range for the data is from 1,141,915 for Tampa Bay to 4,090,440 for the New York Yankees. The correlation with salary is immediately evident, as Tampa Bay had the lowest salary in baseball at 29.7 while the Yankees had the highest at 208.3 million. The correlation with wins is also in evidence, given that Tampa Bay had just 67 wins while the Yankees had 95 wins. The lack of correlation with batting is also in evidence -- Tampa Bay batted .274 while the Yankees batted .276.

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Descriptive Statistics

Test subjects were 53.3% male and 46.7% female, as shown in the bar graph on the accompanying Excel spreadsheet. The test population has a mean age of 15.9 years (standard deviation=0.80). These descriptive statistics validate the randomized population of the research study, as the population is almost evenly split between males and females and the mean age is also very close to the median age (16) of the study's population (Healy, 2009). As ACT and SAT scores vary in their nominal values (a top score on the ACT test is 36, a top score on the SAT is 2400), scores were recorded as percentages of the total score to enable meaningful analysis of varying means (i.e. A score of 29 on the ACT and of 1920 on the SAT would both be recorded as 0.80) (Kaplan, 2004). Mean scores on the ACT were 0.47 (standard deviation=0.27), while mean…

References

Healy, J. (2009). Statistics. Mason, OH: Cengage.

Kaplan. (2004). SAT and ACT Score Comparison. Accessed 23 March 2009. http://phs.prs.k12.nj.us/guidance/sat_act_comparison.pdf

Kohn, A. (2000). The Case Against Standardized Testing. New York: Heinemann.

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Chi-Squared Test Where Continuous Data Has Been Transformed Into Categorical Data

Using Continuous data as categorical

Statistical analysis can provide a robust approach to assess data, using the raw data to generate useful results which may provide insights into the phenomena being examined. For the results to be meaningful and useful it is essential that the most appropriate method tests are utilized (Bryman & Bell, 2011). In the research undertaken by azmjou et al., (2009) a decision way made to transform one type of variable, changing it from a continuous variable into a categorical variable. BMI, which is a continuous variable, was changed into categories of normal, overweight, and obese (azmjou et al., 2009). Usually, transforming continuous data into categorical data results in a loss of detail, so is usually ill-advised, but in some circumstances may help to more useful data (Bryman & Bell, 2011). The circumstances under which continuous…

References

Bruce, N. (2009). Quantitative Methods for Health Research: A Practical Interactive Guide to Epidemiology and Statistics. Hoboken: Wiley-Interscience.

Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2011). Business Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Curwin, J., & Slater, R. (2006). Quantitative Methods for Business Decisions. London: Thompson Business Press.

Razmjou, H; Davis, A M, Jaglal, S B; Holtby, R; Richards, R, (2009), Cross-sectional analysis of baseline differences of candidates for rotator cuff surgery: a sex and gender perspective, BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 10(26), retrieved 17th November 2015 from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/10/26

Male Mean Per Question Analysis x Department

Source of Sum of d.f.

Mean

Variation

Squares between error

Required F. value: 4.21 ? < 0.05

Concluding Statement: With a received F. value of 1.04 and a required value of F = 4.21 the conclusion can be drawn that no statistically significant differences exist in attitude toward Career Choice, Professional Relationships and Development for male radiographer participants within the three health care departments at a probability level of 95%. Therefore, all three health care groups consisting of males perceive attitudes towards Career Choice, Professional Relationships and Development the same.

Female Mean Per Question Analysis x Department

Source of Sum of d.f.

Mean

Variation

Squares between error

Required F. Value: 4.21 ? < 0.05

Concluding Statement:…

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ability of plants to respond to environmental factors such as soil temperatures. This paper examines the effects of arti-cially warmed environment using open-top chambers (OTCs). It investigates the effect of temperature changes on the growth of Dryas integrifolia. This is in light of the growing concern of the changing climatic weather condition more so in the cold climatic regions of the world. It hypothesizes the difference in growth of Dryas integrifolia exposed to OTC- treatment as compared to those in natural setting.

This study reveals that there is statistically significant difference in growth of Dryas integrifolia exposed to OTC- treatment as compared to those in natural setting. It gives a new view of the possibility that future change of climate might as well not be detrimental to the growth of natural vegetation in the arctic regions

Introduction

It is a scientific fact that plant development is subjected to environmental factors.…

References

Callaghan TV, Bjo rn LO, Chapin FS III et al. (2005). Arctic tundra and polar desert ecosystems. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment: Scienti-c Report, 243 -- 352.

CYSIP: Botany. (2012). Dryas integrifolia: Entire-leaf Mounta. Retrieved November 27, 2012, from http://www.flora.dempstercountry.org/index.html

Fenner, M. (1998). The phenology of growth and reproduction in plants. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, Vol. 1 No. 1, 78-91.

Forchhammer, M.C., Rasch, M., & Rysgaard, S. (n.d.). A Conceptual Framework for Monitoring Climate Effects and Feedback in Arctic Ecosystems.

The four possible points which could be the optimal solution are labeled from one to four. The solutions to these are then given in Table 1, along with the profits which would result from these combinations. The values of each of these points were calculated by solving the simultaneous equations where the lines crossed. It can be seen from Table 1 that the maximum profit would be reached by producing 20 beef dinners and 40 fish dinners each day.

Figure 1: Feasible region for the linear programming problem

Table 1: esultant profits from each of the critical points

Point

Value of X1

Value of X2

esultant Profit

Now Excel may also be used to solve this problem. The solution which is given is shown in Figure 2. From this it may be confirmed that the optimal solution for the restaurant is to prepare 20 beef meals and 40 fish meals…

References

Banker, R.D. & Morey, R.C. (1986). Efficiency analysis for exogenously fixed inputs and outputs. Operations Research, 34(4), 513-521.

Brusco, M.J. & Johns, T.R. (1998). Staffing a multiskilled workforce with varying levels of productivity: An analysis of cross-training policies. Decision Sciences, 29(2), 499-515.

Chase, R.B. & Apte, U.M. (2007). A history of research in service operations: What's the big idea? Journal of Operations Management, 25(2), 375-386.

Gattoufi, S., Oral, M. & Reisman, a. (2004). A taxonomy for data envelopment analysis. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 38(2-3), 141-158.

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Health Care -- Statistical Thinking in Health Care

The HMO pharmacy is inaccurately filling prescriptions. Prescribers blame pharmacy assistants, the assistants blame pharmacists and pharmacists blame prescribers. Analysis of their system show points ripe for change in order to improve accuracy. In addition, there are multiple measures that can be applied to substantially enhance the quality of the HMO pharmacy's work.

Process Map & SIPOC Analysis

Process Map of Prescription Filling Process

Process Map of Prescription Filling Process

Prescriber determines patient needs medication

Prescriber selects medication type

Prescriber selects medication dosage

Prescriber hand-writes prescription

Prescription delivered to pharmacy

Prescription entered into pharmacy computer system by pharmacy assistant

Pharmacist selects medication

Pharmacist measures medication

Pharmacist counsels patient about prescription

Medication delivered to patient

SIPOC Analysis of Business Process

SIPOC Analysis of Business Process

Supplier

Input

Process Steps

Output

Customer

Prescriber

Patient information

Determines need for medication

Determines type of medication

Determines…

Works Cited

Bright Hub Project Management. (n.d.). Six Sigma: Network diagram examples. Retrieved April 26, 2015 from www.brighthubpm.com Web site: http://www.brighthubpm.com/six-sigma/25326-dmaic-phase-two-measuring/

Caamano, F., Ruano, A., Figueiras, A., & Gestal-Otero, J. (December 2002). Data collection methods for analyzing the quality of the dispensing in pharmacies. Pharmacy World & Science, 24(6), 217-223.

DrFirst, Inc. (n.d.). Rcopia e-prescribing. Retrieved April 26, 2015 from go.drfirst.com Web site: http://go.drfirst.com/l/8842/2012-08-02/7p276?pi_ad_id= {creative}&utm_source=google&utm_medium=cpc&utm_term=%7Bkeyword%7D

Nair, R.P., Kappil, D., & Woods, T.M. (2010, January 20). 10 strategies for minimizing dispensing errors. Retrieved April 26, 2015 from www.pharmacytimes.com Web site: http://www.pharmacytimes.com/publications/issue/2010/January2010/P2PDispensingErrors-0110

click in the excel object to see how the statistical analysis was done

Y = ?0 +?1X1 +?2X2 +?

Price = 35591.507 + (4.001 * Block Size) + (3088.933 * Floor Area) + 177444.648

The dependent variable Price can be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables:

P

Block Size

Floor Area

RECOMMENDED ESSAY

Soda Volumes

Troubleshooting Bottling Errors

Due to customer complaints of low product volume an investigation was conducted to check whether these complaints had any merit. Bottles (n = 30) of soda were randomly taken off the production line and the volumes measured. The total amount of soda measured was ?X = 446.1 oz, so the mean (MX) amount of soda per bottle was ?X/n = 446.1/30 = 14.87 oz. The median value is [(n + 1)/2] = 31/2 = 15.5, so the two middle values were averaged to obtain the median. The two middle values are 14.8 and 14.8, so the median is 14.8. Since the mean and median have similar values, the distribution of soda volumes is not skewed. The standard deviation is SDX = ?{[?(X -- MX) 2]/n-1} = = ?{[(14.5 -- 14.87)2 + (14.6 -- 14.87)2 + . . . + (14.8 -- 14.87)2 + (14.6 --…

References

Introduction. (n.d.). Retrieved 14 June 2014 from http://www.melrosechem.com/english/publicat/bottling/bottling.pdf .

statistical data being the driver of what choice is chosen and why. The concepts that lead to the decision, the inclusion of proper probability concepts, the outcome of the decision with statistical data to back it up, the tradeoffs between accuracy and precision, and the decision itself are to be discussed in this report. The business decision that will be discussed will be whether the Hostess empire should have been shut down given the events and labor union efforts that were going on at the time.

Decision Made & What Led to It

One concept that had to be assessed during the Hostess drama was two-fold with both dimensions of the decision being very hard. The first part was how expensive it was per day to have the unions on strike and the probability that the strike would be stopped before it was fiscally too late to recover from the…

References

Feintzeig, R. (2012, November 20). Hostess Plans to Liquidate After Mediation Fails

WSJ.com. The Wall Street Journal - Breaking News, Business, Financial and Economic News, World News & Video - Wall Street Journal - Wsj.com. Retrieved March 24, 2013, from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887323713104578131502378821868.html

McCoy, K., & Higgins, L. (2012, November 21). Hostess gets OK from judge to liquidate. USA TODAY: Latest World and U.S. News - USATODAY.com.

Retrieved March 24, 2013, from http://www.usatoday.com/story/money/2012/11/21/

power of statistical analysis is the power to define, interpret, and understanding numerical data which represents patterns in the real world. Without the ability to measure statistical data, the empirical, hypothetical world of educational models would not be able to be checked by actual performance in the absolute. While statistics has applications in many fields, statistical data is possibly the most powerful when used to identify patterns in personal behavior, and other fields of study which do not exhibit direct patterns across a sampling group. For example, mathematical equations govern how a specific metal will respond to different loads, and different conditions. However, there are no direct mathematical equations which govern the percentage of teenage drivers who will be involved in traffic accidents over a period of time. In order to interpret the influential factors over teen drivers, a statistical measurement of actual experience can be undertaken. Through statistical analysis,…

Regarding a linear regression analysis of this relationship, we find that the slope of the line is close to 0.5, and the relationship is a direct linear relationship between the amount of tar in a cigarette and the amount of nicotine.

Nonlinear trends in statistical data can be the most challenging to work with. When non-linear relationships exist, there may be a mathematical relationship which is based on a logarithm, or other multi-factor influence. However, true non-linear relationship, such as the height and weight of a specific person who shops in a given department store may leave the statistician without any relationship whatsoever. Non-linear data can also be the result of data which is being acted on by an artificial, outside force. In this case, the statistician is able to verify the existence of an outside force, and then approach the process of identifying the force.

An example of this situation is the expected relationship between supply and demand, and company profit based on the sales of a given product in the market place. In the early 1980's, the Coleco company produces a product called "Cabbage Patch dolls." The typical lifecycle of a new toy product is one to two years, but Coleco was able to extend the life of their product for four to five Christmas seasons by artificially affecting the relationship between supply and demand. The company had the production capacity to produce 4-5 times the amount of dolls which it shipped to the market during the first three years of the dolls life cycle. This would have produced a typical bell shaped curve, plotting a rising demand, and increasing profits which gave way to a declining demand and declining profits in a short period. However the company did not produce product equal to their capacity, nor equal to the demand. As a result, the company was able to continue a high level of demand, and an inflated retail based on the high demand for an extended period. The result was that the doll stayed popular for almost a decade, and the company was able to reap ongoing higher levels of profits. The longer bell curve, identified by an irregular and nonlinear relation between time and supply and demand was created by the unique marketing strategy for the company.

Another statistical measure that should be implemented is the use of statistical techniques to measure the side effects of certain drugs and medications given to patients.

Possibly one of the most important statistical aspects that should be applied to modern nursing is the creation of clinical pathways in hospitals. The development of clinical pathways are related to "…attempts to reduce hospital utilization" and "cost-containment initiatives" ( Lagoe, 1998) There are many variables that have to be statistically considered in this regard and statistical analysis of data provides insight into the clinical pathway; for example, an analysis of the variables relating to the hospital population.

While data and information collection processes are important, they are dependent on accurate and dependable analysis techniques to be effective and of use in nursing. While nursing is known as a profession that stresses qualitative aspects, there is an increasing emphasis on the accurate quantitative side…

References

Giuliano K. And Polanowicz M. (2008) Interpretation and Use of Statistics in Nursing research: AACN advanced critical care (AACN Adv Crit Care), 19(2).

Lagoe R. ( 1998) Basic statistics for clinical pathway evaluation. Nursing Economics, May-June, 1998. Retrieved April 9, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FSW/is_n3_v16/ai_n18607850/

Maindonald J. THIS PASSIONATE STUDY -- a DIALOGUE WITH

FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE. Retrieved April

Statistical esearch II

Measuring a given construct within a statistical study is done by sorting the numerical data obtained during the study's administration of surveys and/or questionnaires to identify the baseline reference point. Calculating the mean, median and mode of the various data points gathered during the survey period, the data set's baseline is then utilized to quantify various constructs within the study's purview. When one refers to the Mean, this is the technical term what we know as the "average" in everyday vernacular. In other words, the mean is equal to the sum of all the numbers or quantities in a data set divided by the amount of data points added. When examining a distribution of numerical entries, the mean is best visualized as the point of balance, because when a basic data distribution is depicted as a plotted curve, the mean is equivalent to the exact peak or…

References

Bickel, D.R. (2003). Robust and efficient estimation of the mode of continuous data: The mode as a viable measure of central tendency. Journal of statistical computation and simulation, 73(12), 899-912.

Manikandan, S. (2011). Measures of central tendency: The mean. Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics, 2(2), 140.

Statistical esearch

In order to measure a given construct, the numerical data provided by the study's survey period is sorted to determine a baseline level. By determining the mean, median and mode from the various respondents, this baseline can be used to operationalize a particular construct. The Mean is defined as the mathematical average derived from a set of numerical figures, or the sum of every number in a given set divided by the number of figures comprising that sum. The concept of mean can be visualized as the "balance point" of any given distribution of numerical figures, and envisioning mean in this fashion is premised in basic physics, because if a basic data distribution were to appear fulcrum, the mean would be the point where perfect balance is achieved. Experienced statisticians incorporate mean within their analysis for several fundamental purposes, and "of all the measures of central tendency, the…

References

Irwin, M. (2013). Quantitative Research Designs for Nursing Practice. Research for Advanced

Practice Nurses: From Evidence to Practice, 129.

Keele, R. (2010). Nursing research and evidence-based practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett

Learning.

Describe ways in which MS Excel can be used by a manager of an organization as a tool for interpreting data

There are different ways in which a manager of an organization can employ MS Excel as a tool for data interpretation. One of the uses of MS Excel is collating, which encompasses collecting associated data items into a single item. The layout and formatting of the worksheet can enable the managers to perceive data sets in a structured and organized formation, which augments clarity of the data. The second benefit is processing. Excel cells can include functions, formulas as well as references to other excel cells, that permit one to glean information in prevailing data sets. Therefore, excel functions can facilitate the process of interpreting a data set in a manner that is suitable to the data itself and the system in position.…

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marketing data collected to analyze the economic performance of the Hideaway Hotel. It consists of annual and monthly economic data, a forecast of next year's performance, and an interpretation of statistical data gathered from the hotel's guests. It also includes a break-even analysis and suggestions to the firm that will help to restore its profitability.

Collect data on the main macro indicators and assess current macroeconomic conditions. Describe briefly the expected impact of these on sales and costs of the business.

he Economist Intelligence Unit expects continued fiscal operating surpluses over the next several years, but also maintains that increases in government spending are not likely as the government focuses on building up the new pension fund. his fund should put more money in the hands of pensioners, who regularly go on seaside vacations. he Economist expects GDP growth to slow from 2.7% in 2003 to 2.5% in 2004, but…

The margins of error were acceptable in analysing the sample: most of the variables consisted of small numbers (between one and five) and the sample size was 200, which is adequate for the determination of data. Population analyses were not used to analyze data for the American guests. The numbers were normally distributed and I was able to interpret customer data with a reasonable amount of certainty.

Statistical data shows that the firm consistantly operates at a loss during the fall and winter months. The modal motel guest is from New Zealand, consists of a couple with a child, and spends two days at the motel. The modal guest is extremely likely to eat at the restaurant and somewhat unlikely to engage in other activities such as sailing. Principal expenses are related to staffing. If the hotel were to close its doors during the winter or limit operation to being open on the weekend, revenues would be slightly better than they are now.

Information that would still be of interest includes that regarding monthly data for 2001; between 2001 and 2002 profitability slumped considerably. This could be the result of several reasons; one is probably the failure of the organization to attract return visitors from New Zealand. A future study would determine the cost of mothballing the Motel during the winter as it is immensely unprofitable during that time. In some months, losses exceed costs not related to labor.

Statistical Process Control

Activities in Daily outine

Application of Statistical Process Control and Solving the Problem

(a) Statistical Process Control: X-bar Charts

(b) Weekly Morning Time Utilization Chart

Observations from the chart

Effect of Seasonal Factors

Seasonal Factors

Usefulness of Confidence Intervals

This paper is on process control of activities that happen on daily basis. Statistical Process Control (SPC) involves application of statistical methods and procedures (such as control charts) to analyze the inherent variability of a process or its outputs to achieve and maintain a state of statistical control, and to improve the capability, also called statistical quality control . (Business Dictionary, 2010). The total time taken from waking up till reaching the office after going through various chores is 85 minutes. The person wants to cut it down to 60 minutes. He thinks of foregoing his leisurely sipping of coffee and watching news for 20 minutes and substitute…

References

[1.] Business Dictionary (2010). Retrieved August 30, 2012 from www.businessdictionary.com [2.]"Statistical Process Control: Process and Quality Views"(2008) Retrieved August 30, 2012 from http://www.cheresources.com/spczz.shtml [3.]"Statistical Tutorial: Confidence Intervals"(2010) Retrieved August 30, 2012 from http://stattrek.com/AP-Statistics-4/Confidence-Interval.aspx?Tutorial=Stat

[4.] Umarporn Charusombat & Andy Sabalowsky (1997) "Confidence intervals, Tolerance Intervals and Prediction intervals" Retrieved August 30, 2012 from http://www.cee.vt.edu/ewr/environmental/teach/smprimer/intervals/interval.html#appc [5.] Chase, R.B., Jacobs, F.R., & Aquilano, N.J. (2006). Operations management for competitive advantage (11th ed). New York: McGraw Hill/Irwin

[6.]Cook, Sarah (1996). Process Improvement: A Handbook for managers. Retrieved from http://books.google.com / [7.] Bob Raczynski and Bill Curtis (2008) Software Data Violate SPC's Underlying Assumptions, IEEE Software, May/June 2008, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 49-51

[8.] Paul H. Selden (1997). Sales Process Engineering: A Personal Workshop. Milwaukee, WI: ASQ Quality Press.

Statistical Research

A study performed by Sarah Kang and Lorenzo M. Polvani from the Columbia University claims the Earth's ozone layer hole has affected atmospheric circulation in the Southern hemisphere all the way to the equator, leading to increased rainfall in the subtropics (Kang, 2011). Previous work showed the ozone caused a dominant westerly jet stream in the mid-latitudes to move toward the pole with accompanying shifts in precipitation patterns. This study used different computerized climate models in the effort to identify the impact of the ozone depletion compared to other factors. The experiment found moistening in high latitudes, drying in mid-latitudes, and moistening in the subtropics. etween fifteen and thirty five degrees south, the researchers saw about a ten percent increase in precipitation. The depletion of the ozone layer, from 8 to 25 miles up, has caused severe cooling in the stratosphere, expanding to the troposphere, and altering in…

Bibliography

Significant Ozone Hole Remains Over Antarctica. (2011, Oct 21). Retrieved from Science Daily: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/10/111020145106.htm

Kang, S. & . (2011, Apr 22). Study Links Ozone Hole to Weather Shifts. Retrieved from The Earth Institute Columbia University: http://www.earth.columbia.edu/articles/view/2802

Karoly, D. (2012, Sep 14). The Antarctic ozone hole and climaste change: an anniversary worth celebrating. Retrieved from The Conversation: http://theconversation.edu.au/the-antarctic-ozone-hole-and-climate-change-an-anniversary-worth-celebrating-9404

Ozone Hole Watch. (n.d.). Retrieved from NASA: http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/meteorology/annual_data.html

c. Statement of the Problem

i. AS9103 requirements

Section 4.9.1 is a part of the AS9100 and AS9103 requirements that states that suppliers shall identify and plan installation, production as well as servicing process that affect the quality production .Under the requirements, suppliers are to achieve these objectives through specified process. Moreover, the AS9103 requirements provide a standard method to enhance a quality performance in the production and maintenance process with the goals of minimizing variations.

In a manufacturing process, variation control is a critical tool that enhances the quality of products delivered to customer. A problem occurs when the variation exceeds the customer's expectation, which may lead to non-conformance to AS9103 and customer's dissatisfaction. If an organization is unable to enhance quality conformance, the quality of the product will be automatically degraded thereby leading to the increase in the cost of production and decrease in profitability. Variation of products…

References

Crossley, M.L. (2008).The Desk Top reference of Statistical Quality Methods.Milwaukee, WI: ASQ Quality Press

Fontanares, R. (1997). Statistical Process Control Implementation in an Aerospace Manufacturing Machine Shop (Master's Thesis).Available from California State University, Dominguez Hill Library.

Gordon, D.K. (2007). Changes Coming in Aerospace Standards. Quality Progress. 40(1):74.75.

International Organization for Standards, (2008).ISO 9001:2008 Quality management system-requirements.Geneva, Switzerland: ISO/IEC.

After analyzing all the data, researchers found their hypothesis to be true. There was a significantly higher percentage of both depression and anxiety disorder within individuals with afflicted family members, "The team found a 45% increased risk for depressive disorders and a 55% increased risk for anxiety disorders among the Parkinson's relatives," (Bakalar 2007). The newly published study found that an astounding fifty percent increase in both disorders when compared to family members without the disorder. Another surprising fact found through analyzing the data was that individuals had an even higher risk of exhibiting depression and anxiety disorder when their family member had been afflicted by Parkinson's disease earlier in life than when compared to those who were afflicted with the disease later in life. This study had proven the detrimental effects of the disease on all those involved in the situation.

The methodology used to analyze the data was…

Works Cited

Bakalar, Nicholas. (December 2007). "Patterns: Parkinson's Raises Risks of Depression

In Relatives."

Cohort.com. (2007). "ANOVA in CoStat (Including Experimental Designs, Unbalanced

Designs, Missing Values, Multiple Comparisons of Means, Planned Contrasts, and Orthogonal Contrasts). http://www.cohort.com/costatanova.html

Statistical education trains students in the science of collecting, displaying, analyzing and interpreting numerical data. It is often referred to as "the science of doing science."

Students come across statistical ideas in their daily lives. For example, a student may see statistics used in political polls, music charts and unemployment rates. asic statistical education is important in helping students to make sense of the abundance of numerical information that is presented on a daily basis by the media. In particular, students need statistical education to help them recognize attempts to mislead them through statistical information and diagrams.

In schools, statistical education is primarily taught in mathematics, yet students use statistical ideas in other subjects, including science and economics. Therefore, teachers and researchers are constantly working towards improving statistically education, leading to a great deal of research in the field. This paper aims to examine existing research to determine how statistical…

Bibliography

Batanero, C., Garfield, J.B., Ottaviani, M.G., & Truran, J. (2000). Research in statistics education: Some priority questions. SERN Newsletter 1 (2), with discussion in SERN Newsletter 2 (1) and 2(2).

Garfield, Joan. (2000). How Students Learn Statistics. The General College, University of Minnesota. International Statistical Review.

Harrington, Charles. (1999). Facilitating Student Engagement in the Introductory Business Statistics Course. University of Southern Indiana Press.

Hogg, R. (1991), "Statistical Education: Improvements are Badly Needed," The American Statistician, 45, 342-343.

Appendix: Figures and Tables

Figure 1. Frequency histogram of religious service attendance.

Table 1. Proportion of missing data in routine and controversial questions.

Question…

RECOMMENDED ESSAY

Run a linear regression of time spent studying (Study; independent) predicting time spent watching TV (TV; dependent). Copy and paste your output and answer the following questions.

Regression

Descriptive Statistics

Mean

Deviation

How much time do you spend watching TV per week (in hours)?

How much time do you spend studying per week (in hours)?

Correlations

How much time do you spend watching TV per week (in hours)?

How much time do you spend studying per week (in hours)?

Pearson Correlation

How much time do you spend watching TV per week (in hours)?

How much time do you spend studying per week (in hours)?

Sig. (1-tailed)

How much time do you spend watching TV per week (in hours)?

.002

How much time do you spend studying per week (in hours)?

.002

N

How much time do you spend watching TV per week (in hours)?

50

50

How much time do…

Sustainability

Perceptions of sustainability improved slightly in the experimental group, however this change was not significant and the null hypothesis is not rejected (p=.32). The flag exposure did not improve perceptions of sustainability to a noteworthy degree.

Traditionality

Once more, there was statistically significant change -- and once more, it was so significant that the null hypothesis would be almost certainly rejected (p-value is effectively 0) -- but that this change was again in the wrong direction. Flag perception (or possibly the confounding variable of healthy eating desires, though that seems far less likely for this item) is correlated with a significant decrease in perceptions of traditionality, not an increase as predicted in the alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis remains in place, therefore.

Conclusion

With one confounding variable between the groups, the examination of the given experimental variable (i.e. The inclusion of the flag on the product image) and its…

Technical Analysis in the Implication of Efficient Market Hypothesis on Silver Market

The thesis is for the study of simple commonly used technical trading rules, which are applied on silver market. It covers years 1989 to 2005. A famous study carried out by Lakonishok, Lebaon and in year, 1992 has clearly shown that technical analysis can lead to abnormal prices when compared with buy-and-hold strategy. Other studies have been carried out and found out that technical trading rules cannot over-rule passive investment management strategy. The study uses Brock et al.'s methodology. Several trading rules are discussed (Dawson & Steeley 2003).

LITEATUE IVIEW

In financial theory, efficiency of financial silver market is highly disputed. This has led to many attempts to explain efficiency of silver markets. Eugene.F. Fama formulated the most famous definition in 1970 referred to as the, Efficient Silver market Hypothesis (EHM). The basis of the hypothesis is that…

References

Alexander, S.S. (1964) 'Price Movements in Speculative Markets: Trends or Random Walks'. Industrial management Review 5 (2), 25-46

Brock, W., Lakonishok, J., & LeBaron, B. (1992) 'Simple Technical Trading Rules and the Stochastic Properties of Stock Returns'. Journal of finance 4, (5), 1731-1764

Chang, P.H., & Osler, C.L. (1999) 'Methodical Madness: Technical Analysis and the Irrationality of Exchange Rate Forecasts'. Economic Journal 109 (458), 636-661

Dawson, E.R., & Steeley, J. (2003) 'On the Existence of Visual Technical Patterns in the Uk Stock Market'. Journal of Business Finance and Accounting 30 (1-2), 263-293

statistics statistics and inferential statistics.

Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics are used for different types of designs. For example, correlational studies will utilize descriptive statistics to measure a set of data's central tendency along with the way variables vary and relate to one another. A Pearson r would be a type of descriptive statistics test conducted to evaluate the strength of the relationship or if there relation goes in any one direction but descriptive statistics can also be used in causal-comparative design studies to measure data variability (Statistics for the non-statistician, n.d., p. 70). Inferential statistics on the other hand are used to compare means (typically a t-test is conducted) and statistical significance is determined by whether the p value is > or < than alpha (commonly .05) (Statistics for the non-statistician, n.d., p. 61).

Another way to think of descriptive statistics is that they are "used to synthesize and…

References

Dormann, C. et al. (2012). Collinearity: a review of methods to deal with it and a simulation study evaluating their performance. Ecography, 35: 1-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2012.07348.x Retrieved from http://www.biom.uni-freiburg.de/Dateien/PDF/dormann2012ecography_proofcorrections.pdf

Junco, R., Elavsky, M., Heibegger, G. (2012). Putting twitter to the test: Assessing outcomes for student collaboration, engagement and success. British Journal of Educational Technology. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01284.x Retrieved from http://blog.reyjunco.com/pdf/Juncoelavskyheibergertwittercollaboration.pdf

Because the nature of economic and business phenomena is clearly statistical in nature and the need for a scientific approach is becoming more and more necessary, so statistical analysis has become an integral part of every aspect of theoretical and applied research.

The inter-dependence of economies and the development of global markets has introduced new levels and sources of competition for the businesses. Businesses face new levels of risk as the markets in which they operate become more open. Should they invest in new capacity to be able to compete more effectively? How exposed a position can they afford to take in their key markets? In short, how does a business cope with the risks inherent in the modern economy? When uncertainty is so high, the management has no choice but make the use of the statistics to justify their decisions. So statistical devices are a set of tools that…

Training needs analysis (TNA) is defined by Mabey and Salman (1995:158) as a "process of collecting data which allows an organization to identify and compare its actual level with its desired level of performance." The authors also indicate that this performance could be interpreted as meaning the competencies and attitude necessary for the staff to do the job effectively. Moreover, Armstrong (1996:536) states that "training needs assessment is partly concerned with finding the gap between what is happening and what should happen.. This is what has to be filled by training ." Figure (1.1) depicts this gap.

Figure

The training Gap

WHAT SHOULD BE

TRAINING GAP

WHAT IS

CORPORATE OR FUNCTIONAL ATANDARDS

KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL REQUIRED

TARGETS OR STANDARDS OF

PERFORMANCE

CORPORATE FOR FUNCTIONAL RESULTS

KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL POSSESSED

ACTUAL PERFORMANCE OF INDIVIDUALS

Source: Armstrong (1996)

Gibson…

The study of trends is common ground for both technical analysis and fundamental analysis. While technical analysis looks trends in price and volume fundamental analysis focuses on economic and corporate growth trends and the forecast of performance using the trends of relevant factors. The basis of any long-term trend in price and volume for all securities and stocks is rooted in fundamentals. Technical analysis grows on looking at changing supply and demand trends. When studying trends it would be useful to determine significance of the changes in the underlying perceptions of value that are a consequence of fundamentals and prediction of performance in the future.

A balanced knowledge of these two disciplines can give a very good basis for one to have a successful experience in trading. Just as in the case of technical analysis there are several fundamental tools that can be utilized to provide early warnings of trend…

References

Acheli, Steven B. Technical Analysis from a to Z. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.equis.com/Education/TAAZ/?page=9Accessed on 23 November 2004.

Analyzing Company Reports: Fundamental vs. Technical Analysis. Retrieved at http://www.ameritrade.com/educationv2/fhtml/learning/fundvstech.fhtml . Accessed on 23 November 2004.

Fundamental analysis. Retrieved at http://www.advfn.com/money-words_term_2122_fundamental_analysis.html . Accessed on 23 November 2004.

Fundamental Analysis. Retrieved at http://www.mgforex.com/eng/analysis/content/fund.asp. Accessed on 23 November 2004.

pursuant attached instructions. The argument analysis attached article, Ellen inner. As, instructions I sources -text citations/quotations.

Argument analysis:

"Sometimes our folk theories are correct: Parents do shape their children"

Ellen inner's essay "Sometimes our folk theories are correct: Parents do shape their children" is a counter-argument to recent claims that 'nurture' is of little importance in shaping children's life paths and personalities. She argues that the results of personality tests have had far too much of an influence on recent theories which suggest that biology shapes the human character more than the environment. She adds that furthermore, the lack of 'mirroring' of parents and children on personality tests is hardly adequate testimony to a lack of parental influence. Children may react to their parents' influence, in a negative way, argues inner. To substantiate this she cites the hypothetical example of an Alex P. Keaton-like child who reacts against his parent's…

Works Cited

"Freakonomics: How much influence does a parent have on a child's education?" Marketplace.

14 Jun 2011. 15 Feb 2012. http://www.marketplace.org/topics/life/freakonomics-radio/freakonomics-how-much-influence-does-parent-have-childs-education

Lehrer, Jonah. "Do parents matter?" Scientific American. 9 Apr 2009.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=parents-peers-children

Genome-Wide Association Study for OCD Complications

The OCD (Obsessive -- compulsive disorder) is referred as repetitive behaviors and thoughts experienced by individuals. (Visscher, Brown, McCarthy, et al. (2012). Typically, the genes' characteristics of twins and families have revealed that the OCD has the feature of multifactorial familial condition involving both environmental and polygenic factors. (Moran, 2013). Genetic studies have revealed that the interaction of the glutamatergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic systems and genes affecting them play a crucial role in functioning of the circuit. (Yang, Lee, Goddard, Mand et al. 2011). Meanwhile, the environmental factors that include psychological trauma, adverse perinatal effects and neurological trauma may modify the risk genes, which can consequently manifest the compulsive-obsessive behaviors. (Visscher, Brown, McCarthy et al. 2012). The OCD is a frequent and, relative common debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder affecting 2% of the U.S. population. (Arnold, Sicard, Burroughs, et al. (2006). Typically, the OCD is obsessions…

Reference

Arnold, P., Sicard, T., Burroughs, E. et al. (2006). Glutamate Transporter Gene SLC1A1 Associated With Obsessive-compulsive Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 63(7), p.769.

Baxter, A., Scott, K., Vos, T. and Whiteford, H. (2012). Global prevalence of anxiety disorders: a systematic review and meta-regression. Psychological Medicine, 43(05), pp.897-910.

Barrett, P., Healy-Farrell, L. & March, J. S. (2004). Cognitivebehavioral family treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder: a controlled trial. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry . 43, 46-62.

Cantor, R., Lange, K. and Sinsheimer, J. (2010). Prioritizing GWAS Results: A Review of Statistical Methods and Recommendations for Their Application. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 86(1):.6-22.

60.2% of white inmates were executed that had initially been removed from being under a sentence of death versus 38.9% of blacks that met these criteria as part of the sample. While this cross-tabulation shows there is not a statistically significant relationship between blacks vs. whites having their sentences commuted, Hispanic Origin will prove to have statistical significance when bivariate correlation analysis is used to analyze the data. Additional research into the strength of relationships between those receiving commuted sentences and race need to be completed however, before a statistically significant conclusion can be reached across all ethnic groups in the sample. More in-depth analysis techniques including factor analysis to either accept or refute these findings as they pertain to this data set.

The third analysis is based on bivariate correlation matrices using both Pearson's correlation coefficient for parametrically-based analysis and Kendall's Tau_b and Spearman's ho for non-parametrically based analysis.…

References

Mark Douglas Cunningham, Jon R. Sorensen. (2007). Capital Offenders in Texas Prisons: Rates, Correlates, and an Actuarial Analysis of Violent Misconduct. Law and Human Behavior, 31(6), 553-71. Retrieved December 18, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1385818841).

Stewart JH McCann (2008). Societal Threat, Authoritarianism, Conservatism, and U.S. State Death Penalty Sentencing (1977-2004). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(5), 913. Retrieved December 19, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1481555391).

Mark Peffley, Jon Hurwitz. (2007). Persuasion and Resistance: Race and the Death Penalty in America. American Journal of Political Science, 51(4), 996-1002. Retrieved December 15, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1353540041). (U.S. Department of Justice, 2008)

United States Department of Justice. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Capital Punishment in the United States, 1973-1993 [Computer file]. ICPSR06512-v2. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008-11-12. doi:10.3886/ICPSR06512. Retrieved December 18, 2008, at http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/cocoon/NACJD/STUDY/06512.xml

structured analysis of an experimental study by Buller et al. (2004), which describes a randomized statistical trial of two types of medication that were used to treat a blood disorder. The two types of medication used were called Fondaparinux and Enoxaparin. The blood disorder being treated was called Symptomatic Deep Venous Thrombosis. We will be analyzing the 2004 study to highlight the experiment's use of selected statistical methods that are commonly taught in introductory Statistics. These include (in sequence) measures of central tendency, measures of variation, the standard normal distribution, and a review of the study's conclusions. The term sample may be used interchangeably with the term data set, to refer to a limited number of values or measurements that have been taken from an overall population.

The primary methods of central tendency employed in statistics include three parameters known as the mean, median and mode. The mean, or average,…

References

Buller, H.R., Davidson, B.L., Decousus, H., Gallus, A., Gent, M., Piovella, F., Prins, M.H., et al. (2004). Fondaparinux or Enoxaparin for the Initial Treatment of Symptomatic Deep Venous Thrombosis. Annals of Internal Medicine, 140(11), 867 -873.

A unit of analysis constitutes an object of study in research undertakings (Cole, 2018). Definition and bounding of the case may prove challenging since a number of variables and points of interest overlap and intersect within cases researches. Development of research questions, propositions for case selection, focus identification, and boundary refining has been recommended for effective establishment of the aforementioned components in the study design. Case bounding proves crucial when it comes to information acquisition and analysis management, focusing, and framing. This entails selectiveness and specificity in the identification of case parameters such as respondents, process and location, in addition to the establishment of a timeframe for investigation of the case. To be more specific, units of analyses (UoIs) are decided by research questions (Merriam, 2009; Stake, 2006; Yin, 2014). Consider, for instance, Francis, Anderson and Stokes’ 1999 research “City Markets as a Unit of Analysis in…

The term "data mining" refers to the process of taking a large amount of data, sorting through it, and refining appropriate and relevant information. Typically, it is used with ERP systems to help make strategic decisions based on the patterns that come out of the data review. It is also that more formal and statistical analysis of large sets of data within complex ERP Systems. Data warehousing is a term meaning the storage of information for an organization. The data warehouse is the place that the data is stored and organized. Data warehousing, per se, is passive; while data mining is active. One needs to have the data in a depository of some kind before it can be mined for use. Both data mining and data warehousing are essential to the effective management of the strategic planning process. The amount and quality of the data warehoused is directly related to…

Kimball, R. And M. Ross, (2002), the Data Warehouse Toolkit, John Wiley & Sons.

The term "data mining" refers to the process of taking a large amount of data, sorting through it, and refining appropriate and relevant information. Typically, it is used with ERP systems to help make strategic decisions based on the patterns that come out of the data review. It is also that more formal and statistical analysis of large sets of data within complex ERP Systems. Data warehousing is a term meaning the storage of information for an organization. The data warehouse is the place that the data is stored and organized. Data warehousing, per se, is passive; while data mining is active. One needs to have the data in a depository of some kind before it can be mined for use. Both data mining and data warehousing are essential to the effective management of the strategic planning process. The amount and quality of the data warehoused is directly related to the organization's ability to use that data appropriately. Mining data from various sources increases the statistical validity of the data set, and provides more useful information quicker.

Student #2 shows us how data mining is used in a medical model, as well as correlating with course lecture material. It is clear from their analysis that the power of data mining is only as good as the data itself, and that a real key to any program is finding the appropriate way to handle the voluminous amounts of data and make something meaningful out of it -- like patterns, hidden statistical similarities and abnormalities, etc. Another use of data mining in healthcare, though, might be from a human resource standpoint; finding skill levels and appropriate human capital to utilize within a larger organization to improve efficiency. Really, the possibilities are endless; technical, quantitative, qualitative studies, and even patient satisfaction surveys -- usable data for managers who may not have the time or expertise to wade through large amounts of data, but need specific questions answered in a timely manner.

Sentiment

There are as many sentiment analysis techniques as there are reasons for conducting sentiment analysis. Analysis techniques are employed to discern sentence, phrase, word and text meanings, and predictive, machine-related, emotional and psychological aspects are measured by sentiment analysis as well. This literature review will attempt to navigate the various avenues presented by such diverse usage of sentiment analysis and provide information that categorizes and differentiates between the various techniques employed.

The review will focus on a number of different analytical techniques, including sentiment analysis, predictive analysis, text, phrase, sentence and word analytics, and why and how the different arenas approach the use of their specific style of analysis.

Sentiment analysis has been described as using a lexicon "with information about which words and phrases are positive and which are negative" (Wilson, Wiebe, Hoffman, 2009, p. 400) and as an analytical tool that "focuses on identifying positive and negative…

References

Ahmad, K. & Almas, Y.; (2005) Visualizing sentiments in financial texts? Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Information, Visualization, Vol. 1, pp. 363 -- 368

Alpern, P. (2010) Forecasting the future with predictive analytics, Industry Week, Vol. 259, Issue 7, pp. 47-48

Chaovalit, P. & Zhou, L.; (2005) Movie review mining: A comparison between supervised and unsupervised classification approaches, Proceedings of the 38th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences, Big Island, HI, USA

Chemla, E.; Mintz, T.H.; Bernal, S.; Christophe, A.; (2009) Categorizing words using frequent frames: What cross-linguistic analysis reveal about distributional acquisition strategies, Developmental Science, Vol. 12, Issue 3, pp. 396-406

Description of New Venture

The new venture being proposed will be a company seeks to develop an app that will determine optimal weather days in different locations. The tool will take a massive data set of historical data for all the geographies available – in the US and throughout the world’s major tourist areas to begin with. The user will enter the location, their desired activity and a span of time, and will receive as an output the optimal days, based on historical patterns. The current landscape for someone planning a trip might have generic information (i.e. golfers should visit Arizona in the winter when it’s not 120F outside), but that is often not granular enough. For example, someone thinking of visiting Bora Bora in 2020 can easily find out when rainy season is, but more refined data might help them to choose a specific week during shoulder…

Wal-Mart Social esponsibility Analysis: An Employee Perspective

To begin the study "the purpose statement is "a statement that provides the major objective or intent, or "road map" to the study" (Creswell, 2009a, 104).Therefore, the purpose of this narrative is to discuss what employees at various Wal-Mart facilities around the Kansas City area have experienced regarding the social responsibility initiatives undertaken by the company. The method for this particular paper is a qualitative design. Because the desired conclusions were to be drawn from the specific experiences of individuals employed at Wal-Mart stores and Distribution Centers around the area, it was determined that the best method of gathering that information was via interviews with employees rather than the gathering of quantitative data which would not reveal individual interpretations of the policies put in place. The specific questions asked to the participants ranged from their impressions of environmental policies to treatment of employees…

References

Baker, M. (2003). Wal-Mart: From folk hero to corporate monster. Business Respect, 52, 13-15.

Chamberlin, Kaufman, & Jones. (2003). Coverage under FLSA. Retrieved from http://www.flsa.com/coverage.html

Chatterji, A., & Listokin, S. (2007). Corporate social responsibility: Progressives need to end their fixation with corporate social responsibility -- and focus on reform that actually works. Democracy Journal. 52-63.

Creswell, J.W. (2009a). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches, (2nd ed. ). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Management

The five management programs have the same common dependent variables. These are the average turnover, the weekly profit and the monthly staff time cost. The independent variable for this experiment is the management system that is used. There are five different management systems that are being used at the company, and they differ in their methods. The data presented show the impact of the different management systems on the different output measures (dependent variables).

The wild card is the type of store data. The company investigated this using three store categories, and presented its findings, but they were not presented with statistical analysis. As such, they should not be considered to be an independent variable.

Outcome variables are the dependent variables.. Ultimately, for this company the variables should reflect a wider variety of output measures for each store. . The output variables should be related to the success measures.…

References

Investopedia (2015). Sales per square foot. Investopedia. Retrieved December 10, 2015 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/sales-per-square-foot.asp

Taylor, C. (2015). What is a simple random sample? About.com. Retrieved December 10, 2015 from http://statistics.about.com/od/HelpandTutorials/a/What-Is-A-Simple-Random-Sample.htm

Baldwin, S. (2006). Organisational justice. Institute for Employment Studies. Retrieved December 10, 2015 from http://www.employment-studies.co.uk/system/files/resources/files/mp73.pdf

Hannan, M. & Freeman, J. (1984). Structural inertia and organizational change. American Sociological Review. Vol. 49 (2) 149-164.

Hoteling T^2 Control Charts

Multivariable statistics is an aspect of statistics that involves analysis of more than one variables. In other words, the multivariable analysis is concerned with the statistical analysis of more than one variables how they are related to one another. Some problems involve using the multivariable data using multiple regression or linear regression, and one of the aspects of the multivariable analysis is an area that involves analysis of quality control using the linear regression. Contrary to the univariable analysis that uses two variables, the multivariable analysis uses two or more independent variables or dependent variables. The concept independent variables are the variables manipulated by the researcher to carry out the analysis. With this control, the researcher will be able to correlate the dependent and independent variables. However, the manufacturing companies are increasingly using the multivariable statistics to enhance product quality. In the contemporary manufacturing environment, increasing…

Reference

Bersimis, S. Panaretos, J. &. Psarakis, S. (2005). Multivariate Statistical Process Control Charts and the Problem of Interpretation: A Short Overview and Some Applications in Industry. University of Piraeus, Department of Statistics and Insurance Science, Piraeus, Greece.

Harris, K., Triantafyllopoulos., K. Stillman., E. et al. (2016). A Multivariate Control Chart for Autocorrelated Tool Wear Processes. Quality and Reliability Engineering International, 32: 2093 -- 2106.

Hidalgo, B; Goodman, M (2013). "Multivariate or multivariable regression?". Am J. Public Health. 103: 39 -- 40.

Lyu, J.& Chen, M. (2009). Automated Visual Inspection Expert System for Multivariate Statistical Process Control Chart. Expert Systems with Applications 36: 5113 -- 5118.

Income is also a demographic area that had some…

The objective of carrying out this statistical analysis is to learn more about the relations between variables that may influence student performance in the Lincoln County schools. The specific variables of interest in this analysis are the region of the county and the curriculum. One relationship of interest is whether a difference in student performance can be attributed to the region of the county in which the schools are located and the curriculum that is being used at the various schools. There is also interest in exploring if student performance seem to change based on the combination of curriculum used at the school the students attend and the region in which the school is located.

(a) Data Samples

A randomization generator accessible on the Web was used to select the sample. Twenty individual students were selected with each student identified only by the number indicating their…

ANOVA) can best be described as statistical analysis of data with a variety of different variables and variations and is oftentimes used in a medical and professional research and practices environment. Using ANOVA in research is a commonplace technique, but there are some disadvantages to this usage; the application of the analysis is often conducted in applications where it is inappropriate (Patel, Naik, Patel, 2015). Ensuring that ANOVA is used in the appropriate manner, and that it is applied in situations that call out for ANOVA requires understanding and comprehension exactly what ANOVA does and how it is used in research. The Patel (2015) concluded that "conceptual understanding and application of ANOVA and Post hoc test was lacking among bio-medical research" (p. 117). Developing the required understanding will assist the researcher(s) in implementing data analysis that will create a more valid and reliable study, along with results that can be…

References

Mi, G. & Li, Y.; (2015) The level of residual dispersion variation and the power of differential expression tests for RNA-Seq data, PLoS ONE, 10(4) p. 1-25

Patel, S.; Naik, V. & Patel, P.; (2015) An analysis of application of multiple comparison tests (post-hoc) in ANOVA in recently published medical research literature, National Journal of Community Medicine, 6(1) p. 117-120

Wang, M. & Sun, X.; (2013) Bayes factor consistency for unbalanced ANOVA models, Statistics, 47(5) p. 1104-1115

6)

Several of the components examined in the DEA study seem to be correlated with higher levels of productivity, though without more in-depth statistical analysis it is difficult to say to what degree these correlations exist. Footwear sales seem to have a generally positive relationship with overall productivity, with MCI (the lowest performing store by this measure) actually showing negative performance in the footwear category and with many higher performers posting higher numbers of performance in footwear, although there are many stores in the middle of the pack that also have high footwear sales. Both regular time and over time numbers are also generally positively correlated with increased productivity, meaning that more labor led to more sales. As intuitive as this might seem, it is clearly something that is not fully recognized throughout the Modell's chain and that this analysis will hopefully bring to the attention of store managers and…

The second argument used by my uncle was a kind of blend of fuzzy logic and inductive reasoning. The argument essentially looks like this: there is a water problem; keeping a green lawn is not part of the problem; let's find out where the problem lies.

The assumption made here is that the water used to keep lawns green is not part of the water problem. Countering this assumption would require some form of statistical analysis or syllogism. Since my uncle is arguing from a generalization that he apparently discerned at some point, it becomes necessary to correct that generalization. If my uncle is swayed by facts, facts then are what are necessary. One could look to the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power -- an authority on the subject -- to find out the statistical analyses.

By doing so, one could also see the benefit of cutting water…

Pearson r can tell us how strong the relationship is between two variables. The closer to 1, the stronger the relationship is and the closer to 0 the weaker the relationship is. If the Pearson r value is positive, the relationship is direct, and if negative, the relationship is inverse. In our hypothetical case study, the r value is negative and thus the older a worker gets the less engagement they demonstrate with the customers.

The chi-squared measure indicates how likely two variables are to be independent of each other (such as a person's favorite color and their last name) or dependent on each other (such as a person's race and his/her income). In this case, the value of chi-square at less than .05 indicates that the possibility that gender and customer engagement are randomly related is less than 5%.

Important to this analysis are two concepts. A result is…

List the statistical procedures used to describe the sample.

Power analysis was used in order to discover power of effect. The power was set to 0.8 with a significant level of 0.05. Differences between the intervention and the control group were tested with Pearson's Chi. A t-test was used for the other perimeters. ANCOVA was used for testing changes between the two groups over time.

Was the level of significance or alpha identified? If so, indicate the level (.05, .01, or .001).

The level of significance was described. The power of the effect size was set to 0.8 with a significant level of 0.05. 0.05 was used throughout as perimeter of significance.

Complete the table below with the analysis techniques conducted in the study:

Identify the purpose (description, relationships, or differences) of each analysis technique.

Power analyses was used in order discover whether the test actually did…

Thus, the researchers concluded that environmental factors were part of the overall equation, determined by comparing the amount of phthalates in those girls who live close to urban areas with factories that manufacture products containing phthalates. One other finding drawn from this sample group was that the levels of phthalates "were significantly higher than the average levels" determined by the CDC (Lee, 2009, Internet).

With the second group of four hundred, the researchers produced similar findings, even though this group preceded the first by some ten years, an indication that phthalates have been in the environment for at least this length of time. Also, via utilizing the one-way ANOVA model, the researchers discovered a correlation between phthalates and IQ which was lower in those girls with heavy exposure to the chemical. However, the researchers admit that this possible link may be simply "cause and effect or an accidental finding" (Lee,…

REFERENCES

Famoye, Felix and Carl Lee. (2009). "Statistical Procedures." Accessed from http://calcnet.mth.cmich.edu/org/spss/StaProc.htm .

Lee, Jennifer B. (April 17, 2009). Child obesity is linked to chemicals in plastics. The New

York Times. Internet. May 21, 2009. Accessed from http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com

/2009/04/17/child-obesity-is-linked-to-chemicals-in-plastics/?hp.

Probability

Summarizing Data and Probability

Blood Pressure Data

Patient ID

Systolic

Diastolic

1st Patient

2nd Patient

3rd Patient

4th Patient

5th Patient

6th Patient

7th Patient

8th Patient

9th Patient

Diastolic Blood Pressure Measurements

Mean

Mean is also referred to as average. This is obtained by adding up a set of tallies and thereafter dividing the resulting summation by the number of tallies. The general formula for obtaining mean is as follows:

Mean of the systolic blood pressure measurements

Mean of the diastolic blood pressure measurements

Median

The median is the middle value of an ordered set or list of numbers.

Median of the systolic blood pressure measurements

Ordered set is as follows:

90, 110, 120, 120, 130, 130, 150, 150, 160

Therefore, the median is 130

Median of the diastolic blood pressure measurements

Ordered set is as follows

40, 60, 60, 70, 80, 80, 90, 90, 110

Therefore, the…

References

Joseph, L., Reinhold, C. (2002). Introduction to Probability Theory and Sampling Distributions. Fundamentals of Clinical Research for Radiologists.

Waller, D. L. (2008). Statistics for Business. United Kingdom: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Offenders: Alex and Derek King (12 and 13 when they killed their father)

Theory: Sampson and Laub's Age-Graded Theory of Informal Social Control

One basic premise of the Age-Graded criminology and informal social control theory was that, whilst experiences of childhood and personality traits are vital to comprehending behavioral stability, teenage and adulthood experiences can readdress criminal paths either more negatively or positively. Laub and Sampson discovered, particularly, that marital relationships and employment stability were a key factor in adult criminal change. With increased strength of familial and workplace bonds, deviancy and criminality in the non-delinquent control group as well as in criminals decreased. Further, Laub and Sampson looked keenly into qualitative narratives' ability to facilitate a more individual-centered life course examination. According to them, narratives of life history, together with quantitative techniques may be utilized for creating a more complete and richer image of why certain adult males…

A more robust method is to conduct a factor analysis before running the regression analysis, and then to rotate the factors to insure that the factors are independent in the factor analysis ("Statistics Solutions, 2012").

9. Discuss autocorrelation (serial correlation) assumption & implication to student work

Autocorrelation (lagged correlation or serial correlation) occurs when the correlation between values in a random process at different times that is a function of the time lag or of the two times ("Statistics Solutions, 2012"). That is to say that there is a relationship between a variable and itself over intervals of time ("Statistics Solutions, 2012"). These serial correlations occur in repeating patterns when the level of a variable at a time certain affects the variable at a future time ("Statistics Solutions, 2012").

10.Discuss ways to overcome the serial correlation

When using an estimated equation for statistical inference in hypothesis testing, the residuals will…

References

Geisser, S. And Johnson, W.M. (2006). Modes of Parametric Statistical Inference, John Wiley & Sons.

____. (2012). Statistics Solutions. Retrieved http://www.statisticssolutions.com/academic-solutions/resources/directory-of-statistical-analyses/assumptions-of-multiple-linear-regression/#sthash.hirr3Y2x.dpuf