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Statistical Techniques an their Overview Assumptions Ranges Uses
Words: 1989 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45626645
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Statistical Techniques
Statistics is defined as a methodology of gathering data, analyzing it, understanding the data and forming appropriate conclusions from the analysis. Not many subjects are as broad or have as many important applications as statistics (Wooldridge & Jeffrey, 2013). Mathematicians, scientists and researchers in general rely on statistics to interpret the information they collect or encounter in their specific fields of work. In general, nearly everything that covers the collection, interpretation, manipulation and presentation of data is considered statistics (Armitage, Berry, 2011). This paper discusses various statistical instruments, their assumptions and their uses. In the end, a conclusion is given.
Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient
Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r, is a statistical instrument that looks at the strength and the direction of the relationship between any two variables. It is more accurately known as the Person product-moment correlation coefficient (Taylor, Jeremy 2010). Simply put, it is a statistical instrument meant…

Armitage P, Berry G. 2011 Statistical Methods in Medical Research. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1994:112-13.
Armitage P, Berry G. Statistical Methods in Medical Research. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1994.
Blair, R. C. (1981). \\"A reaction to \\'Consequences of failure to meet assumptions underlying the fixed effects analysis of variance and covariance.\\'\\". Review of Educational Research. 51: 499–507. 
Cohen, Michael; Dalal, Siddhartha R.; Tukey, John W. (1993). \\"Robust, Smoothly Heterogeneous Variance Regression\\". Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series C. . 
Howell, David (2002). Statistical Methods for Psychology. Duxbury. pp. 324–325. .
Kirk, RE (1995). Experimental Design: Procedures For The Behavioral Sciences (3 ed.). Pacific Grove, CA, USA: Brooks/Cole.
Lange, Kenneth L.; Little, Roderick J. A.; Taylor, Jeremy M. G. (2010). \\"Robust Statistical Modeling Using the t Distribution\\". Journal of the American Statistical Association.
Randolf, E. A.; Barcikowski, R. S. (1989). \\"Type I error rate when real study values are used as population parameters in a Monte Carlo study\\". Paper presented at the 11th annual meeting of the Mid-Western Educational Research Association, Chicago.

Sards theorem topological analysis approach
Words: 3057 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83493869
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Transversality and intersection theory / Sard’s theorem, topological analysis approach
The concept of transversality deals with the intersection of two objects; in several ways, one may consider it the reverse of tangency. For transversality to occur between two sub- manifolds, their tangential spaces at every intersection point need to extend across the ambient manifold’s tangent space. Transversality, invariably, particularly fails in case of tangency between two sub- manifolds. However, a more notable point is, tangency lacks stability: all situations involving tangency between two objects may be effortlessly and somewhat disturbed into non- tangent situations, which isn’t true when it comes to transversality. Part of the reason why transversality is so sound a tool is its stability.
Rene Thom, a French mathematician, introduced the idea of transversality during the 50s. In his doctoral thesis performed in the year 1954, he included the proof and statement of his Transversality Theorem (Greenblatt,…

Carlsson, G. (2009). Topology and data. AMS Bulletin, 46(2):255–308.
Chazal, F., & Michel, B. (2017). An introduction to Topological Data Analysis: fundamental and practical aspects for data scientists. arXiv preprint arXiv:1710.04019.
Fasy, B. T., Kim, J., Lecci, F., & Maria, C. (2014). Introduction to the R package TDA. arXiv preprint arXiv:1411.1830.
Greenblatt, C. (2015). An introduction to Transversality. Accessed online at http://schapos. people. uic. edu/MATH549_Fall2015_files, 1.
Maria, C., Boissonnat, J. D., Glisse, M., &Yvinec, M. (2014, August). The gudhi library: Simplicial complexes and persistent homology. In International Congress on Mathematical Software (pp. 167-174). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Morse, M. (1947). Introduction to analysis in the Large. 1947 Lectures.
Sard, A. (1942). The measure of the critical values of differentiable maps. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, 48(12), 883-890.
Thom, R. (1954). Quelquespropriétésglobales des variétésdifférentiables. CommentariiMathematiciHelvetici, 28(1), 17-86.

Research Design Using Secondary Data
Words: 1523 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 67050595
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Construct a Research Design Using Secondary Data
Part 1
Secondary data takes into account data that is gathered by someone else aside from the user. Examples of sources of secondary data comprise of data gathered by government establishments, organizational records in addition to data that was initially gathered for other purposes of research. The secondary data selected for this paper is census. In delineation, a census is the process of methodically obtaining and recording data and information regarding the members of a certain population. It is a frequently recurring and formal count of a certain population. Moreover, it is a kind of administrative data, but it is gathered for the purpose of research at distinctive time periods and intervals. Census information is obtained from the United States Census Bureau. Reliability is delineated as the magnitude to which an appraisal tool generates steady and consistent outcomes. The census data obtained can…

Central Bureau of Statistics. (2018). Uses of census data. Retrieved from:
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2018). Overweight and obesity statistics. Retrieved from:
Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Fryar, C. D., & Flegal, K. M. (2015). Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2011-2014 (pp. 1-8). US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics.
State of Obesity. (2018). Obesity Rates & Trends Overview. Retrieved from:
Thomas, R. M. (2003). Blending qualitative and quantitative research methods in theses and dissertations. Corwin Press.

Statistic Data From Department of Epidemiology and
Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63073192
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Statistic Data From Department of Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, National Institute of Health


Every second person in Armenia, irrespective of sex, is a smoker. Only 15% of the population have never smoked before WOMEN and SMOKING

53,6% smoked some time in the past

39,6% smoke

Chart indicates % of women smoke... cigarettes per day

Chart indicates that in Armenia among the smoking women the percentage of women with higher education is significantly more than those having secondary education.

Qui Hing

Tobacco and Teenagers

In Armenia about half of the smokers start smoking reaching the age of 18, 36,6% of teenagers are smoke

Number of cigarettes per day

Boys and girls

Boys and young men in Armenia start smoking much sooner than girls, more than a half of a yang men start doing it before reaching the age of 18. Absolute majority of girls in Armenia start smoking after the…