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Statistics and Their Importance to Research Investigation. Although all research activities do not require the use of statistical data analysis when an investigator wants to report upon the differences, effects and/or relationships between and amongst groups or phenomena (i.e. variables) there must a concerted effort to measure the phenomenon with as much precision and accuracy as possible (Mendenhall & Ramey, 1973). This is, of course, accomplished through the use of statistics. Situations wherein statistical processes are not required are generally reserved for qualitative types of research such as historical, philosophical, and/or cultural trend studies.
One of man's greatest fears is that of the power of numbers. For most people numbers are nothing more than a hodgepodge of digits that are bewildering and often meaningless. As a result individuals often prefer to judge events, occurrences, phenomena, and situations from a traditionalist point-of-view wherein reason, conclusion, and inference are made on the…
Before one enters the world of statistics one must put away all their fears and illusions about statistics. The stimuli that incite mathematical panic are largely illusory. Many of the formulas used by scientists in their statistical computations present an awesome, if not terrifying, appearance, but beneath the strange symbols lurks nothing more foreboding than the simple arithmetic we all mastered in school. The uses one will make of best practice statistics require no differential equations, no calculus, and no analytic geometry. The sometimes-horrifying mathematical manipulations that fill one with ghastly anxiety as they approach a lesson in statistics ultimately reveal themselves as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. By becoming familiar with the statistical techniques one might possibly develop a benevolent tolerance for the tedium and possibly even a reverent respect for the almost magical things statistics allows one to do with mere numbers.
Correct Statistical Processes. Statistics is a branch of scientific mathematical methodology. It deals with the collection, classification, description, and interpretation of measurement data obtained through the testing process and observation. In consumer product research the essential purpose is to describe and draw inferences about the numerical properties of product populations as well as to compare testing procedures (Senter, 1969). In everyday language the term population is used to refer to groups or aggregates of consumer product. The consumer product researcher's concern is with properties which are descriptive of a group or aggregation itself rather than with properties of particular single product member. As consumer product researchers are primarily concerned with group issues, rather than single product unit matters, it is paramount that a complete familiarization and understanding be had as to the proper use of statistical processes. The investigator must discern when to use a particular statistical process for comparing a single unit to a group opposed to comparing two (2) or more groups to each other, or comparing a group to a wider population. Should the wrong statistical process be employed there will result contaminated statistical values and wrongful conclusions will be drawn. As a consequence of the use of improper statistical processes unsafe consumer product may be accepted; client liability will increase; and corporate profit will diminish.
The primary purpose of statistical processes is to make order out of chaos. By properly applying selected statistical processes to measurement data the consumer product engineer can determine whether or not a manufactured product is safe for distribution. However, product safety is simply a stratagem if the wrong statistical procedure is applied to measurement data. Once the researcher has collected the necessary measurement data it is then time to apply an appropriate statistical tool that will confirm or deny
Statistics and Juries
In the video "How Statistics Fool Juries," Oxford mathematician Peter Donnelly attempts to demonstrate through a number of examples how statistics, when viewed in a common manner, can be misunderstood and how this can have legal repercussions. Through a number of thought experiments, Donnelly provides the audience with examples of how seemingly simple statistics can be misinterpreted and how many more variables must be taken into account when calculating chance. Primarily he exposes the audience to the concept of relative difference, or the difference in likelihood between two possibilities in the same scenario. He then goes on to explain that without an understanding of this concept, many juries misunderstand statistics used in trials and very often convict people based on this faulty understanding.
Donnelly begins his presentation with a thought experiment involving the tossing of a coin and predicts the possibility of a certain series of results.…
Donnelly, Peter. (12 Jan. 2007). Peter Donnelly: How Stats Fool Juries. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kLmzxmRcUTo
One of the most common fallacies is to confuse correlation with causation, but the two are actually distinct. My demonstrating that construction of snowmen and outbreak of acne occur simultaneously does not mean that snowmen produce acne. It may imply an underlying matter, such as the snow itself may contain some component that may instigate the outbreak, or the children who build the snowmen may be particularly vulnerable to acne, and during that period of the year, and so forth. Two factors happening concurrently, does not mean that one influences the other.
Readers may also take the percentage face blank unaware of the notion of margin of error. Margin of error implies that the data shows only an approximate result of the sampled population (usually 95%). There is a certain percentage of error either way, and so the end results can only be approximate, never absolutely certain.
Using statistics in…
As explained earlier, statisticians in the academe and in specialist industries apply principles and techniques of statistics in different ways. Statisticians in the academe apply their knowledge of statistics in more scientific approaches: multivariate analyses, for example, are reported in a scientific manner, usually communicated in a scholarly approach through journal articles and published or unpublished research reports. Industry specialists, meanwhile, implement statistical principles and techniques more creatively, for their clients/end-users to understand the statistical techniques used and findings culled out from the analyses. Multivariate analyses that may have been reported scientifically by academicians would be converted and simplified as "maps" (e.g., perceptual maps, quadrant maps) to 'laymanize' statistical findings and make it easier for clients to relate the findings to their business needs and issues.
In effect, statisticians market their expertise in different ways, depending on the end-users of their statistical projects. For academicians, statistics is marketed as a…
Malhotra, N. (1996). Marketing Research: An applied orientation. NJ: Prentice Hall.
Weiers, R. (1984). Marketing Research. NJ: Prentice Hall.
Statistics are the tools to describe the systematic body of information that assist policy makers or managers to make decision about important issues. Statistics provide the accurate methodology to draw the accurate inference from the sample of data to the full population. Despite the benefits derived from applied statistics, there are challenges that policy makers face in measuring social issues.
Answer to Question A
In public sector, statistical approach is used to carry out the measurement. Measurement is the process of assigning number to the issue that policy makers are interested in studying or analyzing. There are various methods to go about measuring social problem. First, the attitude of the total population to a social problem could be measured by sampling the opinion of the population towards the issue. Meier et al. (2011) reveal the method in measuring complex issue such as measuring the religion preference of a particular racial…
Meier, K.J. Brudney, J.L. & Bohte, J.(2011).Applied Statistics for Public and Nonprofit Administration. Cengage Learning.USA.
U.S. Census Bureau (2000). U.S. Summary: 2000 Census 2000 Profile. Department of Commerce.
In a follow-up experimentalinvestigation among female college students, Onwuegbuzie (1995) reported asignificant interaction between statistics test anxiety and type of examination (i.e.
Specifically, three types of factors are identified: (a) situational factors, such as math experience (Betz, 1978; Roberts & Bilderback, 1980; Tomazic & Katz, 1988; Zeidner, 1991; Wilson, 1997; Balo_lu, 2001; Hong & Karstensson, 2002; Balo_lu, 2003), statistics experience (Sutarso, 1992), computer experience (Zimmer & Fuller, 1996), and research experience (Trimarco, 1997); (b) dispositional factors, such as math self-concept or self-esteem (Zeidner, 1991), scholastic competence or multiple intelligences (Birenbaum & Eylath, 1994; Daley & Onwuegbuzie, 1997; Onwuegbuzie, 2000c), perfectionism (Onwuegbuzie & Daley, 1999; Walsh & gumba-Agwunobi, 2002), hope (Onwuegbuzie. 1998b), and procrastination (Onwuegbuzie, 2000a; Walsh & gumba-Agwunobi, 2002); and - personal factors, such as learning style (Onwuegbuzie, 1998a; Wilson & Onwuegbuzie, 2001), age (Baloglu, 2003), gender (Betz, 1978; Roberts & Bilderback, 1980; Demaria-Mitton, 1987; Benson, 1989; Benson & Bandalos,…
Unfortunately, sparse studies have been found on how to reduce the anxiety in learning statistics for graduate students in the social sciences (Onwuegbuzie & Wilson, 2000). Schacht and Stewart (1990) reported incorporating humorous cartoon examples in statistics classes were perceived by the students to helpful in statistics anxiety reduction. Journal writing was suggested to be another effective tool in reducing levels of anxiety (Smith, Miller, & Robertson, 1992; Sgoutas-Emch & Johnson, 1998). However, theses studies did not find a statistically significant decrease in anxiety levels. Forte (1995) argued for an effective teaching approach that incorporates computer usage, real-world applications, humor, statistical language practice, and group-learning principles. Additionally, Dolinsky (2001) suggested creating a collaborative environment in which using active learning strategies as the primary method to teach statistics. These teaching methods reveal promise to reduce students' statistics anxiety, yet more innovations of teaching statistics are needed (Huntley, Schneider, & Aronson, 2000). More importantly, empirical studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of these methods in reducing statistics anxiety.
Innovative teaching methods can make the difference between who is able to master statistics to go on to the PhD level. For instance, such measuress, such as optional grading system, more flexible office hours, orientation letter, and the cheat sheet, are all measures that make it easier for students to pass the course. For most students with statistics anxiety, thought of failing the course is a huge stressor; therefore, even if they have the capability to learn statistics, the fear of failure overrides their ability. The application-oriented teaching methods, on the other hand, dispel the misconception about statistics that it is useless and that it is only for people with good math skills. Applying the class contents to daily life and actual research articles makes more meaning for students, and also have them feel more comfortable and close to learning statistics.
As documented above, recently, there has been an increase in the number of researchers investigating the construct of statistics anxiety. However, there is stil lmuch that we do not know about this phenomenon. Moreover, much of the research in this area has been undertaken among undergraduate students. Yet, as noted byOnwuegbuzie (1998a), statistics anxiety is extremely prevalent among graduate students, especially among women and minorities. Furthermore, because theses and dissertations typically necessitate the use of statistics, and because a significant proportion of students do not complete their theses and dissertations, and hence their graduate degree programs (Bowen & Rudenstine, 1992; Cesari, 1990), it is possible
Statistics in News eports
According to a recent article published on The Chart, CNN.com's comprehensive medical blog authored by Dr. Sanjay Gupta and Elizabeth Cohen, the number of American children who fall victim to accidental death each year has plummeted during the last decade. The article, entitled Accidental Death ate for Children Falls, details the dramatic decrease in the "death rate from unintentional injuries among children and adolescents from birth to age 19" (Gupta M.D. & Cohen, 2012), and provides a litany of statistical evidence to support this claim. As is always the case with the media's deployment of statistics, scientific records and other numerical support, a careful reader should avoid taking supposed facts and figures at face value without first subjecting the data to careful scrutiny. Until any statistical presentation can withstand the reader's rigorous examination, any conclusions drawn from the data in question must be considered to be…
Gupta M.D., S., & Cohen, E. (2012, April 16). [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://thechart.blogs.cnn.com/2012/04/16/accidental-deaths-among-children - fall/?hpt=hp_t3
U.S. Department for Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). Vital signs: Unintentional injury deaths among persons aged 0 -- 19 years -- United States, 2000 -- 2009. Retrieved from U.S. Government Printing Office website: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm61e0416a1.htm?s_cid=mm61e0416a 1_w
Statistics and Econometrics
STATISTICS AND ECONOMETICS
Present your data in a table showing the names of the variables. Make sure the full definitions and sources of each variable are given.
Birth ates: (thousands)
GDP per capita (GDP)
The GDP data used was from http://earthtrends.wri.org/text/economics-business/variable-638.html in the table Economics, Business, and the Environment -- GDP: GDP per capita, current U.S. dollars
Current U.S.$ per person
The equation to be estimated is:
Bi = b0 + b1 GDPi+ ui (i)
(i) In terms of the literature on demand for children, what would you expect to find for the coefficient on b1 ?
is expected to have a negative value. There is an indirect negative relationship between the birth rate and GDP per capita of a country. Generally, as the GDP per capita increases, the birth rate decreases [James M.…
Birth rates in the U.S., accessed 19 Apr 2012
Engel's law, accessed 19 Apr 2012
Statistics of Oil Peak
In the present times, the depletion of oil all over the world has become a major topic of concern all over, and this subject is indeed an extremely important one because of the fact that a world without oil is a frightening prospect and will hurt mankind and the very lifestyle of human beings everywhere. Since it is well-known that everywhere it is conventional oil that is being produced in large quantities today, it must be understood that the production of this oil has been dominating the oil production all over the world, in fact, about 95% of oil that has been produced so far is the conventional oil, and there is no doubt that it will continue to dominate oil supply all over the world for a great many years in the future. It was in the 1960's that the discovery of conventional oil actually…
Campbell, C.J. (December, 2000) "Peak Oil" Presentation at the Technical University of Clausthal. Retrieved From http://www.geologie.tu-clausthal.de/Campbell/lecture.html Accessed on 8 February, 2005
"Interesting facts about Oil Gas and Ocean Environment" Retrieved From
http://www.offshore-environment.com/facts.html Accessed on 8 February, 2005
"Peak Oil: Life after the Oil Crash" Retrieved From
Again, the presidential campaign acted as a catalyst for technology adoption, and led to first-time social networking users getting online. It also led to existing users creating additional profiles as well.
On the third most significant variable in determining the effects of social networks on which candidate would eventually win Q39. Do you have a single profile on each site, or do you have multiple profiles on one web site? Provides the most fascinating data from the three variables included in the analysis. Notice that the distribution of results is bifurcated from one spectrum to the other. This signals that through the use of the participative aspects of social networks, candidates were able to get the support of the top 5% of social networkers, as evidenced by having more than one profile on a given network. The mean value of this variable is 1.17 and it has a mode of…
Tim O'Reilly. (2006, July). Web 2.0: Stuck on a Name or Hooked on Value? Dr. Dobb's Journal, 31(7), 10.
Williams, C., & Gulati, G.. (1 August). Social Networks in Political Campaigns: Facebook and Congressional Elections 2006, 2008. SSRN Working Paper Series
Source of dataset for analysis:
http://pewinternet.org/Shared-Content/Data-Sets/2008/May-2008 -- Cloud-computing-politics-and-adult-social-networking.aspx
DAY, YR.SMOKE, and CO.LEVEL).
f. Draw a scatterplot to illustrate the relationship between CIG.DAY and CO.LEVEL. Describe the slope of the scatterplot.
g. Is it correct to say that higher intake of cigarettes (CIG.DAY) causes higher levels of carbon monoxide (CO.LEVEL)? Based solely on your correlation coefficient, explain why or why not.
2. Use the same data and compute the following using SPSS. Be sure to enter the data accurately into the program and to print off copies of your data and output files.
a. Determine the two Pearson correlation coefficients for the data provided below.
b. If you haven't already, analyze (using correlation ( bivariate) all three variables at once so that you see a correlation matrix in your printout.
c. Have SPSS generate three scatterplots: CIG.DAY and YR.SMOKE, CIG.DAY and CO.LEVEL, and YR.SMOKE and CO.LEVEL.
Managing to a significant reduction in variably is a key aspect of Six Sigma, which explains why statistics are used extensively throughout the quality management strategies of services companies and manufacturers alike (Bergquist, Albing, 2006).
Many organizations are creating enterprise-wide quality management systems that encompass product and service process audits, Six Sigma strategies for gaining greater performance from trimming wasted time and materials for processes, and the development of quality management levels (Elshennawy, 2004). In conjunction with all of these aspects of an enterprise quality management strategy, manufacturers are using Corrective Action/Preventative Action (CAPA) process workflows to evaluate how statistically evaluating product quality will affect preventative action taken to permanently remove variation from the sourcing, supply chain, production or services processes. Statistics are used to further analyze why a specific product or service process is out of its boundaries of performance over time. Further, statistics are also being used to…
Bjarne Bergquist, & Maim Albing. (2006). Statistical Methods - Does Anyone Really Use Them? Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 17(8), 961.
Ahmad K. Elshennawy. (2004). Quality in the New Age and the Body of Knowledge for Quality Engineers. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 15(5,6), 603-614.
Camille James. (2005). Manufacturing's Prescription for Improving Healthcare Quality. Hospital Topics, 83(1), 2-8.
Spatz, Chris (2008). Basic Statistics: Tales of Distributions by Chris Spatz. Cengage Learning 9th ed. ISBN-13: 9780495502180
tatistics and Airplane Part Maintenance
When one works within the aircraft repair industry it is essential to both demonstrate the utmost technical know-how, as well as possess an uncanny ability to somehow predict any potential problems that might arise with a particular aircraft or part. Of course, the reason this is so important is because of the nature of flight, itself. After all, it is hardly wise to wait until a critical part or system related problem arises to deal with it. In mid-air, one simply does not have the luxury of pulling over to the side of the road to fix the issue.
Within my work setting as an aircraft parts repair specialist, it is my job to prepare or repair parts for the airplanes on my military base. Although I do not install the parts, it is not only up to me to fix the parts that are…
Canaday, Henry. (2004). "Hunting for Prodcutivity Gains." Overhaul & Maintenance. September. Retrived on September 29, 2004, from, http://www.aviationnow.com/avnow/news/channel_om_story.jsp?id=news/om904cvr.xml
DSCR. Defense Supply Center, Richmond. (2004). "Critical Aircraft Parts." Retrived on September 29, 2004, from, http://www.dscr.dla.mil/vg/Flight%20SafetyCriticalAircraftParts.htm
Personality: Personality is a subtle and difficult to define aggregate of traits and qualities that define an individual. To talk about personality is to refer to the way someone communicates, thinks, and acts in the world. Differences in psychology are often due to differences in personality. When things like family background and neurology are ruled out, personality can account for why one friend is shy and another one is gregarious. Some people's personality changes, whereas others' personality remains relatively stable throughout their life.
Psychological Assessment: A psychological assessment can be based on clinical observations, interview data, or formal tests. Assessments are crucial to determine a client's needs, course of treatment, and to measure treatment outcomes. If a person experiences symptoms like extreme fatigue, that person would get assessed and the clinician may offer a diagnosis such as depression.
Social psychology: Social psychology refers to the impact of psychological factors on…
Gerrig, R.J., Zimbardo, P.G., Desmarais, S., & Ivanco, T., (2009). Psychology and life. Pearson Education Canada: Toronto, Ontario.
The morphological properties of the virion are non-enveloped, with isometric Necleocapsids 27 nm in diameter. The symmetry is icosahedral, with the Nucleocapsids round in shape. Further, there are 12 capsomers per neucleocapsid (ICTV). Additionally, the virions each hold one molecule of linear positive-sense single stranded RNA, with a total genome length of 7500 nt, and a hairpin structure (ICTV).
Treatment and Prevention:
The impact of the Hepatitis a can vary from mild to serious illness. It is normally transmitted by the ingestion of contaminated food or water which has come in contact with the feces of a carrying person (again, usually through bad hand washing, or poor sewage systems). The symptoms vary, but usually result in liver involvement causing weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, fever and jaundice. Severe reactions can lead to liver damage, failure, and even death. Unfortunately, there is no specific (or effective) treatment for Hepatitis a Instead,…
Carmel. Mount Carmel Medical Center. (2004). "Prevention Protocols When Traveling." Retrieved on September 29, 2004, from, http://www.mountcarmelhealth.com/healthinfo/Adult/digest/hepa.shtml
CBW. (2004). "Biological Toxins." Retrieved on September 29, 2004, from, http://www.cbwinfo.com/Biological/Toxins/Verotox.html
Deodhare, S.G. (2000). "Viral Hepatitis: Recent Progress." Retrieved on September 29, 2004, from, http://www.pathoindia.com/update2.html
DOH. Washington State Department of Health. (2002). "E. Coli Reporting." Retrieved on September 29, 2004, from, http://www.doh.wa.gov/Notify/guidelines/pdf/ecoli.pdf5
What I Learned About Statistics
The most important thing that I have learned about statistics is that there is no reason to be afraid. Prior to studying statistics and statistical methods many students view statistics as being extremely difficult, dense, and nearly impossible to understand. After learning about the various types of statistics, analyses, hypothesis testing, and so forth it becomes quite clear that statistics is a logical discipline that begins with basic assumptions and building blocks and then builds upon them more advanced and practical methods of understanding the world.
At the basic level descriptive statistics serve as the foundation for the entire field (Black, 2011). Descriptive statistics summarize data, data being observations of the world that are given quantitative values (Tanner & Youssef -- Morgan, 2013). The most commonly used sets of descriptive statistics are measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion (Tanner & Youssef --…
Black, K. (2011). Business statistics for contemporary decision making. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Runyon, R.P., Coleman, K.A., & Pittenger, D.J. (2000). Fundamentals of behavioral statistics
(9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2012). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). New York:
Where the data consists of numerical things like number of cows that give birth to bulls in a region, the answer may be straightforward. But where there is interaction between the chosen variables, especially where the humans are involved as a variable unlike inanimate objects like gases or salt will not produce the same linear results that could be expected from a scientific experiment as in physics for example. In contrast, the interaction between the multifarious individuals that comprise of the data collected may actually delay or change the patterns of the results based on many factors "that actually may dampen the individual effects of the two variables, as when two noises combine to create a zone of apparent quiet. Two gases may be relatively harmless when released into the atmosphere separately, but may yield lethal toxins when released together."
When we test the interaction effects in the case…
Baird, D.C. (1962) "Experimentation: An Introduction to Measurement Theory and Experiment Design." Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Ezekiel, Mordecai; Fox, Karl a. (1959) "Methods of Correlation and Regression Analysis,
Linear and Curvilinear" John Wiley & Sons: New York.
Kault, David. (2003) "Statistics with Common Sense."
statistics also identify various types as well as levels of the same. Further, the role statistics plays in business decision making will also be explored. Later on, a number of examples will be presented in an attempt to identify situations in which statistics can be put to use.
A review of literature demonstrates that over time, different authors have given varying definitions of statistics. According to Siegel (2011), "statistics is the art and science of collecting and understanding data." However, a more common and realistic definition of statistics is that given by Webster's Third New International Dictionary. In this case, statistics according to Black (2011) is defined as "a science dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of numerical data."
There are various levels and types of statistics. In general, statistical methods can be categorized into two i.e. inferential statistics and descriptive statistics. In the words of Black (2011),…
Black, K. (2011). Business Statistics: For Contemporary Decision Making (7th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Siegel, A.F. (2011). Practical Business Statistics (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Academic Press.
The plant opening is only a few months away and the Board of Directors for ABC Complete Kitchens, Inc. is interested in learning more about what you recommend for plant productivity analysis. pecifically, the board members want you to identify and describe the tools and techniques that are available that will help the plant's executive team better conduct statistical analyses for plant productivity evaluation. Be sure to define the management information systems in-place that will provide the productivity data required.
What quantitative research techniques/statistics would you recommend for ABC Complete Kitchens, Inc.
What information would you expect the statistics to provide for ABC Complete Kitchens, Inc.
Analyze research quantitative techniques, business statistics, and data evaluation techniques.
ABC Complete Kitchens, Inc. will certainly be helped by using quantitative statistics to help it analyze its plant productivity. Research has consistently found that the most successful business are inevitably those that use…
(2011). SKS 5000 - Business Strategies for Organizational Effectiveness within the Global Perspective Pearson Learning Solutions surveysystem.com http://www.surveysystem.com/correlation.htm statsoft.com http://www.statsoft.com/textbook/elementary-statistics-concepts/
Graph Pad Choosing a statistical test http://www.graphpad.com/support/faqid/1790/
Statistics have numerical data that reveals information that a person can conclude on a given social phenomenon. The information is usually not sufficient to understand the whole concept behind the research. Hence, additional information is required in order to know the full aim and target results of the study (Babbie, 2010).
What information do we miss when we look only at statistical data?
Statistical data cannot provide the mindset of the researcher. While a person is organizing a research, it is critical to understand the aim and objective of the research. These two aspects drive the research to the end. However, by receiving numerical or statistical data a person cannot know the intentions of the researcher to have a full picture of the study (Babbie, 2010).
A summary report on Diabetes
Diabetes is marked as one of the leading terminal disease in the U.S. The report compiled by Center for…
Babbie, E. (2010). The Practice of Social Research. New York: Cengage Learning.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011, December). Number (in Millions) of Civilian, Non-institutionalized Persons with Diagnosed Diabetes, United States, 19802010. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved August 9, 2012, from http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/statistics/prev/national/figpersons.htm
ICPSR (2011). The Evangelical Voter in the United States, 1983. ICPSR. Retrieved August 9, 2012, from http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/ICPSR/studies/8354?classification=ICPSR.XVII.B .
Metacritic (2012). Mission: Impossible - Ghost Protocol. Metacritic. Retrieved August 9, 2012, from http://www.metacritic.com/movie/mission-impossible-ghost-protocol
Statistics in the Workplace
Use of Statistics at Cincom Systems
The use of statistics in pervasive throughout Cincom Systems, from tracking customer behavior through research surveys to measuring software quality and continually striving to attain higher levels of application performance and stability. Statistics are specifically used for managing the ongoing investments in online marketing including Google AdWords analysis, where descriptive statistics are used for measuring the performance of specific programs and strategies. There are also inferentially-based statistics used for measuring the overall level of software quality today and what levels would need to be attained to keep on track for having all applications available on the Web via the Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) model by 2015.
Statistical Analysis and New Product Development
Using ongoing customer surveys and market research programs, much data has been collected on what customers want in future product released, and how important each of these features are. There…
Brandt, E., Henzen, R., Ramos, I., & Bucchianico, A.. (2007). Two Case Studies in Applying Statistical Models in Software Development. Quality Engineering, 19(4) 339.
Champ, Charles W. (1995). Basic Statistics Tools for Continuous Improvement. Journal of Quality Technology, 27(2), 174.
Rajshekhar (Raj) G. Javalgi, Andrew C. Gross, W. Benoy Joseph, & Elad Granot. (2011). Assessing competitive advantage of emerging markets in knowledge intensive business services. The Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 26(3), 171-180.
The article “Watchdog Says L.A. Sheriff’s Department Collects Flawed Data, Reports Inaccurate Statistics” appears in the August 8 edition of the Los Angeles Times. In the article, reporter Maya Lau shows how the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department misuses statistics. This article shows how biases can guide not only the collection of data and the methodology used to test hypotheses, but also how biases can lead to actual changes in public policy with potentially detrimental or disastrous outcomes.
The Lau article is based on the primary source, the Huntsman report compiled by the Office of Inspector General of Los Angeles. Data was collected using multiple methods, as the report details different raw data measures presumably used and collected by the Sheriff’s Department. In fact, data was collected using different types of software that did not necessarily integrate with one another, according to both Huntsman and Lau. Duplicate entries or multiple…
Huntsman, Max. “Reform and Oversight Efforts.” Office of Inspector General County. Retrieved online: https://oig.lacounty.gov/Portals/OIG/Reports/April%202017%20Reform%20and%20Oversight%20Efforts.pdf?ver=2017-04-05-123559-210
Lau, Maya. “Watchdog Says L.A. Sheriff’s Department Collects Flawed Data, Reports Inaccurate Statistics.” Los Angeles Times. 8 Aug, 2017. Retrieved online: http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-sheriff-statistics-20170808-story.html
Construct Confidence Intervals
1. Explain the difference between a 95% confidence interval and a 99% confidence interval in terms of probability
a) To construct a 95% confidence interval for a population, mean µ, what is the correct critical value z*?
A 95% confidence interval implies that in the event that 100 different kinds of samples are taken into consideration and a 95% confidence interval is calculated for every sample, then roughly 95 out of the 100 confidence intervals will have the true mean value, which is µ
To construct a 95% confidence interval for a population, mean µ, the correct critical value of z* is P (-1.96 < Z < 1.96) = 0.95
b) To construct a 99% confidence interval for a population, mean µ, what is the correct critical value z*?
A 99% confidence interval implies that in the event that 100 different kinds of samples are…
Mendenhall, W., Beaver, R. J., & Beaver, B. M. (2012). Introduction to probability and statistics. New York: Cengage Learning.
Descriptive statistics are used “to synthesize and describe data” by supplying parameters commonly based on averages and percentages that are “calculated with data from a population” (Polit & Beck, 2017, p. 215). While descriptive statistics essentially describe characteristics of the data, there are levels of measurement that can be implemented to aid in that description. These levels include nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. Nominal level offers the least amount of detail, while interval and ratio levels offer the most. At the nominal level, variables are categorized without any obvious meaning in the relationship: for instance, age and religious affiliation would be considered nominal level variables. In descriptive statistics, nominal level data is commonly used to measure frequencies and percentages.
With ordinal level variables, there tends to be more order or meaning in the grouping, based on hierarchical arrangement: for instance, runners in a race might be ranked according to where…
Data Level and Measurement. (2017). Statistics Solutions. Retrieved from http://www.statisticssolutions.com/data-levels-and-measurement/
Dormann, C. et al. (2012). Collinearity: a review of methods to deal with it and a simulation study evaluating their performance. Ecography, 35, 1-20.
Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2017). Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (10th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.
Working with Inferential Statistics
In seeking to determine whether children exposed to movies created prior to the year 1980 caused more injuries than children who were exposed to movies after the year 1980, we formulate our null and alternative hypothesis as below:
H0:µ before 1980=µ after 1980
H1:µ before 1980 ? µ after 180
µ is the mean of injuries
The level of significance ?=0.05
From the result derived from the SPSS software at 95% confidence interval, we reject the null hypothesis and come to the conclusion that there is no significant difference between mean in the injuries for the movies created before 1980(M=0.74 s=1.010) and the injuries reported for the movies created after 1980(M=2.12 s=2.016) t(72), p=0.0015 ?=0.05. In the words of Hinton, Brownlow, and McMurray (2004), “if the Levene’s test is not significant (p>0.05), this indicates the variances are approximately equal” (180). In essence, it is evident…
Field, A. (2009). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: SAGE Publications.
Hinton, P.R., Brownlow, C. & McMurray, I. (2004). SPSS Explained. New York, NY: Psychology Press
The business taken into account for the analysis is Google, Inc. The primary data being collected is on Google and on different mobile applications to evaluate the validity of whether the latter are becoming more significant and popular compared to Google. In this case, the independent variable is percentage of internet usage on Google for every period. Basically, the metric taken into consideration is the percentage of time spent on Google in a day against the percentage used on various other Mobile Applications. This is purposed to facilitate the establishment of trends between Google and Mobile Applications and attain a vivid picture of their individual popularities.
Descriptive statistics takes into account the processes employed to provide a summarization and delineation of the significant characteristics of a set of measurements. Descriptive statistics provides basic sum-ups regarding the sample and the measures and in tandem with basic graphical examinations,…
Brandimarte, P. (2012). Quantitative methods: An introduction for business management. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Mendenhall, W., Beaver, R. J., & Beaver, B. M. (2012). Introduction to probability and statistics. New York: Cengage Learning.
Trochim, W. M. (2006). Descriptive Statistics. Web Center For Social Research Methods.
My sources of statistics anxiety as I begin this course are mainly located in my general lack of precise knowledge about how statistics work and are generated. As the University of Kansas (2019) points out, many students put off taking statistics courses in college because it is the last thing they want to do. There is a great deal of nervousness experienced by people when it comes to analyzing data using statistics and mathematical equations that, to be frank, they simply do not understand. The main problem is the fact that it requires so much covering of so much new ground that the student has never before in all his or her education ever really encountered. So it is very much like entering into foreign territory or being adrift at sea. That is what makes me nervous and gives me statistics anxiety.
Another key point that has been…
Using statistics in criminal justice leads to evidence-based policy and practice. Criminal justice leadership can rely on statistical data to understand which policies are working and why, and how to change policies that are not yielding desired results. Leaders who rely on statistics are less likely to base policy decisions and judgments regarding criminal justice practices on politics rather than on achieving specific goals such as crime rate reduction. Therefore, criminal justice statistics can help improve organizational efficiency and integrity, allowing leaders to focus resources on policies and programs that yield demonstrable and significant results.
Statistical data helps criminal justice policy makers divert resources appropriately to fund studies that yield measurable results. Moreover, statistical research can help promote new techniques, tactics, programs, policies, procedures, and technologies that can help reduce rates of crime and create safer communities. According to the United States Department of Justice (2017), “research is critical to…
Boushey, G. (2016). Targeted for diffusion? American Political Science Review 10(1): 198-214.
Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS, 2017). Criminal Justice Data Improvement Program. Retrieved online: https://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=4
Gill, C., Weisburd, D. & Telep, C. (2016). Community policing. In Advancing Criminology and Criminal Justice Policy. Routledge, pp. 119-129.
Khan, K. & Martin, K.D. (2016). Policing and race. Social Issues and Policy Review 10(1): 82-121.
United States Department of Justice (2017). Research, statistics, and evaluation. Retrieved online: https://ojp.gov/programs/research_stats.htm
Statistics is defined as a methodology of gathering data, analyzing it, understanding the data and forming appropriate conclusions from the analysis. Not many subjects are as broad or have as many important applications as statistics (Wooldridge & Jeffrey, 2013). Mathematicians, scientists and researchers in general rely on statistics to interpret the information they collect or encounter in their specific fields of work. In general, nearly everything that covers the collection, interpretation, manipulation and presentation of data is considered statistics (Armitage, Berry, 2011). This paper discusses various statistical instruments, their assumptions and their uses. In the end, a conclusion is given.
Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient
Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r, is a statistical instrument that looks at the strength and the direction of the relationship between any two variables. It is more accurately known as the Person product-moment correlation coefficient (Taylor, Jeremy 2010). Simply put, it is a statistical instrument meant…
Armitage P, Berry G. 2011 Statistical Methods in Medical Research. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1994:112-13.
Armitage P, Berry G. Statistical Methods in Medical Research. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1994.
Blair, R. C. (1981). \\"A reaction to \\'Consequences of failure to meet assumptions underlying the fixed effects analysis of variance and covariance.\\'\\". Review of Educational Research. 51: 499–507.
Cohen, Michael; Dalal, Siddhartha R.; Tukey, John W. (1993). \\"Robust, Smoothly Heterogeneous Variance Regression\\". Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series C. .
Howell, David (2002). Statistical Methods for Psychology. Duxbury. pp. 324–325. .
Kirk, RE (1995). Experimental Design: Procedures For The Behavioral Sciences (3 ed.). Pacific Grove, CA, USA: Brooks/Cole.
Lange, Kenneth L.; Little, Roderick J. A.; Taylor, Jeremy M. G. (2010). \\"Robust Statistical Modeling Using the t Distribution\\". Journal of the American Statistical Association.
Randolf, E. A.; Barcikowski, R. S. (1989). \\"Type I error rate when real study values are used as population parameters in a Monte Carlo study\\". Paper presented at the 11th annual meeting of the Mid-Western Educational Research Association, Chicago.
Transversality and intersection theory / Sard’s theorem, topological analysis approach
The concept of transversality deals with the intersection of two objects; in several ways, one may consider it the reverse of tangency. For transversality to occur between two sub- manifolds, their tangential spaces at every intersection point need to extend across the ambient manifold’s tangent space. Transversality, invariably, particularly fails in case of tangency between two sub- manifolds. However, a more notable point is, tangency lacks stability: all situations involving tangency between two objects may be effortlessly and somewhat disturbed into non- tangent situations, which isn’t true when it comes to transversality. Part of the reason why transversality is so sound a tool is its stability.
Rene Thom, a French mathematician, introduced the idea of transversality during the 50s. In his doctoral thesis performed in the year 1954, he included the proof and statement of his Transversality Theorem (Greenblatt,…
Carlsson, G. (2009). Topology and data. AMS Bulletin, 46(2):255–308.
Chazal, F., & Michel, B. (2017). An introduction to Topological Data Analysis: fundamental and practical aspects for data scientists. arXiv preprint arXiv:1710.04019.
Fasy, B. T., Kim, J., Lecci, F., & Maria, C. (2014). Introduction to the R package TDA. arXiv preprint arXiv:1411.1830.
Greenblatt, C. (2015). An introduction to Transversality. Accessed online at http://schapos. people. uic. edu/MATH549_Fall2015_files, 1.
Maria, C., Boissonnat, J. D., Glisse, M., &Yvinec, M. (2014, August). The gudhi library: Simplicial complexes and persistent homology. In International Congress on Mathematical Software (pp. 167-174). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Morse, M. (1947). Introduction to analysis in the Large. 1947 Lectures.
Sard, A. (1942). The measure of the critical values of differentiable maps. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, 48(12), 883-890.
Thom, R. (1954). Quelquespropriétésglobales des variétésdifférentiables. CommentariiMathematiciHelvetici, 28(1), 17-86.
Construct a Research Design Using Secondary Data
Secondary data takes into account data that is gathered by someone else aside from the user. Examples of sources of secondary data comprise of data gathered by government establishments, organizational records in addition to data that was initially gathered for other purposes of research. The secondary data selected for this paper is census. In delineation, a census is the process of methodically obtaining and recording data and information regarding the members of a certain population. It is a frequently recurring and formal count of a certain population. Moreover, it is a kind of administrative data, but it is gathered for the purpose of research at distinctive time periods and intervals. Census information is obtained from the United States Census Bureau. Reliability is delineated as the magnitude to which an appraisal tool generates steady and consistent outcomes. The census data obtained can…
Central Bureau of Statistics. (2018). Uses of census data. Retrieved from: http://www.cbs.gov.il/census/census/pnimi_sub_page_e.html?id_topic=1&id_subtopic
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2018). Overweight and obesity statistics. Retrieved from: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-statistics/overweight-obesity
Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Fryar, C. D., & Flegal, K. M. (2015). Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2011-2014 (pp. 1-8). US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics.
State of Obesity. (2018). Obesity Rates & Trends Overview. Retrieved from: https://stateofobesity.org/obesity-rates-trends-overview/
Thomas, R. M. (2003). Blending qualitative and quantitative research methods in theses and dissertations. Corwin Press.
Statistic Data From Department of Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, National Institute of Health
Every second person in Armenia, irrespective of sex, is a smoker. Only 15% of the population have never smoked before WOMEN and SMOKING
53,6% smoked some time in the past
Chart indicates % of women smoke... cigarettes per day
Chart indicates that in Armenia among the smoking women the percentage of women with higher education is significantly more than those having secondary education.
Tobacco and Teenagers
In Armenia about half of the smokers start smoking reaching the age of 18, 36,6% of teenagers are smoke
Number of cigarettes per day
Boys and girls
Boys and young men in Armenia start smoking much sooner than girls, more than a half of a yang men start doing it before reaching the age of 18. Absolute majority of girls in Armenia start smoking after the…
A level of quality assurance should be indicated within the confines of any study or related matter provided in literature used to inform, mimic, or develop in the means of school counseling.
Retrospective Studies = Research conducted by reviewing records or information about past events elicited through interviews with persons who have, and controls who do not have, a disease under investigation (UP, 2002). This term may apply to the study of habits or past behavior of subjects to who school counseling focus is directed. In observance of such habits and past behavior, proper and necessary approaches to certain students/subjects can effectively be taken.
Single-blind Design = Typically, a study designed in which the investigator, but not the subject, knows the treatment assigned. Occasionally, the subject, rather than the investigator, knows the assignment (UP, 2002). As in the Double-blind Design, this approach of study may be of such listed or…
University of Pittsburgh. 2002. Research Coordinator Orientation. PDF file available; http://www.clinicalresearch.pitt.edu/docs/research-related_terms.pdf
Missouri Division of Tourism. 2007. Research Terms. PDF file available; http://www.visitmo.com/pdf/12-Research_Terms.pdf
Readex Research. 2006. Research Terms. Learning center. Retrieved from the World Wide Web, May 15, 2007: http://www.readexresearch.com/sfp/learn/terms.html
U.S. National Institute of Health. 2007. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved from the World Wide Web, May 18, 2007; http://seer.cancer.gov/cgi-bin/glossary/glossary.pl
statistics being studied were the general demographic statistics from the 2006 census. These statistics provide insight into the ethnic diversity of Canada. There were a number of significant statistics that were noted. The statistics on languages spoken at home reveal a number of different things. Among them is the substantial amount of diversity among First Nations, but also the lack of native language speakers in that group, with the largest being Cree at 47,190 speakers but most being only a few hundred or thousand speakers. Native speakers of other languages are also varied. There are sixteen languages with at least 100,000 people who speak the language at home. The list of languages spoken at least somewhat at home reveals even more about the diversity of the country with over 10,000 speakers of dozens of different languages, some quite obscure.
There are also interesting statistics with respect to the source of…
StatsCan. (2006). Selected demographic, cultural, educational, labor force and income characteristics. Statistics Canada. Retrieved May 23, 2011 from http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2006/dp-pd/tbt/Rp-eng.cfm?LANG=E&APATH=3&DETAIL=0&DIM=0&FL=A&FREE=0&GC=0&GID=0&GK=0&GRP=1&PID=99016&PRID=0&PTYPE=88971,97154&S=0&SHOWALL=0&SUB=0&Temporal=2006&THEME=70&VID=0&VNAMEE=&VNAMEF=
Statistics to Mislead
Statistics can be misleading. People can use misleading statistics to persuade others to buy a product or share their point-of-view. Britain's Sunday Times, for example, alerted readers more than a decade ago to this tactic, showing that insurance companies often use misleading figures to scare consumers into buying expensive coverage they may never need (Cooper, 2001). In Mathematics in Our World, Bluman (2011) provides numerous examples of the ways statistics are presented to lead the reader to a false conclusion. This paper answers two of the questions in Bluman's textbook about misleading statistics.
No mathematical calculations were required in answering these questions. One need only to give some thought to the information presented. Statistics, when read quickly and without consideration, may appear to tell a certain story, often one that is meant to alarm the reader and/or incite action. Closer examination, however, can reveal a completely different…
Adams, M. (2006). Lying with statistics: How conventional medicine confuses the public with Absolute risk vs. relative risk. Natural News. Retrieved from http://www.naturalnews.com/019368.html
Bluman, A.G. (2011). Mathematics in our world (1st ed. Ashford University Custom). United
Bogner, E. (2011). 11 ways to lie with statistics. Business Insider July 28, 2011. Retrieved
There are also ethical issues pertaining to the observational method that will be discussed later in this paper.
Experience surveys are widely used throughout qualitative research studies, due to their focus on bringing greater insights into the study through the interviewing of experts in chosen fields. There is also a strong focus on how to gain insights of experts in the future definition of the methodology being created, and how the research objectives can be more effectively accomplished as well. Experience surveys also are often used in the first stages of a research project. Another qualitative research technique, the case study, takes the concept of gaining insight and applies it to an organization and its dynamics. A case study seeks to define and complete a thorough analysis of one or more specific circumstances within institution of interest. The goal of case studies is to measure the relationships, inter-dependencies and cause-and-effect…
IIT (2007). Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT). The Delphi Method. Definition and Historical Background. Accessed from the Internet on June 22, 2007:
Joppe (2007) - Research Process Tutorial on Dr. Marion Joppes' website regarding exploratory research fundamentals:
Accessed from the Internet on June 22, 2007 from location:
This makes the response more concrete and increases the ability to be reliable and valid. It must always be remembered that an operational definition is a matter of degree; there is an infinite factors that can be considered. The goal is not to have a completely concrete definition, but rather one that can be replicated by another researcher. The more information that is found the less subjectivity and possible bias. There is more information gained on the reason for enjoyment, for example, as noted above with "I enjoy my work," and "I find satisfaction in my work because I can demonstrate my best abilities to others." a) the researcher's assumption is not valid. The person could be ordering the magazine for a variety of reasons, such as wanting to buy a car or looking for the most cost-efficient green products. The purpose of validity is to know that you are…
However, there are two difficulties with the word "attitude." First, the word attitude is not definitive, such as a number. It can be and has been defined in different ways. For example,
Jung defined attitude as a "readiness of the psyche to act or react in a certain way" (Jung, 1921). The other problem is that researchers use a wide variety of tools to measure attitude, so that it is difficult to compare oranges to oranges. This lessens the ability for reliability and validity. As Kulp (1935) states, "That there is chaos in the field of attitude testing is all too apparent. It is, therefore, a most important problem at present to define and standardize the use of such terms as attitude, opinion, belief, judgment, and fact. When examining the content of the tests in the field, one is amazed at the conglomeration of items."
2) Rating and ranking. Which is better? A ranking question lets respondents to a questionnaire put items on a list in order of personal preference by choosing a numeric value for each response. Each of the numeric values cannot be used more than one time. For example, the survey may ask respondents to rank several movies in order from 1 to 5. Instead, when asked for a rating scale matrix, the questionnaire respondent selects the ratings for a number of different aspects of a specific issue. The question and rating scale appears
Interestingly, however, only females reported over 60 hours per week. The scatterplot below shows the hours worked with females on the top axis:
The correlation between the satisfaction with the weight in men and women is 0.097. As expected, this is also a weak correlation, but it does indicate that males are more likely to be satisfied with their weight. 46.6% of males and 37.3% of females indicated that they were satisfied with their weight. The chart below shows females in pink and men in blue. The top axis represents the number that are not satisfied with their weight and the lower axis, the ones that are.
You can include a table to show the comparison if you want to. Do not be concerned with the small number used in each group in the study.
TO: National Kidney Foundation, Board of Directors
FROM: Jon Doe, Staff Statistician
DATE: June 23, 2013
SUBJECT: Future Research Funding Recommendations
Upon examination of the data submitted by the two research groups using a graphical view (see below), it became obvious that Group I could have an outlier. Using the maximum value Grubbs test, it was determined that this value was indeed an outlier and was excluded from the data prior to further statistical analysis.
Once the outlier was removed from the data it became clear that mean of the Group II data (11) was higher than the mean of the Group I data (see table below), suggesting better results with the Group II treatment; however, the magnitude of the standard deviations…
assist the Nyke Shoe Company in determining what size shoe to produce at the most efficient cost and highest value. The Company has decided that it would be a more profitable company if it was able to produce one shoe for the marketplace instead of a variety of sizes. The one shoe that the company produces will have to provide the opportunity for the greatest amount of people to purchase and therefore will have to (statistically speaking) appeal to the largest audience. There are a number of statistical methods that would help in determining just what that audience is and who would fall into that category.
According to Charles heelan, author of Naked Statistics; "Many businesses must assess the risks associated with assorted adverse outcomes" (heelan, 2013, p. 7). One can hardly imagine a more adverse outcome than to go out of business, and it would seem on the face…
Dittrich, R.; Francis, B.; Hatzinger, R.; Katzenbeisser, W.; (2012) Missing observations in paired comparison data, Statistical Modeling: An International Journal, Vol. 12, Issue 3, pp. 117 -- 143
Lee, Y. & Noh, M.; (2012) Modeling random effect variance with double hierarchical generalized linear models, Statistical Modeling, An International Journal, Vol. 12, Issue 6, pp. 487 -- 502
O'Neill, B.; (2012) Binomial prediction using the frequent outcome approach, Mathematical Scientist, Vol. 37, Issue 2, pp. 106 -- 121
Peterson, I.; (1998) The Jungles of Randomness: A Mathematical Safari, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Take for instance ed Hat, a leading provider of open source software applications. Its annual report for 2009 reveals an increase in its training and services revenues from $45 million in 2005 to $47 million in 2006, to $59 million in 2007, to $73 million in 2008 to $111 million in 2009. From this assessment, the leaders of the organization could come to the conclusion that it would be wise to further invest in the business division of training and services offered to customers.
The second most important means in which statistical information is useful to financial analysis reveals the assessment of a company's financial ratios in light of the ratios of its competitors, or the average ratios of the industry. Statistics helps organizational leaders compute financial ratios such as earnings per share, gross margin, current ratio or others. Following the previous example, ed Hat's current ratio is of 1.90…
Bartholomew, D.J., 1995, What Is Statistics? Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (Statistics in Society), Vol. 158, No. 1
Bendell, A., Disney, J., McCollin, C., 1999, The Future Role of Statistics in Quality Engineering and Management, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series D (The Statistician), Vol. 48, No. 3
Doukar, J.A., Kan, O.B., 2006, Does Globalization Diversification Destroy Firm Value? Journal of International Business Studies
Larson, R., Farber, E., 2004, Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World, 2nd Edition,
The writer asserts that an ensuring study incororating a number of factors, external to team members deliberate contributions, may roffer additional insight to further enhance knowledge about rugby alications for coaches to consider with their ractices.
In the case study, "Effects of consecutive basketball games on the game-related statistics that discriminate winner and losing teams," Sergio-Jose Ibanez, Javier Garcia, and Sebastian Feu, all with the University of Extremadura, and Alberto Lorenzo, Technical University of Madrid, with Jaime Samaio (2009), University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro at Vila Real, analyzed data they obtained from the Sanish Basketball Federation; including games layed during the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 seasons in the Under20 league. Ibanez, Garcia Feu, Lorenzo and Samaio used the observational method to conduct their study which analyzed a total of 223 games with the following variables, "selected according to the FIBA (International Basketball Federation) normative for game analysis" (Ibid.,…
players somatic characteristics, taller and stronger players secure more rebounds;
technical and tactical preparation, pivoting, blocking, anticipation, securing and pulling the ball away, and, muscular fitness, particularly in stretch-shortening-cycle jumping performances.
The writer perceives the quality of the research invested into the second study to reflect the researcher's dedication to some details, which contributed their development of a somewhat detailed study that continues to leave unanswered questions regarding "the game-related statistics that discriminate winner and losing teams" (Ibanez, Garcia Feu, Lorenzo, & Sampaio, 2009, Title excerpt). The study left the writer wanting to
Statistics in the Hospital Setting
During the course of performing my professional duties at College Hospital, which is a psychiatric facility located in Cerritos, California, I encounter patients who are struggling to maintain some semblance of a normal life despite struggling with one or more mental illnesses or psychological impairments. College Hospital is a 187-bed, free-standing psychiatric care unit which is accredited by The Joint Commission and licensed by the California Department of Health Services, and part of my job is assist in providing a wide range of psychiatric services for a wide range of patient demographics. As the leader in Partial Hospitalization Programs throughout the greater Los Angeles and Orange County metropolitan areas, College Hospital relies on the accurate and efficient use of statistics to ensure positive patient outcomes.
An Example of Descriptive Statistics Used in My Workplace:
While working at College Hospital the use of descriptive statistics has…
Costea, G., Gheorghiu, V., Buda, O., Popescu, I., & Trandafir, M.S. (2011). Statistical
Association Criteria in Forensic Psychiatry -- A criminological evaluation of casuistry. Journal of medicine and life, 4(1), 21.
Nielsen, J., Graff, C., Kanters, J.K., Toft, E., Taylor, D., & Meyer, J.M. (2011). Assessing QT
interval prolongation and its associated risks with antipsychotics. CNS drugs, 25(6), 473-
eduction of Prejudice
The Contact Hypothesis of Gordon Allport and the eduction of Prejudice
The literature covering the nature of prejudice, its scope, the effects of prejudice, and methods to reduce on prejudice is among the most extraordinary body of literature in all of social science. The total volume of research on the topic of prejudice is quite extraordinary and this body of work reflects several decades of scholarly investigation of the meaning of prejudice, its assessment, its etiology, its consequences, and methods to reduce prejudice. There are very few areas of study that have attracted a greater range of theoretical perspectives than the area of prejudice. Theorizing about the nature and manifestation of prejudice has also been accompanied by many spirited debates about the appropriate way to conceptualize methods to reduce prejudice in people. The result has been a rich body of measurement instruments and reduction strategies. The most…
Allport, G. (1954). The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Aron, A., Aron, E. & Coups, E. (2011). Statistics for the behavioral and social sciences: A brief course. (5th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice-Hall.
Bar-Haim, Y., Ziv, T., Lamy, D., & Hodes, R.M. (2006). Nature and nurture in own-race face processing. Psychological Science, 17 (2), 159-163.
Binder, J., Zagefka, H., Brown, R., Funke, F., Kessler, T., Mummendey, A., Maquil, A., Demoulin, S. & Leyens, J. (2009). Does contact reduce prejudice or does prejudice reduce contact? A longitudinal test of the contact hypothesis among majority and minority groups in three European countries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(4), 843-856.
Healthcare/Statistics/Human esources Leadership
Unit 3-Assignment Details: Statistic
Empirical probability of an occurrence is essentially an estimate that this occurrence will take place on the basis of how frequent the occurrence takes place subsequent to the collection of data or conducting an experiment. Empirical probability is grounded distinctively on direct observations or experiences. On the other hand, theoretical probability of an occurrence is the number of ways that the occurrence can take place divided by the total number of outcomes. In other words, it is trying to find the probability of occurrences that emanate from a sample space of known equally probable outcomes (Anastas, 1999). The law of large numbers is considered to be one of the main theories of probability and asserts that the sample mean converges to the distribution mean as the sample size rises. The law of large numbers offers a clarification on the manner in which empirical…
Anastas, J. W. (1999). Research Design for Social Work and the Human Services. New York: Columbia University Press.
Asch, D. (1996). The role of clinical care nurses in euthanasia and assisted suicide. New England Journal of Medicine, 334 (21); 1374 -1379.
Boudreau, J. D., Somerville, M. A. (2014). Euthanasia and assisted suicide: a physician's and ethicist's perspectives. Medicolegal and Bioethics 2014, 4:13-14
Hatch, M. J. (1993). The dynamics of organizational culture. Academy of Management Review, 18(4), 657-693.
Turner, Jarrod S. & David J. Leach. (2010). Experimental evaluation of behavioral activation treatment of anxiety (BATA) in three older adults. International Journal of Behavioral
Consultation and Therapy. 6 (4). Retrieved July 10, 2011 at http://www.baojournal.com/IJBCT/IJBCT-VOL-6/IJBCT-6-4.pdf
The 2010 article "Experimental evaluation of behavioral activation treatment of anxiety (BATA) in three older adults" from the International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy by Jarrod S. Turner & David J. Leach examines the use of behavioral activation treatment (BATA) in adults using a statistical analysis of self-monitored depression and anxiety scales. The experiment was conducted in an ABC research design format to evaluate a behavioral activation treatment on the reported anxiety levels of each participant. "The A phase was baseline; B. phase was treatment; and C. phase was maintenance/follow-up" (Turner & Leach 2010: 375). Statistically speaking, A, or the baseline phase, was used a 'control' measure for the experimental and follow-up phases.…
Performance appraisals are the evaluation of a person's performance in a manner that is systematic. Such performances are measured against different aspects, such as quality, knowledge of the job, level of supervision and also quantity of output attained (Human esource Management, 2010).
This method of performance appraisal encompasses numerous numerical scales, signifying job associated performance principles, for instance, reliability, output, work attitude and resourcefulness. Every rating scale range from excellent to poor. In the end, the total numerical marks attained are computed and ultimate conclusions are derived (Human esource Management, 2010).
Performance Tests and Observations
This is centered on tests given, assessing knowledge or skills. These tests might be written, oral or might be an actual presentation and demonstration of the skill sets. These tests must be dependable and validated in order to be useful for assessing the performance (Human esource Management, 2010).
Castle, B. (2010). Effective Compensation: Key Elements to Consider. HR Toolbox. Retrieved 12 February, 2016 from: http://hr.toolbox.com/blogs/what-are-we-thinking/effective-compensation-key-elements-to-consider-39710
Human Resource Management. (2010). Performance Appraisal Methods. Retrieved 12 February, 2016 from: http://www.hrwale.com/performance-management/performance-appraisal-methods/
Juvenile Justice Compare
The author of this report has been asked to do a compare and contrast of the juvenile justice system of three different states. While all states have a juvenile justice framework, each state does things at least a little differently and thus these differences and outliers should be explored and explained. The three states that will be compared and contrasted are New York, California and Georgia. While these three states have stark similarities, they also have ways that are entirely different from each other for whatever reason.
New York has a decentralized framework when it comes to the handling and adjudication of criminal justice cases for juveniles. The detention and probation supervision of juveniles in New York is done by the Local/Executive branch of government. The Juvenile Corrections arm of law enforcement resides in the statehouse while after-care supervision is done by a combination of the state…
JJGPS. (2016). States - JJGPS - Juvenile Justice, Geography, Policy, Practice & Statistics. Jjgps.org. Retrieved 25 February 2016, from http://www.jjgps.org/states
NCJJ. (2005). State Juvenile Justice Profiles, 2005 (pp. 1-392). Pittsburgh, PA: NCJJ.
NCJJ. (2016). National Center for Juvenile Justice. NCJJ.org. Retrieved 25 February 2016, from http://www.ncjj.org
NCSC. (2016). CSP Introduction. Ncsc.org. Retrieved 25 February 2016, from http://www.ncsc.org/Sitecore/Content/Microsites/PopUp/Home/CSP/CSP_Intro
Statistics in elationships
It is important to understand the limitations of mathematics, number and statistics. Stats and numbers play a larger role in assigning value to things in today's society. The entire monetary system is based in this statistical mire. The idea of stats being viewed as only a tool or artifact of technology can prevent the misuse of this concept. The following will address several of these examples to demonstrate the essence and true value of statistics as merely an extension of the individual who is applying this type of numeric manipulation.
The famous author Mark Twain once described statistics being more confusing than actual lying and lies. Bad statistics are found everywhere and there are many examples of how things can be confused for the truth. Bayes Theorem describes the incidents of conditional probability. But inherent in this model, the original probability is assumed to be known. If…
Altman, D.G. (1980). Statistics and ethics in medical research. Misuse of statistics is unethical. BMJ, 281(6249), 1182-1184.
Coontz, S. (2013). When Numbers Mislead. The New York Times, 25 May 2013. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/26/opinion/sunday/when-numbers-mislead.html
Lewis, D.D. (1998). Naive (Bayes) at forty: The independence assumption in information retrieval. In Machine learning: ECML-98 (pp. 4-15). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Statistics in Nursing
Statistics is a mathematics branch that deals with collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. Statistics has been a fundamental part of nursing since the time of Florence Nightingale, who was the first nurse to employ statistics to demonstrate that improved sanitary conditions led to a reduction in military deaths. Statistics can be used to improve health of patients and sway public opinion. Statistics is a way of viewing and understanding data that offers information on how one event relates to another event. The use of statistics in the nursing profession has a direct impact on patient care and advocacy in order to advance the profession. My goal for week one was to familiarize myself with statistics and I managed to achieve my goal.
The nursing profession is increasing being based on empirical evidence which demonstrates the most effective methodologies for patient care. In order to adopt…
Statistics in Business & The Fundamentals of Statistics
Statistics in Business
I work 48 hours per week
The 40-hour workweek is the average number of hours that many people work per week in the United States. However, the Java professionals work more than 40 hours a week.
The information in the chart does not make the Java professional to be attractive because increasing number of well-paid professionals work more than 50 hours a week.
To explain difference between a population and a sample, I will use a motorcar as an example. I will define the population as the collection of entire motorcars owned by all teachers in his school. However, a sample is the subset of the population. An example of a sample is the cars owned by the mathematics teachers in his school.
I will tell him that surveying all member of the population is time consuming and not…
Healing with Statistics
There are numerous ways in which statistics are used in a standard healthcare organization. Statistical measurements and analyses are used to track patient costs and hospital/healthcare organization expenses, to determine appropriate medication levels, to assign work staff and maintain proper human resource levels, and for a wide variety of other applications and areas of concern. In many ways, the quality and the cost-effectiveness of care provided by a typical healthcare organization is directly related to the quality of the statistical data the organization collects and assesses. Without such statistical analysis and manipulation, direct healthcare providers as well as administrators within the healthcare organizations would be left with little more than anecdotal evidence and subjective perceptions and judgments when it came to making decisions for patient health and/or organizational fitness, thus the importance of statistics in such organizations is difficult to overstate.
The most basic level of analysis…
Hill, J. (2012). introduction to descriptive statistics. Accessed 19 February 2012. http://mste.illinois.edu/hill/dstat/dstat.html
Lund. (2010). Descriptive and inferential statistics. Accessed 19 February 2012. http://statistics.laerd.com/statistical-guides/descriptive-inferential-statistics.php
Trochim, W. (2006). Levels of measurement. Accessed 19 February 2012. http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/measlevl.php
Thus, holders of this statistically-driven information holds the 'power' over the general public, succeeding in influencing the general public's opinion and feelings about a specific issue or social concern. Best reflects in his book his advocacy for correct usage of social statistics, as he knows the critical role that numbers and statistics play in swaying not only general opinion and perception, but ultimately, in the public's perception of the favorability of a public issue, which could possibly lead to the development and implementation of legislation that will inevitably affect the lives of many people. However, as reflected throughout the book, it is critical to have a basic understanding of how social statistics are applied in popular media today. Perhaps it would help to think that what Best actually promotes is the use of critical thinking -- how an individual should process and analyze information (such as social statistics) first before…
Best, J. (2004). More damned lies and statistics: how numbers confuse public issues. CA: University of California Press.
Being able to express statistical results in ways non-statisticians can understand, and explaining those results correctly in language that does not mislead or confuse is becoming a lost art, if the popular media are any indication. Entrepreneurs will use these visual display techniques to increase productivity, notice patterns that may go unrecognized in tabular or numerical reporting, and communicate results quickly without requiring extensive and subjective verbal explanation.
Inferential statistics will become increasingly useful even before graduating college, if peer-reviewed studies in consumer psychology, economics and marketing become more rather than less proportional in coursework on the way through graduate school. Some of the coursework I read for other classes contains statistical procedures I am unfamiliar with even after this course, and thus learning more statistics should explain a significant improvement in grades in my other classes, hopefully with a strong (? = .001) effect size! Knowing how likely flaws…
Cartoon Guide to Statistics and Chapter 3 from Statistics in Plain English. You can assume your friend has read this material.
The concept "standard deviation" refers to how close or how far from the mean i.e. The average person or thing) certain things or people that are studied are. To give an example: let's say you're studying people's pattern of diet and their calorie consumption per day. The mean stands for the average calorie consumption of the average amount of people studied. Study of the typical consumption will probably turn out to be normally distributed with most results clustered around the mean. Some people, however, may eat a lot less or a lot more and their distribution will be further away from the mean than that of others.
In the above shape the normal bell structure), the standard deveiaiton SD) is small because all clusters are obviously bunched together towards…
(Example adapted from http://ncalculators.com/math-worksheets/empirical-rule-example.htm )
Part IV: Complete your discussion of the role of standard deviation by discussing its role in z-scores and normal distributions.
The standard normal deviation (as see the bell curve above) has a mean that is 0 and an SD that is considered 1 (i.e. one SD away from 0). The standard normal distribution is also called the z distribution. A z-score relates to the number of standard deviations that the person's score is above or below the mean. For instance, if a person scored a 70 on a test with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10, the person scored 2 standard deviations (2*10) above the mean.
Task 1(h) - Difference of opinions within nationalities
This shows that there were differences of opinion about the resort for the British, German and Italian visitors, but not the French.
Task 1(i) - Difference of opinions between nationalities
This shows that overall there were differences of opinion for the visitors in each area.
SUMMARY of RESULTS
The results of the data analysis show that at the present time the French spend substantially more than the other three groups. The British also spend a substantial amount but at the present time come in smaller numbers than the French. The French opinion of the resort is however equally spread, which indicates that French visitors do not agree on whether the resort is generally good or bad. This may explain the wide variation in spending…
teaching of statistics and problems encountered in such teaching.
eaching Statistics: An Annotated Bibliography
Albert, Jim. eaching Statistics Using Baseball. New York: he Mathematical Association of America. 2003.
Baseball is a very statistically oriented sport, more so than any other sport. his book applies statistical methods and techniques to the game of baseball. Since students often have difficulty learning statistics because they are presented with examples that they have no frame of reference for, this book is ideal in that it provides concrete examples that students can use in their real lives.
Anderson, C.W. And Loynes, R.M. he eaching of Practical Statistics (Wiley Series in Probability and Mathematical Statistics). New York: John Wiley and Sons. 1988.
his is once again a practical teaching guide to statistics and probability. It is not as clear as some books, and does not use real-world examples that are relatable to the average student. Rather,…
This book is meant to be used in introductory college statistics classes. It includes a basic review of statistical concepts that students in these classes will find useful in their studies. It also includes practical exercises to help students learn statistics, as well as study tips to help students excel in these classes. It is a great book for the beginning statistics student to really get a good grasp of what statistics really is.
War, Mark E. And Brewer, Charles L. Handbook for Teaching Statistics and Research Methods. New York: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates. 1988.
This is another good teaching guide to statistics education. While not as easy to understand as some of the other teaching guides, this book is nonetheless a valuable resource tool for any teacher wanting to increase the knowledge and ability of his or her students in statistics. The book is full of valuable tips and tricks of the trade, though it is written on a more advanced level than some of the other books.
Assessing descriptive statistics in the form of raw data is often a critical component of primary research when constructing an experiment, where the experimenter then can have control over the various variables affecting the specific phenomena that is being studied. the, in the actual experiment, the tendency of other information to influence statistical results can be restricted or taken into consideration, and a control, or unaffected group can be included to see what the population resembles without the experimental variable. Descriptive statistics, in short, can be useful, but many variables can affect their results, so they cannot always be relied upon.
In contrast, "inferential statistics are used to help psychologists draw inferences, or conclusions, from the data obtained from their research" ("Statistics in psychology," 2008, Encyclopedia of Psychology). For example, inferential statistics are collected when researchers test if watching a particularly violent film makes a group of subjects more apt…
Research: The scientific method. (2008). SIEM HI Research Retrieved 15 Oct 2008 at http://islands.unep.ch/siemh1.htm
The Milgram Experiment. (2008). New Life. Retrieved 15 Oct 2008 at http://www.new-life.net/milgram.htm
Statistics in psychology. (2008). Encyclopedia of Psychology. FindArticles.com.
15 Oct. 2008. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2699/is_0003/ai_2699000331
This means they set medium term goals may be up to five years. This requires that they make detailed and precise judgments, so that their medium term goals are met. This has made the methodology require sophisticated business statistical applications. (Statistical Thinking for Managerial Decisions) Long-term planning in business normally makes it necessary to make estimations regarding the future and extrapolations of the past, is used for this. The trends can be identified, but these may be accurate for a short time and in it lay the danger of forecasting by extrapolation of the past, since data cannot be expected to forecast something that has not happened. It is here that the importance of strategic planning has relevance. Strategic planning adds more control into a situation where the outcome is more likely to be taken on the probable occurrence of an event or set of events in the near or…
Niles, Robert. "Statistics" Retrieved at http://nilesonline.com/stats/ . Accessed on 11/11/2004
Statistical Thinking for Managerial Decisions" National Science Foundation. Retrieved at http://home.ubalt.edu/ntsbarsh/Business-stat/opre504.htm . Accessed on 11/11/2004
Business statistics" (7 November 2004) Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_statisticsAccessed on 11/11/2004
Welcome to the Discipline of Econometrics and Business Statistics" (2004) Retrieved at http://www.econ.usyd.edu.au/ecmet/. Accessed on 11/11/2004.
Therefore to form a basis of good decision making business people should be able to understand how statistics can be applied in the description of markets, advertising development, price setting and how they can best respond to the consumer demands that are often changing (Petryni, 2010).
Statistics can be used in various situations within a business for instances; incase a business wants to venture into new markets statistics can be used to inform the business decisions in the definition of target consumers. The statistical analysis of the trends of consumers, purchasing powers and preferences can be useful in making decisions before venturing into a particular business.
Another situation can be where decisions on the branding and advertising products or services the statistical analysis may aid in the definition of the consumers who are targeted, provide information about the industry one wants to venture in and description of the buying trends.…
Petryni, M. (2010). How Is Statistical Research Used in Business Decisions? Retrieved January 17, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8000423_statistical-research-used-business-decisions.html
Calkins, K, .G. (2005).Applied Statistics. Retrieved January 17, 2013 from http://www.andrews.edu/~calkins/math/edrm611/edrm01.htm