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Stereotyping and Predujice Discrimination
Stereotyping and Prejudice Discrimination
Definition and differences between stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination
Discrimination, prejudice, and stereotype in many cases are used correspondingly in day-to-day conversations. However, when we have a close examination at these words, we can define and describe them distinctively: we can define stereotypes as ideas that are oversimplified about certain groups of persons. Prejudice is the feeling and thought directed towards these subject groups while discrimination is the action that focuses on these groups. Racism is described as a form of prejudice including set beliefs directed to a given group of a certain race. As the above statement suggests, stereotypes are ideas that are oversimplified about certain groups and can be based on sexual orientation, gender, age, ethnicity, or race-almost, any feature.
They can be positive (often the group of an individual like women say that they are not likely to make complains…… [Read More]
I was quite proud. I had spent the past hour putting together what had to be the absolute best cranberry sauce in the entire history of cranberry sauces. I dipped my finger into it, tasted it, and at that moment I was pretty sure I was about to get a phone call from Gordon Ramsay asking me for the recipe. I was making one seriously delicious contribution to Thanksgiving. My family hardly ever does anything big for Thanksgiving anymore. My older brother is long gone. He works in London. We see him once every couple of years and my mom would always bug him to find a nice girl and get married, so she could have grandkids. My sister is off at school now, too, some pot-smoking hippie places in Oregon. But this year we were all getting together. My stepdad's brother was going to join us. My stepdad…… [Read More]
In the current set of studies, we examine whether physiological arousal is a mediator of this effect. According to the Yerkes-Dodson (1908) theory of physiological arousal, performance is optimal at intermediate levels of arousal and decreases when arousal is either low or high, resulting in an inverted-U shaped function. We propose that stereotype threat may interfere with performance by leading to arousal that exceeds an optimal level." (Inzlicht & en-Zeev, and Fein, 2002) it is additionally stated in the report of the findings of this study that it is likely that arousal has an important role as a mediator of stereotype threat. Women's performance deficits in the presence of men were attenuated when women were given an opportunity to misattribute their arousal to an external source. When arousal was "removed," by misattribution to a benign source, women were less likely to experience impairments in performance. Furthermore, far from exhibiting performance…… [Read More]
The question that is not answered in this essay seems to be, what if one does not accept the belief that "our dominant white culture is racist" (p. 9). If one does not accept that premise in the first place then the entire essay is out of touch and misapplied. The thought that our language "an indispensable transmitter of culture" is racist as well, is not an acceptable thesis. Instead, what one could say is that the culture found in today's modern American society is one that allows for the free expression of thoughts and beliefs with words that are derived from a variety of sub-cultures and that they may not be racist at all, but a more effective method for communicating with like members of that particular sub-culture. Or, better yet, it could be that language no longer commonly used in 'regular' society, has its place in reminding…… [Read More]
Stereotyping of Women of Color in Contemporary Television Advertisements
This paper presents a detailed examination of the way television commercials portray women of color. The writer explores past and present issues that media entertainment has had with minority women and details the current trends and attitudes in television advertising. There were 20 sources used to complete this paper.
Stereotypes of Women of Color in TV Ads
Since the 1960's the civil rights movements have worked to equalize the playing field for everyone in America. Whole the constitution of the nation claims all men are created equal the fact has remained that minorities have suffered racism and indignities in many life areas. One of the areas that minorities have been portrayed differently than non-minorities has been the area of entertainment. Television has been a recreational tool for Americans for about six decades and during that time minorities have been portrayed in…… [Read More]
Prejudice and stereotyping are not new to society, but alert students (and others who are educated as to the dangers of prejudice) should beware of falling into stereotyping that unfairly passes judgment on others who are not like us. Thesis: hile it is nearly impossible for people to avoid placing certain groups and individuals into strict stereotypical categories, nevertheless honest, thoughtful people recognize and avoid the injustices perpetrated by stereotyping.
Prejudice - ONE
Prejudice: In Chapter 6 the authors point out that prejudice involves "…a negative attitude toward individuals based on their membership in a particular group." In the New York Times-owned online resource, About.com, the authors describe prejudice as a "…baseless and usually negative attitude" toward group members, and it is often the result of stereotyping a group or person (Cherry, 2011). One way in which people arrive at prejudicial feelings is by minimizing "…the differences between people within…… [Read More]
Identity Formation: Racial Stereotyping
Nell Bernstein's Goin' Gangsta, Choosin' Cholita essentially illustrates how teens are discarding their own identities and consequently, claiming those that they prefer. This preferred-identity-adoption culture is most prevalent in the state of California; a factor that has been attributed to the great race diversity in the said state. Bernstein makes use of various teens in California to illustrate this point. April is one such teenager; she is Anglo, but claims a Mexican identity and even mouths and dresses like a Mexican. A significant number of white teenagers in California have, like April, taken on either African-American or Mexican identities.
This readiness to claim preferred identities can be looked at from two perspectives. To begin with, it could be viewed as a positive step towards achieving both a zero-tolerance to racism and better relations between people of different races. The other side of the coin may, however,…… [Read More]
Prejudice and Stereotypes: The Movie 'Crash'
'Crash' brings out the various cultural and social differences that humans encounter in their day-to-day operations and depicts how these differences affect their instincts, impulses and the perspectives they hold about members of other groups. Prejudice and stereotyping come out as the drivers of perspective in today's society and are viewed as thoughts that everyone has felt at some point in time.
The movie begins with a Muslim man attempting to purchase a firearm from a store owned by a White Caucasian. The storeowner handles the customer with a negative attitude because of his religious background. The seller's negative attitude is triggered by the stereotypes he holds about Islam, which drive him to immediately associate his customer with the Islamic terror group Al-Qaeda -- through whose actions thousands of innocent Americans have lost their lives.
In this particular scene, the shop owner predisposes the…… [Read More]
This situation can be somewhat complex, as an individual is likely to be placed in a position where their own skill set will be put to efficient use, meaning that their capabilities often (and ideally always) match the position and designation they have (USAI 2009). This means that perceptions of an individual's capabilities based on his or her MOS is likely at least partially rooted in truth, but that does not mean that these perceptions should reach the level of stereotyping individuals based on their specialty.
The military has almost every conceivable employment position tat exists in the civilian world, from plumbers to cooks to pilots, and each classification can carry its own burden of presumptions and stereotypes around with it. Non-combat positions especially can be viewed with derision due to the reasons many individuals are placed there -- lack of fitness or disability -- meaning that otherwise eligible individuals…… [Read More]
Gender Development and Stereotyping
Gender typing refers to the process through which a child starts becoming aware of their gender and hence starts behaving accordingly through adoption of values and attributes which are associated with members of the sex which they identify as being the one they belong to . This is a very important step to the social and personality development of a child as it has an impact on their understanding of the behaviors that are accepted socially as well as being influential when it comes to their social judgments. The responses that a child gets from their social group mold their identity thus they become more masculine or feminine and hence impact their view of the world. Whether a child develops cross-gender identities, shared traits or androgyny their decisions are based on identification of a gender and models they choose to copy. The behaviors which they adopt…… [Read More]
Although Cleopatra is described as once being beautiful, her racial identity as an Egyptian and her representation of darkness and a darker form of sensuality is unmistakable. The queen admits this herself, even validating the blackness as ugliness stereotyping -- "Think on me,/That am with Phoebus' amorous pinches black,/and wrinkled deep in time?" (I.5)
But although the North African woman may be more desirable than Octavia in her form and in her height and in the shape of her forehead, any beauty she has is drugging and sedating like the drug she asks for from her castrated eunuch, rather than sustaining to Anthony. Her use of eunuchs, of course, underlines what she makes of the once-great leader Anthony -- a mere plaything of a strong woman. However, this characterization of black women in leadership positions and sexual positions in relation to white is hardly particular to Shakespeare.
In fact, this…… [Read More]
Very few individuals, either female or male, fit perfectly into the stereotypes but those who more closely assimilate into their gender's stereotype tend to be more readily accepted by the rest of society. Those who venture farthest from the stereotype tend to suffer the greatest social sanctions in the form of disdain, attempts by others to modify their behavior, or isolation. omen who fail to be nice or show signs of being arrogant and controlling are subject to social censure in some form while men who fail to be strong and assertive are viewed as being incompetent.
As to which gender suffers most severely from gender stereotyping, it is difficult to say. Each gender undoubtedly is forced to conform in some measure to stereotyping but the fact that males still largely dominate the formation of social norms and expectations it is likely that non-stereotypical women still suffer the most criticism…… [Read More]
A professor of English at aynesburg College, Roberts may have glossed over some of the raw and even vulgar remarks and actions taken by the characters. At one point a newspaper editor -- angered by the violence and killing conducted by Tony's gang of gangster beer purveyors -- blurts out, "e need to put teeth in the deportation act! These gangsters don't belong in this country" (Scarface, Hawk).
Throughout the entire film Tony is seen as a plodding, incompetent, intellectually shallow person who uses an exaggerated Italian accent in his broken English. Tony demonstrates the stereotypical Italian mafia persona in everything he does, which surely was a statement by Hecht and Hawk vis-a-vis Italian immigrants. The juxtaposition of Tony as a tuxedo-wearing mental lightweight pushing people around is among the lasting images one gets after viewing this film.
Hawks and Hecht ignored the first six chapters of Trail's book, in…… [Read More]
Culture is the true origin of the limitations of collective thought and this is where the ideas of bias and stereotypes takes form. Northouse (2013) added " culture consists of traditional (i.e., historically derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached values; culture systems may, on the one hand, be considered as products of action, on the other, as conditioning elements of future action " (p.18). Culture is an imaginary force, and like our biases, are merely thoughts and should be treated as such. Culture can be very unfriendly when irrational stereotypes are applied in situations where clear judgments and a rational weighing of the issues is more pertinent.
As a society we should not try to eliminate diverse methods of thought simply because they over-generalize a situation. Stereotypes ring true too often for them to be totally dismissed and should be incorporated in more useful and practical ways like…… [Read More]
, 2009). To the extent that these young people are perceived in terms of stereotypical views by clinicians will likely be the extent to which the therapeutic relationship will be adversely affected. In this regard, Villaneuva and her associates conclude that, "Myths and stereotypes about mental illness that can create personal biases and lead to discrimination. Such stereotypical views together with long-standing beliefs about mental illness can affect the nurse-patient relationship and ultimately influence the care that patients receive" (p. 221).
In response to this potential for stereotypical perceptions influencing clinicians' treatment of adolescents with mental disorders, a growing number of programs across the country have been launched in recent years to educate the public and healthcare professionals concerning stereotypes about mental illness in general and among young people in particular. Popular stereotypes about mental illness, though, can be powerful forces that are not easily changed. For example, a study…… [Read More]
Stereotypes -- Why are Black People Good at Sports?
In the United States black people, African-Americans that is, make up roughly 1/16th of the population. Yet, if one looks at professional sports, in particular, football, basketball, and baseball, relative to their overall population percentage (1/16th) they make up a disproportionate percentage of professional athletes. The NFL is roughly 70% African-American, as is NBA, and baseball, which has seen a relative decline in the number of black athletes over the year (for various reasons) still boasts a healthy figure. Moreover, even in sports where black athletes are not traditionally known for being preeminent figures, i.e. golf and tennis, black athletes have, in recent years, made their mark (Tiger Woods, The Williams Sisters). Unfortunately, as a result of their success, black athletes have been forced to confront stereotypes that pretend to explain and/or rationalize their athletic prowess and relative dominance in the…… [Read More]
America, for every 10.000 people having a home, twenty other are experiencing homelessness, as indicated by a report from the Homelessness esearch Institute (HI) (2013, p. 5). Nevertheless, it was only when the author of this paper was given the possibility to volunteer in a shelter that the penny dropped and we realized homeless people were nothing like we thought. Not all of them, in any case. When growing up, what we were usually told was to avoid any contact with homeless people. This warning did not necessarily come in verbal terms, but once you have been pulled away from their surroundings a number of times, your mind registers the "danger" and is taught how to react thereon. We have come to realize since that society usually inoculates the idea that homeless people are not productive members, that they are usually violent, thus to be avoided. It would not be…… [Read More]
The author of this brief report has been asked to answer a few questions as it pertains to stereotypes and interacting with people of other cultures. Indeed, the author has been asked to identify what a stereotype is. Second, there will be the identification of a culture that is challenge to work with in one or more ways. The stereotypes that are affiliated with the selected culture, at least some of them, will be defined. The author will then describe two practices that will help the author of this response work with this group more effectively. Finally, there will be a conclusion. While Asians are becoming a larger and larger asset to the melting pot that is the United States, it can sometimes be challenging to interact with them and frustrations can abound.
A stereotype is a belief or presumption about a race, gender or other defined group.…… [Read More]
The role of stereotypes in the selection and acceptance of female leaders.
As Carter & Silva (2010) point out, there are several stereotypes about women's behavior and goals that influences the selection and acceptance of female leaders. Some of the stereotypes about women include the myth that women will leave their positions to start families; the myth that women don't actually aspire to upper management; and the myth that there are regional differences that invalidate the gender bias argument altogether (Carter & Silva, 2010, p. 1). In fact, empirical research debunks each one of these myths and points to a deeper issue related to ongoing misogyny in the corporate world.
One of the prevailing stereotypes held by both men and women is that women are "better at stereotypically feminine 'caretaking skills' such as supporting and rewarding," and that men are better at the "taking charge" skills "such as influencing…… [Read More]
In fact, most lawyers practice neither criminal law nor personal injury law; they assist individuals prepare wills, set up their businesses, protect themselves from financial risks, purchase homes, patent inventions, and respond to IS tax audits. Most lawyers spend long hours working at their desks and never actually see courtrooms or accident victims (Haskell 1998). Certainly, some lawyers are dishonest people without moral scruples or ethics who will do almost anything to make money. But more often than not, that is a function of the type of person they are, just as some schoolteachers, postal carriers, and even members of the clergy are dishonest and immoral.
Telemarketers suffer from common stereotyping as being dishonest, rude, inconsiderate liars who care only about making a sales pitch. As with other stereotypes, some telemarketers may fit those negative characterizations, but assuming them to be true about everyone who happens to earn a…… [Read More]
omen ere Still Stereotyped in 1998
According to its dictionary definition, a stereotype can be an innocent thing, a mere stencil, or a preexisting form or stencil that can be used to make a template for an image. However, when a stereotype is a cultural and a psychological rather than a physical or artistic device, and is wielded against an entire gender, and filled with the copier's notions of correct behavior to the extent that it limits the ability of another person to be a fully functional and fully fledged human being, the stereotype must be questioned and subsequently broken down.
In 1998, although feminism was officially en vogue, the popularity of "chick lit" was at its height, and speculations about it being easier for a woman to be killed by lightening than to be married over the age of thirty or so had become less vociferously promoted by the…… [Read More]
Chinese-Americans form one of the most professional and most well educated sections of American population yet they are still portrayed as 'unwanted' ethnic minority by electronic and print media. The stereotyping of Chinese-Americans goes back to the days when trade cards were used for advertising and is still a part of media depiction of this community. Stereotypes may not always be negative in nature, but they are certainly based on generalizations, which may or may not fit every individual of a certain community. However in our media, we notice that some communities are always presented in one fixed way and change is rarely accepted or allowed to creep in which says a great deal about biases prevailing in media circles. James Chan in his article " ough on ats" traces the history of this type of stereotyping of Chinese-Americans and shows that most of the times, media presents…… [Read More]
correctional stereotypes in the movie " the Shawshank edemption." This essay will explain the correctional policies that are demonstrated in the movie and suggest ways in which these portrayals are accurate or inaccurate.
The movie "The Shawshank edemption" revolves around the life and times of a prisoner named Andy. Andy was a banker in his former life before he was framed for the murder of his wife and her lover. The story documents the unfair treatment Andy has received in society and concludes with him escaping prison and finding his redemption that he felt that he had earned by maintaining an attitude of hope and faith.
The Shawshank Prison, where Andy was detained, resonated with many prison system stereotypes within the movie. The warden of the prison is depicted as a cruel and inhumane person, bent on sadistically treating his prisoners and guards. This stereotype of the "evil warden" provides…… [Read More]
By being born a man or a woman signals to bearing certain clear sexual characteristics. Socialization takes individuals through a path that inculcates certain norms and codes of conduct depending on whether one is born a male or a female. In other words, the rules that one adopts and follows are guided by whether they are biologically male or female. Therefore, one’s communication, expression and behavior is shaped by the preexisting cultural and social norms including non-verbal language. Consequently, people’s behavior may differ because they are shaped by cultural and social norms from varying socio-ethnic and cultural setups. All these forces define gender; which is effectively a social construction of one’s biological sex. It allows for the recognition and distinction between men and women. According to Lippman (1922), stereotypes were important because they were an offshoot of a people’s ideas and heritage and, thus, served important purposes. Stereotypes helped…… [Read More]
Gender stereotyping is a pernicious and pervasive practice. The media reinforces already existing gender norms, thereby perpetuating structural inequalities and gender inequity. However, the media can also be instrumental in transforming gender norms by combatting stereotypes and depicting gender in unconventional ways. Gender stereotypes can confirm unconscious biases and beliefs about the role and status of men and women. Likewise, the portrayals of gender in the media reinforce behavioral norms. Research shows that “constant exposure to the same dated concepts in the media” can lead to adverse effects that can “last a lifetime,” (Knorr, 2017, p. 1). Therefore, it is critical to become active, engaged consumers of media and to increase media literacy throughout the society.
Gender portrayals in the media will differ according to media type, such as news media versus advertisements, or children’s programming versus programming for adults. Similarly, gender stereotypes vary from culture to culture. Although gender…… [Read More]
Native American Culture and Stereotypes.
Kind Hearted oman
hat did you learn that you did not already know?
There are many different stereotypes that are common in the media that are related to Native Americans and their culture. Some of these include the notion that all native americans are alcoholics, that they are all lazy, live on reservations, get government privileges, among many other such stereotypes that incorrectly biased according to the evidence (Ridgeway, 2013). For example, white males are actually known to be the demographic with the highest rates of alcoholism. Although I'm am familiar with many of these portrayals, I did not realize how tough life can be for some individuals that have to live with many of the problems that Robin faces on a daily basis due to the fact that such stereotypes exist.
ere you already aware of the points made in the clip?
I…… [Read More]
Prejudice and social psychology
Gender-based stereotypes and influence of society
Cultural impact of host cultures
The contribution of Stanley Milgram has been significant in the field of social psychology. Milgram conducted experiments of human behavior in a laboratory setting and concluded that obedience to authority usually disregards moral or legal normative standards. An individual's behavior is thus shaped by the environment, people around, and his figure of authority. "Because humans are social animals, human behavior is strongly influenced by behavior of other humans; this influence is often very direct"(Aarts & Dijksterhuis, 2003; Pg. 18). The current paper investigates as to what extent the human behavior is influenced by others. The paper adopts an investigative approach and cites peer reviewed articles to substantiate the discussion. Social identity theory is also an important theoretical explanation that explains how and why an individual voluntarily gets influenced from socially constructed relationships.
Stanley…… [Read More]
Cross Culture elations and Medical Procedures Insurance
Medical Insurance Procedures
In the U.S., using preventive care has helped in the prevention of chronic diseases and detection is possible due to appropriate screenings. At every stage of life, when one uses the right preventive care, then it helps in making Americans stay healthy, lead productive lives, delay onset of disease, and reduce costs of health. Therefore, I agree that preventive services are viable solutions of cutting down on the rising health costs in America. Commercial groups have opted to give their employees a health plan that ensures productivity is maintained by providing them with preventive medical care that creates a healthy workforce (Green, 2012, p. 488). According to PACE team, they have offered and managed to provide preventive care in day health centers, hospitals, homes, and nursing facilities thus help the individuals maintain independence, quality of life, and dignity (Green, 2012,…… [Read More]
On the other hand, their depiction as perpetual victims of racial violence tended to diminish the degree of true society and infrastructure that existed for these tribes, reducing them to lone individuals or small bands and the obvious underdog in a game of cat and mouse. Certain characters are also used to depict the stereotypical pride of the Native Americans, showing a willingness to die against all reason for a cause that was already lost. This is another romanticized vision of Native Americans that almost attempts to assuage the guilt of white oppression by making the sacrifices of the Native tribes seem almost willing and granting of a certain degree of nobility.
In the early 1990s, Northern Exposure was a very popular and rather unique show, providing comedy not in the standard sitcom-with-laugh track format, but through more dramatic and realistic explorations of an isolated town full of…… [Read More]
Our media is a major element of socialization for a number of reasons. The first is that it is, to some degree, a representation of the world we live in. While much of what is depicted is fiction, the way that people's home and work lives are presented on television is an influencer with respect to how we view our own lives, and the types of things to which we aspire. We pick up behavioral cues from the characters on TV shows, for example, but also cues about social structures and how we interact with one another. Our media is the means by which the majority of ideas are transmitted to us in the modern world, with television, the Internet and radio all receiving hours every day of exposure.
An example of this can be found in the sitcom. The sitcom as a medium is intended to generate…… [Read More]
Humans Behavior: Discriminative Control of Punished Stereotyped Behavior
The problem of controlling behavior in humans who are challenged in their mental scope is of concern. While the majority of people shun the use of force, and punishments and the modern thinking on enforcing appropriate behavior is leaning to therapeutic and learning modes, altering the environment and peer pressure, there could be some truth in the use of punishment being effective in controlling impulsive and undesirable behavior. These traits and appropriate settings for the same have to be seen in the general light of the literature in psychology over the issue. For example researchers have gone deep into the exact use of discriminative control and response is still in infancy, and using the background of mental retardation, Doughty et al. (2007) have researched the results of the use of differential punishment and the antecedent stimulus using three adults with mental retardation…… [Read More]
Stereotyping Indian Cities
The architecture of India that dates back to the 16th and 17th Century often amazes those who visit the country in the present time. There are several cities, towns and even villages that have and preserve mega structures whose wonder not only lie in their size but also in the architectural works and the history that lies behind the walls. Indeed, while recording his expedition into studying The Taj Mahal, Ebba Koch (2005:Pp129) indicates that he was overwhelmed by its perfection, splendor and sheer size, and further notes that he was not in this as a scholar, but several other scholars in archeology had the same reaction as his to that building and most of these buildings around India.
This paper will take a general approach to the buildings within India and expound on the Indo-Islamic architecture that is evident on these buildings around India and the…… [Read More]
harsh realities of the human condition is the fact that everyone, including students and teachers, has stereotypical views about other people that influence the manner in which they think and behave. When stereotypes are introduced into the classroom, though, they can adversely affect the environment in ways that detract from the learning experience for all students. Besides traditional gender-based stereotypes, the increasingly multicultural nature of American society has created a wide range of new stereotypes in the classroom today. To determine what can be done, this paper provides a description of different approaches that teachers can use to eliminate stereotypes from their classrooms. A summary of the research and important findings concerning stereotypes in the classroom are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Impact of Stereotypes on Learning
Beginning in the early 1990s, social psychologists first identified the cognitive processes that activated various negative stereotypes in the minds of…… [Read More]
In short then, the Pilot is everything the stewardess is not. He even supplies the sense of dash and adventure that the stewardess keeps "bottled up" within her button-down exterior. However, it is not just the pilot's overall demeanor - or persona - that is significant. We often have no direct contact with the pilot of our craft except via the airplane intercom. As this is our sole means of interface with this individual; this individual who is so essential to our own personal safety and survival, it is important that even on the intercom the pilot must sound like our preconceived image of him:
speaker's personality may be judged by listeners not only on the basis of the choices of behaviour he makes, but also possibly to some extent on physical features over which he has no possibility of volitional control at all. In our culture, a man…… [Read More]
B: No you didn't.
A: You just weren't listening.
A. The trash still has not been taken out. Would you like to do that?
B. Oh, uh, no but I will if you want me to.
A: Thank you
Prompt (2) Stereotypes:
Stereotyping comes from a deeply rooted survival mechanism for self-protection that helps us to identify friends from foe. It is based in the synthesis of sensory awareness. There are three sub-process of perception that help us to understand what our senses are telling us.
The three sub-processes of perception include subliminal perception, external attention factors, and interpretation.
Impressions lead to an implicit personality theory. Describe.
We develop an implicit personality theory by generalizing about certain traits, or assuming that the presence of one trait necessitates the presence of another trait.
Stereotyping leads to totalizing. Describe Stereotyping leads to totalizing, or the act of blurring out any…… [Read More]
The event is more a series of events. I went on vacation with some friends to Miami, and while not everything I experienced on that trip would count as a cultural experience, there is little question that there were some very different experiences. There was the visit to the Haitian restaurant, for example, but the event that stands out the most was my visit to Calle Ocho, the old Cuban neighborhood. As Korean student I find it challenging enough to deal with mainstream American culture, but Hispanic culture is completely different again, so this experience provided me with an interesting counterpoint to my usual experiences in the United States.
In this neighborhood, if people can speak English they do not admit it. There are coffee windows where strong, sugary shots of Cuban coffee and cafe con leche are dispensed to passers-by in a hurry. There are old…… [Read More]
Eyewitness and ecalling
I shook hands with Bugs Bunny... Describe and evaluate the role of schemas and stereotypes on recalling past events. What implications does this have for the accuracy of eyewitness accounts of events?
I shook hands with Bugs Bunny... Describe and evaluate the role of schemas and stereotypes on recalling past events. What implications does this have for the accuracy of eyewitness accounts of events?
Literature on Schemas
Literature on Schemas and Stereotypes and their role in Eyewitness
I shook hands with Bugs Bunny... Describe and evaluate the role of schemas and stereotypes on recalling past events. What implications does this have for the accuracy of eyewitness accounts of events?
To investigate and prosecute crime the criminal justice system heavily depends on eyewitness identification (Wells & Olson, 2003). An eyewitness goes through different psychological procedures prior to the courtroom testimony. It is evident that before…… [Read More]
These shows depict diverse expressions of sexuality and relationships within the gay and lesbian communities, but they also tend to overgeneralize. Bisexuality is hardly treated at all, because it does not fit into neatly defined categories like "gay" and "straight." Occasionally this theme is discussed in films and television, as with one episode of Six Feet Under.
Stereotypes can constrain real-life behavior as film and television offer visual cues for modeling. This is why it is important to feature more diverse characters and diversity of experiences. Not all black men are highly sexed, aggressive, and dominant in their sexuality, and not all black men abandon women as is sometimes suggested by the media. Likewise, not all Asian men are nerdy and asexual and not all Asian women are detached vixens.
When stereotypes do capture a general truth, they can be funny, which is why they are commonly used in the…… [Read More]
A further stereotype about Asians that cannot be ignored is that regarding the sexuality of the Asian female. "Asian Pacific women have generally been perceived by Hollywood with a mixture of fascination, fear, and contempt....If we are 'good' we are childlike, submissive, silent, and eager for sex or else we are tragic victim types. And if we are not silent, suffering doormats, we are demonized dragon ladies -- cunning, deceitful, sexual provocateurs." (Hagedorn) the pornography industry is highly populated with Asian women fulfilling the male desire for sexual stereotypes. Japanese school girls in short skirts with lollipops and repressed sexual needs are a popular fetish. The subservient Geisha wife in kimonos, pale make-up, and most importantly donning a subservient, unthreatening, submissive sexual attitude is another. Look again and one is certain to find the "dragon lady" as mentioned above: the over-sexed, wild, uninhibited Asian girl looking to please as many…… [Read More]
Stereotypes and Diversity
Stereotypes are bad. Diversity is good. Such ideas seem to be truisms in today's American business climate, which is often broadly brushed with the label of being 'politically correct' to the detriment of productivity. However, it is easy to speak highly of the value of diversity. It is easy to say the cultural wars of the business world have been won. It is easy to engage in such rhetoric but far more difficult to achieve a truly harmonious and diverse workforce in a functional fashion. After all, stereotypes are one of the ways individuals apprehend the world -- making assumptions based on what they have been told about other people and past experiences.
Often this cognitive tendency towards stereotyping can work against creating a climate of positive diversity in the workplace. But being aware of possible differences between individuals is not necessarily an act of…… [Read More]
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND WHAT DOES IT AIM TO STUDY?
Inspired by Kurt Lewin (1951), social psychology adopted the experimental method to study human behavior (Wood & Kroger, 1998). In this regard, Wood and Kroger (1998) report that, "Lewin's experiments in leadership style (autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire) became classics in the new experimental social psychology" (p. 267). Lewins' early work was carried on by Festinger and others who explored cognitive dissonance for the next 20 years at MIT and subsequently at the Universities of Michigan and Minnesota, making this one of the foundations of social psychology (Wood & Kroger, 1998).
Simply stated, social psychology uses the scientific method to study human social behavior (ogers, 2003). According to ogers, psychological social psychology "studies how social events and phenomena influence the ways in which individual people feel, think and act. It is concerned with the psychological processes (such as social perception and cognition) that…… [Read More]
omen have long faced media images that create unrealistic images of themselves to live up to, but a lesser known fact is that men face the same problem. In today's mass media, men are dunderheaded, philandering imbeciles, or impossibly perfect heroes. These are equivalent to the slut and the Barbie images that women face in the media, and such false, unrealistic images of men are just as dangerous as their female equivalents. The portrayal of men in the mass media is negative and needs to be changed.
In a landmark study, Macnamara (2006) examined over 2000 mass media instances and found that 69% of them portrayed men in a negative light, and much of the rest was dismissive about the positive coverage. On their own, such images can be foolish and absurd, but as occurs with the negative images of women, the negative images of men have negative…… [Read More]
In most modern societies education relies heavily on the distinction between sexes. Therefore, transgressions were severely punished until late in the twentieth century even in societies that like to present themselves as the most civilized and advanced in the world. Scientists such as: biologists, sociologists, psychologists and psychiatrists, are continuously asking questions about the origins of sex differences and sexual reproduction. These are topics that are still raising contradictions in the scientific world today. Furthermore, psychology and sociology dedicate today a large body of research to the differences between sex and gender. Linguistically speaking, sex defines two forms of life biologically, physically and genetically different, known under the names: male and female. Gender, on the other hand, marks a distinction in areas of study, it is related to human behavior and is mostly used to categorize human beings from a sociological point-of-view: masculine or feminine. A study of…… [Read More]
This will reveal the bias of the West and how it has come to embrace the stereotypical imagery and ideas of the Oriental.
In conclusion, the essay will briefly recount the points made throughout the essay overall, but will also offer analytical ideas as to how, understanding Orientalism as a product of the colonial and post colonial West, how the East and the West might move forward and achieve the cultural equality necessary to build a safe and productive global community and environment of co-existence through mutual respect, understanding, and equality.
It is only in conjunction with other works which specifically address the subject of Orientalism that one begins to identify markers of Orientalism in Captain Sir Richard Burton's interpretation of the Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night (Burton, ). Works by authors like Edward W. Said, who spent much of his life studying and…… [Read More]
Social psychology is a very broad field that takes in the many varieties of group dynamics, perceptions and interactions. Its origins date back to the late-19th Century, but it really became a major field during and after the Second orld ar, in order to explain phenomena like aggression, obedience, stereotypes, mass propaganda, conformity, and attribution of positive or negative characteristics to other groups. Among the most famous social psychological studies are the obedience experiments of Stanley Milgram and the groupthink research of Irving Janus (Feenstra Chapter 1). Authority figures are very important in influencing the behavior and attitudes of groups, as advertising pioneers like Edward Bernays and Nazi propagandists like Josef Goebbels realized early in the 20th Century. Human beings naturally categorize others into groups, and attribute values, attitudes and stereotypes to them, while they also tend to favor members of their own group (Feenstra Chapter 2). Social psychologists have…… [Read More]
This reveals the more liberated ideals of the west and of the pioneer culture. First, Alexandra envisions herself "being lifted and carried lightly by some one very strong. He was with her a long while this time, and carried her very far, and in his arms she felt free from pain." The masculine figure takes the place of the gossamer female angel. She is about to be subsumed by the ethereal lover. "hen he laid her down on her bed again, she opened her eyes, and, for the first time in her life, she saw him, saw him clearly, though the room was dark, and his face was covered." Here, gender roles are again reversed as they are in the previous passage when the man is the angel. The man is now being veiled, his "face was covered." Veil is usually used to conceal the woman's but not the man's…… [Read More]
Sports and Sexual Stereotypes
Anger and the WNA
Whatever women do they must do twice as well as men to be thought half as good. Luckily this is not difficult.
P.E. -- to me there was nothing closer to my seventh-grade conception of hell than that infernal class. There, wearing the requisite blue short-shorts and pulled up tube socks, facing forty-five long minutes of humiliating (to my adolescent sensibilities) sweat-inducing activities, I learned it would be better to be a lousy jump-roper, dodge-ball player, or atrocious relay racer, than to actually attempt excellence at these endeavors.
Even at such a young age, I already knew that it simply "isn't attractive," to exert oneself physically in front of the opposite sex, unless, that is, the exertion does not detract from culturally-accepted ideals of beauty -- after all, cheerleaders, gymnasts, and figure skaters could be pretty (perhaps because…… [Read More]
Black Colleges Homosexuality
In order to create more egalitarian, prosocial, and productive campus environments, it is necessary to understand attitudes toward homosexuality and homosexual students. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students experienced relatively high rates of substance abuse, depression, and stress related to discrimination, difficulties forming social relationships, and low self-esteem (Heck, Flentje & Cochran, 2011). As Kirby (2011) points out, "Having a negative self-concept plays a major role in youth suicides, in how well one does in school, and in how one interacts with society at large." Therefore, the need for a more supportive social environment on college campuses is a pressing one.
Unfortunately, traditionally white universities and historically black universities in the United States have addressed the needs of the LGBT student community differently. Historically black colleges and institutions are defined as "institutions classified as higher education that were chartered prior to 1964 and created with the…… [Read More]
But Martin Lawrence bugs out his eyes a little and he's a coon. It makes no sense.'7
The defense seems somewhat warranted. After all, if all characters in the sitcom Martin were white, and acted the same way, such behavior would be attributed to the standard stupidity showcased on television. Much like the quote earlier about sitcoms and stereotypes leveling things, television in general fails to showcase the brightest and most sublime of human endeavors.
Lawrence is not alone in criticisms aimed at contemporary black actors. In her essay, "Stereotypes of History: Reconstructing Truth and the Black Mammy," Jennifer Kowalski claims, "actors such as Martin Lawrence, Eddie Murphy, and Tyler Perry, have once again recycled the first existence of the Mammy/Aunt Jemima character." The "mammy" stereotype is "represented as full-figured women with strong and defensive attitudes, especially toward men who may bring harm to their loved ones." Lawrence recently starred…… [Read More]
They might take one look at a Latina woman and think "maid" not "systems manager." By the same token, a human resources manager might take one look at me and think "systems manager" because I'm Asian and I must be good with technology. Even if I were applying for a job as the in-house counselor or graphic artist, the stereotyping would affect my ability to be seen as a worthwhile candidate for the position. Stereotypes have affected the ways most Asians have been viewed and treated in American society. Just as Latina women have been viewed as "hopeless" or "vulgar" Asian men have often been viewed as "bad drivers." In both cases the stereotypes create prejudices and discrimination.
Some stereotypes are inevitable. Some even ring true and because of this, the media can easily create the "one dimensional" caricatures that are "easy to promote" to distort the image consumers have…… [Read More]
Gende in Poety / Liteatue Lesson
Rational: This is an intoduction to the gende issues which wee so pevalent in the Victoian ea, and a backdop to show why they still exist today and the ham they can inflict.
Syllabus Outcome: This pat of the lesson helps meet outcome 1, o the ability to intepet meanings and themes within texts. By using abstact thinking pocesses, the students will make connections between the texts pesented and show how they ae, o ae not elated. Accoding to the eseach, "A student esponds to and composes inceasingly sophisticated and sustained texts fo undestanding, intepetation, citical analysis and pleasue" (Boad of Studies fo NSW 2003 p 32).
Syllabus Content: This will help meet outcome 4, whee "a student selects and uses languages foms and featues, and stuctues of texts accoding to diffeent puposes, audiences and contexts, and descibes and explains thei…… [Read More]
The fact that he chose to use real Black people in the background, but white actors in the lead roles highlights the idea that Blacks were still supposed to be subservient to whites; even lead characters who were supposed to be Black were portrayed by whites. However, it also points to one of the reasons that whites chose to employ blackface: the perpetuation of racial stereotypes. hile many minstrel shows focused on less frightening aspects of Black stereotypes, the Birth of a Nation focused on a fear that people would use to drive anti-Black sentiment in the period following Reconstruction: the image of the Black male as dangerous rapist. Although many people protested the racist elements of the movie, it became an instant success, and remains a controversial but constant member of most critics' best film lists.
Blackface persisted as a staple in American entertainment throughout the early part of…… [Read More]
...stereotyping has led to the neglect of the development of student services and support for the many Asian-American students who are undereducated and have low socioeconomic status" (Kim & Yeh 2009).
Acculturation for first-generation Asian immigrants can be rooted in language obstacles, but the assumption of a lack of fluency can even plague those who do not speak their native language. Japanese-Americans, because of stereotypes of Japan, may be particularly pigeonholed as uncreative, wealthy, and 'naturally' hard-working and good at math, regardless of their personal attributes, given commonly circulated stereotypes about the Japanese nation. Again, the tension: to communicate in Japan, one must understand linguistic and cultural differences between Japan and other cultures. A lack of eye contact, a greater affinity for silence and vague language, is not viewed as a marker of mistrust in Japan, and regarding Japanese body language, for example, and a child of Japanese parents living…… [Read More]
(2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice esearch, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=13079636&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis evisited. Status Bias in the eduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=23000285&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. esearch Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=36267911&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Pearson, A., Dovidio, J., & Pratto, F. (2007).acial Prejudice, Intergroup Hate, and Blatant and Subtle Bias of Whites toward Blacks in Legal Decision Making in the United States. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 2007, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p145-158, 14p. etrieved July 8, 2009 from EBSCO online database Full Text http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=27747337&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
amasubramanian, S. &…… [Read More]
The servile quality of this white-influenced stereotype is further reinforced by the idea of Mexicans being 'sold' like used car models -- this shows how dehumanized Mexican-Americans are in white society, as they are treated like laborers, not as individuated human beings, and how the concept of a type of Mexican is indeed a 'model' -- another word for a stereotype.
Johnny embodies the fears of white society -- that Latino men are more sexualized than white men, and more violent. The Mexican-American is a Republican fantasy, a man who can eat Mexican food at a political meeting for show, but prefers sipping martinis. And the migrant is another fantasy, a man who does not mind his submissive lot in life and is glad for what he is given by whites. The constructed nature of these types is shown by the plot of the play, as a Hispanic secretary from…… [Read More]
fiction's biggest advantages is the way it can be used to explore sensitive, difficult, and contentious topics from a relative distance. Fictional characters can express ideas and ask questions that would be considered beyond the pale in everyday life, offering writers and readers a relatively safe space in which to deal with these difficult issues. However, this quality also has a downside, because too often destructive ideas can be repeated and strengthened through works of fiction that purport to be doing quite the opposite. The short stories "Sharing," "Along the Frontage Road," and "Brownies" are all guilty of this dishonest, destructive practice, because although all three stories pretend to offer useful insights into the contentious issue of race and identity, all three end up subtly reproducing racist ideas and tropes. By examining these stories in conjunction, one is able to see how the productive, exploratory power of fiction can be…… [Read More]
Watch at least three different episodes of the same television program. Analyze what behaviors are repeatedly observed, what influence these behaviors may have on individuals who watch the program regularly, what stereotypes are reinforced by the program, and what long-term effects may result from the program. Also examine the advertising content with regard to the target market of the ads (gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES)). Be sure to include SCHOLALY* research to help make sense of your results (with proper citations).
History of the Simpsons
The Simpsons is a TV sitcom that is full of stereotypes and that has been used for entertainment for years. In fact, it is the longest running sitcom in American history (Susman, 2003). The show is ranked 17th of today's most popular shows and is ranked 25th of all time. The program features the typical American dysfunctional family exaggerated to a comedic extent. There is…… [Read More]
... further, that it would be only a question of time until the entire Pacific coast region would be controlled by the Japanese.' Yet Japan's ultimate aim was not limited to California or the Pacific Coast but was global domination achieved through a race war. 'It is the determined purpose of Japan,' the report stated, 'to amalgamate the entire colored races of the world against the Nordic or white race, with Japan at the head of the coalition, for the purpose of wrestling away the supremacy of the white race and placing such supremacy in the colored peoples under the dominion of Japan.'
The presence of sizeable numbers of persons of Japanese origin in California and other Western states was seen as but the beginnings of a Japanese attempt to not merely expand territorially into the United States, but to literally substitute the existing racial order with a new scheme…… [Read More]
MEDIA (MIS) EPSENTATIONS OF CHINESE-AmericanS
Media (Mis) epresentations of Chinese-Americans
Media (Mis) epresentations of Chinese-Americans
In the west, representations of people who are outside of the standard or norm, (white, middle & upper class, male) are not represented with accuracy. Chinese-Americans are one such group that doese not often receive an accurate or dynamically real representation of the spectrum of the culture or the people within it. Media representations in the west of Chinese-Americans are limited to a few stereotypes, generally. Some of those stereotypes include that all Chinese people practice and have mastered martial arts, and that all Chinese have exceptional intelligence in mathematics, sciences, and technology. Another media stereotype of the Chinese is that they are all short of stature, particularly poking fun at short men. Chinese men are often stereotypically represented as geeks or nerds -- exceptionally "book smart," but lacking in coolness and social skills.…… [Read More]
The purpose of this paper is to examine the roles of gender and stereotypes in economic organizations, using examples from the movie "One Fine Day" to illustrate these roles. An abundant body of literature exists within both academic journals and the popular media concerning work and family conflicts that are encountered daily by Americans. Many work and family conflicts have been endured for time immemorial, such as the requirement to travel or work overtime. The result of work and family conflicts has often been that work wins over family, ending in missed life events such as births, deaths, skinned knees and soccer games. Often the father was the one away on business while the mother was home maintaining the family. This familiar family situation arose because "Ideologies assigning primary child-care responsibility to women prevail in most cultures" (Treas and Widmer, 2000).
The role of women in the home…… [Read More]