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Steroids -- an Introduction to Purpose, Uses and Abuses
TYPES OF STEOIDS
HOW STEOIDS WOK
USES OF STEOIDS
MEDICAL USE OF STEOIDS
HOW AE STEOIDS ABUSED
EFFECTS OF STEOIDS ON HEALTH
EFFECTS OF STEOIDS ON BEHAVIO
PEVENTION & TEATMENT OF STEOID ABUSE
Steroids are used for many purposes. This paper highlights the introduction of steroids i.e. its basic function. It also explains the multiple uses of steroids by people from different fields of profession. Normal perception of people is that it is used by athletes and sportsmen as a drug but there are other uses discussed in the paper as well. Advantages and disadvantages are also stated in the essay.
Steroids are short for corticosteroid drugs. It is a substance which is used to reduce swelling and inflammation quickly. These drugs are a close copy of cortisol and aldosterone i.e. A hormone produced on adrenal gland, it is also secreted…
Bahrke, M.S., Yesalis-III, C.E., & Wright, J.E. (1990). Psychological and Behavioural Effects of Endogenous Testosterone Levels and Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids Among Males: A Review. Retrieved Feb 11, 2013, from MESO-Rx: http://www.mesomorphosis.com/articles/bahrke/bahrke09.htm
Clayton, L. (1998). Steroids. New York, USA: The Rosen Publishing Group.
Coleman, D.L., & Coleman, J.E. (2008, April ). The Problem of Doping. Duke Law Journal, 57 (6), 1743.
Columbia Encyclopedia Editors. (2012). Steroids. The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th . The Columbia University Press.
They have serious psychological effects as players begin to be dependant on steroids and begin to feel that the player needs steroids to maintain their performance. This becomes very apparent when players stop using steroids as then the positive effects is slowly lost and the players feel that they are no longer competitive. This leads to serious depression. (Effects of Steroids on the Human Body) the health risks that special types of steroids are not always known. The medical authorities insist that players must remain free of performance enhancing drugs or supplements and also criticize the using of steroids by the players. There is a very important role that players can play in this regard as also their parents and coaches. None of them should tolerate the use of any type of steroids. (Steroids threaten health of Players and integrity of sports performance)
To conclude, the authorities concerned have been…
Jackson, John. Steroid use still in the shadows. 6 April, 2005. Retrieved at http://www.arguscourier.com/news/news/steroids050406.html. Accessed on 3 May, 2005
Meschino, James. Playing Steroid Roulette: Is Mark McGwire Putting Himself at Risk? Retrieved at http://www.nutra-education.com/html/sports_nutrition.html#Steroid%20RouletteAccessed on 3 May, 2005
Mortenson, Chris. Walker says Castillo was steroid-free in college. 14 April, 2005. Retrieved at http://sports.espn.go.com/nfl/draft05/news/story?id=2036420Accessed on 3 May, 2005
Steroid Drug Test. Retrieved at http://www.elitedetox.com/steroid_drug_test.asp. Accessed on 3 May, 2005
org). omen do not take steroids as often as men, but they also experience the full range of effects, from growing body and facial hair to increased aggression, as well as the same long-term health effects (Steroids.com).
The long-term effects of high levels of steroid use are largely unknown (Drug Free.org). Some of the effects, however, are an enlarged liver and liver tumors, jaundice, permanent changes to secondary sex characteristics (such as voice pitch, body hair, and the size/appearance of breasts and testicles) (DEA). There is enough evidence to suggest that taking steroids causes significant health problems that limit longevity, and taking too many at a time can kill.
Steroids are popular almost exclusively among athletes and body builders (DEA). Statistics show that less than two percent of high school students use steroids, while the perceived risk of steroid use has risen dramatically in recent years (ONDCP). Steroids are available…
DEA. "Anabolic Steroids." U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration Official Website. Accessed 10 March 2009. http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/concern/steroids.html http://www.drugfree.org/Portal/Drug_guide/Steroids
Drug Free.org. "Steroids." The Partnership for a Drug Free America Official Website. Accessed 10 March 2009.
ONDCP. "Steroids." Office of National Drug Control Policy Official Website. Accessed 10 March 2009. http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/drugfact/steroids/index.html
Steroid.com Accessed 10 March 2009. http://www.steroid.com
Steroids Should Not Be Banned
A steroid is an organic compound that occurs in plants and animals. They have many functions, including respiration, tissue building, and the production of sex hormones. Anabolic steroids are drugs that mimic the effects of testosterone on the body, increasing protein synthesis within cells. This causes cellular tissues to build up in muscles, the ability for those muscles to work harder under stress, and of course, masculine characteristics (body hair, etc.). Anabolic steroids were synthesized in the 1930s and have been used since to stimulate bone growth and appetite, treat certain immune conditions, and reduce inflammation in certain areas. In fact the American College of Sports Medicine says that individuals who have an adequate of high protein diet can increase their body weight and increase muscular strength through high-intensity exercise and steroid use (ACSM, 2010).
With proper and safe monitoring, though, steroid use should be…
ACSM. (2010). Anabolic Steroids. Retrieved from: http://www.acsm.org/docs/current-comments/anabolicsteroids.pdf
Ashby, A. (October 20, 2010). Why Steroids Have No Place in Sports. Marquette University
Law School. Retrieved from: http://law.marquette.edu/facultyblog/2010/10/20/why-steroids-have-no-place-in-sports/
Hoffman, J.R. And Ratamess, N. (2006). Medical Issues Associated With Anabolic Steroids.
Athletes may take simulants, narcotic analgesics, anabolic steroids, beta blockers, diuretics, peptide hormones, or engage in blood doping, a technique to increase packed cell volume by re-infusing previously drawn blood. Drug testing is not standardized enough and is too widespread to identify drugs reliably, therefore failing to serve as a valid deterrent. (Doping in sports, p. 211).
But Canseco also may not be the best of messenger-ex-athletic stars, since he remains, going on three years after Juiced was first published, a pariah among current players, and, therefore, (however unfairly) a less-than-ideal proponent of good clean (without help from steroids, that is) athletic competition, in baseball and (therefore) generally. To be fair, also, despite Canseco's sworn Congressional testimony (and published testimonials) to the contrary, baseball greats like McGwire, Sosa, and others obviously spend countless hours, year-round, keeping fit, strong, and ready to play their very best.
Perhaps, then, with help from…
Barnard, M. (Sept 25, 1998). Drugs and Darwin fuel athletes. New Statesman, 24 (127) [HIDDEN] Retrieved March 03, 2007, at http://find.galegroup.com/ips / infomark.do?&contentSet=IAC-
Canseco, Jose. (2006). Juiced: Wild times, rampant 'roids [sic], smash hits & how baseball got big. New York: Regan Books
steroids are being used by many athletes, some of who will eventually admit that they used them, and more young boys (teenagers, primarily) are using steroids because there is pressure to be better, stronger, and faster even at a younger age. When the Mitchell Report came out, many big names in sports, such as Mark McGwire, were named as steroid users. McGwire was one of the athletes who came forward and admitted his mistake, in an effort to be honest with his fans and the people who had supported him as an athlete. He felt conflicted about what he had done, and wanted to come clean. This can happen with athletes, although many of them do not feel any remorse for the problems that they have caused through the use of steroids. They do not realize the ways that the steroids have affected them and those around them. The changes…
As long as children and adults are being conditioned that winning at all costs is acceptable steroid use is going to be an issue in sports.
In an interview with the Kansas City Star, Jeremy Giambi became the first active baseball player with significant major-league experience to publicly admit that he knowingly used steroids (Passan, 2005). "
Statements from professional athletes can be a first effective step in stopping the use of steroids in sports. Professional athletes that use steroids and come forward to make statements can tell the world about the side affects they have experienced. They can also explain how they got started and why they began, which in turn will provide answers that can help in developing preventative programs.
Giambi declined to get into specifics of his steroid use, but this much is certain: He went from a decent major-league outfielder to a journeyman starving for what…
____. Fighting steroid use takes attitude change; it won't be enough for schools to penalize users, the way sports is approached should change. Portland Press Herald (Maine); 4/6/2000
Jackson, Harry. "Out of bounds Illegal steroid use holds serious health risks for kids,"
St. Louis Post-Dispatch; 3/28/2005; of the Post-Dispatch
McGowan, Joe." Sports and Steroids." Time for Kids; 4/1/2005;
The Lupica article is insightful for identifying an inconsistency in our response that suggests baseball is still uncertain of how to address its crisis.
To the Editor:
I was pleased to read Mike Lupica's thoughtful sentiment on the recent hiring of Mark McGwire out of retirement. Appropriately, Lupica's focus is not the set of misdeeds that we already know were committed by some of the best players to ever step on the field. Instead, he focuses on the inconsistency and hypocrisy of the league and its commissioner, Bud Selig.
Selig, who oversaw the era of steroids with blatant inaction, today presides over the witch-hunt which holds individual players responsible for an epidemic that permeated the whole of the sport. Today, though testing policies are becoming stricter, it remains uncertain exactly how to address the issue of past steroid use. With prominent players such as Alex Rodriguez and Manny Ramirez continuing…
Steroids in Professional Sports
How many people here believe that adults should be allowed to risk their lives and health by participating in dangerous sports if they want to? How many people here believe that adult professional athletes should be allowed to lift weights to improve their strength? How many people here believe that adult professional athletes should be allowed to force-feed themselves to maintain body mass or to starve themselves to lose weight if necessary? How many people here believe that the outcome of professional sporting events does not matter outside of professional sports leagues? How many people here believe that professional athletes are appropriate role models for children?
If adults have the right to risk their lives in dangerous sports; if professional athletes have the right to lift weights and to manipulate their diets to gain or lose weight; if the outcome of professional sporting events does…
Further probing revealed that the accused cops were regular steroid users. This harsh reality has prompted the oston police commissioner Mr. Edward F. Davis to be proactive and intorduce a system of regular steroid testing for all oston law enforcement officials. As Mr. Davis puts it, "It really does revolve around the issues of steroids causing aggression in people and the concern around that problem." [Maria Cramer]
More recently, in the last year and a half, the NYPD has experienced a strange medical condition affecting 29 of their young police officers. Hypogonadism, as it is known, refers to a condition where the testosterone levels are very low. The treatment for the condition is administration of steroids. It is easy to see how easily cops obtain prescriptions for steroids. One of the officers was found to have bought steroids worth $25,000 in a single year, which clearly exceeds therapeutic dosage levels.…
Philip J. Sweitzer, 'Drugs and Law Enforcement in Crisis: Cops on Steroids', Accessed Nov 3rd 2008, Available Online at, http://www.law.depaul.edu/students/organizations_journals/student_orgs/lawslj/Volume%202,%20Issue%202/Sweitzer%20Cops%20On%20Steroids.pdf
2) Peter J. Kraska, Playing War: Masculinity, Militarism and Their Real-World
Consequences, MILITARIZING the AMERICAN CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM:
THE CHANGING ROLES of the ARMED FORCES and the POLICE, 141-147 (Peter B. Kraska, ed., 2001).
One of the most pressing issues facing the sports world today is the question of where the line can be drawn between intense training and actual abuse. This is particularly true of horse racing, which depends upon animals who cannot give their consent or input, and thus rely on their owners and trainers to look out for their well-being. For example, just as steroid use has become an increasing problem in the world of professional sports, so too has the horse racing world been forced to deal with steroid use, except in the latter case, the horses themselves can be subjected to drug abuse by any of the multiple people responsible for their care. As a result of steroids and other health and safety issues, the horse racing industry has taken to regulating itself, with mixed results (Smeltz 215). A more balanced approach that takes the numerous different…
Buti, Tony, and Saul Fridman. "Drug Testing in Sport: Legal Challenges & Issues." University
of Queensland Law Journal 20.2 (1999): 153-85.
Dugan, Edward. "Anabolic Steroids." LC GC North America (2002): 10-.
Smeltz, Wayne J. "Industry Self-Regulation vs. Organizational Well-being: Strategies
A Summary of William Saletan's "The Beam in Your Eye: If steroids are cheating, why isn't LASIK?"
William Saletan's essay "The Beam in Your Eye: If steroids are cheating, why isn't LASIK?" addresses the issue of the steroid scandal in baseball and compares it to LASIK eye surgery, which has been used by many athletes in different sports to improve their visions and thus improve their athletic ability. The central claim he makes is that steroids and performance enhancing drugs have been unfairly singled out as a method of artificially enhancing athletic performance, and that there are other sources as well. Saletan feels it is especially unfair to come down so hard on steroids as a substance that causes cheating when other medical enhancements -- specifically the LASIK procedure -- allow for better-than-average and better-than-normal performance. Though some people actually have worse-than-average vision and are helped by the…
Ethics -- Kant, Aristotle, and Plato on Steroid use in Professional Baseball
In the popular press, one of the common defenses of the ethics of steroid use in professional baseball is that it does no harm, other than harm the body of the professional player who willingly undertakes the risk for his vocation and a high salary. Professional sports, the argument goes, are a risky endeavor as it is, so is this really such a terrible thing? Perhaps, the defender might concede, anabolic steroid use also gives the user a slight edge over his fellow competitors. But how different is this edge from benefiting from superior training techniques, better coaching, or simply being a part of a better team? In such a view, steroids are merely another powerful pill to give already extraordinarily endowed sporting individual an extra edge on the playing field, as they pursue short-term fame, fortune, and…
This is especially true if, as has been suggested (Staudohar 2005), that despite stricter testing procedures, professional athletes still use anabolic steroids and human growth hormone in large numbers that greatly exceed those acknowledged or caught by their respective league governing bodies.
By process of elimination, it would appear that the primary impetus for anti- steroid regulations in professional sports is public perception, and that favorable public relations and maintenance of the highest revenue from sponsors is more of a factor than concern for the health of the athlete or honest competition. If anything, steroid use contributes to the highest level of play by the fastest, largest, and strongest athletes who hit balls further and throw them harder than their non-pharmaceutically enhanced counterparts.
On first glance, pharmaceutical performance enhancement in professional sports may seem to be unfair competition. However, when one considers the evolution of modern sports training and…
Bahrke, M.S., Yesalis III, C.E., Wright, J. (1990) Psychological and Behavioral Effects of Endogenous Testosterone Levels and Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids among Males. Sports Medicine 10(5) 303-337. Retrieved June 18, 2008, at http://www.mesomorphosis.com/articles/bahrke/bahrke00.htm
Bettman, G., Commissioner, C., & League, N. (n.d.). Steroid Use in Professional Sports. FDCH Congressional Testimony, Retrieved June 17, 2008, from MasterFILE Premier database.
Green, T. (1996) the Dark Side of the Game: My Life in the NFL. New York: Warner
Jacobson, R. ed. (2006) Sports in America: Recreation, Business, Education, Controversy. Detroit, MI: Thomson Gale. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. Apollo Library.
e., their use of anabolic steroids (and whether they had ever been offered steroids), their involvement in power sports, appearance and eating problems, and problem behavior. Background information about the participants included their degree of urbanization, parental socioeconomic status and the region to which they belonged.
Analyses of the study's results show that the prevalence of steroid use among Norwegian youth was lower (lifetime use was 0.8% and 12 months prevalence was 0.3%) than in several other Western societies such as the U.S. (2.5% to 7%) and in Australia, Canada, Sweden and South Africa (2% to 3.5%). It also showed that AAS use was first and foremost associated with problem behavior (i.e., drug [marijuana] involvement and aggressive-type conduct problems). Its relation with power sports and appearance came in at second and third place respectively.
The study is, therefore, significant in highlighting the hitherto largely ignored area of problem behavior in…
Admissions before BALCO grand jury detailed." (2004, December). ESPN.com. Retrieved on November 1, 2005 at http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/news/story?id=1936592
Anabolic Steroid Abuse." (2000, April). National Institute on Drug Abuse: Research Report Series. Retrieved on November 1, 2005 at http://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/RRSteroi.pdf
Langone, J. (1995). Tough Choices A Book about Substance Abuse. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Miller, R.W. (1987, November). Athletes and Steroids: Playing a Deadly Game. FDA Consumer, 21, 16+.
Bonds than his fellow African-Americans."
Recently, it has come to the attention of the media and others that the drug called, "human growth hormone" (HGH) is being used by some major league baseball players. An article in USA Today (Nightengale, 2007) points out through secondary reporting of data that Rick Ankiel (St. Louis Cardinals), Jay Gibbons (Baltimore Orioles) and Troy Glaus (Blue Jays) have been implicated in the use of HGH. This information was made available because an investigation of a Florida pharmacy by the federal government (reported by Sports Illustrated and the New York Daily News) turned up receipts detailing transactions between those players and the pharmacy.
According to the article, a quantitative piece, by taking HGH (another performance-enhancing substance) players may be able to "avert positive steroid tests." How can they do that? "Taking HGH enables you to take lower doses of anabolic steroids," journalist Bob Nightengale quotes…
Dowshen, Steven. (2007). Steroids. KidsHealth. Retrieved September 14, 2007, at http://kidshealth.org .
Economist. (2007). Curb your enthusiasm. 384(8541), p. 28.
Kopkowski, Cynthia. (2007). Home Field Disadvantages. NEA Today, 25(6), p. 23.
National Institute of Drug Addiction. (2007). NIDA InfoFacts: Steroids (Anabolic-Androgenic)
Anabolic Steroid and Performance Enhancing Drug Use
Among High School Athletes
Anabolic steroid use has, at least in the past, been prevalent among major college and, especially, professional sports. Major League Baseball implemented a drug testing regimen very recently after backlash from fans made it an issue that the sport believed it had to listen to. The National Football League has a testing program that has been in place since 1989, and other sports have also begun programs to test for anabolic steroids and other performance enhancing drugs (PED) to ensure that there is a level playing field among all of their athletes. Unfortunately this testing has led to consequences for some athletes.
Some notable case of athletes being either stripped of honors or not being selected for honors because they acknowledged PED or steroid use have occurred in recent times. Lance Armstrong was recently stripped of all of his…
Denham, BE. (2006). Effects of mass communication on attitudes toward anabolic steroids: An analysis of high school seniors. Journal of Drug Issues, 36(4), 809- 823.
Green, G.A. (2007). The prevalence of anabolic steroid use by Southern California high school athletes. LA84 Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.la84foundation.org/3 CE/AnabolicSteroidsSouthernCaliforniaHighScho ol.pdf
Liberatore, S. (2009). Q: I have a lot of competitive athletes in my classes. If they decide to use steroids, what effect will this have on their health? The Science Teacher, 76(1), 70.
Martin, J., & Govender, K. (2011). Making muscle junkies: Investigating traditional masculine ideology, body image discrepancy, and the pursuit of muscularity in adolescent males. International Journal of Men's Health, 10(3), 220-233.
It seems that society places so much pressure on these heroes, too, that to appear larger than life, drugs are often the way they cope with pressure and stress. They make themselves "larger than life" with steroids to help reduce the pressure and the stress of their profession and their managers.
This may not be a public safety issue in the larger aspect of wearing seat belts or not driving after drinking, but it certainly is a public safety issue when it comes to the morals and ethics in our society - especially children. Children do imitate their heroes to a large extent, and baseball players, along with other professional athletes, are heroes to many children (and adults). Thus, children may get the idea that if their hero uses steroids or other performance-enhancing drugs, so should they. This is a moral and ethical issue in that it teaches children that…
Author not Available. "Caminiti Comes Clean." Sports Illustrated.com. 28 May 2002. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/si_online/special_report/steroids/
Bodley, Hal. "Palmeiro Suspended for Steroids Policy Violation." USA Today. 1 Aug. 2005. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/baseball/al/orioles/2005-08-01-palmeiro-suspension_x.htm
Jenkins, Chris. "Players Admit Steroids Changed Baseball. USA Today. 15 March 2005. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/baseball/2005-03-15-steroids-mlb-cover_x.htm
english topic Steroid. I specific details topic Steroid Use Sports. steroid ? famous types steroid sport function type. good bad effective steroid athletes steroid ? steroid affect short-term long-term.
Steroids: are they a necessary evil?
Society traditionally encouraged people to experience progress in any field that they possibly could and this made it difficult for some to keep up with the fact that the world was constantly changing. In their struggle to keep up and even to be recognized for their contributions, some individuals have turned to using controversial methods. Athletes are provided with difficult choices as they feel the need to satisfy the needs of their fans. Society is indirectly responsible for the fact that some athletes use steroids because of the pressure that it puts on their shoulders. Many athletes today use steroids at the expense of their own health because they know that this is one of…
Dilingham, Michael, "Steroids, Sports and the Ethics of Winning," Retrieved December 4, 2011, from the Santa Clara University Website: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/ethicalperspectives/steriods-ethics.html
Dodgshon, Robert, The Age of the Clans: The Highlands from Somerled to the Clearances (Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2002)
Hecht, Annabel, "Anabolic Steroids: Pumping Trouble," FDA Consumer Sept. 1984
Sender Aaron J. "Anabolic Steroids for non-therapeutic use," Retrieved December 4, 2011, from the New York University Website: http://www.nyu.edu/classes/jaeger/anabolic_steroids.htm
When discussing and pondering the broader subject of steroids and other substances that aid the body in getting stronger and healthier, one word or term that is likely to come to mind is “anabolic”. However, the use and employment of steroids and supplements has multiple layers and types that must be considered. One of the other terms to consider is ergogenic. Regardless of the type of steroid or body aid, there is an intended and desired effect on performance. There is also the related, yet different, use of what is known as human growth hormone, or HGH. As with all medicines and treatments, there are medical risks when it comes to the use or abuse of steroids of any type, which would include ergogenic. While some people are prone to disavow and condemn the use of steroids and/or supplements across the board, here are a number of findings…
, 2003, p. 3).
The research showed that the use of various performance-enhancing substances is not new, but the controversies associated with the use of anabolic steroids, particularly by young athletes, has assumed increasing importance in recent years. More and more studies have shown that the use of these substances typically begins during the formative adolescent years, a practice that can have lifelong consequences in terms of physical problems and growth constraints. Moreover, there are profound moral and legal issues involved in the use of such performance enhancers, and while many observers might question that legality of such testing programs at the high school and collegiate level, the high incidence of use in recent years clearly indicates that more needs to be at all levels to help prevent young athletes from beginning to use these substances, and to help those who have already started to stop.
Allison, P.C., Diacin, M.J., & Parks, J.B. (2003). Voices of male athletes on drug use, drug testing and the existing order in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1), 1.
Hill v. National Collegiate Athletic Association, 865 P. 2d 633 (1994).
NCAA. (1998, November). NCAA drug-testing protocol, 1998-99. Overland Park, KS, in Allison, Diacin, & Parks, 2003, p. 3.
Pedersen, W., & Wichstrom, L. (2001). Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in adolescence: Winning, looking good or being bad? Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62(1), 5.
The affects of precursory steroidal compounds is difficult to determine due to differences in how adolescent bodies process them, but they may have an impact on social behavior similar to steroidal compounds, therefore, use of these substances will be included in this study as well.
A key area of research focused on treatment of the symptoms of depression and aggression caused by steroid use. Effective treatment was achieved through the use of common antidepressants (Schule, et. al, 2003). This is an important body of research, as it provides the guidance counselor with choices in treating students found to be affected by steroid use. Knowing that there are treatment options available through mental health channels will help in the development of treatment strategies for students whose social lives are being negatively influenced by steroid use.
The literature revealed many facets of academic research that will have an impact on the conduct…
Fish, L., Goldberg, L., and Spratt, D. (2005). Supplements, Steroid Precursors and Adolescent Heatlh. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 90 (9).
Gober, S, Klein, M., Berger, T., Vindigni, C., and Paul McCabe (2006). Steroids in Adolescence: the Cost of Achieving the Physical Ideal. NASP Communique, 34 (7). Retrieved April 18, 2008 at http://www.nasponline.org/publications/cq/cq347steroids.aspx .
Goodyer, I. (2002). Social adversity and mental functions in adolescents at high risk of psychopathology, the British Journal of Psychiatry 18, 383-386.
Melloni, R. (2006). Animal Models Show That Anabolic Steroids Flip the Adolescent Brain's Switch for Aggressive Behavior. American Psychological Association. Retrieved April 18, 2008 at http://www.apa.org/releases/steroids0226.html.
easons for MLB Players
Furthermore, MLB owners have enjoyed high double-digit return-on-investment for many years. By showing teenagers that steroids are not the cool nor healthy way to become more physical fit, they finally have the opportunity to show the world that they are not all Montgomery Burns (Saving the Puerto ican League).
If most people believe that the way to get ahead is to work hard, then most people will work hard, and more wealth will be created. On the other hand, if people believe that wealthy people should not have to work, then people will attempt to gain wealth without working, leading to a zero-sum economy. If most people expect public officials to be honest, then dishonest officials will be identified and punished" (eforming Our Beliefs Concerning Health Care).
From there, MLB baseball players participate to prevent teenage athletes' steroid use because they want to present a…
Steroid Use in Teen Athletes. http://www.***.ca/lib/essay/69_4.html
Saving the Puerto Rican League. http://sportslaw.blogspot.com/2007_08_01_archive.html
Reforming Our Beliefs Concerning Health Care. http://www.tcsdaily.com/article.aspx?id=062107A
Clinical Problem of Interest
Anabolic Steroids and Their Effects on the Body
Even though governing bodies and media reports may have a person thinking otherwise, the use of anabolic steroids by athletes is nothing new or unique. The use of these drugs has been going on for some time throughout many different kinds of sports, and there is no reason to think that it will stop, despite the illegality of it and the dangers that are seen when athletes engage in the use of anabolic steroids and other drugs believed to enhance performance. The biological and psychological effects can be very strong, and can include an increase in desire for sex, aggressiveness, and an increase in behaviors that are typically considered to be masculine (Graham, et al., 2008). These behaviors can also include sleep disorders, paranoia, euphoria, confusion, hallucinations, and anxiety (Graham, et al., 2008). Naturally, these are the kinds…
High and Inside
In the Newsweek Magazine article "High and Inside" by Mark Starr, the issue of illegal drug use among professional sports players is given focus. Citing particularly the case of American baseball stars, Starr puts forth the argument that the issue illegal drug use such as subsistence to steroid injections goes beyond the fact that it is illegal -- the bigger issue at hand is that such a system prevails in sports organizations because it is supported and encouraged by everyone in it.
In arguing this primary thesis of the article, Starr exemplifies the case of baseball star Jason Giambi as one of the models of how the proliferation of illegal drug use has made it so common and an imperative requirement for a professional athlete. Chronicling Giambi's career as a professional baseball player, the article details how, just before the peak of his career, he had already…
Starr, M. (2004). "High and Inside." Newsweek Magazine. Available at: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6652658/site/newsweek .
The critics of the drug testing policies argue, however, that the policies work to unfairly single out specific athletes for close scrutiny, tempts many of these same athletes to find ways to cheat the test, and that testing also violates the Constitutional right of privacy (McCabe & icciardelli, 2001).
Both arguments are significant, but the main point is that these testing policies and the steroid use that they are involved with have to be dealt with by those that handle public relations, both involving the players and the media/public. Without these public relations individuals, the players could have serious problems with the way that they were viewed by the public, and those that want or do not want the testing could also be viewed rather harshly, so it is important that they have good public relations. This is not always easy, as there are many issues that must be…
Diacin, M.J., Parks, J.B., & Allison, P.C. (2003). Voices of male athletes on drug use, drug testing, and the existing order in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1): 1-16
McCabe, M.P., & Ricciardelli, L.A. (2001). Parent, peer, and media influences on body image and strategies to both increase and decrease body size among adolescent boys and girls. Adolescence, 36: 225-240.
Yesalis, C.E., Kennedy, N.J., Kopstein, A.N., & Bahrke, M.S. (1993). Anabolic-androgenic steroid use in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270:1217-1221.
In his preparation for a career in sports, an unethical coach or teammate may present the boy with steroids to enhance his physical performance, with the claim that Rodriguez advocates the use of such substances.
Furthermore, Rodriguez's apparent lack of remorse and his adherence to the claim that he was "young and stupid" creates a poor image for both the sport, its stars, and its followers. It furthermore indicates that being young precludes a person from making wise choices, and that only a maturity in years could bring the wisdom necessary to say no to performance-enhancing drugs.
This also has an effect upon parenting, and the ability of parents to influence children for their best benefit. tars such as Rodriguez indirectly promote drugs by means of their behavior. Jeopardizing good parenting in this way also influences the stability of the family and hence of society as a whole. It is…
Inman, Cam. (2009, Feb 17). Candid Cam: A*Rod, steroids and "My Cousin Vinny." http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=1646806551&SrchMo de=1&sid=21&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1236294835 & clientId=29440
Schneider, Angela J. (2007) Doping in Sport: Global Ethical Issues. Routledge.
In addition, to media images that bombard men there are also biological factors that influence the development of BDD in men.
According to an article entitled "Bigger Isn't Always Better - muscle dysmorphia in men" the most severe cases of muscle dysmorphia involve a biological predisposition for the disease (Bartlett 2001). The author explains that from a biological standpoint the man suffering with the disease has a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder (Bartlett 2001). For instance someone who washes his hands 10 times per day is normal, however washing your hands one hundred times per day to the point that it hampers with the rest of your life is a symptom of a greater problem (Bartlett 2001). According to the article this example is used to illustrate "there isn't anything pathological about going to the gym regularly or dieting," but there is a problem when "a huge number of boys…
Bartlett J. (2001) Bigger Isn't Always Better - muscle dysmorphia in men
American Fitness. Retrieved July 8, 2005 from; http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0675/is_1_19/ai_69651755
First Controlled Study of Muscle Dysmorphia Published, 2005. Retrieved July 8, 2005 from; http://www.driesen.com/muscle_dysmorphia.htm
Grieve F.G., Lorenzen L.A., Thomas a. (2004) Exposure to Muscular Male Models Decreases Men's Body Satisfaction.Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Volume: 51: 743+.
Treatments for Rosacea
Rosacea is a medical condition characterized by reddening of the skin. The face primarily will turn red in hue. Sores may appear on the skin as well. The face may also swell to some degree. It is an unfortunate condition where patients not only have to deal with the illness itself, but also with psychological ramifications from feeling unattractive due to the skin pigments or lesions. Although there is currently no cure for Rosacea, scientists have researched various treatments to help patients suffering from the condition.
In the article, "Treatment of Rosacea with Intense Pulsed Light," researchers Papageorgiou et. al consider how ultra violet and pulsed light might positively treat skin conditions like Rosacea. During this particular experiment, the researchers tested 34 patients who were given treatments every three weeks for a total of twelve weeks. More than 70% of patients experienced at least a 50% reduction…
Lee, DH, Li, K.K., & Suh, DH "Pimecrolimus 1% Cream for the Treatment of Steroid-
Induced Rosacea: an 8-week Split-Face Clinical Trial." British Journal of Dermatology. (158:5). 2008. 1069-76. Print.
Papageorgiou, P.P., Clayton, W.W., Norwood, S.S., Chopra, S.S., & Rustin, M.M. "Treatment of Rosacea with Intense Pulsed Light: Significant Improvement and Long-Lasting Results." British Journal of Dermatology. (159:3). 2008. 628-32. Print.
Sharquie, K.E., Najim, R.A., & Al-Salman, H.N. "Oral Zinc Sulfate in the Treatment of Rosacea: a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study." International Journal of Dermatology. (45:7). 2006. 857-61. Print.
Osmoregulation is the process, by which the body adjusts to a change in an environment of different water volume and amount of solutes in a cells and body fluid of organisms including vertebrates. Vertebrates are animals, which have a backbone, and can be warm either blooded or cold blooded. The body of such organisms adjusts in order to maintain the body balance both inside and outside their bodies in mild and harsh environments ranging from seawater, fresh water, and terrestrial habitats to very hostile environments. Endocrine glands found in such organisms play a major role in constant and persistent regulation of body balance, which secretes hormones directly into the blood whenever the body witnesses any environmental change (Bentley 45).
Endocrine glands present in vertebrates play a major role in controlling the level of water and salt in vertebrate's bodies. Hormones produced in vertebrates play a major role…
Bentley, P., 2002. Comparative Vertabrate Endocrinology. chicago: Cambridge university press.
Bentley, P., 2002. Endocrines and Osmoregulation. chicago: springer publishers.
Crvendish, M., 2006. Growing up with Science.. london: marshall carvendish publishers.
Kaiser, G., 2007. The Inner Bird.. New York: UBC press.
Medical Administration Service for File
ationale in Support of Selection of Heart Transplant ecipient
Because time was of the essence in formulating this decision, this memorandum for the record sets forth the decision-making process and that was used to select the most appropriate candidate for a heart transplantation procedure. It was my responsibility as lead surgeon to select the most appropriate heart transplant recipient from a pool of three candidates, each of whom had suffered from several health-related issues that adversely affected their suitability for the transplant procedure. Therefore, in order to formulate as subjective an analysis as possible in a timely fashion, a utilitarian ethical analytical approach was used to identify the candidate that held the most promise of using the gift of additional life from the heart donor to its maximum advantage. The utilitarian ethical analysis showed that of the three potential heart transplant candidates, the 12-year-old…
Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (1989, Winter). Calculating consequences: The utilitarian approach to ethics. Issues in Ethics, 2(1), 37.
Hollingsworth, J.A., Hall, E.H. & Trinkaus, R.J. (1991). Utilitarianism: An ethical framework for compensation decision making. Review of Business, 13(3), 17-19.
Rosen, F. (2003). Classical utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. London: Routledge.
Upon first seeing Dubai, Saunders marvels at the humor of the place. He finds most things about the place ironic, especially as Saunders contemplates the process of "Theming" that consumes much of Dubai's development. Like a theme park, Dubai creates an artificial atmosphere. Dubai is a city in a bubble. It is also full of the contradictions that make Dubai titillating, including the sharp differential created between ancient and modern. This differential between ancient and modern is, ironically, manifest in the Theming of the city as the ancient nomadic customs and aesthetics are turned into as much a caricature of themselves as Dubai's malls are caricatures of Western-style consumerism.
Dubai is "capitalism on steroids" because like an athlete on steroids, it is strong, powerful, and resilient with the help of artificial performance enhancers. This is why Saunders refers to the "Misconception from Afar." The reality of Dubai and the…
Saunders, George. "The New Mecca." GQ. Retrieved online: http://www.gq.com/news-politics/big-issues/200511/george-saunders-on-dubai?currentPage=1
predict anabolic steroids on the controversial forefront of drugs that enhance performance. Halfway through the period, no attempt has been met from the governing bodies of sports towards the control of its use. It is only recent that North America's major governing bodies of sport came to an agreement of punishing and banning anabolic-steroids involved athletes from participating in any competition. The strict punitive measures have a primary development concern of promoting fair play and doing away with nagging health risks that are associates to androgenic-anabolic steroids. However, controversy is still in play as to whether the use of anabolic steroids is deterred by these programs in question (Hoffman & Ratamess, 2006).
The steroids, Anabolic-androgenic, are a derivation of the male sex hormone; testosterone, that is man-made. Physiologically speaking, an increase in the concentration of testosterone will stimulate the synthesis of protein with effective results in strength, body mass, and…
Bhasin, S., Storer, T.W., Berman, N., Callegari, C., Clevenger, B., Phillips, J., Bunnell, T.J., Tricker, R., hirazi, A. And Casaburi, R. (1996). The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in men. New England Journal of Medicine 335, 1-7.
Bhasin, S., Woodhouse, L. And Storer T.W. (2001) Proof of the effect of testosterone on skeletal muscle. Journal of Endocrinology 170, 27-38.
Hoffman, J., & Ratamess, N. (2006 ). Medical Issues Associated with Anabolic Steroid Use: Are They Exaggerated? NCBI, 182 -- 193. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3827559/
Karila T. Adverse effects of anabolic androgenic steroids on the cardiovascular, metabolic and reproductive systems of anabolic substance abusers. http://ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/laa/biola/vk/karila/adversee.pdf .
confusing gender roles in our society. ith women putting in as many hours at the office as men and 'take your daughter to work day' now implying bring a son if you have 'em -- gender roles in America continue to become blurry and obsolete lines in the sand. For example, I can not believe the number of professional athletes in Football and Baseball who have been caught abusing illegal steroids. I am sure that the recent media hype, the pressure from congress and the disgust from fans was meant to curb illegal use of anabolic steroids by younger boys, teens and men. And hopefully the message is getting through to the male population. Ah -- but, did we, ah, forget to tell the girls? "An alarming number of American girls, some as young as 9, are using bodybuilding steroids -- not necessarily to get an edge on the playing…
Girls are abusing steroids too, experts say. Ed. MSNBC. April 25, 2005. MSNBC.com. Retrieved on 29 Apr. 2005, from http://msnbc.msn.com/id/7633384
Maasik, Sonia, and Jack Solomon. Signs Of Life In The U.S.A. ADD CITY: ADD PUBLISHER, ADD YEAR.
The Associated Press. "Girls Are Abusing Steroids Too -- Often To Get That Toned Look" USA Today 25 Apr. 2005, Online. Retrieved on 29 Apr. 2005, from http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2005-04-25-girls-steroids_x.htm?POE=NEWISVA
drives under the influence of alcohol, it is a criminal offense abbreviated as driving under the influence (DUI). However alcohol is but one of the many substances that can interfere with one's driving capability. DUI charges can also be pressed against individuals who are driving under the influence of other kinds of drugs, including illegal drugs and even prescription medication. Taking drugs and driving at the same time, whether the drugs are just prescription muscle relaxers or medicinal marijuana is illegal and a DUI offense. The argument that one took drugs because of doctor's orders is not a defense to DUI charges. Various drugs have different effects on drivers. The drugs that impair concentration, judgment, alertness and/or motor skills are regarded as dangerous and in several cases even more dangerous than alcohol. Driving while having a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of more than 0.08% or higher is illegal in the…
African-Americans, Substance Abuse and Spirituality - Minority Nurse. (2013, March 29). Retrieved from http://minoritynurse.com/african-americans-substance-abuse-and-spirituality/
Cohagan, A., Worthington, R., & Krause, R. (2013, July 3). Alcohol and Substance Abuse Evaluation . Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/805084-overview#aw2aab6b3
FindLaw. (n.d.). Driving Under the Influence of Drugs - FindLaw. Retrieved from http://dui.findlaw.com/dui-charges/driving-under-the-influence-of - drugs.html
MedlinePlus. (n.d.). Steroids: MedlinePlus. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/steroids.html
In the Major League aseball season of 1998, Mark McGwire became famous for breaking Roger Maris' home run record. Later it was found out that McGwire's power hitting came from a muscle building synthetic hormone called Androstenedione or Androstenediol. This supplement, nicknamed "Andro" became the first in a list of performance-enhancing substances called pro-hormones. The scrutiny of McGwire's performance was overshadowed by the fact that many professional athletes were using it. Also, this substance was not banned by the aseball Commission. This compound is called a pro-hormone because it is a precursor to testosterone. It metabolizes directly into testosterone.
There are some differences between the -dione and the -diol version. In the former, there are two carbonyl (-C=O) groups. These groups are replaced by alcohol (-C-OH) groups in the diol. For the purpose of this work, which involves really understanding the post-chemical positive and negative side effects, we can…
Ruzicka, L., and A. Wettstein. "The Crystalline Production of the Testicle Hormone Testosterone." Helvetica Chimica Acta 18 (1935): 1264-75.
Kochakian, C.D., and J.R. Murlin. "Relationship of Synthetic Male Hormone Androstenedione to the Protein and Energy Metabolism of Castrated Dogs and the Protein Metabolism of a Normal Dog." Amer J. Physiol 117 (1936): 642-57.
Hacker, R., and C. Mattern. "Androstenedione." Arrowdeen Ltd. Germany: DE 42 14953 A1, 1995.
Stalheim-Smith, Ann, and Greg K. Fitch. Understanding Human Anatomy and Physiology. Minneapolis/St. Paul: West Pub. Co., 1993.pp. 1 v. (various pagings)
Though women constitute only 12.7% of the sworn police force they are implicated in only 5% of the total cases registered against the use of excessive force. Statistics further indicate that women officers account for only 6% of the total dollars paid out for court settlements for The Use of Police Force 4
police abuse related cases. [DR. Kim Lonsway, 2002] It is clear that a women police officer is less likely to resort to excessive force use compared with a male police officer and this presents a clear case for more representation of women in the police force. Inducting more women would therefore be a positive step.
Another study by the University of California compared the effects of race, gender, and experience of the officer and the link to the possibility of the officer being investigated by Internal affairs for the use of excessive force. For the study, the…
1) Amnesty International, (2008) ' Less than Lethal'? The use of Stun weapons in U.S. Law Enforcement', Accessed 14th July 2009, Available at, http://www.amnestyusa.org/uploads/LessThanLethal.pdf
2) Anthony J. Micucci & Ian M. Gomme (Oct 2005), 'American Police and Subcultural Support for the use of Excessive Force', Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol 33, Issue 5
3) BJS, (June 25, 2006) 'Citizens Complained more than 26,000 times in 2002 about Excessive Police Force', Available at, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/press/ccpufpr.htm
4) DR. Kim Lonsway, Michelle Wood & Megan Fickling et.al (2002), ' Men, Women and Police Excessive Force: A Tale of two Genders', Accessed July 13th 2009, Available at, http://www.womenandpolicing.org/PDF/2002_Excessive_Force.pdf
Salary Cap ? Now Please !
The Steroid era is over, hooray! Now what? Well, Major League aseball, time to catch up with the world of sports. It is time for a salary cap on player earnings. America is in the middle of a recession, unemployment continues to rise and Major League aseball must change with the times. Without shrewd decision making, now, on the part of aseballs' owners, baseball will lose fans. Fans of the game, too long disenfranchised, by eight work stoppages, the most recent nullifying an entire playoffs and World Series. Fans subjected, no matter how willingly, to widespread abuse of steroids, Human Growth Hormone and amphetamines. These same fans will not continue to pour their increasingly slim entertainment budgets into a sport dominated by the few, big spenders, only occasionally challenged by a lesser market. A product of this ilk is ultimately unsustainable. When a fans'…
Erowid. Federal Definition of Anabolic Steroids (2005). .
Maske, Mark. "After the Strike, Baseball's Disgusted Fans Decide to Strike Back." Washington post 30 April 1995: A01.
Wikipedia. Wikipedia. 12 November 2010. 12 November 2010 .
-- . Wikipedia. 12 November 2010. 12 November 2010 .
Substance Induced Insanity
Psychosis is a psychiatric state that can either be enduring or temporary. A person suffering from the condition may experience memory lapses, incoherent speech or thoughts, lack of concentration, delusions and/or hallucinations. Other symptoms that may manifest when one is suffering from psychosis include changes in personality and exhibition of unusual behaviors. It has been established that psychosis can be caused by various substances such as marijuana, methamphetamine and alcohol. Substance induced psychosis typically occurs when an individual has been continually using stimulants over a long period of time. The two most common substances or stimulants known to induce psychosis are methamphetamine and amphetamine. Apart from these drugs, the 'designer' drugs have also been found to induce the condition. Individuals suffering from substance-induced psychosis may exhibit loss of contact with reality and they may also become fixated on a certain action or place and may engage in…
Alcoholrehab. (2016). Psychosis and substance abuse. Retrieved from http://alcoholrehab.com/drug-addiction/psychosis-and-substance-abuse/
Bal, B. S. (2009). An introduction to medical malpractice in the United States. Clin Orthop Relat, 467(2): 339-347.
Beck, M. (2011). Confusing medical ailments with medical illness. Retrieved from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424053111904480904576496271983911668
Bourget, D. (2013). Forensic Considerations of Substance-Induced Psychosis. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law, 41(2), 168-173
Scandal/Controversy in Sports
The following will take a look to see if scandal and controversy benefit sports.
Background of Sports Industry and Scandals
Sports in the U.S. is a multi-billion-dollar industry. Companies try to engage with clients by aligning the services and products they offer with this well-known industry via sports funding and endorsement. The benefit of this involvement has been well-recorded in the sports marketing literature (Hughes and Shank, 2005). The effect on business brands in case a scandal surfaces regarding an athletic supporter like a player, coach, or a team however, is less well-known. Several sports scandals, for instance, the rape case surrounding Kobe Bryant and the University of Colorado recruitment scandal raise very serious questions regarding the effect of sports scandals on amateur and professional athletic institutions, participants, sponsors, as well as other stakeholders.
Whereas conventional corporate sports supporters like Nike maintain omnipresence, several other different kinds…
Alessi. (2014). TheRichest - The World's Most Entertaining Site. Top 10 Sports Betting Scandals and Controversies - TheRichest. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.therichest.com/sports/top-10-sports-betting-scandals-and-controversies/
Doorty, A. (2016). Odyssey. Is Scandal Good for Baseball? Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.theodysseyonline.com/are-scandals-good-for-baseball
Fisher, R., & Wakefield, K. (1998). Factors leading to group identification: A field study of winners and losers. Psychology & Marketing, 15(1). Retrieved, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199801)15:1%3C23::AID-MAR3%3E3.0.CO;2-P/abstract
Garg. (2010). The Hoya. Scandals Show Need to Pay College Athletes. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.thehoya.com/scandals-show-need-to-pay-college-athletes/
D., What is Altitude Training section). The Website promoting products that Hypoxico Altitude Training Systems offers, reports that when a person is exposed to hypoxia, oxygen reduced environments, his/her body "struggles to produce required amounts of energy with less available oxygen. This struggle triggers the onset of a range of physiological adaptations geared towards enhancing the efficiency of the body's respiratory, cardiovascular and oxygen utilization systems" (Hypoxico Altitude Training, N.D., Why it Works section). In consideration of controversial perceptions regarding ethical conclusions relating to hypoxico, Lippi, Guides and Franchini stress that the "spirit of sport" needs to be developed to include the notion of ethics and authenticity. Lippi, Guides and Franchini, nevertheless, report that they do not entirely agree with the assumption that teleologically, no evidence suggests that more harm than good comes from these particular devices. They note that a universal ban on passive training regimens, such as hypoxic,…
Avans, D.E. (2007). Youth and ethical dilemmas in sport. Research Quarterly for Exercise
and Sport. American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.
Retrieved June 04, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1160166064.html
Bach, G. (2006). The Parents association for youth sports: A proactive method of spectator behavior management. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 77(6), 16+. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017424445
International Organizational Behavior-Cultural Differences in Job Satisfaction and Motivation
As the forces of globalization continue to reshape the international marketplace, understanding cross-cultural differences in job satisfaction and motivation has assumed new importance and relevance. To this end, this paper provides a comparison of the United States with two of its major trading partners, China and Canada, drawing on Geert Hofstede's five cultural dimensions. A comparison of the U.S. with these two countries using Hofstede's five cultural dimensions is followed by an analysis concerning how various job factors contribute to satisfaction in different cultures. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the implications of cross-cultural factors for international organizational behaviorists in promoting job satisfaction and motivation are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
While it is reasonable to suggest that the overwhelming majority of people in the world work to earn a living, making pay and benefits…
Kim, Y-J & Na, J-H (2007, July). Effects of celebrity athlete endorsement on attitude towards the product: The role of credibility, attractiveness and the concept of congruence. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, 8(4), 310-314.
Sablosky, T. L. (2009, May). Did you get the message? In this era of far-flung branch locations, new methods of internal communication-such as teleconferences, videoconferences and intranets-are growing in popularity. ABA Bank Marketing, 37(4), 26-29.
The selective type would enable me to make optimal use of the specific factors that are relevant to my target group. This IOM type would also enable me to identify cases of prior and current drug use, and to refer these to specialized groups and programs for help. The selective type is therefore optimal for the specific sector of society that I want to target.
Best Practice Program
From the "Best Practice Programs," I chose "Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid teroids: The ATLA Program," because it specifically focuses on high school athletes as a target group. While it focuses mostly on one particular kind of drug, I would perhaps modify it to address the specific problems, risks and protective factors of my target group.
The ATLA program focuses on male high school athletes and aims at reducing the risk factors involved in the use of anabolic steroids and other…
CASAT. Best Practice: Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids: The ATLAS Program
Institute of Medicine. Projects: Adolescent Health Care Services and Models of Care for Treatment, Prevention, and Healthy Development http://www.iom.edu/CMS/12552/35625.aspx
Gonadectomy alters the magnitude of CCS and ICS analgesia and alters the relationship between the gender-specific effects observed in sham-treated rats. Castration significantly decreased the magnitude of CCS analgesia on the tail-flick and jump tests, and the magnitude of ICS analgesia on the jump test. Indeed castration reduced the magnitude of CCS and ICS analgesia in males to that observed for sham-treated female rats.
Given the multitude of CNS substrates and systems underlying both opioid and stress analgesia, and the likelihood that only a little differ amid sexes, we could rationally expect to come across sex differences in opioid analgesic efficacy in some occasions, depending solely on the nature of the ache incentive and opioid involved, as outlined earlier. It is important to also note that sex differences are no defined to opioid drugs in analgesia. Furthermore, commencement of endogenous pain inhibitory mechanisms in reaction to stress also produces…
Islam, Anita K., Madeline L. Cooper, and Richard J. Bodnar. "Interactions among Aging, Gender, and Gonadectomy Effects Upon Morphine Antinociception in Rats." Physiology and Behavior 54 (1993): 45-53. Print.
Romero, Maria-Teresa, et al. "Gender-Specific and Gonadectomy-Specific Effects Upon Swim Analgesia: Role of Steroid Replacement Therapy." Physiology and Behavior 44 (1988): 257-65. Print.
Romero, Maria-Teresa, et al. "Modulation of Gender-Specific Effects Upon Swim Analgesia in Gonadectomized Rats." Physiology and Behavior 40 (1987): 39-45. Print.
message to people in our society that professional baseball players and other athletes make more than soldiers in combat. This message must be fundamentally questioned, given the disproportionate degree of significance we give to the careers of athletes. Big name athletes are touted as role models, while ordinary soldiers are largely ignored, or at best given a few words in print if they distinguish themselves heroically in combat. The discrepancy between the utility of certain occupations such as soldiers and nurses, versus occupations such as professional baseball players and entertainers, and the disproportionate salaries made by the latter have caused many to question the fairness of how salaries are allocated within our society. Many of the arguments cited in favor of professional athletes' salaries could easily apply to other high-risk professions. This paper argues in favor of reducing baseball players' salaries through more aggressive salary caps as a way of…
Donovan, John. "Soldiers say it is hard to return to civilian life." Talk of The Nation. NPR.
10 Oct 2011. [20 Feb 2013]
Johnson, Catlin. "Why do baseball players make so much money?" CBS News. 11 Feb 2009.
PONV was not seen at 24 hours significantly lower rates of PONV at four and eight hours were found in the septoplasty group in which pharyngeal packing was not used
Habib, et al. (2010)
prospective, double-blind, randomized study
104 Patients undergoing craniotomy
Patients were randomized to receive oral aprepitant 40 mg (or matching placebo) 1 to 3 hours before induction of anesthesia or ondansetron 4 mg IV (or placebo) within 30 minutes of the end of surgery.
Data were collected at regular intervals by blinded personnel for 48 hours after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's ranked sum test and ?(2) test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
cumulative incidence of vomiting at 48 hours was 16% in the aprepitant group and 38% in the ondansetron group (P = 0.0149). The incidence of vomiting was also decreased in the aprepitant group at 2 hours…
Sports have graduated in the last half of the twentieth century from hobbies or pastimes into the pure, unadulterated pursuit of profit. In short, shorts have become a commodity to be exploited as far as the market will allow. The history of American sports has seen this process play out in a stepwise fashion; every several years developments come about that enable the enterprise to expand and increase profits. The latest changes in business that have allowed sports to enlarge have been globalization and communications technologies. Clearly, these two go hand in hand to some extent. Still, both have contributed to the acceleration of the commodification of sports; they have aided its degeneration from a pastime, into the form we see today.
If you were to ask the average American what they thought was wrong with professional sports today they would likely tell you that the amount of money athletes…
1. Calhoun, K., & Gorman, J. (1994). The Name of the Game. New York, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
2. Cosell, H., & Whitfield, S. (1991). What's Wrong with Sports. New York, New York: Simon & Schuster.
3. Dallas Morning News. "Steroids Readily Available." Dallas Morning News, Sunday, Feb. 6, 2005.
4. Kahn, Lawrence M. (2000). "The Sports Business as a Labor Market Laboratory." The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 3, 75-94.
(Walton) "Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) and Ultra-Wide Bandwidth (UWB), new data transmission protocols, make online connections so much cheaper, faster and easier to use that it's possible to simultaneously cut costs and improve employee productivity by converting offices to wireless connectivity." (Johnston)
WiMAX proposes challenges to providers of DSL, as well as, cable-modem service as its design can accommodate varying ways to transmit data. One: http://computer.howstuffworks.com/ip-telephony.htm" Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) enables individuals to use a broadband Internet connection to "phone" long-distance and internationally. (Grabianowski and Brain) Some experts foresee a close race for fixed WiMax broadband services to win over other broadband technologies. Others who study this issue contend, however, as WiMAX can provide the bandwidth, identical to fiber alternatives, including, DSL, at a fair, marketable expense, it can convinces competitors' customers to switch to their fixed wireless version of services. Even though controversies exist…
Accelerating WiMAX System Design with FPGA's." Retrieved on May 22, 2006 at http://www.altera.com/literature/wp/wp_wimax.pdf .(2004).
Bielski, Lauren. "Breakout Systems and Applications Give Bankers New Options." ABA
Banking Journal 97.6 (2005): 61+.
Courtney, M. "A tale of two WiMax rollouts." Computing, May 2006. Retrieved May 27, 2006 at http://www.computing.co.uk/itweek/comment/2152774/tale-two-wimax-rollouts .
There, they get the work done their way, with their tools and in their own space, but with much lower costs that in their native country.
Friedman is a firm believer in offshoring and states that such a process is a strong stimulant for fair and international competition. He criticizes the countries that did not yet adopt it saying that all countries should be members of the international market, regardless of their social or economical background.
To explain this idea, the author makes an exaggerated comparison. He says: "Every morning in Africa, a gazelle wakes up. It knows it must run faster than the fastest lion or it will be killed. Every morning a lion wakes up. It knows it must run faster than the slowest gazelle or it will starve to death. It doesn't matter whether you are a lion or a gazelle. When the sun comes up, you…
Thomas L. Friedman, the World is Flat, Chapter two: The Ten Forces that Flatten the World, pages 48 to 172
The Official Web Site of the University of Tennessee, University Libraries, Ready for the World, Thomas Friedman's flatteners, by Martha Rudolph, posted on March 2, 2006 http://www.lib.utk.edu/news/readyfortheworld/archives/the_world_is_flat.html , last accessed on October 5, 2006
James Berry, Review on the book the World is Flat, posted on April 19, 2006 http://www.ada.org/prof/resources/pubs/adanews/adanewsarticle.asp?articleid=1884,last accessed on October 5, 2006
Howard Rheingold, Seven Ways to See What's Next, winter 2005
Friedman considers insourcing to be flattener number eight, because it allows small companies to compete like major supply-chain companies. Insourcing refers to hiring another company to handle a company's supply chain. UPS is the major supplier for insourcing services in the United States. Friedman believes that insourcing flattens in three ways: by letting little companies compete in the global market; by dissolving barriers between companies; and by standardizing business practices across companies.
Finally, Friedman looks at a group of flatteners that he refers to as the steroids. These are small flatteners that have the effect of amplifying the other flatteners. Mobile steroids are those technologies allowing people to work in non-traditional environments and include cellular phones, laptops, and wireless internet access. Personal steroids are those things that give power to the individual, and include personal computers, search engines, and peer-to-peer file sharing. While these flatteners are not powerful enough to…
Friedman, T. (2007). The world is flat: a brief history of the twenty-first century. New York:
This may be responsible for gender identity misidentification when factors other than apparent external genital structure conflict with other elements. For this reason, Fausto-Sterling argues that infants born with ambiguous genitalia should not receive surgery until later in life when they begin to express their natural gender identity.
Sex Hormones vs. Steroid Hormones:
Faustino-Sterling also objects to the very definition of human steroid hormones as "sex hormones" because they exert many more effects on the developing human body than merely those related to determining gender and sexuality. The author traces the history of traditional views about the role of human hormones and gender back to experiments on rodents before World War II through the Organizational/Activational Model of hormone activity (p214) based on the effects of exposure to specific types (and levels) of hormones during human gestation that dictate gender-specific behaviors in puberty.
The author suggests that the more accurate view…
(2000) Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality. Basic Books.
Woods up with an exercise group close to her house, or a support group
who could help her with adjusting to her new diagnosis and give her
support. The social worker and the nursing staff would also be able to
educate Mrs. Woods' family on the condition and what needs to be done to
maximize her bone health.
5. Should Mrs. Woods have a history of renal calculi; care will be
taken for the administration of calcium supplements. Any supplement she
would take would need co-administration of Vitamin D for proper absorption.
Hormone replacement therapy is no longer considered to be a stable of
treatment due to concerns about heart disease. Additionally, there was no
significant evidence of fracture reduction of the HES study, so the risk
of thrombosis and breast cancer probably outweighs the need for HT.
Selective estrogen receptor modifiers are other alternatives which preserve
bone density but…
1. Libanati CR, Baylink DJ. (1997) Prevention and treatment of
glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. A pathogenetic
perspective. Chest. 102:1426-35.
. 2. Sambrook P, Birmingham J, Kelly P, et al. Prevention of
corticosteroid osteoporosis: A comparison of calcium,
calcitriol and calcitonin. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1747-1752
2. Heaney RP. (1998) Pathophysiology of osteoporosis. Endocrin
Metabol Clin North Am.;27:255-65.
ladies and gentlemen! There is a saying that goes, "Vice seen is better than vice unseen." I mentioned this to relate to a problem we have had with regards to our major league sports players -- the use of performance enhancing drugs "such as anabolic steroids, androstenedione, human growth hormone, erythropoietin, diuretics, creatine and stimulants (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010)." The problem is not new and has been a challenge because of the gravity of the situation. There is no lack of cases and statistics that show how many major league players have been caught using these performance enhancing drugs, which by the way is banned and illegal. ut my issue is how come these drugs are not allowed? Those who oppose the use of steroids and other performance-enhancing drugs say that the athletes who use them are breaking the rules and getting an unfair advantage over others (Katz, 2008). In…
Balko, R. (2008, January 23). Should we allow performance enhancing drugs in sports? One argument in favor. Reason Magazine. Retrieved May 11, 2011 from http://reason.com/archives/2008/01/23/should-we-allow-performance-en
Katz, J. (2008, January 23). Should we accept steroid use in sports? NPR. Retrieved May 11, 2011 from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=18299098
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2010, November 5). Performance-enhancing drugs: Know the risks. Retrieved May 11, 2011 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/performance-enhancing-drugs/HQ01105
The implant is inserted into the ear and is discarded at slaughter, thus, it does not enter the human food chain (Primer pp). The hormone in the implant is released into the bloodstream very slowly ensuring the concentration of the hormone remains relatively constant and very low (Primer pp). Moreover, the prescribed dosage is the level "which produces the maximum economic response in the animal -- the law of diminishing returns -- so that there is no economic incentive for a farmer to use additional implants," and ensures that the animals taken to slaughter have normal hormone levels (Primer pp). According to the Primer, beef from a bull contains testosterone levels over ten times higher than the amount in beef from a steer that has received hormones for growth promotion (Primer pp). Therefore, since the European beef market is predominately bull-sourced, while the American meat is steer-sourced, American hormone treated…
"Battle Over Beef Hormones." BBC News Online. 13 May 1999; pp.
"EU asks for end to beef sanctions.(European Policy News)"
Agra Europe; 17 October 2003; pp.
The dexamethasone group showed meaningful improvements in several variables. After 48 hours, the women who received dexamethasone has a significantly reduced mean arterial pressure at 115 mm Hg v 94 m Hg, P < 0.05 and mean asparatate aminotransferase level at 100 IU/1 v 50 IU/1; P < 0.05. Their urine output also improved at 60 ml/h v 40 ml/h; P < 0.05 and a mean platelet count at 115-000 v 70 000; P < 0.05. The researchers concluded that their findings supported a high dose corticosteroid treatment of women with the HELLP syndrome. Although three control patients showed infectious complications, there were no statistically significant differences in morbidity.
As part of nursing and medical management, dexamethasone is often given to women with this condition and are between 24 and 34 weeks' gestation at risk of pre-term delivery to accelerate the maturation of fetal lungs (Matchaba and Moodley 2005). While…
Campbell, S. (2005). Preeclampsia Sufferers at Great Risk of HELLP Syndrome During Pregnancy. The North Scott Press. http://www.zwire.com/site/news.cfm?BRD=1839&deptAdviwarePtyLtd200/July_id_1104088newsid=13913304&PAG=461&rfi=9
Chen, P., reviewer (2004). HELLP Syndrome. University of Maryland Medical Center. http://www.umm.edu/pregnancy/specialcare/articles/hellp.html
2004). HELLP Syndrome. Medline Plus. U.S. National Library of Medicine, the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Department of Health and Human Sciences. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/00089.htm
Clenney, TL. And Vierra AJ. (2004). Costicosteroids for HELLP Syndrome, a clinical review, 329:270-272 (31 July), doi: 10.1136/bmj.329.7460.270. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. http://bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/329/7468/270
Nursing elated Case Study
Tom's vitals, in the emergency department, revealed an elevated respiratory rate, heart rate and blood pressure. His oxygen saturation was also considerably low. Tom's Body Mass Index (BMI) falls in the overweight category. He was also a-febrile, at presentation, indicating that infection was not a precipitating cause.
Initially the ABGs were normal, indicating an acute severe exacerbation or life threatening asthma. Later, when the ABGs were repeated, carbon dioxide levels were above normal. A raised carbon dioxide level is the differentiating bench mark between life threatening and near fatal asthma. The ABG analysis also reveals acidemia which cannot be solely attributed to a respiratory or metabolic cause alone, and hence can be safely classified as a mixed disorder.
Tom's history is typical of atopic asthma which usually begins in childhood and is triggered by antigens from the environment, such as pollen, animal dander or dust. Upper…
Brandis, K. (n.d.). The physiology viva. Retrieved from http://www.anaesthesiamcq.com/downloads/odc.pdf
Guyton, A., & Hall, J. (2011). Guyton and hall textbook of medical physiology. (12 ed.). Mississippi: Elsevier.
Kumar Abbas, & Robbins, (2007). Basic pathology. (8 ed.). London: Saunders Company.
Myron, K. (2005, May 10). Is obesity a risk factor for asthma. Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/24118.php
T for Decision Makers in espiratory Care
X for COPD
Craig osebrock, MD, and James Donohue, MD
T for Decision Makers in espiratory Care
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an inflammatory-linked condition associated with airflow limitations to the lung tissue of a patient. Numerous disease states can be linked to the condition including asthma, bronchitis, emphysema and triggers associated with the presence of inflammatory inhalants. Epidemiologically, the strongest causative factor in COPD globally is cigarette smoke (Lopez, 2006). The authors present the prescription pharmacological factors associated with COPD treatment focusing on clinical pharmacology, clinical data and meta-analysis data to demonstrate treatment options and effectiveness. The primary recommendation for COPD management is cessation of smoking and avoidance of tobacco and nuisance particles. Following a discussion of smoking cessation, the authors discuss the types and use of pharmacotherapy in treating COPD.
Table 1 within the publication describes the recommendations for managing…
Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, Jamison DT, Murray CJL, eds. (2006) Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors. New York: Oxford University Press; Washington, DC: The World Bank.
RT: For Decision Makers in Respiratory Care - May 2008
RX for COPD
One weakness of obert G.L. Waite's classic work of psychobiography and psychohistory, The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler (1993) is that no written evidence exists today from any psychologist or psychiatrist who actually examined Hitler, although his political opponents in Germany allegedly had reports from military psychiatrists in the First World War that Hitler was no promoted above private first class because of mental and emotional instability. In spite of the lacunae of evidence, Waite offered a convincing medical and psychological portrait of Hitler, and he has gathered considerable evidence to demonstrate the irrationality of his subject, who he diagnosed as a borderline psychotic. George Victor asserted in Hitler: The Pathology of Evil (2007) claimed that he had a depressive nervous breakdown in 1909 and a schizophrenic breakdown in 1918, when he was in the Pasewalk military hospital in Berlin. In A First-ate Madness, Nassir Ghaemi found that Hitler…
Ghaemi, N. (2011). A First-Rate Madness: Uncovering the Links between Leadership and Mental Illness. Penguin Press.
Housden, M. (2000). Hitler: Study of a Revolutionary? Routledge.
Kershaw, I. (2008). Hitler: A Biography. NY: Norton.
Rosenbaum, R. (1998). Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil. NY: HarperCollins.
Critical thinking to me is a useful tool because it allows someone to deduce and interpret scenarios and the world around them. So much relies on making the right choices. From going to a good school to picking a worthwhile major, to who to marry. Everything happens in accordance to how one reacts and does things.
Critical thinking enables a more effective thought process. It promotes asking questions and a desire to see the "whole picture." If one does not try to see things from a varied perspective, one misses what the actual meaning behind something is since subjectivity differs from reality. Various authors like Bedau and Barnet, Chaffee, McMahon and Stout, and Facione will highlight what critical thinking is to them and how one may apply critical thinking to their own contemplations and writing. I define critical thinking as a means of connecting and interpreting thoughts and concepts.
Barnet, Sylvan, and Hugo Adam Bedau. Current Issues And Enduring Questions. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2014. Print.
Chaffee, John, Christine McMahon, and Barbara Stout. Critical Thinking, Thoughtful Writing. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1999. Print.
Facione, Peter A. Critical Thinking. Millbrae, CA: California Academic Press, 1998. Print.
Asthma is a serious chronic illness that can wreak havoc in a person’s life. Whether young or old, treatment options can either help or hurt an asthma patient. Doctors and health professionals sometimes use the stepwise approach to help narrow down appropriate treatment options. While the stepwise approach has its place in treating asthma patients, there is also a need to research what recent options there are to help patients have a better quality of life with asthma. These recent options paired with a stepwise approach can better prepare the doctor or health professional in giving high quality care to his/her patient.
Asthma Treatment Options
Every case of asthma demands proper assessment of circumstances and a tailored response to treatment. The right medication for someone who is male and aged 10 with low BMI may not work for someone who is older, female, and with higher BMI. Also, severity…