Steroids Essays (Examples)

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Steroid Use Controversies of the

Words: 5176 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32219224

e., their use of anabolic steroids (and whether they had ever been offered steroids), their involvement in power sports, appearance and eating problems, and problem behavior. Background information about the participants included their degree of urbanization, parental socioeconomic status and the region to which they belonged.

Analyses of the study's results show that the prevalence of steroid use among Norwegian youth was lower (lifetime use was 0.8% and 12 months prevalence was 0.3%) than in several other Western societies such as the U.S. (2.5% to 7%) and in Australia, Canada, Sweden and South Africa (2% to 3.5%). It also showed that AAS use was first and foremost associated with problem behavior (i.e., drug [marijuana] involvement and aggressive-type conduct problems). Its relation with power sports and appearance came in at second and third place respectively.

The study is, therefore, significant in highlighting the hitherto largely ignored area of problem behavior in…… [Read More]

References

Admissions before BALCO grand jury detailed." (2004, December). ESPN.com. Retrieved on November 1, 2005 at http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/news/story?id=1936592

Anabolic Steroid Abuse." (2000, April). National Institute on Drug Abuse: Research Report Series. Retrieved on November 1, 2005 at http://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/RRSteroi.pdf

Langone, J. (1995). Tough Choices A Book about Substance Abuse. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Miller, R.W. (1987, November). Athletes and Steroids: Playing a Deadly Game. FDA Consumer, 21, 16+.
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Steroid Use in High School

Words: 1695 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56345261

Bonds than his fellow African-Americans."

Recently, it has come to the attention of the media and others that the drug called, "human growth hormone" (HGH) is being used by some major league baseball players. An article in USA Today (Nightengale, 2007) points out through secondary reporting of data that Rick Ankiel (St. Louis Cardinals), Jay Gibbons (Baltimore Orioles) and Troy Glaus (Blue Jays) have been implicated in the use of HGH. This information was made available because an investigation of a Florida pharmacy by the federal government (reported by Sports Illustrated and the New York Daily News) turned up receipts detailing transactions between those players and the pharmacy.

According to the article, a quantitative piece, by taking HGH (another performance-enhancing substance) players may be able to "avert positive steroid tests." How can they do that? "Taking HGH enables you to take lower doses of anabolic steroids," journalist Bob Nightengale quotes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dowshen, Steven. (2007). Steroids. KidsHealth. Retrieved September 14, 2007, at  http://kidshealth.org .

Economist. (2007). Curb your enthusiasm. 384(8541), p. 28.

Kopkowski, Cynthia. (2007). Home Field Disadvantages. NEA Today, 25(6), p. 23.

National Institute of Drug Addiction. (2007). NIDA InfoFacts: Steroids (Anabolic-Androgenic)
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Anabolic Steroid and Performance Enhancing Drug Use

Words: 3144 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41892521

Anabolic Steroid and Performance Enhancing Drug Use

Among High School Athletes

Anabolic steroid use has, at least in the past, been prevalent among major college and, especially, professional sports. Major League Baseball implemented a drug testing regimen very recently after backlash from fans made it an issue that the sport believed it had to listen to. The National Football League has a testing program that has been in place since 1989, and other sports have also begun programs to test for anabolic steroids and other performance enhancing drugs (PED) to ensure that there is a level playing field among all of their athletes. Unfortunately this testing has led to consequences for some athletes.

Some notable case of athletes being either stripped of honors or not being selected for honors because they acknowledged PED or steroid use have occurred in recent times. Lance Armstrong was recently stripped of all of his…… [Read More]

References

Denham, BE. (2006). Effects of mass communication on attitudes toward anabolic steroids: An analysis of high school seniors. Journal of Drug Issues, 36(4), 809- 823.

Green, G.A. (2007). The prevalence of anabolic steroid use by Southern California high school athletes. LA84 Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.la84foundation.org/3 CE/AnabolicSteroidsSouthernCaliforniaHighScho ol.pdf

Liberatore, S. (2009). Q: I have a lot of competitive athletes in my classes. If they decide to use steroids, what effect will this have on their health? The Science Teacher, 76(1), 70.

Martin, J., & Govender, K. (2011). Making muscle junkies: Investigating traditional masculine ideology, body image discrepancy, and the pursuit of muscularity in adolescent males. International Journal of Men's Health, 10(3), 220-233.
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New Steroid and Drug Policy

Words: 1103 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36894362

It seems that society places so much pressure on these heroes, too, that to appear larger than life, drugs are often the way they cope with pressure and stress. They make themselves "larger than life" with steroids to help reduce the pressure and the stress of their profession and their managers.

This may not be a public safety issue in the larger aspect of wearing seat belts or not driving after drinking, but it certainly is a public safety issue when it comes to the morals and ethics in our society - especially children. Children do imitate their heroes to a large extent, and baseball players, along with other professional athletes, are heroes to many children (and adults). Thus, children may get the idea that if their hero uses steroids or other performance-enhancing drugs, so should they. This is a moral and ethical issue in that it teaches children that…… [Read More]

References

Author not Available. "Caminiti Comes Clean." Sports Illustrated.com. 28 May 2002. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/si_online/special_report/steroids/

Bodley, Hal. "Palmeiro Suspended for Steroids Policy Violation." USA Today. 1 Aug. 2005. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/baseball/al/orioles/2005-08-01-palmeiro-suspension_x.htm

Jenkins, Chris. "Players Admit Steroids Changed Baseball. USA Today. 15 March 2005. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/baseball/2005-03-15-steroids-mlb-cover_x.htm
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English Topic Steroid I Specific Details Topic

Words: 2834 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40751721

english topic Steroid. I specific details topic Steroid Use Sports. steroid ? famous types steroid sport function type. good bad effective steroid athletes steroid ? steroid affect short-term long-term.

Steroids: are they a necessary evil?

Society traditionally encouraged people to experience progress in any field that they possibly could and this made it difficult for some to keep up with the fact that the world was constantly changing. In their struggle to keep up and even to be recognized for their contributions, some individuals have turned to using controversial methods. Athletes are provided with difficult choices as they feel the need to satisfy the needs of their fans. Society is indirectly responsible for the fact that some athletes use steroids because of the pressure that it puts on their shoulders. Many athletes today use steroids at the expense of their own health because they know that this is one of…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Dilingham, Michael, "Steroids, Sports and the Ethics of Winning," Retrieved December 4, 2011, from the Santa Clara University Website: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/ethicalperspectives/steriods-ethics.html

Dodgshon, Robert, The Age of the Clans: The Highlands from Somerled to the Clearances (Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2002)

Hecht, Annabel, "Anabolic Steroids: Pumping Trouble," FDA Consumer Sept. 1984

Sender Aaron J. "Anabolic Steroids for non-therapeutic use," Retrieved December 4, 2011, from the New York University Website: http://www.nyu.edu/classes/jaeger/anabolic_steroids.htm
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Legal Implications of Steroid Use

Words: 1711 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88637779

, 2003, p. 3).

Conclusion

The research showed that the use of various performance-enhancing substances is not new, but the controversies associated with the use of anabolic steroids, particularly by young athletes, has assumed increasing importance in recent years. More and more studies have shown that the use of these substances typically begins during the formative adolescent years, a practice that can have lifelong consequences in terms of physical problems and growth constraints. Moreover, there are profound moral and legal issues involved in the use of such performance enhancers, and while many observers might question that legality of such testing programs at the high school and collegiate level, the high incidence of use in recent years clearly indicates that more needs to be at all levels to help prevent young athletes from beginning to use these substances, and to help those who have already started to stop.

eferences

Allison, P.C.,…… [Read More]

References

Allison, P.C., Diacin, M.J., & Parks, J.B. (2003). Voices of male athletes on drug use, drug testing and the existing order in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1), 1.

Hill v. National Collegiate Athletic Association, 865 P. 2d 633 (1994).

NCAA. (1998, November). NCAA drug-testing protocol, 1998-99. Overland Park, KS, in Allison, Diacin, & Parks, 2003, p. 3.

Pedersen, W., & Wichstrom, L. (2001). Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in adolescence: Winning, looking good or being bad? Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62(1), 5.
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Depression Caused by Steroid Use

Words: 2383 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9044167

The affects of precursory steroidal compounds is difficult to determine due to differences in how adolescent bodies process them, but they may have an impact on social behavior similar to steroidal compounds, therefore, use of these substances will be included in this study as well.

A key area of research focused on treatment of the symptoms of depression and aggression caused by steroid use. Effective treatment was achieved through the use of common antidepressants (Schule, et. al, 2003). This is an important body of research, as it provides the guidance counselor with choices in treating students found to be affected by steroid use. Knowing that there are treatment options available through mental health channels will help in the development of treatment strategies for students whose social lives are being negatively influenced by steroid use.

The literature revealed many facets of academic research that will have an impact on the conduct…… [Read More]

References

Fish, L., Goldberg, L., and Spratt, D. (2005). Supplements, Steroid Precursors and Adolescent Heatlh. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 90 (9).

Gober, S, Klein, M., Berger, T., Vindigni, C., and Paul McCabe (2006). Steroids in Adolescence: the Cost of Achieving the Physical Ideal. NASP Communique, 34 (7). Retrieved April 18, 2008 at http://www.nasponline.org/publications/cq/cq347steroids.aspx.

Goodyer, I. (2002). Social adversity and mental functions in adolescents at high risk of psychopathology, the British Journal of Psychiatry 18, 383-386.

Melloni, R. (2006). Animal Models Show That Anabolic Steroids Flip the Adolescent Brain's Switch for Aggressive Behavior. American Psychological Association. Retrieved April 18, 2008 at http://www.apa.org/releases/steroids0226.html.
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MLB Players MLB Baseball Players

Words: 491 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73274232



easons for MLB Players

Furthermore, MLB owners have enjoyed high double-digit return-on-investment for many years. By showing teenagers that steroids are not the cool nor healthy way to become more physical fit, they finally have the opportunity to show the world that they are not all Montgomery Burns (Saving the Puerto ican League).

If most people believe that the way to get ahead is to work hard, then most people will work hard, and more wealth will be created. On the other hand, if people believe that wealthy people should not have to work, then people will attempt to gain wealth without working, leading to a zero-sum economy. If most people expect public officials to be honest, then dishonest officials will be identified and punished" (eforming Our Beliefs Concerning Health Care).

Conclusion

From there, MLB baseball players participate to prevent teenage athletes' steroid use because they want to present a…… [Read More]

References

Steroid Use in Teen Athletes. http://www.***.ca/lib/essay/69_4.html

Saving the Puerto Rican League.  http://sportslaw.blogspot.com/2007_08_01_archive.html 

Reforming Our Beliefs Concerning Health Care. http://www.tcsdaily.com/article.aspx?id=062107A

Politics.  http://grg51.typepad.com/steroid_nation/politics/index.html
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Clinical Problem of Interest

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98420570

Clinical Problem of Interest

Anabolic Steroids and Their Effects on the Body

Even though governing bodies and media reports may have a person thinking otherwise, the use of anabolic steroids by athletes is nothing new or unique. The use of these drugs has been going on for some time throughout many different kinds of sports, and there is no reason to think that it will stop, despite the illegality of it and the dangers that are seen when athletes engage in the use of anabolic steroids and other drugs believed to enhance performance. The biological and psychological effects can be very strong, and can include an increase in desire for sex, aggressiveness, and an increase in behaviors that are typically considered to be masculine (Graham, et al., 2008). These behaviors can also include sleep disorders, paranoia, euphoria, confusion, hallucinations, and anxiety (Graham, et al., 2008). Naturally, these are the kinds…… [Read More]

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High and Inside in the Newsweek Magazine

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89267419

High and Inside

In the Newsweek Magazine article "High and Inside" by Mark Starr, the issue of illegal drug use among professional sports players is given focus. Citing particularly the case of American baseball stars, Starr puts forth the argument that the issue illegal drug use such as subsistence to steroid injections goes beyond the fact that it is illegal -- the bigger issue at hand is that such a system prevails in sports organizations because it is supported and encouraged by everyone in it.

In arguing this primary thesis of the article, Starr exemplifies the case of baseball star Jason Giambi as one of the models of how the proliferation of illegal drug use has made it so common and an imperative requirement for a professional athlete. Chronicling Giambi's career as a professional baseball player, the article details how, just before the peak of his career, he had already…… [Read More]

Work cited

Starr, M. (2004). "High and Inside." Newsweek Magazine. Available at: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6652658/site/newsweek.
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Public Affairs Management MLB and

Words: 732 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42183883

The critics of the drug testing policies argue, however, that the policies work to unfairly single out specific athletes for close scrutiny, tempts many of these same athletes to find ways to cheat the test, and that testing also violates the Constitutional right of privacy (McCabe & icciardelli, 2001).

Analysis

Both arguments are significant, but the main point is that these testing policies and the steroid use that they are involved with have to be dealt with by those that handle public relations, both involving the players and the media/public. Without these public relations individuals, the players could have serious problems with the way that they were viewed by the public, and those that want or do not want the testing could also be viewed rather harshly, so it is important that they have good public relations. This is not always easy, as there are many issues that must be…… [Read More]

References

Diacin, M.J., Parks, J.B., & Allison, P.C. (2003). Voices of male athletes on drug use, drug testing, and the existing order in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1): 1-16

McCabe, M.P., & Ricciardelli, L.A. (2001). Parent, peer, and media influences on body image and strategies to both increase and decrease body size among adolescent boys and girls. Adolescence, 36: 225-240.

Yesalis, C.E., Kennedy, N.J., Kopstein, A.N., & Bahrke, M.S. (1993). Anabolic-androgenic steroid use in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270:1217-1221.
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Physical Privacy in Many Sports

Words: 1067 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71546174

In his preparation for a career in sports, an unethical coach or teammate may present the boy with steroids to enhance his physical performance, with the claim that Rodriguez advocates the use of such substances.

Furthermore, Rodriguez's apparent lack of remorse and his adherence to the claim that he was "young and stupid" creates a poor image for both the sport, its stars, and its followers. It furthermore indicates that being young precludes a person from making wise choices, and that only a maturity in years could bring the wisdom necessary to say no to performance-enhancing drugs.

This also has an effect upon parenting, and the ability of parents to influence children for their best benefit. tars such as Rodriguez indirectly promote drugs by means of their behavior. Jeopardizing good parenting in this way also influences the stability of the family and hence of society as a whole. It is…… [Read More]

Sources

Inman, Cam. (2009, Feb 17). Candid Cam: A*Rod, steroids and "My Cousin Vinny." http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=1646806551&SrchMo de=1&sid=21&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1236294835 & clientId=29440

Schneider, Angela J. (2007) Doping in Sport: Global Ethical Issues. Routledge.
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Bdd in Men Various Problems

Words: 2572 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64723294

"

In addition, to media images that bombard men there are also biological factors that influence the development of BDD in men.

According to an article entitled "Bigger Isn't Always Better - muscle dysmorphia in men" the most severe cases of muscle dysmorphia involve a biological predisposition for the disease (Bartlett 2001). The author explains that from a biological standpoint the man suffering with the disease has a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder (Bartlett 2001). For instance someone who washes his hands 10 times per day is normal, however washing your hands one hundred times per day to the point that it hampers with the rest of your life is a symptom of a greater problem (Bartlett 2001). According to the article this example is used to illustrate "there isn't anything pathological about going to the gym regularly or dieting," but there is a problem when "a huge number of boys…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bartlett J. (2001) Bigger Isn't Always Better - muscle dysmorphia in men

American Fitness. Retrieved July 8, 2005 from; http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0675/is_1_19/ai_69651755

First Controlled Study of Muscle Dysmorphia Published, 2005. Retrieved July 8, 2005 from; http://www.driesen.com/muscle_dysmorphia.htm

Grieve F.G., Lorenzen L.A., Thomas a. (2004) Exposure to Muscular Male Models Decreases Men's Body Satisfaction.Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Volume: 51: 743+.
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Treatments for Rosacea

Words: 740 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36655106

Treatments for Rosacea

Rosacea is a medical condition characterized by reddening of the skin. The face primarily will turn red in hue. Sores may appear on the skin as well. The face may also swell to some degree. It is an unfortunate condition where patients not only have to deal with the illness itself, but also with psychological ramifications from feeling unattractive due to the skin pigments or lesions. Although there is currently no cure for Rosacea, scientists have researched various treatments to help patients suffering from the condition.

In the article, "Treatment of Rosacea with Intense Pulsed Light," researchers Papageorgiou et. al consider how ultra violet and pulsed light might positively treat skin conditions like Rosacea. During this particular experiment, the researchers tested 34 patients who were given treatments every three weeks for a total of twelve weeks. More than 70% of patients experienced at least a 50% reduction…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lee, DH, Li, K.K., & Suh, DH "Pimecrolimus 1% Cream for the Treatment of Steroid-

Induced Rosacea: an 8-week Split-Face Clinical Trial." British Journal of Dermatology. (158:5). 2008. 1069-76. Print.

Papageorgiou, P.P., Clayton, W.W., Norwood, S.S., Chopra, S.S., & Rustin, M.M. "Treatment of Rosacea with Intense Pulsed Light: Significant Improvement and Long-Lasting Results." British Journal of Dermatology. (159:3). 2008. 628-32. Print.

Sharquie, K.E., Najim, R.A., & Al-Salman, H.N. "Oral Zinc Sulfate in the Treatment of Rosacea: a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study." International Journal of Dermatology. (45:7). 2006. 857-61. Print.
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Osmoregulation Endocrines Osmoregulation Is the Process by

Words: 2423 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75085230

Osmoregulation

Endocrines Osmoregulation

Osmoregulation is the process, by which the body adjusts to a change in an environment of different water volume and amount of solutes in a cells and body fluid of organisms including vertebrates. Vertebrates are animals, which have a backbone, and can be warm either blooded or cold blooded. The body of such organisms adjusts in order to maintain the body balance both inside and outside their bodies in mild and harsh environments ranging from seawater, fresh water, and terrestrial habitats to very hostile environments. Endocrine glands found in such organisms play a major role in constant and persistent regulation of body balance, which secretes hormones directly into the blood whenever the body witnesses any environmental change (Bentley 45).

Endocrine glands present in vertebrates play a major role in controlling the level of water and salt in vertebrate's bodies. Hormones produced in vertebrates play a major role…… [Read More]

References

Bentley, P., 2002. Comparative Vertabrate Endocrinology. chicago: Cambridge university press.

Bentley, P., 2002. Endocrines and Osmoregulation. chicago: springer publishers.

Crvendish, M., 2006. Growing up with Science.. london: marshall carvendish publishers.

Kaiser, G., 2007. The Inner Bird.. New York: UBC press.
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Record Medical Administration Service for File Rationale

Words: 773 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32324816

ecord

Medical Administration Service for File

ationale in Support of Selection of Heart Transplant ecipient

Because time was of the essence in formulating this decision, this memorandum for the record sets forth the decision-making process and that was used to select the most appropriate candidate for a heart transplantation procedure. It was my responsibility as lead surgeon to select the most appropriate heart transplant recipient from a pool of three candidates, each of whom had suffered from several health-related issues that adversely affected their suitability for the transplant procedure. Therefore, in order to formulate as subjective an analysis as possible in a timely fashion, a utilitarian ethical analytical approach was used to identify the candidate that held the most promise of using the gift of additional life from the heart donor to its maximum advantage. The utilitarian ethical analysis showed that of the three potential heart transplant candidates, the 12-year-old…… [Read More]

References

Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (1989, Winter). Calculating consequences: The utilitarian approach to ethics. Issues in Ethics, 2(1), 37.

Hollingsworth, J.A., Hall, E.H. & Trinkaus, R.J. (1991). Utilitarianism: An ethical framework for compensation decision making. Review of Business, 13(3), 17-19.

Rosen, F. (2003). Classical utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. London: Routledge.
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Dubai Upon First Seeing Dubai Saunders Marvels

Words: 1303 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97942187

Dubai

Upon first seeing Dubai, Saunders marvels at the humor of the place. He finds most things about the place ironic, especially as Saunders contemplates the process of "Theming" that consumes much of Dubai's development. Like a theme park, Dubai creates an artificial atmosphere. Dubai is a city in a bubble. It is also full of the contradictions that make Dubai titillating, including the sharp differential created between ancient and modern. This differential between ancient and modern is, ironically, manifest in the Theming of the city as the ancient nomadic customs and aesthetics are turned into as much a caricature of themselves as Dubai's malls are caricatures of Western-style consumerism.

Dubai is "capitalism on steroids" because like an athlete on steroids, it is strong, powerful, and resilient with the help of artificial performance enhancers. This is why Saunders refers to the "Misconception from Afar." The reality of Dubai and the…… [Read More]

Reference

Saunders, George. "The New Mecca." GQ. Retrieved online: http://www.gq.com/news-politics/big-issues/200511/george-saunders-on-dubai?currentPage=1
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Drug Abuse in the Society

Words: 1185 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93981014

predict anabolic steroids on the controversial forefront of drugs that enhance performance. Halfway through the period, no attempt has been met from the governing bodies of sports towards the control of its use. It is only recent that North America's major governing bodies of sport came to an agreement of punishing and banning anabolic-steroids involved athletes from participating in any competition. The strict punitive measures have a primary development concern of promoting fair play and doing away with nagging health risks that are associates to androgenic-anabolic steroids. However, controversy is still in play as to whether the use of anabolic steroids is deterred by these programs in question (Hoffman & Ratamess, 2006).

The steroids, Anabolic-androgenic, are a derivation of the male sex hormone; testosterone, that is man-made. Physiologically speaking, an increase in the concentration of testosterone will stimulate the synthesis of protein with effective results in strength, body mass, and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bhasin, S., Storer, T.W., Berman, N., Callegari, C., Clevenger, B., Phillips, J., Bunnell, T.J., Tricker, R., hirazi, A. And Casaburi, R. (1996). The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in men. New England Journal of Medicine 335, 1-7.

Bhasin, S., Woodhouse, L. And Storer T.W. (2001) Proof of the effect of testosterone on skeletal muscle. Journal of Endocrinology 170, 27-38.

Hoffman, J., & Ratamess, N. (2006 ). Medical Issues Associated with Anabolic Steroid Use: Are They Exaggerated? NCBI, 182 -- 193. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3827559/

Karila T. Adverse effects of anabolic androgenic steroids on the cardiovascular, metabolic and reproductive systems of anabolic substance abusers. http://ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/laa/biola/vk/karila/adversee.pdf.
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Reinvention Identity of Code

Words: 933 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20251792

confusing gender roles in our society. ith women putting in as many hours at the office as men and 'take your daughter to work day' now implying bring a son if you have 'em -- gender roles in America continue to become blurry and obsolete lines in the sand. For example, I can not believe the number of professional athletes in Football and Baseball who have been caught abusing illegal steroids. I am sure that the recent media hype, the pressure from congress and the disgust from fans was meant to curb illegal use of anabolic steroids by younger boys, teens and men. And hopefully the message is getting through to the male population. Ah -- but, did we, ah, forget to tell the girls? "An alarming number of American girls, some as young as 9, are using bodybuilding steroids -- not necessarily to get an edge on the playing…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Girls are abusing steroids too, experts say. Ed. MSNBC. April 25, 2005. MSNBC.com. Retrieved on 29 Apr. 2005, from http://msnbc.msn.com/id/7633384

Maasik, Sonia, and Jack Solomon. Signs Of Life In The U.S.A. ADD CITY: ADD PUBLISHER, ADD YEAR.

The Associated Press. "Girls Are Abusing Steroids Too -- Often To Get That Toned Look" USA Today 25 Apr. 2005, Online. Retrieved on 29 Apr. 2005, from http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2005-04-25-girls-steroids_x.htm?POE=NEWISVA
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Drug Abuse Scenario Analysis

Words: 1958 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41487760

drives under the influence of alcohol, it is a criminal offense abbreviated as driving under the influence (DUI). However alcohol is but one of the many substances that can interfere with one's driving capability. DUI charges can also be pressed against individuals who are driving under the influence of other kinds of drugs, including illegal drugs and even prescription medication. Taking drugs and driving at the same time, whether the drugs are just prescription muscle relaxers or medicinal marijuana is illegal and a DUI offense. The argument that one took drugs because of doctor's orders is not a defense to DUI charges. Various drugs have different effects on drivers. The drugs that impair concentration, judgment, alertness and/or motor skills are regarded as dangerous and in several cases even more dangerous than alcohol. Driving while having a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of more than 0.08% or higher is illegal in the…… [Read More]

References

African-Americans, Substance Abuse and Spirituality - Minority Nurse. (2013, March 29). Retrieved from http://minoritynurse.com/african-americans-substance-abuse-and-spirituality/

Cohagan, A., Worthington, R., & Krause, R. (2013, July 3). Alcohol and Substance Abuse Evaluation . Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/805084-overview#aw2aab6b3

FindLaw. (n.d.). Driving Under the Influence of Drugs - FindLaw. Retrieved from http://dui.findlaw.com/dui-charges/driving-under-the-influence-of- drugs.html

MedlinePlus. (n.d.). Steroids: MedlinePlus. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/steroids.html
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Androstenedione in the Major League Baseball Season

Words: 1582 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84928160

Androstenedione

In the Major League aseball season of 1998, Mark McGwire became famous for breaking Roger Maris' home run record. Later it was found out that McGwire's power hitting came from a muscle building synthetic hormone called Androstenedione or Androstenediol. This supplement, nicknamed "Andro" became the first in a list of performance-enhancing substances called pro-hormones. The scrutiny of McGwire's performance was overshadowed by the fact that many professional athletes were using it. Also, this substance was not banned by the aseball Commission. This compound is called a pro-hormone because it is a precursor to testosterone. It metabolizes directly into testosterone.

There are some differences between the -dione and the -diol version. In the former, there are two carbonyl (-C=O) groups. These groups are replaced by alcohol (-C-OH) groups in the diol. For the purpose of this work, which involves really understanding the post-chemical positive and negative side effects, we can…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ruzicka, L., and A. Wettstein. "The Crystalline Production of the Testicle Hormone Testosterone." Helvetica Chimica Acta 18 (1935): 1264-75.

Kochakian, C.D., and J.R. Murlin. "Relationship of Synthetic Male Hormone Androstenedione to the Protein and Energy Metabolism of Castrated Dogs and the Protein Metabolism of a Normal Dog." Amer J. Physiol 117 (1936): 642-57.

Hacker, R., and C. Mattern. "Androstenedione." Arrowdeen Ltd. Germany: DE 42 14953 A1, 1995.

Stalheim-Smith, Ann, and Greg K. Fitch. Understanding Human Anatomy and Physiology. Minneapolis/St. Paul: West Pub. Co., 1993.pp. 1 v. (various pagings)
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Police Force to Diffuse Tense

Words: 2390 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45966480

Though women constitute only 12.7% of the sworn police force they are implicated in only 5% of the total cases registered against the use of excessive force. Statistics further indicate that women officers account for only 6% of the total dollars paid out for court settlements for The Use of Police Force 4

police abuse related cases. [DR. Kim Lonsway, 2002] It is clear that a women police officer is less likely to resort to excessive force use compared with a male police officer and this presents a clear case for more representation of women in the police force. Inducting more women would therefore be a positive step.

Another study by the University of California compared the effects of race, gender, and experience of the officer and the link to the possibility of the officer being investigated by Internal affairs for the use of excessive force. For the study, the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Amnesty International, (2008) ' Less than Lethal'? The use of Stun weapons in U.S. Law Enforcement', Accessed 14th July 2009, Available at, http://www.amnestyusa.org/uploads/LessThanLethal.pdf

2) Anthony J. Micucci & Ian M. Gomme (Oct 2005), 'American Police and Subcultural Support for the use of Excessive Force', Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol 33, Issue 5

3) BJS, (June 25, 2006) 'Citizens Complained more than 26,000 times in 2002 about Excessive Police Force', Available at, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/press/ccpufpr.htm

4) DR. Kim Lonsway, Michelle Wood & Megan Fickling et.al (2002), ' Men, Women and Police Excessive Force: A Tale of two Genders', Accessed July 13th 2009, Available at,  http://www.womenandpolicing.org/PDF/2002_Excessive_Force.pdf
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Salary Cap Now Please The

Words: 1935 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95661831

Salary Cap ? Now Please !

The Steroid era is over, hooray! Now what? Well, Major League aseball, time to catch up with the world of sports. It is time for a salary cap on player earnings. America is in the middle of a recession, unemployment continues to rise and Major League aseball must change with the times. Without shrewd decision making, now, on the part of aseballs' owners, baseball will lose fans. Fans of the game, too long disenfranchised, by eight work stoppages, the most recent nullifying an entire playoffs and World Series. Fans subjected, no matter how willingly, to widespread abuse of steroids, Human Growth Hormone and amphetamines. These same fans will not continue to pour their increasingly slim entertainment budgets into a sport dominated by the few, big spenders, only occasionally challenged by a lesser market. A product of this ilk is ultimately unsustainable. When a fans'…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Erowid. Federal Definition of Anabolic Steroids (2005). .

Maske, Mark. "After the Strike, Baseball's Disgusted Fans Decide to Strike Back." Washington post 30 April 1995: A01.

Wikipedia. Wikipedia. 12 November 2010. 12 November 2010 .

-- . Wikipedia. 12 November 2010. 12 November 2010 .
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Analyzing Substance Induced Insanity

Words: 2826 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30873673

Substance Induced Insanity

Psychosis is a psychiatric state that can either be enduring or temporary. A person suffering from the condition may experience memory lapses, incoherent speech or thoughts, lack of concentration, delusions and/or hallucinations. Other symptoms that may manifest when one is suffering from psychosis include changes in personality and exhibition of unusual behaviors. It has been established that psychosis can be caused by various substances such as marijuana, methamphetamine and alcohol. Substance induced psychosis typically occurs when an individual has been continually using stimulants over a long period of time. The two most common substances or stimulants known to induce psychosis are methamphetamine and amphetamine. Apart from these drugs, the 'designer' drugs have also been found to induce the condition. Individuals suffering from substance-induced psychosis may exhibit loss of contact with reality and they may also become fixated on a certain action or place and may engage in…… [Read More]

References

Alcoholrehab. (2016). Psychosis and substance abuse. Retrieved from http://alcoholrehab.com/drug-addiction/psychosis-and-substance-abuse/

Bal, B. S. (2009). An introduction to medical malpractice in the United States. Clin Orthop Relat, 467(2): 339-347.

Beck, M. (2011). Confusing medical ailments with medical illness. Retrieved from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424053111904480904576496271983911668

Bourget, D. (2013). Forensic Considerations of Substance-Induced Psychosis. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law, 41(2), 168-173
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Analyzing Scandal and Controversy in Sports

Words: 2629 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23260718

Scandal/Controversy in Sports

The following will take a look to see if scandal and controversy benefit sports.

Background of Sports Industry and Scandals

Sports in the U.S. is a multi-billion-dollar industry. Companies try to engage with clients by aligning the services and products they offer with this well-known industry via sports funding and endorsement. The benefit of this involvement has been well-recorded in the sports marketing literature (Hughes and Shank, 2005). The effect on business brands in case a scandal surfaces regarding an athletic supporter like a player, coach, or a team however, is less well-known. Several sports scandals, for instance, the rape case surrounding Kobe Bryant and the University of Colorado recruitment scandal raise very serious questions regarding the effect of sports scandals on amateur and professional athletic institutions, participants, sponsors, as well as other stakeholders.

Whereas conventional corporate sports supporters like Nike maintain omnipresence, several other different kinds…… [Read More]

References

Alessi. (2014). TheRichest - The World's Most Entertaining Site. Top 10 Sports Betting Scandals and Controversies - TheRichest. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.therichest.com/sports/top-10-sports-betting-scandals-and-controversies/

Doorty, A. (2016). Odyssey. Is Scandal Good for Baseball? Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.theodysseyonline.com/are-scandals-good-for-baseball

Fisher, R., & Wakefield, K. (1998). Factors leading to group identification: A field study of winners and losers. Psychology & Marketing, 15(1). Retrieved, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199801)15:1%3C23::AID-MAR3%3E3.0.CO;2-P/abstract

Garg. (2010). The Hoya. Scandals Show Need to Pay College Athletes. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.thehoya.com/scandals-show-need-to-pay-college-athletes/
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Ethics on Sports It Is

Words: 5409 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90192963

D., What is Altitude Training section). The Website promoting products that Hypoxico Altitude Training Systems offers, reports that when a person is exposed to hypoxia, oxygen reduced environments, his/her body "struggles to produce required amounts of energy with less available oxygen. This struggle triggers the onset of a range of physiological adaptations geared towards enhancing the efficiency of the body's respiratory, cardiovascular and oxygen utilization systems" (Hypoxico Altitude Training, N.D., Why it Works section). In consideration of controversial perceptions regarding ethical conclusions relating to hypoxico, Lippi, Guides and Franchini stress that the "spirit of sport" needs to be developed to include the notion of ethics and authenticity. Lippi, Guides and Franchini, nevertheless, report that they do not entirely agree with the assumption that teleologically, no evidence suggests that more harm than good comes from these particular devices. They note that a universal ban on passive training regimens, such as hypoxic,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Avans, D.E. (2007). Youth and ethical dilemmas in sport. Research Quarterly for Exercise

and Sport. American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.

Retrieved June 04, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1160166064.html

Bach, G. (2006). The Parents association for youth sports: A proactive method of spectator behavior management. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 77(6), 16+. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017424445
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How Cultural Differences Affect Job Satisfaction

Words: 1361 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41403755

International Organizational Behavior-Cultural Differences in Job Satisfaction and Motivation

As the forces of globalization continue to reshape the international marketplace, understanding cross-cultural differences in job satisfaction and motivation has assumed new importance and relevance. To this end, this paper provides a comparison of the United States with two of its major trading partners, China and Canada, drawing on Geert Hofstede's five cultural dimensions. A comparison of the U.S. with these two countries using Hofstede's five cultural dimensions is followed by an analysis concerning how various job factors contribute to satisfaction in different cultures. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the implications of cross-cultural factors for international organizational behaviorists in promoting job satisfaction and motivation are presented in the conclusion.

eview and Discussion

While it is reasonable to suggest that the overwhelming majority of people in the world work to earn a living, making pay and benefits…… [Read More]

References

Kim, Y-J & Na, J-H (2007, July). Effects of celebrity athlete endorsement on attitude towards the product: The role of credibility, attractiveness and the concept of congruence. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, 8(4), 310-314.

Sablosky, T. L. (2009, May). Did you get the message? In this era of far-flung branch locations, new methods of internal communication-such as teleconferences, videoconferences and intranets-are growing in popularity. ABA Bank Marketing, 37(4), 26-29.
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Community Prevention Drug Use Among

Words: 1195 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3917255

The selective type would enable me to make optimal use of the specific factors that are relevant to my target group. This IOM type would also enable me to identify cases of prior and current drug use, and to refer these to specialized groups and programs for help. The selective type is therefore optimal for the specific sector of society that I want to target.

Best Practice Program

From the "Best Practice Programs," I chose "Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid teroids: The ATLA Program," because it specifically focuses on high school athletes as a target group. While it focuses mostly on one particular kind of drug, I would perhaps modify it to address the specific problems, risks and protective factors of my target group.

The ATLA program focuses on male high school athletes and aims at reducing the risk factors involved in the use of anabolic steroids and other…… [Read More]

Sources

CASAT. Best Practice: Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids: The ATLAS Program

http://casat.unr.edu/bestpractices/view.php?program=7

Institute of Medicine. Projects: Adolescent Health Care Services and Models of Care for Treatment, Prevention, and Healthy Development http://www.iom.edu/CMS/12552/35625.aspx
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Analgesic Systems Roles of Stress

Words: 1726 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99036369

Gonadectomy alters the magnitude of CCS and ICS analgesia and alters the relationship between the gender-specific effects observed in sham-treated rats. Castration significantly decreased the magnitude of CCS analgesia on the tail-flick and jump tests, and the magnitude of ICS analgesia on the jump test. Indeed castration reduced the magnitude of CCS and ICS analgesia in males to that observed for sham-treated female rats.

Conclusion

Given the multitude of CNS substrates and systems underlying both opioid and stress analgesia, and the likelihood that only a little differ amid sexes, we could rationally expect to come across sex differences in opioid analgesic efficacy in some occasions, depending solely on the nature of the ache incentive and opioid involved, as outlined earlier. It is important to also note that sex differences are no defined to opioid drugs in analgesia. Furthermore, commencement of endogenous pain inhibitory mechanisms in reaction to stress also produces…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Islam, Anita K., Madeline L. Cooper, and Richard J. Bodnar. "Interactions among Aging, Gender, and Gonadectomy Effects Upon Morphine Antinociception in Rats." Physiology and Behavior 54 (1993): 45-53. Print.

Romero, Maria-Teresa, et al. "Gender-Specific and Gonadectomy-Specific Effects Upon Swim Analgesia: Role of Steroid Replacement Therapy." Physiology and Behavior 44 (1988): 257-65. Print.

Romero, Maria-Teresa, et al. "Modulation of Gender-Specific Effects Upon Swim Analgesia in Gonadectomized Rats." Physiology and Behavior 40 (1987): 39-45. Print.
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Pharmacological and Non-Pharmacological Treatment of

Words: 4160 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32059248

).

Non-Pharmacological Management of Plantar Fasciitis

The ideal management of plantar fasciitis is prevention, which is through appropriate warm-up exercises, quality shoes and exercises at an appropriate training level on a safe surface (Miller 2004).

arrett and O'Malley (1999) recommend a conservative treatment that addresses the inflammatory element causing the discomfort and the biomechanical factors producing the disorder. To complement the treatment, the patient should be adequately educated on the etiology of their pain, the biochemical factors that produce the symptoms, home therapy that can relieve some of the discomforts and changes that must be introduced to their daily activities, such as wearing suitable athletic shoes with enough medial arch while walking. If the patient has had an increase in exercise or activity associated with the symptoms, he or she should adopt a less straining regimen until the plantar fasciitis condition resolves (arrett and O'Malley).

1. A removable longitudinal metatarsal…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barrett, S.L. And O'Malley, R. 1999, Plantar Fasciitis and Other Causes of Heel Pain, vol 59 number 8, American Academy of Family Physicians. http://www.aafp.org/afg/990415ap/2200.html

Beck, K 2005, Carrie Tollefson: a Case Study in Talent, Tenacity and Treatment, January-February, Running Times Magazine. http://www.runningtimes.com/issues/05janfeb/tollefson.htm

Edwards, a. 2003, Plantar Fasciitis Treatment Steps into New Territory, CMP Media LLC. http://www.biomech.com/db_area/archives/2003/0309.roundtable.bio

Lukowsky, M 2005, Pedorthic Management of Plantar Fasciitis, Comfort Shoe Specialists. http://www.comfortshoe.com/pedorthic_management_of_plantar_html
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Professional Ball Players Making More Money Than Soldiers in Combat

Words: 1603 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95245425

message to people in our society that professional baseball players and other athletes make more than soldiers in combat. This message must be fundamentally questioned, given the disproportionate degree of significance we give to the careers of athletes. Big name athletes are touted as role models, while ordinary soldiers are largely ignored, or at best given a few words in print if they distinguish themselves heroically in combat. The discrepancy between the utility of certain occupations such as soldiers and nurses, versus occupations such as professional baseball players and entertainers, and the disproportionate salaries made by the latter have caused many to question the fairness of how salaries are allocated within our society. Many of the arguments cited in favor of professional athletes' salaries could easily apply to other high-risk professions. This paper argues in favor of reducing baseball players' salaries through more aggressive salary caps as a way of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Donovan, John. "Soldiers say it is hard to return to civilian life." Talk of The Nation. NPR.

10 Oct 2011. [20 Feb 2013]

http://www.npr.org/2011/10/10/141213271/soldiers-say-its-hard-to-return-to-civilian-life

Johnson, Catlin. "Why do baseball players make so much money?" CBS News. 11 Feb 2009.
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Rcsi Institute of Leadership Ponv

Words: 1395 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64786589

PONV was not seen at 24 hours significantly lower rates of PONV at four and eight hours were found in the septoplasty group in which pharyngeal packing was not used

Habib, et al. (2010)

prospective, double-blind, randomized study

104 Patients undergoing craniotomy

Patients were randomized to receive oral aprepitant 40 mg (or matching placebo) 1 to 3 hours before induction of anesthesia or ondansetron 4 mg IV (or placebo) within 30 minutes of the end of surgery.

comparison

Data were collected at regular intervals by blinded personnel for 48 hours after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's ranked sum test and ?(2) test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

n/a

n/a

n/a

cumulative incidence of vomiting at 48 hours was 16% in the aprepitant group and 38% in the ondansetron group (P = 0.0149). The incidence of vomiting was also decreased in the aprepitant group at 2 hours…… [Read More]

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Commodification of Sport and the Implications for Youth Sport

Words: 1969 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52200613

Sports have graduated in the last half of the twentieth century from hobbies or pastimes into the pure, unadulterated pursuit of profit. In short, shorts have become a commodity to be exploited as far as the market will allow. The history of American sports has seen this process play out in a stepwise fashion; every several years developments come about that enable the enterprise to expand and increase profits. The latest changes in business that have allowed sports to enlarge have been globalization and communications technologies. Clearly, these two go hand in hand to some extent. Still, both have contributed to the acceleration of the commodification of sports; they have aided its degeneration from a pastime, into the form we see today.

If you were to ask the average American what they thought was wrong with professional sports today they would likely tell you that the amount of money athletes…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

1. Calhoun, K., & Gorman, J. (1994). The Name of the Game. New York, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

2. Cosell, H., & Whitfield, S. (1991). What's Wrong with Sports. New York, New York: Simon & Schuster.

3. Dallas Morning News. "Steroids Readily Available." Dallas Morning News, Sunday, Feb. 6, 2005.

4. Kahn, Lawrence M. (2000). "The Sports Business as a Labor Market Laboratory." The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 3, 75-94.
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Wimax Find a Need and

Words: 1441 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92410700

(Walton) "Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) and Ultra-Wide Bandwidth (UWB), new data transmission protocols, make online connections so much cheaper, faster and easier to use that it's possible to simultaneously cut costs and improve employee productivity by converting offices to wireless connectivity." (Johnston)

Comparing Types

WiMAX proposes challenges to providers of DSL, as well as, cable-modem service as its design can accommodate varying ways to transmit data. One: http://computer.howstuffworks.com/ip-telephony.htm" Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) enables individuals to use a broadband Internet connection to "phone" long-distance and internationally. (Grabianowski and Brain) Some experts foresee a close race for fixed WiMax broadband services to win over other broadband technologies. Others who study this issue contend, however, as WiMAX can provide the bandwidth, identical to fiber alternatives, including, DSL, at a fair, marketable expense, it can convinces competitors' customers to switch to their fixed wireless version of services. Even though controversies exist…… [Read More]

References

Accelerating WiMAX System Design with FPGA's." Retrieved on May 22, 2006 at http://www.altera.com/literature/wp/wp_wimax.pdf.(2004).

Bielski, Lauren. "Breakout Systems and Applications Give Bankers New Options." ABA

Banking Journal 97.6 (2005): 61+.

Courtney, M. "A tale of two WiMax rollouts." Computing, May 2006. Retrieved May 27, 2006 at http://www.computing.co.uk/itweek/comment/2152774/tale-two-wimax-rollouts.
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Ten Forces That Flatten the

Words: 2745 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53856468

There, they get the work done their way, with their tools and in their own space, but with much lower costs that in their native country.

Friedman is a firm believer in offshoring and states that such a process is a strong stimulant for fair and international competition. He criticizes the countries that did not yet adopt it saying that all countries should be members of the international market, regardless of their social or economical background.

To explain this idea, the author makes an exaggerated comparison. He says: "Every morning in Africa, a gazelle wakes up. It knows it must run faster than the fastest lion or it will be killed. Every morning a lion wakes up. It knows it must run faster than the slowest gazelle or it will starve to death. It doesn't matter whether you are a lion or a gazelle. When the sun comes up, you…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Thomas L. Friedman, the World is Flat, Chapter two: The Ten Forces that Flatten the World, pages 48 to 172

The Official Web Site of the University of Tennessee, University Libraries, Ready for the World, Thomas Friedman's flatteners, by Martha Rudolph, posted on March 2, 2006 http://www.lib.utk.edu/news/readyfortheworld/archives/the_world_is_flat.html, last accessed on October 5, 2006

James Berry, Review on the book the World is Flat, posted on April 19, 2006 http://www.ada.org/prof/resources/pubs/adanews/adanewsarticle.asp?articleid=1884,last accessed on October 5, 2006

Howard Rheingold, Seven Ways to See What's Next, winter 2005
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World Is Flat A Brief

Words: 2218 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16365082

Friedman considers insourcing to be flattener number eight, because it allows small companies to compete like major supply-chain companies. Insourcing refers to hiring another company to handle a company's supply chain. UPS is the major supplier for insourcing services in the United States. Friedman believes that insourcing flattens in three ways: by letting little companies compete in the global market; by dissolving barriers between companies; and by standardizing business practices across companies.

Finally, Friedman looks at a group of flatteners that he refers to as the steroids. These are small flatteners that have the effect of amplifying the other flatteners. Mobile steroids are those technologies allowing people to work in non-traditional environments and include cellular phones, laptops, and wireless internet access. Personal steroids are those things that give power to the individual, and include personal computers, search engines, and peer-to-peer file sharing. While these flatteners are not powerful enough to…… [Read More]

References

Friedman, T. (2007). The world is flat: a brief history of the twenty-first century. New York:

Picador.
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Biology Culture and Gender the

Words: 559 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69426928

This may be responsible for gender identity misidentification when factors other than apparent external genital structure conflict with other elements. For this reason, Fausto-Sterling argues that infants born with ambiguous genitalia should not receive surgery until later in life when they begin to express their natural gender identity.

Sex Hormones vs. Steroid Hormones:

Faustino-Sterling also objects to the very definition of human steroid hormones as "sex hormones" because they exert many more effects on the developing human body than merely those related to determining gender and sexuality. The author traces the history of traditional views about the role of human hormones and gender back to experiments on rodents before World War II through the Organizational/Activational Model of hormone activity (p214) based on the effects of exposure to specific types (and levels) of hormones during human gestation that dictate gender-specific behaviors in puberty.

The author suggests that the more accurate view…… [Read More]

References Cited

Fausto-Sterling, Anne

(2000) Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality. Basic Books.
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1 As She Suffers From

Words: 2770 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15201917

Woods up with an exercise group close to her house, or a support group
who could help her with adjusting to her new diagnosis and give her
support. The social worker and the nursing staff would also be able to
educate Mrs. Woods' family on the condition and what needs to be done to
maximize her bone health.
5. Should Mrs. Woods have a history of renal calculi; care will be
taken for the administration of calcium supplements. Any supplement she
would take would need co-administration of Vitamin D for proper absorption.
Hormone replacement therapy is no longer considered to be a stable of
treatment due to concerns about heart disease. Additionally, there was no
significant evidence of fracture reduction of the HES study, so the risk
of thrombosis and breast cancer probably outweighs the need for HT.
Selective estrogen receptor modifiers are other alternatives which preserve
bone density but…… [Read More]

Reference
1. Libanati CR, Baylink DJ. (1997) Prevention and treatment of
glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. A pathogenetic
perspective. Chest. 102:1426-35.
. 2. Sambrook P, Birmingham J, Kelly P, et al. Prevention of
corticosteroid osteoporosis: A comparison of calcium,
calcitriol and calcitonin. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1747-1752
2. Heaney RP. (1998) Pathophysiology of osteoporosis. Endocrin
Metabol Clin North Am.;27:255-65.
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Ladies and Gentlemen There Is a Saying

Words: 693 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64118690

ladies and gentlemen! There is a saying that goes, "Vice seen is better than vice unseen." I mentioned this to relate to a problem we have had with regards to our major league sports players -- the use of performance enhancing drugs "such as anabolic steroids, androstenedione, human growth hormone, erythropoietin, diuretics, creatine and stimulants (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010)." The problem is not new and has been a challenge because of the gravity of the situation. There is no lack of cases and statistics that show how many major league players have been caught using these performance enhancing drugs, which by the way is banned and illegal. ut my issue is how come these drugs are not allowed? Those who oppose the use of steroids and other performance-enhancing drugs say that the athletes who use them are breaking the rules and getting an unfair advantage over others (Katz, 2008). In…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Balko, R. (2008, January 23). Should we allow performance enhancing drugs in sports? One argument in favor. Reason Magazine. Retrieved May 11, 2011 from  http://reason.com/archives/2008/01/23/should-we-allow-performance-en 

Katz, J. (2008, January 23). Should we accept steroid use in sports? NPR. Retrieved May 11, 2011 from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=18299098

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2010, November 5). Performance-enhancing drugs: Know the risks. Retrieved May 11, 2011 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/performance-enhancing-drugs/HQ01105
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Hormones Within the Cattle Industry

Words: 3296 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62949426

The implant is inserted into the ear and is discarded at slaughter, thus, it does not enter the human food chain (Primer pp). The hormone in the implant is released into the bloodstream very slowly ensuring the concentration of the hormone remains relatively constant and very low (Primer pp). Moreover, the prescribed dosage is the level "which produces the maximum economic response in the animal -- the law of diminishing returns -- so that there is no economic incentive for a farmer to use additional implants," and ensures that the animals taken to slaughter have normal hormone levels (Primer pp). According to the Primer, beef from a bull contains testosterone levels over ten times higher than the amount in beef from a steer that has received hormones for growth promotion (Primer pp). Therefore, since the European beef market is predominately bull-sourced, while the American meat is steer-sourced, American hormone treated…… [Read More]

Work Cited

"Battle Over Beef Hormones." BBC News Online. 13 May 1999; pp.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/the_economy/342310.stm

"EU asks for end to beef sanctions.(European Policy News)"

Agra Europe; 17 October 2003; pp.
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Hellp Syndrome Records Show That

Words: 1965 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49995775

The dexamethasone group showed meaningful improvements in several variables. After 48 hours, the women who received dexamethasone has a significantly reduced mean arterial pressure at 115 mm Hg v 94 m Hg, P < 0.05 and mean asparatate aminotransferase level at 100 IU/1 v 50 IU/1; P < 0.05. Their urine output also improved at 60 ml/h v 40 ml/h; P < 0.05 and a mean platelet count at 115-000 v 70 000; P < 0.05. The researchers concluded that their findings supported a high dose corticosteroid treatment of women with the HELLP syndrome. Although three control patients showed infectious complications, there were no statistically significant differences in morbidity.

As part of nursing and medical management, dexamethasone is often given to women with this condition and are between 24 and 34 weeks' gestation at risk of pre-term delivery to accelerate the maturation of fetal lungs (Matchaba and Moodley 2005). While…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Campbell, S. (2005). Preeclampsia Sufferers at Great Risk of HELLP Syndrome During Pregnancy. The North Scott Press. http://www.zwire.com/site/news.cfm?BRD=1839&deptAdviwarePtyLtd200/July_id_1104088newsid=13913304&PAG=461&rfi=9

Chen, P., reviewer (2004). HELLP Syndrome. University of Maryland Medical Center. http://www.umm.edu/pregnancy/specialcare/articles/hellp.html

2004). HELLP Syndrome. Medline Plus. U.S. National Library of Medicine, the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Department of Health and Human Sciences. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/00089.htm

Clenney, TL. And Vierra AJ. (2004). Costicosteroids for HELLP Syndrome, a clinical review, 329:270-272 (31 July), doi: 10.1136/bmj.329.7460.270. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. http://bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/329/7468/270
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Nursing Related Case Study Tom's Vitals in

Words: 3386 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27331105

Nursing elated Case Study

Tom's vitals, in the emergency department, revealed an elevated respiratory rate, heart rate and blood pressure. His oxygen saturation was also considerably low. Tom's Body Mass Index (BMI) falls in the overweight category. He was also a-febrile, at presentation, indicating that infection was not a precipitating cause.

Initially the ABGs were normal, indicating an acute severe exacerbation or life threatening asthma. Later, when the ABGs were repeated, carbon dioxide levels were above normal. A raised carbon dioxide level is the differentiating bench mark between life threatening and near fatal asthma. The ABG analysis also reveals acidemia which cannot be solely attributed to a respiratory or metabolic cause alone, and hence can be safely classified as a mixed disorder.

Tom's history is typical of atopic asthma which usually begins in childhood and is triggered by antigens from the environment, such as pollen, animal dander or dust. Upper…… [Read More]

REFERENCES:

Brandis, K. (n.d.). The physiology viva. Retrieved from  http://www.anaesthesiamcq.com/downloads/odc.pdf 

Guyton, A., & Hall, J. (2011). Guyton and hall textbook of medical physiology. (12 ed.). Mississippi: Elsevier.

Kumar Abbas, & Robbins, (2007). Basic pathology. (8 ed.). London: Saunders Company.

Myron, K. (2005, May 10). Is obesity a risk factor for asthma. Retrieved from  http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/24118.php
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Rt for Decision-Makers in Respiratory Care May 2008

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13039915

T for Decision Makers in espiratory Care

X for COPD

Craig osebrock, MD, and James Donohue, MD

T for Decision Makers in espiratory Care

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an inflammatory-linked condition associated with airflow limitations to the lung tissue of a patient. Numerous disease states can be linked to the condition including asthma, bronchitis, emphysema and triggers associated with the presence of inflammatory inhalants. Epidemiologically, the strongest causative factor in COPD globally is cigarette smoke (Lopez, 2006). The authors present the prescription pharmacological factors associated with COPD treatment focusing on clinical pharmacology, clinical data and meta-analysis data to demonstrate treatment options and effectiveness. The primary recommendation for COPD management is cessation of smoking and avoidance of tobacco and nuisance particles. Following a discussion of smoking cessation, the authors discuss the types and use of pharmacotherapy in treating COPD.

Table 1 within the publication describes the recommendations for managing…… [Read More]

References

Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, Jamison DT, Murray CJL, eds. (2006) Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors. New York: Oxford University Press; Washington, DC: The World Bank.

Issue Stories

RT: For Decision Makers in Respiratory Care - May 2008

RX for COPD
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Interdisciplinary Methods

Words: 3167 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7402417

Interdisciplinary Methods

One weakness of obert G.L. Waite's classic work of psychobiography and psychohistory, The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler (1993) is that no written evidence exists today from any psychologist or psychiatrist who actually examined Hitler, although his political opponents in Germany allegedly had reports from military psychiatrists in the First World War that Hitler was no promoted above private first class because of mental and emotional instability. In spite of the lacunae of evidence, Waite offered a convincing medical and psychological portrait of Hitler, and he has gathered considerable evidence to demonstrate the irrationality of his subject, who he diagnosed as a borderline psychotic. George Victor asserted in Hitler: The Pathology of Evil (2007) claimed that he had a depressive nervous breakdown in 1909 and a schizophrenic breakdown in 1918, when he was in the Pasewalk military hospital in Berlin. In A First-ate Madness, Nassir Ghaemi found that Hitler…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ghaemi, N. (2011). A First-Rate Madness: Uncovering the Links between Leadership and Mental Illness. Penguin Press.

Housden, M. (2000). Hitler: Study of a Revolutionary? Routledge.

Kershaw, I. (2008). Hitler: A Biography. NY: Norton.

Rosenbaum, R. (1998). Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil. NY: HarperCollins.
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Adolescent Substance Use Screening Instruments 10-Year Critical

Words: 14685 Length: 53 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28105173

Adolescent Substance Use Screening Instruments: 10-Year Critical eview of the esearch Literature

Over ten million teenagers in the United States admit in a national survey that they drink alcohol, although it is illegal under the age of 21 in all states. In some studies, nearly one-quarter of school-age children both smoked cigarettes and drank alcohol. Over four thousand adolescents every day try marijuana for the first time. The dangers of use, abuse and dependency on each of these substances have been established. When we also consider that these three substances are considered gateway drugs, that is, drugs whose use is likely to lead to experimentation with "hard" drugs, the potential problem of such widespread use is even more severe. Additionally, use of these substances is known to co-occur with a number of other psychiatric conditions as well as health issues such as the incidence of sexually-transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancies and…… [Read More]

References

Aarons, Gregory A.; Brown, Sandra A.; Hough, Richard L.; Garland, Ann F.; Wood, Patricia A. Prevalence of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders Across Five Sectors of Care (Statistical Data Included). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, April 2001 v40 i4 p419

Adger, Hoover Jr.; Werner, Mark J. The pediatrician (role in treatment of alcohol-related disorders). Alcohol Health and Research World, Spring 1994 v18 n2 p121 (6)

Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Symptoms of Adolescents. National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence of the San Fernando Valley, Inc. [Online]. Retrieved January 20, 2003 from http:/ / www.ncadd-sfv.org/symptoms/teen_symptoms.html

Alcohol use and abuse: a pediatric concern (American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Substance Abuse). Pediatrics, March 1995 v95 n3 p439 (4)
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Process of Critical Thinking

Words: 1536 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95569792

Critical thinking to me is a useful tool because it allows someone to deduce and interpret scenarios and the world around them. So much relies on making the right choices. From going to a good school to picking a worthwhile major, to who to marry. Everything happens in accordance to how one reacts and does things.

Critical thinking enables a more effective thought process. It promotes asking questions and a desire to see the "whole picture." If one does not try to see things from a varied perspective, one misses what the actual meaning behind something is since subjectivity differs from reality. Various authors like Bedau and Barnet, Chaffee, McMahon and Stout, and Facione will highlight what critical thinking is to them and how one may apply critical thinking to their own contemplations and writing. I define critical thinking as a means of connecting and interpreting thoughts and concepts.

Body…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barnet, Sylvan, and Hugo Adam Bedau. Current Issues And Enduring Questions. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2014. Print.

Chaffee, John, Christine McMahon, and Barbara Stout. Critical Thinking, Thoughtful Writing. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1999. Print.

Facione, Peter A. Critical Thinking. Millbrae, CA: California Academic Press, 1998. Print.
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Protein Intake in High School

Words: 813 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61914688

85 grams per 1 kilogram of protein intake is recommended (chilling 2008). Protein intake in this amount is not normally a problem for high school athletes, however female athletes tend to have a harder time making decisions for proper protein nutrition due to the perception that the additional calories will affect their body image (Elliott et al. 2008).

A proper balance of protein and carbohydrates is essential to performing at peak swimming condition, thus some athletes have turned to protein supplements and recovery drinks as ways of hitting their targeted intake levels (Hoffman et al. 2007; Petroczi et al. 2008; Rees 2007). Protein recovery drinks for post-workout recovery are a fairly benign source of protein for high school athletes, however in the critical stage of adolescent development it is vitally important that high school athletes maintain proper nutrition with whole foods prior to turning to supplements (Johnson 2008). Oftentimes the…… [Read More]

Schilling, L. 2008. What Coaches Need to Know About the Nutrition of Female High

School Athletes: A Dietitian's Perspective. Strength and Conditioning Journal:

High School Corner. 30:5. pgs. 16-17
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Curriculum Analysis Is Conducted on

Words: 767 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22960579



Less emphasis, too, should be placed on material values (such as driving, consumer education, and business) and more on academic traditional values that last and promote value. It is these that can produce a multi-faceted individual and serve the individual in all manners of his existence.

Lastly too, the school might consider offering workshops such as on ethics or social skills in its curricula. This would help the student more effectively deal with post-graduate existence and the challenges of living in an increasingly complex, diversified world.

Summary of Findings

A Curriculum Analysis provides a resource for the school to help them make certain that their philosophy/mission is begin carried out in the curriculum and make recommendations on how they can improve the means in which they align the school philosophy and policies to the curriculum.

This curriculum analysis recognizes that the philosophical beliefs and policies of LTHS are somewhat misaligned.…… [Read More]

Reference

Lyons Township High School (LTHS). About LTHS. Retrieved on January 27, 2011 from: (http://www.lths.net/About_LTHS/).

Lyons Township High School (LTHS). Code of Conduct. Retrieved on January 27, 2011 from: (http://www.lths.net/Activities/Code_of_Conduct.html).
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Brilliant Blue G On Spinal

Words: 1446 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60749023

This was finding of a research conducted on rats at the University of Rochester Medical Center in 2004. The research team, led by Dr. Maiken Nedergaard, worked on the premise that inflammation causes more irreversible and inevitable damage than the initial trauma (Henrich, Kelly, Reinhardt et al.).

The team injected the blue food dye into some of the experimental rats with spinal cord injuries (Reuters 2009, Takahiro 2009, Michaud 2009, Ehrenberg 2009). The rats at first began to move, hobbled about and turned blue. Rats, which did not receive the injection, did not walk or move at all. A substance, called ATP, is the source that keeps cells alive. The research showed that ATP runs out of control in spinal cord injury, activates an inflammation-causing molecule and kills spinal neuron cells. Treatment must be administered immediately after the injury. The experiment showed that rilliant lue G. blocks the action of…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ehrenberg, Rachel. Brilliant Blue for the Spine. Vol 176 # 5. Science News: Society

for Science and the Public, 2009. Retrieved on January 16, 2010 from  http://www.siencenews.org/view/generic/id/4593/title/Brilliant_blue_for_the_spine 

Hendrich, Bill. Blue Dye in M & M. Helps Spinal Cord Injuries? Web MD Health News:

WebMD LLC, 2009. Retrieved on January 16, 2010 from  http://www.webmd.com/brain/news/20090729/blue-dye-mms-helps-spinal-cord-injuries
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Stickball A Window Into America's

Words: 3880 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24043015

The article remarks with respect to asphalt that "a baseball will get ruined on a surface like this: it's too dense and hard for asphalt or brick, and the canvas-like surface of the ball will get chewed up. Not to mention other problems: in densely populated areas, there are a lot houses near school yards with glass windows, and we all know what happens when a baseball hits a glass window. To sum it up: while baseball is a romantically American game, and was without question our most popular pastime for about 50 years, you can't play it in the city." (Beccary, 1) Foregoing this blanket statement -- given the evolution of inner-city athletic youth programs in recent decades -- the point of Beccary's remarks remains useful. Namely, the unique game that was stickball would come to fruition in response to the desire to play baseball and the absence of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Beccary, G. (2007). A Complete History of Stickball. Greg's Words of Wisdom. Online at http://gregswords.wordpress.com/2007/04/07/a-complete-history-of-stickball/

Curry, J. (1989). Beyond Nostalgia: Reviving a Tough Game of Stickball. The New York Times. Online at  http://www.nytimes.com/1989/07/09/nyregion/beyond-nostalgia-reviving-a-tough-game-of-stickball.html 

Devlin, B. (2009). Making a Phillies Fan: Always Imagining You Were a Phillie. The New York Times. Online at http://bats.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/10/30/making-a-phillies-fan-always-imagining-you-were-a-phillie/

Greene, M. (2004). Stickball Hall of Fame. Streetplay. Online at  http://www.streetplay.com/stickball/halloffame/
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Adrenal Gland Keeping the Body

Words: 2250 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25520423

S. Congress that the prospects of stem cell research were so vast that it could touch all the realm of medicine (Connor 2000). An unlimited source of embryonic stem cells will solve the problem of shortage of transplants. Embryonic stem cells will save lives by curing generative diseases of the brain, hepatitis, diabetes, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis and diseases of the heart and kidneys. ut current laws restrict the use of stems cells on embryos less than 14 days old and for correcting fertility, reproduction or congenital disorders. The restriction is grounded in the belief that the embryo is a potential human being from the moment of conception. It thus possesses a soul and a dignity just like any other viable person (Connor). Previous scientific research presented evidence that genetically engineering cells could partly repair a defective immune system (Travis 2002). Two new studies bolstered this…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bauer, D.G. (2005). Review of the endocrine system. MedSurg Nursing: Jannetti Publications, Inc.

Connor, S. (2000). Science: the miracle cure with a catch. The London Independent: Newspaper Publishing PLC

Degen. D (2008). Body organization and homeostasis. 1 page. Bones, Muscles and Skin. Pearson Education, Inc.: Pearson Prentice Hall

Farabee, M.J. (2006). Animal organ systems and homeostasis. 18 web pages. Estrella Mountain Community College. Retrieved on February 1, 2006 at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookMUSSKEL.html
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Women's Health the History of

Words: 2733 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84753228



Baer, 2002, p. xx)

Medical issues surrounding OCs:

Medical complications associated with the utilization of oral contraceptives are varied but in general stem from both known and unknown complexities associated with the ingredients that make up OCs, as all hormones are steroids and in many cases have multi-variant biochemical effects, some known and some unknown. The complexities of steroids, of which all hormones are, demonstrate the need for a great deal of further research with regards to their use. Some more common side effects of oral contraceptives, though they can vary slightly according to brand and dosage of active ingredients are:

nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, bloating, weight change and water retention. Water retention may cause swelling of fingers or ankles. Other side effects of oral contraceptives may include nervousness, depression, dizziness, change in appetite, loss of scalp hair, rash, vaginal infections, migraine headaches, missed menstrual periods and bleeding between periods.…… [Read More]

References

Baer, J.A. (Ed.). (2002). Historical and Multicultural Encyclopedia of Women's Reproductive Rights in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Bancroft, J. (1999). Sexual Science in the 21st Century: Where Are We Going? A Personal Note. The Journal of Sex Research, 36(3), 226.

Clerics' Objections Erode U.N. Condom Stance. (2002, June 21). The Washington Times, p. A15.

Formichelli, L. (2001, January). The Male Pill. Psychology Today, 34, 16.
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Salary Cap Baseball Sports Is

Words: 1736 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99428437

Many top recruits did not flourish and become great players.

The player's union has opposed salary caps vigorously, but even players might benefit. Yes, they might not make A-od salaries. But there would be less pressure from fans and owners to perform at an unrealistic level. Baseball is attempting to transition into a kinder, gentler era, with less emphasis on using drugs to perform at a high level. Instating a salary cap would be excellent P for the sport, and improving the image of baseball and its players would be good for the game and good for the teams. And ultimately, elevating the image and level of play of teams, rather than the fortunes of a few 'star' players, is the true spirit of the game.

eferences

deMause, Neil. (2006). Baseball between the numbers: Why everything you know about the game is wrong. Excerpt available at ESNP July 23, 2011…… [Read More]

References

deMause, Neil. (2006). Baseball between the numbers: Why everything you know about the game is wrong. Excerpt available at ESNP July 23, 2011 at http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/page2/story?page=betweenthenumbers/salarycap/060405

How salary caps changed sports. (2010). Investopedia. Retrieved July 23, 2011 at http://financialedge.investopedia.com/financial-edge/0910/How-Salary-Caps-Changed-Sports.aspx

Kendrick, Scott. (2009). Salary cap in baseball? Keep dreaming. About.com.

Retrieved July 23, 2011 at http://baseball.about.com/b/2008/12/31/salary-cap-in-baseball-keep-dreaming.htm
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Gene Is Hereditary Material Made

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11632347

At the molecular level, the mutation in the normal ApoA1 is because of a single amino acid substitution at the position 173, cysteine amino acid substitutes or replaces the arginine amino acid. Because of the presence of an extra cysteine, a cysteine bridge is formed that causes great changes in the protein structure. ApoA1 protein does not have a cysteine dimer but cysteine dimer is formed on Apo1 Milano that causes the protein to exist as a homo or a hetro dimer with ApoAII (Futterman and Lemberg 246). It has been reported that he enhanced cholesterol removal efficiency is not because of the presence of extra cysteine. Based on the replacement of arginine by a cysteine residue, the charge of the protein is shifter towards cathode. Because of the mutation, it has been reported that the removal of cholesterol from the inner arterial walls is accelerated and much higher. The…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Futterman, G. Laurie., and Lemberg, Louis. "Apo A-I Milano." Am J. Crit Care 14 (2005): 244-247.

Nissen, E. Steven., Tsunoda, Taro., Tuzcu, Murat, E., Schoenhagen, Paul., Cooper, J. Christopher., Yasin, Muhammad., Eaton, M. Gregory., Lauer, A. Michael., Sheldon, W. Scott., Grines, L. Cindy., Halpern, Stephen., Crowe, Tim., and James Blankenship, C. James. "Effect of Recombinant ApoA-I Milano on Coronary Atherosclerosis in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes: A Randomized Controlled Trial." JAMA 290(2003): 2292-2300.
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Taxa What Is Cnidaria What Is it

Words: 2243 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91414879

Taxa

What is Cnidaria? What is it made up of? Who are the members that belong to his group? Cnidaria is an exclusively aquatic phylum. It is a group that is represented by the members, who are also called 'polyps', and these are sea anemones and corals, and also by 'medusae', which are creatures like the jellyfish. In general, both a polypoid as well as a medusoid cnidarian will be either radially or biradially symmetrical and it is an uncephalized animal with one single body opening, which is the mouth. Stinging capsules, which are embedded in the tentacles that are placed around the mouth, generally surrounds the mouth. These stinging capsules are also known as 'nematocysts', and these are capable of acting both as agents of defense as well as of offense. The most important distinguishing feature of a phylum is the presence of the intrinsic nematocysts, and in turn,…… [Read More]

References

"About Corals, anemones, and their kin" Retrieved From

http://www.augsburg.edu/biology/aquaria/SpecialTopicsFiles/AboutCoralsAnemonesAndKin.html Accessed on 21 June, 2005

"Features unique to Cnidarians and to Ctenophores" Retrieved From

http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/a/j/aja192/biodiversity_files/Page365.htm
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Decline of the American Diet

Words: 5127 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39593950

The meat comes from a local independent packing company that doesn't buy beef that has been injected with growth hormones; the buns are from a bakery in Pueblo, Colorado; and two hundred pounds of potatoes are "peeled every morning in the kitchen and then sliced with an old crank-operated contraption." The cooks make $10 an hour, and all other employees earn $8.00 an hour. hen asked why the Conway family provides health insurance for all full time employees, Rich Conway said, "e want to have healthy employees."

The author also calls for changes in the way the U.S. Congress oversees advertising, asserting on page 262 that Congress "should immediately ban all advertisements aimed at children that promote foods high in fat and sugar." The justification for that ban would be that 30 years ago, congress banned cigarette ads from TV and radio, because of course cigarettes were seen as a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Robbins, John. (2001). The Food Revolution: How Your Diet Can Help Save Your Life and Our

World. Boston: Conari Press.

Schlosser, Eric. (2001). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. New York:

Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Beef Hormones Are Naturally Produced

Words: 3695 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66250221

http://www.maverickranch.com/beef-hormones-mdirf5.htm,2006 para 1)

There is no credible evidence about this statement. It must be noted that it is extremely illegal, not only in the U.S. But also to other or even milk-producing countries, for penicillin to be used specifically in low-level doses in the feed. In fact, penicillin is only use via injection, in concentrated doses, and only if the animals to be injected are sick or with high fever. Penicillin doses are usually once or twice only and the particular animal which has been injected with such medication is separated from other animals and would not be harvested within a certain period. This is to ensure that there is no penicillin residues left in any system or body parts of the animal http://www.maverickranch.com/beef-hormones-mdirf5.htm,2006 para 1).

Moreover, as of latest survey, only 1% (or even less) of the cattle have recorded to ever had any doses of penicillin. Cattleman's Beef…… [Read More]

WTO Dispute Panel Report 1997. European Communities -- Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones): Complaint by the United States, Wr/DS26/R, August 18, 1997.

WTO Appellate Body Report 1998. European Communities Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones), Wr/DS26/AB/R, January 16, 1998.

Zekos, Georgios I. An Examination of GATT/WTO Arbitration Procedures. Dispute Resolution Journal, 54(November): 72-74. 1999.
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Global E-Business Marketing the Advent

Words: 3832 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93266466

" The final force of collaboration, which Freidman (2006) calls "informing"-which are search engines like Yahoo, Google, MSN, etc., which has facilitated "Internetizer technologies" to work together with limitless information all by itself (Freidman, 2006).

Therefore, the initial three flatteners formed the novel stage for cooperation, and the subsequent six have been the novel shapes of cooperation that flattened the world. The last flattener is referred to as "the steroids," and these have been regarded as "wireless-access" along with "voice-over-Internet-protocol (VoIP)." The steroids have accelerated these novel kinds of cooperation, which has allowed "Internetizer technologies" to execute anyone of them, from anyplace in the world, using any tool (Freidman, 2006).

Triple Convergence

The first convergence took place when all ten flatteners united around the beginning of the new millennium. This formed a worldwide, Internet-enabled in performing ground that permitted manifold kinds of cooperation on R&D and work, regardless of not…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barca, F. And Becht, M. (2001). The Control of Corporate Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chun, R. (2001) 'The strategic management of corporate reputation, aligning image and identity, PhD dissertation, Manchester Business School, University of Manchester.

Freidman, Thomas L. (2006), the World is Flat, (Newly Abridged and Revised), Penguin Books, Camberwell Victoria.

Global E-Business Marketing
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Von Hippel-Lindau Von Hippel Lindau Disease Von

Words: 2314 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45262901

Von Hippel-Lindau

Von Hippel Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

The von Hippel-Lindau, also known by its synonyms, familial angiomatosis cerebeloretinal, hemangioblastomatosis or retinal and cerebellar angiofacomatosis, is the abnormal growth of retinal- cerebellar vessels, and is classified as a rare disease of autosomal dominant hereditary character, within the group of phacomatosis. The disease was described by two independent groups, led by Eugen von Hippel (1904) and Arvid Lindau (1927). The cause of the disease is the mutation of both alleles of the VHL group, the one caused by genetic factors, and the second after a de novo mutation. The von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is considered by increased tendency to kidney tumors, central nervous system, including the cerebellum, and by affecting the retina. At the moment, no medical treatment is present for curing this disease, but knowledge of their symptoms and possible genetic research currently makes…… [Read More]

References

He's FJ, Hoppener JW, Lips CJ (2003). Clinical review 155: pheochromocytoma in Von Hippel-Lindau disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 88: 969 -- 974.

Johnston LB, Chew SL, Trainer PJ, Reznek R, Grossman AB, Besser GM, Monson JP, Savage MO (2000). Screening children at risk of developing inherited endocrine neoplasia syndromes. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 52: 127 -- 136.

Lindau A (1927). On the question of angiomatosis retinae and your brain complicatio. Acta Ophthalmol; 4: 193 -- 226.

Lonser R, Glenn G, Walther M, Chew EY, Libutti SK, Linehan WM, et al. (2003). Von Hippel-Lindau disease. Lancet;361:2059-67.
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Production of Food Products Has Changed Dramatically

Words: 2941 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82456402

production of food products has changed dramatically over the past several years. Technological changes in machinery, increased use of better and more expedient forms of transportation, and improved fertilizers have all contributed to a more efficient food production process. This more efficient process, however, has not come with some requisite problems.

The existing system of delivering food products in the United States is a major contributor to the world's global warming problem. The largest contributor to global warming is the use of fossil fuels. One study released in 2000 estimated that nearly ten percent of all the energy used in the United States was consumed by the food industry. (Heller, 2000).

This large use of fossil fuels is generated throughout the food production and delivering industry. A large measure of this use is through the extensive reliance upon artificial fertilizers and pesticides. Although the use of these products results in…… [Read More]

References

Center for Disease Control. (2003). Diabetes Public Health Resource. Retrieved December 4, 2010, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:  http://www.cdc.gov/ diabetes/pubs/figuretext.htm#fig1

Eckholm, E. (2010, August 11). Farmers Lean to Truce on Animals' Close Quarters. The New York Times .

Eisnitz, G.A. (2006). Slaugherhouse: The Shocking Story of Greed, Neglect, and Inhuman Treatment Inside the U.S. Meat Industry. Prometheus Books.

Fossil Fuels. (n.d.). Retrieved December 3, 2010, from U.S. Department of Energy: http://www.energy.gov/energysources/fossilfuels.htm
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Risks of Epidural Anesthesia in

Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90362301

In addition, it is not apparent whether the injections may relieve pain, but for those without surgical lesions the injections may delay requisite surgery and result to permanent neurological deficits. It is evident that some risks associated with infectious epidural steroid injections result to fatal meningitis, but those performing epidural do not make pregnant women opting for epidural aware. I feel that such risks are matters of life and death and women must know them before considering epidurals. In addition, there are common risks of these injections. They include; increased neurological deterioration, paralysis, and quadriplegia Epstein (2013, p. 74-93).

All these researches provide information on the risks of epidurals in different aspects. The epidural procedure may also affect the child. The drugs administered to the mother directly enter the child. The levels may be as high as those of the mother may, and because of the immature liver of the…… [Read More]

References

Akbas, Mert and Akcan, a Baris, "Epidural analgesia and lactation," Eurasian Journal of Medicine 43, (2010): 45-49.

Wilson, M. J, MacArthur, C, and Shennan, a. "Catheterization in labor with high dose vs. mobile Epidural analgesia: a randomized controlled trial." British Journal of Anesthesia 102, no. 2 (2009): 97-103.

Epstein, Nancy, "The risks of epidural and transforominal steroid injections in the spine: commentary and a comprehensive review of literature," Surgical Neurology International 4, (2013): 74-93.

Gwen Lewis, "Epidurals and child cancer," Journal of Childbirth and Medical Research, (2010): 30.