Steroids Essays (Examples)

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Steroid Use Controversies of the

Words: 5176 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32219224

e., their use of anabolic steroids (and whether they had ever been offered steroids), their involvement in power sports, appearance and eating problems, and problem behavior. Background information about the participants included their degree of urbanization, parental socioeconomic status and the region to which they belonged.

Analyses of the study's results show that the prevalence of steroid use among Norwegian youth was lower (lifetime use was 0.8% and 12 months prevalence was 0.3%) than in several other Western societies such as the U.S. (2.5% to 7%) and in Australia, Canada, Sweden and South Africa (2% to 3.5%). It also showed that AAS use was first and foremost associated with problem behavior (i.e., drug [marijuana] involvement and aggressive-type conduct problems). Its relation with power sports and appearance came in at second and third place respectively.

The study is, therefore, significant in highlighting the hitherto largely ignored area of problem behavior in steroid use. A major limitation of the study is that Norwegian youth behavior may not co-relate with that of other Western countries.

Athletes and Steroids: Playing a Deadly Game (1987)

This is a general article about steroid use by Miller (1987) that gives an overview of the history of steroids,…… [Read More]


Admissions before BALCO grand jury detailed." (2004, December). Retrieved on November 1, 2005 at

Anabolic Steroid Abuse." (2000, April). National Institute on Drug Abuse: Research Report Series. Retrieved on November 1, 2005 at

Langone, J. (1995). Tough Choices A Book about Substance Abuse. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Miller, R.W. (1987, November). Athletes and Steroids: Playing a Deadly Game. FDA Consumer, 21, 16+.
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Steroid Use in High School

Words: 1695 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56345261

Bonds than his fellow African-Americans."

Recently, it has come to the attention of the media and others that the drug called, "human growth hormone" (HGH) is being used by some major league baseball players. An article in USA Today (Nightengale, 2007) points out through secondary reporting of data that Rick Ankiel (St. Louis Cardinals), Jay Gibbons (Baltimore Orioles) and Troy Glaus (Blue Jays) have been implicated in the use of HGH. This information was made available because an investigation of a Florida pharmacy by the federal government (reported by Sports Illustrated and the New York Daily News) turned up receipts detailing transactions between those players and the pharmacy.

According to the article, a quantitative piece, by taking HGH (another performance-enhancing substance) players may be able to "avert positive steroid tests." How can they do that? "Taking HGH enables you to take lower doses of anabolic steroids," journalist Bob Nightengale quotes Gary Wadler (with the World Anti-Doping Agency) as saying. "By taking a lower level of steroids, you may not be detected when undergoing drug tests," Wadler continues. But that opinion has been rebutted by Major league Baseball's head labor lawyer, Rob Manfred, who says even an "extraordinarily low level" of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dowshen, Steven. (2007). Steroids. KidsHealth. Retrieved September 14, 2007, at .

Economist. (2007). Curb your enthusiasm. 384(8541), p. 28.

Kopkowski, Cynthia. (2007). Home Field Disadvantages. NEA Today, 25(6), p. 23.

National Institute of Drug Addiction. (2007). NIDA InfoFacts: Steroids (Anabolic-Androgenic)
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Anabolic Steroid and Performance Enhancing Drug Use

Words: 3144 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41892521

Anabolic Steroid and Performance Enhancing Drug Use

Among High School Athletes

Anabolic steroid use has, at least in the past, been prevalent among major college and, especially, professional sports. Major League Baseball implemented a drug testing regimen very recently after backlash from fans made it an issue that the sport believed it had to listen to. The National Football League has a testing program that has been in place since 1989, and other sports have also begun programs to test for anabolic steroids and other performance enhancing drugs (PED) to ensure that there is a level playing field among all of their athletes. Unfortunately this testing has led to consequences for some athletes.

Some notable case of athletes being either stripped of honors or not being selected for honors because they acknowledged PED or steroid use have occurred in recent times. Lance Armstrong was recently stripped of all of his wins in the seven (7) Tour de France bicycle races that had previously been awarded as wins because he was found to have doped his blood. Mark McGwire has not been voted into the Professional Baseball Hall of Fame, and many suspect it is because he admitted using the substance…… [Read More]


Denham, BE. (2006). Effects of mass communication on attitudes toward anabolic steroids: An analysis of high school seniors. Journal of Drug Issues, 36(4), 809- 823.

Green, G.A. (2007). The prevalence of anabolic steroid use by Southern California high school athletes. LA84 Foundation. Retrieved from CE/AnabolicSteroidsSouthernCaliforniaHighScho ol.pdf

Liberatore, S. (2009). Q: I have a lot of competitive athletes in my classes. If they decide to use steroids, what effect will this have on their health? The Science Teacher, 76(1), 70.

Martin, J., & Govender, K. (2011). Making muscle junkies: Investigating traditional masculine ideology, body image discrepancy, and the pursuit of muscularity in adolescent males. International Journal of Men's Health, 10(3), 220-233.
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New Steroid and Drug Policy

Words: 1103 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36894362

It seems that society places so much pressure on these heroes, too, that to appear larger than life, drugs are often the way they cope with pressure and stress. They make themselves "larger than life" with steroids to help reduce the pressure and the stress of their profession and their managers.

This may not be a public safety issue in the larger aspect of wearing seat belts or not driving after drinking, but it certainly is a public safety issue when it comes to the morals and ethics in our society - especially children. Children do imitate their heroes to a large extent, and baseball players, along with other professional athletes, are heroes to many children (and adults). Thus, children may get the idea that if their hero uses steroids or other performance-enhancing drugs, so should they. This is a moral and ethical issue in that it teaches children that cheating is OK as long as there is a reason for it, such as grabbing the home run record for a season as Mark McGuire did. Children get the very real message that McGuire did a wonderful thing, and now it is extremely suspect that he did it on steroids.…… [Read More]


Author not Available. "Caminiti Comes Clean." Sports 28 May 2002.

Bodley, Hal. "Palmeiro Suspended for Steroids Policy Violation." USA Today. 1 Aug. 2005.

Jenkins, Chris. "Players Admit Steroids Changed Baseball. USA Today. 15 March 2005.
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English Topic Steroid I Specific Details Topic

Words: 2834 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40751721

english topic Steroid. I specific details topic Steroid Use Sports. steroid ? famous types steroid sport function type. good bad effective steroid athletes steroid ? steroid affect short-term long-term.

Steroids: are they a necessary evil?

Society traditionally encouraged people to experience progress in any field that they possibly could and this made it difficult for some to keep up with the fact that the world was constantly changing. In their struggle to keep up and even to be recognized for their contributions, some individuals have turned to using controversial methods. Athletes are provided with difficult choices as they feel the need to satisfy the needs of their fans. Society is indirectly responsible for the fact that some athletes use steroids because of the pressure that it puts on their shoulders. Many athletes today use steroids at the expense of their own health because they know that this is one of the most effective methods to achieve success in an environment where cheating is not necessarily something immoral.

The twentieth century saw significant evolution when concerning the world of sports, as athletes were concentrating on doing everything in their power in order to break previously set records. With some being unable…… [Read More]


Dilingham, Michael, "Steroids, Sports and the Ethics of Winning," Retrieved December 4, 2011, from the Santa Clara University Website:

Dodgshon, Robert, The Age of the Clans: The Highlands from Somerled to the Clearances (Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2002)

Hecht, Annabel, "Anabolic Steroids: Pumping Trouble," FDA Consumer Sept. 1984

Sender Aaron J. "Anabolic Steroids for non-therapeutic use," Retrieved December 4, 2011, from the New York University Website:
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Drugs in Sports Steroid Abuse

Words: 1557 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53634676

Lyle Alzado, who played with the Cleveland Browns and the L.A. Raiders as well as with the Denver Broncos, died in 1992 because the chemicals in steroids caused him to develop brain cancer. Prior to his death, Alzado stated, "I started taking anabolic steroids in 1969 and never stopped. It was addicting, mentally addicting. Now I'm sick, and I'm scared. Ninety percent of the athletes I know are on the stuff." His last words are even more frightening: "My last wish? That no one else ever dies this way." Performance-enhancing drugs must be banned from professional sports. They are ruining lives and undermining the integrity of the game. Drugs are detracting from the true wonders of human physical achievements and athletic attainments, making every win, every victory artificial.… [Read More]


Anabolic Steroids." ESPN. Sept 6, 2006. Retrieved Mar 24, 2007 at 

Anabolic Steroids." MedicineNet.con. Retrieved Mar 24, 2007 at

Drug Tie in Baseball Star's Death." (2004). CBS News. Nov 1, 2004. Retrieved online Mar 24, 2007 at

Harris, Alastair. Should athletes be allowed limited access to steroids.
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Legal Implications of Steroid Use

Words: 1711 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88637779

, 2003, p. 3).


The research showed that the use of various performance-enhancing substances is not new, but the controversies associated with the use of anabolic steroids, particularly by young athletes, has assumed increasing importance in recent years. More and more studies have shown that the use of these substances typically begins during the formative adolescent years, a practice that can have lifelong consequences in terms of physical problems and growth constraints. Moreover, there are profound moral and legal issues involved in the use of such performance enhancers, and while many observers might question that legality of such testing programs at the high school and collegiate level, the high incidence of use in recent years clearly indicates that more needs to be at all levels to help prevent young athletes from beginning to use these substances, and to help those who have already started to stop.… [Read More]


Allison, P.C., Diacin, M.J., & Parks, J.B. (2003). Voices of male athletes on drug use, drug testing and the existing order in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1), 1.

Hill v. National Collegiate Athletic Association, 865 P. 2d 633 (1994).

NCAA. (1998, November). NCAA drug-testing protocol, 1998-99. Overland Park, KS, in Allison, Diacin, & Parks, 2003, p. 3.

Pedersen, W., & Wichstrom, L. (2001). Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in adolescence: Winning, looking good or being bad? Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62(1), 5.
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Depression Caused by Steroid Use

Words: 2383 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9044167

The affects of precursory steroidal compounds is difficult to determine due to differences in how adolescent bodies process them, but they may have an impact on social behavior similar to steroidal compounds, therefore, use of these substances will be included in this study as well.

A key area of research focused on treatment of the symptoms of depression and aggression caused by steroid use. Effective treatment was achieved through the use of common antidepressants (Schule, et. al, 2003). This is an important body of research, as it provides the guidance counselor with choices in treating students found to be affected by steroid use. Knowing that there are treatment options available through mental health channels will help in the development of treatment strategies for students whose social lives are being negatively influenced by steroid use.

The literature revealed many facets of academic research that will have an impact on the conduct of this research study. For instance, the research will have to consider whether the student has a history of underlying psychological disease, adversity in their lives that may affect their reaction to and successful treatment of steroidal addiction. The literature review revealed that there are many treatment options available for…… [Read More]


Fish, L., Goldberg, L., and Spratt, D. (2005). Supplements, Steroid Precursors and Adolescent Heatlh. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 90 (9).

Gober, S, Klein, M., Berger, T., Vindigni, C., and Paul McCabe (2006). Steroids in Adolescence: the Cost of Achieving the Physical Ideal. NASP Communique, 34 (7). Retrieved April 18, 2008 at

Goodyer, I. (2002). Social adversity and mental functions in adolescents at high risk of psychopathology, the British Journal of Psychiatry 18, 383-386.

Melloni, R. (2006). Animal Models Show That Anabolic Steroids Flip the Adolescent Brain's Switch for Aggressive Behavior. American Psychological Association. Retrieved April 18, 2008 at
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MLB Players MLB Baseball Players

Words: 491 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73274232

Reasons for MLB Players

Furthermore, MLB owners have enjoyed high double-digit return-on-investment for many years. By showing teenagers that steroids are not the cool nor healthy way to become more physical fit, they finally have the opportunity to show the world that they are not all Montgomery Burns (Saving the Puerto Rican League).

If most people believe that the way to get ahead is to work hard, then most people will work hard, and more wealth will be created. On the other hand, if people believe that wealthy people should not have to work, then people will attempt to gain wealth without working, leading to a zero-sum economy. If most people expect public officials to be honest, then dishonest officials will be identified and punished" (Reforming Our Beliefs Concerning Health Care).


From there, MLB baseball players participate to prevent teenage athletes' steroid use because they want to present a healthier environment without drug use. This would actually prevent teenagers from using steroids to become more physically fit (Politics). Teenagers usually follow the images of celebrities and because of the MLB players want to take advantage of that.… [Read More]


Steroid Use in Teen Athletes. http://www.***.ca/lib/essay/69_4.html

Saving the Puerto Rican League. 

Reforming Our Beliefs Concerning Health Care.

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Clinical Problem of Interest

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98420570

Clinical Problem of Interest

Anabolic Steroids and Their Effects on the Body

Even though governing bodies and media reports may have a person thinking otherwise, the use of anabolic steroids by athletes is nothing new or unique. The use of these drugs has been going on for some time throughout many different kinds of sports, and there is no reason to think that it will stop, despite the illegality of it and the dangers that are seen when athletes engage in the use of anabolic steroids and other drugs believed to enhance performance. The biological and psychological effects can be very strong, and can include an increase in desire for sex, aggressiveness, and an increase in behaviors that are typically considered to be masculine (Graham, et al., 2008). These behaviors can also include sleep disorders, paranoia, euphoria, confusion, hallucinations, and anxiety (Graham, et al., 2008). Naturally, these are the kinds of problems that a person would want to avoid, but the allure of taking steroids for high performance in sports can sometimes be too strong for some to ignore.

There is tremendous pressure to perform in athletics, and an athlete may not realize the severity of the risk when it…… [Read More]

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High and Inside in the Newsweek Magazine

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89267419

High and Inside

In the Newsweek Magazine article "High and Inside" by Mark Starr, the issue of illegal drug use among professional sports players is given focus. Citing particularly the case of American baseball stars, Starr puts forth the argument that the issue illegal drug use such as subsistence to steroid injections goes beyond the fact that it is illegal -- the bigger issue at hand is that such a system prevails in sports organizations because it is supported and encouraged by everyone in it.

In arguing this primary thesis of the article, Starr exemplifies the case of baseball star Jason Giambi as one of the models of how the proliferation of illegal drug use has made it so common and an imperative requirement for a professional athlete. Chronicling Giambi's career as a professional baseball player, the article details how, just before the peak of his career, he had already subsisted to a steady supply of steroids, such as synthetic testosterone and human growth hormones or HGH. Similarly, Starr cites other professional players to point out that Giambi is not alone in this kind of 'bad habit.' He mentions another baseball star, Barry Bonds, as another steroids user. Marion Jones,…… [Read More]

Work cited

Starr, M. (2004). "High and Inside." Newsweek Magazine. Available at:
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Public Affairs Management MLB and

Words: 732 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42183883

The critics of the drug testing policies argue, however, that the policies work to unfairly single out specific athletes for close scrutiny, tempts many of these same athletes to find ways to cheat the test, and that testing also violates the Constitutional right of privacy (McCabe & Ricciardelli, 2001).


Both arguments are significant, but the main point is that these testing policies and the steroid use that they are involved with have to be dealt with by those that handle public relations, both involving the players and the media/public. Without these public relations individuals, the players could have serious problems with the way that they were viewed by the public, and those that want or do not want the testing could also be viewed rather harshly, so it is important that they have good public relations. This is not always easy, as there are many issues that must be taken into account, but those that work with public relations where baseball is concerned do their best to ensure that accusations of steroid use are handled appropriately


Public affairs management is a very difficult field, basically because there are so many different issues that must be dealt with. When…… [Read More]


Diacin, M.J., Parks, J.B., & Allison, P.C. (2003). Voices of male athletes on drug use, drug testing, and the existing order in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1): 1-16

McCabe, M.P., & Ricciardelli, L.A. (2001). Parent, peer, and media influences on body image and strategies to both increase and decrease body size among adolescent boys and girls. Adolescence, 36: 225-240.

Yesalis, C.E., Kennedy, N.J., Kopstein, A.N., & Bahrke, M.S. (1993). Anabolic-androgenic steroid use in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270:1217-1221.
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Physical Privacy in Many Sports

Words: 1067 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71546174

In his preparation for a career in sports, an unethical coach or teammate may present the boy with steroids to enhance his physical performance, with the claim that Rodriguez advocates the use of such substances.

Furthermore, Rodriguez's apparent lack of remorse and his adherence to the claim that he was "young and stupid" creates a poor image for both the sport, its stars, and its followers. It furthermore indicates that being young precludes a person from making wise choices, and that only a maturity in years could bring the wisdom necessary to say no to performance-enhancing drugs.

This also has an effect upon parenting, and the ability of parents to influence children for their best benefit. Stars such as Rodriguez indirectly promote drugs by means of their behavior. Jeopardizing good parenting in this way also influences the stability of the family and hence of society as a whole. It is a danger to public health and safety and should be taken very seriously from a utilitarian perspective. The public health and safety certainly should take precedence over any deontological consideration in terms of privacy rights. Certainly, Rodriguez has the right to jeopardize his own health if he sees fit to…… [Read More]


Inman, Cam. (2009, Feb 17). Candid Cam: A*Rod, steroids and "My Cousin Vinny." de=1&sid=21&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1236294835 & clientId=29440

Schneider, Angela J. (2007) Doping in Sport: Global Ethical Issues. Routledge.
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Bdd in Men Various Problems

Words: 2572 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64723294


In addition, to media images that bombard men there are also biological factors that influence the development of BDD in men.

According to an article entitled "Bigger Isn't Always Better - muscle dysmorphia in men" the most severe cases of muscle dysmorphia involve a biological predisposition for the disease (Bartlett 2001). The author explains that from a biological standpoint the man suffering with the disease has a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder (Bartlett 2001). For instance someone who washes his hands 10 times per day is normal, however washing your hands one hundred times per day to the point that it hampers with the rest of your life is a symptom of a greater problem (Bartlett 2001). According to the article this example is used to illustrate "there isn't anything pathological about going to the gym regularly or dieting," but there is a problem when "a huge number of boys and men work out beyond a normal range so that it becomes a source of distress" and affects all areas of their lives (Bartlett 2001)."

Treatments for BDD in Men

People with BDD are treated in many ways. The most common treatment for men involves surgical, dermatological and other types…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bartlett J. (2001) Bigger Isn't Always Better - muscle dysmorphia in men

American Fitness. Retrieved July 8, 2005 from;

First Controlled Study of Muscle Dysmorphia Published, 2005. Retrieved July 8, 2005 from;

Grieve F.G., Lorenzen L.A., Thomas a. (2004) Exposure to Muscular Male Models Decreases Men's Body Satisfaction.Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Volume: 51: 743+.
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Treatments for Rosacea

Words: 740 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36655106

Treatments for Rosacea

Rosacea is a medical condition characterized by reddening of the skin. The face primarily will turn red in hue. Sores may appear on the skin as well. The face may also swell to some degree. It is an unfortunate condition where patients not only have to deal with the illness itself, but also with psychological ramifications from feeling unattractive due to the skin pigments or lesions. Although there is currently no cure for Rosacea, scientists have researched various treatments to help patients suffering from the condition.

In the article, "Treatment of Rosacea with Intense Pulsed Light," researchers Papageorgiou et. al consider how ultra violet and pulsed light might positively treat skin conditions like Rosacea. During this particular experiment, the researchers tested 34 patients who were given treatments every three weeks for a total of twelve weeks. More than 70% of patients experienced at least a 50% reduction of skin abnormalities after the final treatment (Papageorgiou 632). Amazingly, the results of the test were still seen months after the experiment. This has major implications because it suggests that light treatments such as those examined in this study might prove to be the best treatment for this condition, if…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lee, DH, Li, K.K., & Suh, DH "Pimecrolimus 1% Cream for the Treatment of Steroid-

Induced Rosacea: an 8-week Split-Face Clinical Trial." British Journal of Dermatology. (158:5). 2008. 1069-76. Print.

Papageorgiou, P.P., Clayton, W.W., Norwood, S.S., Chopra, S.S., & Rustin, M.M. "Treatment of Rosacea with Intense Pulsed Light: Significant Improvement and Long-Lasting Results." British Journal of Dermatology. (159:3). 2008. 628-32. Print.

Sharquie, K.E., Najim, R.A., & Al-Salman, H.N. "Oral Zinc Sulfate in the Treatment of Rosacea: a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study." International Journal of Dermatology. (45:7). 2006. 857-61. Print.
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Osmoregulation Endocrines Osmoregulation Is the Process by

Words: 2423 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75085230


Endocrines Osmoregulation

Osmoregulation is the process, by which the body adjusts to a change in an environment of different water volume and amount of solutes in a cells and body fluid of organisms including vertebrates. Vertebrates are animals, which have a backbone, and can be warm either blooded or cold blooded. The body of such organisms adjusts in order to maintain the body balance both inside and outside their bodies in mild and harsh environments ranging from seawater, fresh water, and terrestrial habitats to very hostile environments. Endocrine glands found in such organisms play a major role in constant and persistent regulation of body balance, which secretes hormones directly into the blood whenever the body witnesses any environmental change (Bentley 45).

Endocrine glands present in vertebrates play a major role in controlling the level of water and salt in vertebrate's bodies. Hormones produced in vertebrates play a major role in controlling the homeostasis processes in the bodies. Prolactin, neurohypophisicaloctapeptides and adrenocortical steroids are the major hormones in osmotic body balance, in vertebrates. Prolactin acts on osmoregulatory organs such as gills, skins, intestines, urinary bladder and salt glands to control the water and ions present in the vertebrates. Neurohypophisical hormone…… [Read More]


Bentley, P., 2002. Comparative Vertabrate Endocrinology. chicago: Cambridge university press.

Bentley, P., 2002. Endocrines and Osmoregulation. chicago: springer publishers.

Crvendish, M., 2006. Growing up with Science.. london: marshall carvendish publishers.

Kaiser, G., 2007. The Inner Bird.. New York: UBC press.
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Record Medical Administration Service for File Rationale

Words: 773 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32324816


Medical Administration Service for File

Rationale in Support of Selection of Heart Transplant Recipient

Because time was of the essence in formulating this decision, this memorandum for the record sets forth the decision-making process and that was used to select the most appropriate candidate for a heart transplantation procedure. It was my responsibility as lead surgeon to select the most appropriate heart transplant recipient from a pool of three candidates, each of whom had suffered from several health-related issues that adversely affected their suitability for the transplant procedure. Therefore, in order to formulate as subjective an analysis as possible in a timely fashion, a utilitarian ethical analytical approach was used to identify the candidate that held the most promise of using the gift of additional life from the heart donor to its maximum advantage. The utilitarian ethical analysis showed that of the three potential heart transplant candidates, the 12-year-old patient, Lisa, was the most appropriate for the reasons discussed further below.

UTILITARIAN ETHICAL ANALYSIS OF HEART TRANSPLANT CANDIDATES: In sum, as propounded by John Stuart Mill and John Locke, a utilitarian ethical analysis of the three potential candidates for the heart transplant can be used to weigh the respective…… [Read More]


Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (1989, Winter). Calculating consequences: The utilitarian approach to ethics. Issues in Ethics, 2(1), 37.

Hollingsworth, J.A., Hall, E.H. & Trinkaus, R.J. (1991). Utilitarianism: An ethical framework for compensation decision making. Review of Business, 13(3), 17-19.

Rosen, F. (2003). Classical utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. London: Routledge.
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Dubai Upon First Seeing Dubai Saunders Marvels

Words: 1303 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97942187


Upon first seeing Dubai, Saunders marvels at the humor of the place. He finds most things about the place ironic, especially as Saunders contemplates the process of "Theming" that consumes much of Dubai's development. Like a theme park, Dubai creates an artificial atmosphere. Dubai is a city in a bubble. It is also full of the contradictions that make Dubai titillating, including the sharp differential created between ancient and modern. This differential between ancient and modern is, ironically, manifest in the Theming of the city as the ancient nomadic customs and aesthetics are turned into as much a caricature of themselves as Dubai's malls are caricatures of Western-style consumerism.

Dubai is "capitalism on steroids" because like an athlete on steroids, it is strong, powerful, and resilient with the help of artificial performance enhancers. This is why Saunders refers to the "Misconception from Afar." The reality of Dubai and the facade occupy two different realms. The reality feeds the facade, provides the facade with cheap labor, and hides in the background like the oompah-loompahs at Willie Wonka's chocolate factory. Saunders interacts with several of Dubai's oompah-loompahs: everyone from South Indian laborers to Thai prostitutes. The cogs that make the machine…… [Read More]


Saunders, George. "The New Mecca." GQ. Retrieved online:
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Drug Abuse in the Society

Words: 1185 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93981014

predict anabolic steroids on the controversial forefront of drugs that enhance performance. Halfway through the period, no attempt has been met from the governing bodies of sports towards the control of its use. It is only recent that North America's major governing bodies of sport came to an agreement of punishing and banning anabolic-steroids involved athletes from participating in any competition. The strict punitive measures have a primary development concern of promoting fair play and doing away with nagging health risks that are associates to androgenic-anabolic steroids. However, controversy is still in play as to whether the use of anabolic steroids is deterred by these programs in question (Hoffman & Ratamess, 2006).

The steroids, Anabolic-androgenic, are a derivation of the male sex hormone; testosterone, that is man-made. Physiologically speaking, an increase in the concentration of testosterone will stimulate the synthesis of protein with effective results in strength, body mass, and muscle size (Bhasin et al., 1996; 2001). Additionally, the testosterones together with its synthetic derivatives are the sole cause of maturation and development of the secondary male sexual characteristics (i.e. body hair increase, masculinity in the voice, libido, aggressiveness and production of sperm) (Hoffman & Ratamess, 2006).

The typical use…… [Read More]


Bhasin, S., Storer, T.W., Berman, N., Callegari, C., Clevenger, B., Phillips, J., Bunnell, T.J., Tricker, R., hirazi, A. And Casaburi, R. (1996). The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in men. New England Journal of Medicine 335, 1-7.

Bhasin, S., Woodhouse, L. And Storer T.W. (2001) Proof of the effect of testosterone on skeletal muscle. Journal of Endocrinology 170, 27-38.

Hoffman, J., & Ratamess, N. (2006 ). Medical Issues Associated with Anabolic Steroid Use: Are They Exaggerated? NCBI, 182 -- 193. Retrieved from:

Karila T. Adverse effects of anabolic androgenic steroids on the cardiovascular, metabolic and reproductive systems of anabolic substance abusers.
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Reinvention Identity of Code

Words: 933 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20251792

confusing gender roles in our society. With women putting in as many hours at the office as men and 'take your daughter to work day' now implying bring a son if you have 'em -- gender roles in America continue to become blurry and obsolete lines in the sand. For example, I can not believe the number of professional athletes in Football and Baseball who have been caught abusing illegal steroids. I am sure that the recent media hype, the pressure from congress and the disgust from fans was meant to curb illegal use of anabolic steroids by younger boys, teens and men. And hopefully the message is getting through to the male population. Ah -- but, did we, ah, forget to tell the girls? "An alarming number of American girls, some as young as 9, are using bodybuilding steroids -- not necessarily to get an edge on the playing field, but to get the toned, sculpted look of models and movie stars, experts say. Girls are getting their hands on the same dangerous testosterone pills, shots and creams that have created a scandal in major league baseball and other sports. Often, these are the same girls who have eating…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Girls are abusing steroids too, experts say. Ed. MSNBC. April 25, 2005. Retrieved on 29 Apr. 2005, from

Maasik, Sonia, and Jack Solomon. Signs Of Life In The U.S.A. ADD CITY: ADD PUBLISHER, ADD YEAR.

The Associated Press. "Girls Are Abusing Steroids Too -- Often To Get That Toned Look" USA Today 25 Apr. 2005, Online. Retrieved on 29 Apr. 2005, from
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Drug Abuse Scenario Analysis

Words: 1958 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41487760

drives under the influence of alcohol, it is a criminal offense abbreviated as driving under the influence (DUI). However alcohol is but one of the many substances that can interfere with one's driving capability. DUI charges can also be pressed against individuals who are driving under the influence of other kinds of drugs, including illegal drugs and even prescription medication. Taking drugs and driving at the same time, whether the drugs are just prescription muscle relaxers or medicinal marijuana is illegal and a DUI offense. The argument that one took drugs because of doctor's orders is not a defense to DUI charges. Various drugs have different effects on drivers. The drugs that impair concentration, judgment, alertness and/or motor skills are regarded as dangerous and in several cases even more dangerous than alcohol. Driving while having a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of more than 0.08% or higher is illegal in the whole of the United States. Alcohol is quickly eliminated from the body so it is important to measure the driver's BAC immediately after he is stopped (FindLaw, n.d). Frank's BAC level was recorded at 0.18 meaning that alcohol greatly affected his judgment, alertness and motor skills.

Unlikely DUI substances

Steroids…… [Read More]


African-Americans, Substance Abuse and Spirituality - Minority Nurse. (2013, March 29). Retrieved from

Cohagan, A., Worthington, R., & Krause, R. (2013, July 3). Alcohol and Substance Abuse Evaluation . Retrieved from

FindLaw. (n.d.). Driving Under the Influence of Drugs - FindLaw. Retrieved from drugs.html

MedlinePlus. (n.d.). Steroids: MedlinePlus. Retrieved from
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Body Image While Precise Definitions

Words: 4640 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95248390

As noted above, during the hunter-gatherer phase of mankind, the desirable physical appearance of the male of the species would have been one that contributed to their ability to hunt and kill the large mega-fauna that roamed the land. By contrast, modern males may not be expected to be able to take down a wooly mammoth, but a healthy physique equates to good genes for reproduction and even modern women may therefore be more attracted to men who exhibit superior physical qualities. The studies of body image issues among modern women have typically focused on the impact played by various societal factors, most especially idealized role models as exemplified by ultra-thin fashion models (Rothblum, 1994). As noted above, although there remains a paucity of timely and relevant research in this area as it applies to men specifically, Lee and Owen (2002) suggest that it is not an unreasonable extension of these same processes to the perception of body image among males as well. According to Lee and Owens:

Men are presented with the concept that a real men is large, hard and strong. Physical role models for men are not as prevalent as for women, but they are just as…… [Read More]

Based on its illegality in most sports settings, it has been difficult for researchers to develop accurate estimates of anabolic steroid use but the studies to date indicate that it is widespread. For example, Blouin and Goldfield (1995) found that more than three-quarters (78%) of the sample of competitive body-builders they analyzed reported anabolic steroid use; likewise, one-in-five recreational body-builders reported such use. Another study of 16- to 19-year-old Swedish students conducted by Kindlundh et al. (1999) determined that 2.7% of these males had used steroids. Other researchers, though, found significantly lesser rates with Drewnowski et al. (1995) determining that just 0.6% of non-sporting adolescent males used steroids. Yet other studies have found a range of usage rates among different groups, with Wroblewska (1997) citing steroid usage rates of between 4% for males in general up to 75% for competitive body-builders. These respective rates translate into an enormous amount of money, with annual national spending in the United States for anabolic steroid intended for non-medical applications amount to approximately a half billion dollars in 1993 alone (Lee & Owens, 2002). Whatever the true percentages, the studies to date suggest that there are significant numbers of males engaging in musculature-building regimens that include steroids use that may carry severe healthcare consequences, including both physical and mental health issues, particularly aggressive behavior (Lee & Owens, 2002). Because the difference between harsh reality, expectations and desired outcomes contributes to self-esteem, to the extent that men (and women) fail to live up to their idealized versions of themselves will likely be the extent to which body esteem problems will result (Brownell, 1991).

Drive for Thinness

Because many eating disorders have been viewed as a female-specific problem as it relates to body image perceptions, there has been little attention given to the same forces as they apply to men. The disparities between the incidence of eating disorders between men and women would appear to justify this focus on women, with most studies that include men in their analysis at all placing the prevalence rate for men significantly lower than their female counterparts (i.e., rarely more than 10% of anorexics and 20% of bulimia cases being male (Hsu, 1990). Despite these findings, other researchers emphasize that males suffer from anorexia and bulimia (Buckley, Freyne & Walsh, 1991; Carlat & Carmargo, 1991). The causes of such eating disorders among males appear to be similar to those experienced by women as well. For example, studies have found that males who suffer
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Bodybuilding Body Building and Exhibition

Words: 1243 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14425033


It is obvious from this aspect of the research that body building can serve as an efficient way to assist in losing weight. Losing weight through body building is also efficient because of the metabolic benefits to the body that are derived. As such those that are trying to lose weight should implement weightlifting into their exercise regimens.

Problems associated with bodybuilding

One of the major problems with bodybuilding involves injury. Many injuries occur simply because bodybuilders over extend themselves. All bodybuilders must take the appropriate precaution to prevent injury. These precautions include getting the proper amount of rest and not over exerting themselves when training. Failure to take these precautions can result in life threatening injuries.

Another serious problem associated with bodybuilding is Steroid abuse. Many bodybuilders are so anxious to get results that they take dangerous steroids to increase the size of their muscles. Steroids have serious side effects. These side effects include decreased libido, heart problems, steroid induced anger (roid rage) and a host of other issues. Some of these side effects can and have caused death in bodybuilders. For this reason, bodybuilders must understand the need for patients and the lasting impact of ingesting such…… [Read More]


"Bodybuilding." Retrieved September 29 from;

("Body Building Info."

Chasse, a. (2009). Retrieved September 29 from;

Use BodyBuilding." Retrieved September 29 from;
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Androstenedione in the Major League Baseball Season

Words: 1582 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84928160


In the Major League Baseball season of 1998, Mark McGwire became famous for breaking Roger Maris' home run record. Later it was found out that McGwire's power hitting came from a muscle building synthetic hormone called Androstenedione or Androstenediol. This supplement, nicknamed "Andro" became the first in a list of performance-enhancing substances called pro-hormones. The scrutiny of McGwire's performance was overshadowed by the fact that many professional athletes were using it. Also, this substance was not banned by the Baseball Commission. This compound is called a pro-hormone because it is a precursor to testosterone. It metabolizes directly into testosterone.

There are some differences between the -dione and the -diol version. In the former, there are two carbonyl (-C=O) groups. These groups are replaced by alcohol (-C-OH) groups in the diol. For the purpose of this work, which involves really understanding the post-chemical positive and negative side effects, we can consider both these compounds the same. The chemical formula for androstenedione (correctly, 4" -androstene-3,17-dione) is C19H30O2. Its molecular weight is 290.45 (times the weight of a hydrogen atom or 1/12th of a Carbon atom). Its structural formula is presented in the following figure:

In the -diol version the double…… [Read More]


Ruzicka, L., and A. Wettstein. "The Crystalline Production of the Testicle Hormone Testosterone." Helvetica Chimica Acta 18 (1935): 1264-75.

Kochakian, C.D., and J.R. Murlin. "Relationship of Synthetic Male Hormone Androstenedione to the Protein and Energy Metabolism of Castrated Dogs and the Protein Metabolism of a Normal Dog." Amer J. Physiol 117 (1936): 642-57.

Hacker, R., and C. Mattern. "Androstenedione." Arrowdeen Ltd. Germany: DE 42 14953 A1, 1995.

Stalheim-Smith, Ann, and Greg K. Fitch. Understanding Human Anatomy and Physiology. Minneapolis/St. Paul: West Pub. Co., 1993.pp. 1 v. (various pagings)
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Police Force to Diffuse Tense

Words: 2390 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45966480

Though women constitute only 12.7% of the sworn police force they are implicated in only 5% of the total cases registered against the use of excessive force. Statistics further indicate that women officers account for only 6% of the total dollars paid out for court settlements for The Use of Police Force 4

police abuse related cases. [DR. Kim Lonsway, 2002] It is clear that a women police officer is less likely to resort to excessive force use compared with a male police officer and this presents a clear case for more representation of women in the police force. Inducting more women would therefore be a positive step.

Another study by the University of California compared the effects of race, gender, and experience of the officer and the link to the possibility of the officer being investigated by Internal affairs for the use of excessive force. For the study, the researchers obtained data pertaining to officers working in the Riverside County Sheriff's office between 1996 and 2000. It was found that officers with less than 5 years of experience were 4.4 times more likely to be subjected to investigation by internal affairs compared to those who had more than 20…… [Read More]


1) Amnesty International, (2008) ' Less than Lethal'? The use of Stun weapons in U.S. Law Enforcement', Accessed 14th July 2009, Available at,

2) Anthony J. Micucci & Ian M. Gomme (Oct 2005), 'American Police and Subcultural Support for the use of Excessive Force', Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol 33, Issue 5

3) BJS, (June 25, 2006) 'Citizens Complained more than 26,000 times in 2002 about Excessive Police Force', Available at,

4) DR. Kim Lonsway, Michelle Wood & Megan Fickling (2002), ' Men, Women and Police Excessive Force: A Tale of two Genders', Accessed July 13th 2009, Available at,
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Salary Cap Now Please The

Words: 1935 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95661831

Salary Cap ? Now Please !

The Steroid era is over, hooray! Now what? Well, Major League Baseball, time to catch up with the world of sports. It is time for a salary cap on player earnings. America is in the middle of a recession, unemployment continues to rise and Major League Baseball must change with the times. Without shrewd decision making, now, on the part of Baseballs' owners, baseball will lose fans. Fans of the game, too long disenfranchised, by eight work stoppages, the most recent nullifying an entire playoffs and World Series. Fans subjected, no matter how willingly, to widespread abuse of steroids, Human Growth Hormone and amphetamines. These same fans will not continue to pour their increasingly slim entertainment budgets into a sport dominated by the few, big spenders, only occasionally challenged by a lesser market. A product of this ilk is ultimately unsustainable. When a fans' team is perceived as not in the race, it is easy to become disinterested. Yet continuing not to institute a salary cap leaves too many teams "out of it" before the season even starts. How will baseball ever mange to attract new viewers? Viewers indulged with most anything they want…… [Read More]


Erowid. Federal Definition of Anabolic Steroids (2005). .

Maske, Mark. "After the Strike, Baseball's Disgusted Fans Decide to Strike Back." Washington post 30 April 1995: A01.

Wikipedia. Wikipedia. 12 November 2010. 12 November 2010 .

-- . Wikipedia. 12 November 2010. 12 November 2010 .
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Drama Athlete Who Uses Performance

Words: 391 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79851697

Besides the fact that they are dangerous they taint the game as a whole. In the game of baseball the elusive home runs record that was chased for a very long time was a big deal, and when it was finally broken there was a lot of excitement that surrounded the game. But after hearing about all of the steroid and performance enhancing drug use that was going on during that time, it makes one question the entire validity of the record all together. If the record was not achieved without the use of drugs or steroids then it shouldn't be counted and thus not the real records that stands. It is highly unfair to those who set the record in the first place, drug free.… [Read More]


Court Documents Show Barry Bonds Tested Positive for 3 Types of Steroids. (2009). Retrieved

June 23, 2009, from Web site:,2933,487633,00.html

O'Keefe, Michael. (2007). Barry Bond's ex-mistress details stars steroid use, temper. Retrieved June 23, 2009, from MyDailyNews Web site:
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Analyzing Substance Induced Insanity

Words: 2826 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30873673

Substance Induced Insanity

Psychosis is a psychiatric state that can either be enduring or temporary. A person suffering from the condition may experience memory lapses, incoherent speech or thoughts, lack of concentration, delusions and/or hallucinations. Other symptoms that may manifest when one is suffering from psychosis include changes in personality and exhibition of unusual behaviors. It has been established that psychosis can be caused by various substances such as marijuana, methamphetamine and alcohol. Substance induced psychosis typically occurs when an individual has been continually using stimulants over a long period of time. The two most common substances or stimulants known to induce psychosis are methamphetamine and amphetamine. Apart from these drugs, the 'designer' drugs have also been found to induce the condition. Individuals suffering from substance-induced psychosis may exhibit loss of contact with reality and they may also become fixated on a certain action or place and may engage in repetitive action such as washing hands, pacing, sorting rubbish or searching for something. Individuals who have methamphetamine/amphetamine induced psychosis may also suddenly become violent towards others, they may also start exhibiting delusional behaviors such as removing imaginary bugs or feeling irritated over nothing (Alcoholrehab, 2016).

The case discussed in relation…… [Read More]


Alcoholrehab. (2016). Psychosis and substance abuse. Retrieved from

Bal, B. S. (2009). An introduction to medical malpractice in the United States. Clin Orthop Relat, 467(2): 339-347.

Beck, M. (2011). Confusing medical ailments with medical illness. Retrieved from

Bourget, D. (2013). Forensic Considerations of Substance-Induced Psychosis. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law, 41(2), 168-173
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Analyzing Scandal and Controversy in Sports

Words: 2629 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23260718

Scandal/Controversy in Sports

The following will take a look to see if scandal and controversy benefit sports.

Background of Sports Industry and Scandals

Sports in the U.S. is a multi-billion-dollar industry. Companies try to engage with clients by aligning the services and products they offer with this well-known industry via sports funding and endorsement. The benefit of this involvement has been well-recorded in the sports marketing literature (Hughes and Shank, 2005). The effect on business brands in case a scandal surfaces regarding an athletic supporter like a player, coach, or a team however, is less well-known. Several sports scandals, for instance, the rape case surrounding Kobe Bryant and the University of Colorado recruitment scandal raise very serious questions regarding the effect of sports scandals on amateur and professional athletic institutions, participants, sponsors, as well as other stakeholders.

Whereas conventional corporate sports supporters like Nike maintain omnipresence, several other different kinds of organizations are entering the sponsorship game. 65 different organizations representing different categories varying from railroads to athletic wear sponsored the 2004 United States Olympic team at different levels by (Hughes and Shank, 2005). These corporations benefit from providing teams with funding or equipment in exchange for the right to…… [Read More]


Alessi. (2014). TheRichest - The World's Most Entertaining Site. Top 10 Sports Betting Scandals and Controversies - TheRichest. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from

Doorty, A. (2016). Odyssey. Is Scandal Good for Baseball? Retrieved June 21, 2016, from

Fisher, R., & Wakefield, K. (1998). Factors leading to group identification: A field study of winners and losers. Psychology & Marketing, 15(1). Retrieved, from;2-P/abstract

Garg. (2010). The Hoya. Scandals Show Need to Pay College Athletes. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from
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Cheating A Cultural Construct Cheating

Words: 3828 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53593676

This presented the troubling consideration that many of the current standard-bearers for physical excellence were the product of performance enhancing drug use. Moreover, this cast a dark shadow on what have been regarded as some of the game's greatest recent accomplishments, which had been achieved through cheating.

In that vein, Canseco's claim was succeeded by an admission that seemed to justify this reproach. Mark McGwire, Canseco's former Oakland Athletic teammate, admitted that he had actively used steroids throughout the course of the fabled 1998 season in which he dethroned Roger Maris as the single-season homerun champion (Ferrell, 1). To many, it called into question the true nature of his accomplishments. In 2002, Ken Caminiti dealt a similar blow to professional athletic achievements' credibility when he admitted that his 1996 National League MVP season was one largely propelled by steroid use. Further, he marked the number of active players in the MLB using performance enhancing drugs at somewhere in the range of 50%.

In spite of this, baseball would be unregulated during this period, particularly when compared to the NFL and NBA where, it bears noting, covert abuses still occur, though on a much smaller scale. The power that collective bargaining…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Amato, P.R. & Booth, A. (2001). The legacy of parents' marital discord: consequences for children's marital quality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(4), 627-638.

BBC News. (2002). Enron Scandal at-a-glance. British Broadcasting Company.

Online at < >.

Ferrel, D. (2002). Steroid Use Among Teenages, FreshAngles.
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Ethics on Sports It Is

Words: 5409 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90192963

D., What is Altitude Training section). The Website promoting products that Hypoxico Altitude Training Systems offers, reports that when a person is exposed to hypoxia, oxygen reduced environments, his/her body "struggles to produce required amounts of energy with less available oxygen. This struggle triggers the onset of a range of physiological adaptations geared towards enhancing the efficiency of the body's respiratory, cardiovascular and oxygen utilization systems" (Hypoxico Altitude Training, N.D., Why it Works section). In consideration of controversial perceptions regarding ethical conclusions relating to hypoxico, Lippi, Guides and Franchini stress that the "spirit of sport" needs to be developed to include the notion of ethics and authenticity. Lippi, Guides and Franchini, nevertheless, report that they do not entirely agree with the assumption that teleologically, no evidence suggests that more harm than good comes from these particular devices. They note that a universal ban on passive training regimens, such as hypoxic, however, appears inconsistent with current and past practice in soirts,

Richard a. Posner (2008), Judge, U.S. Court of Appeals; Senior Lecturer, University of Chicago Law School, purports in "The case against perfection: Ethics in the age of genetic engineering," that as it will become harder to detect, "sports doping," where…… [Read More]


Avans, D.E. (2007). Youth and ethical dilemmas in sport. Research Quarterly for Exercise

and Sport. American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.

Retrieved June 04, 2009 from HighBeam Research:

Bach, G. (2006). The Parents association for youth sports: A proactive method of spectator behavior management. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 77(6), 16+. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from Questia database:
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How Cultural Differences Affect Job Satisfaction

Words: 1361 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41403755

International Organizational Behavior-Cultural Differences in Job Satisfaction and Motivation

As the forces of globalization continue to reshape the international marketplace, understanding cross-cultural differences in job satisfaction and motivation has assumed new importance and relevance. To this end, this paper provides a comparison of the United States with two of its major trading partners, China and Canada, drawing on Geert Hofstede's five cultural dimensions. A comparison of the U.S. with these two countries using Hofstede's five cultural dimensions is followed by an analysis concerning how various job factors contribute to satisfaction in different cultures. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the implications of cross-cultural factors for international organizational behaviorists in promoting job satisfaction and motivation are presented in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

While it is reasonable to suggest that the overwhelming majority of people in the world work to earn a living, making pay and benefits among the most important predictors of job satisfaction and motivation, it is also reasonable to suggest that there are other factors involved that differ from culture to culture. Clearly, these are important issues for multinational corporations that may have operations in dozens of different countries. At present, Canada and China…… [Read More]


Kim, Y-J & Na, J-H (2007, July). Effects of celebrity athlete endorsement on attitude towards the product: The role of credibility, attractiveness and the concept of congruence. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, 8(4), 310-314.

Sablosky, T. L. (2009, May). Did you get the message? In this era of far-flung branch locations, new methods of internal communication-such as teleconferences, videoconferences and intranets-are growing in popularity. ABA Bank Marketing, 37(4), 26-29.
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Community Prevention Drug Use Among

Words: 1195 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3917255

The selective type would enable me to make optimal use of the specific factors that are relevant to my target group. This IOM type would also enable me to identify cases of prior and current drug use, and to refer these to specialized groups and programs for help. The selective type is therefore optimal for the specific sector of society that I want to target.

Best Practice Program

From the "Best Practice Programs," I chose "Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids: The ATLAS Program," because it specifically focuses on high school athletes as a target group. While it focuses mostly on one particular kind of drug, I would perhaps modify it to address the specific problems, risks and protective factors of my target group.

The ATLAS program focuses on male high school athletes and aims at reducing the risk factors involved in the use of anabolic steroids and other performance enhancing drugs that such students are often tempted to indulge in. The program uses strategies such as healthy sports nutrition and strength training as alternatives to drugs.

The program is administered by coaches and peers, with the support of scripted manuals. A particularly valuable element of the training is…… [Read More]


CASAT. Best Practice: Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids: The ATLAS Program

Institute of Medicine. Projects: Adolescent Health Care Services and Models of Care for Treatment, Prevention, and Healthy Development
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Analgesic Systems Roles of Stress

Words: 1726 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99036369

Gonadectomy alters the magnitude of CCWS and ICWS analgesia and alters the relationship between the gender-specific effects observed in sham-treated rats. Castration significantly decreased the magnitude of CCWS analgesia on the tail-flick and jump tests, and the magnitude of ICWS analgesia on the jump test. Indeed castration reduced the magnitude of CCWS and ICWS analgesia in males to that observed for sham-treated female rats.


Given the multitude of CNS substrates and systems underlying both opioid and stress analgesia, and the likelihood that only a little differ amid sexes, we could rationally expect to come across sex differences in opioid analgesic efficacy in some occasions, depending solely on the nature of the ache incentive and opioid involved, as outlined earlier. It is important to also note that sex differences are no defined to opioid drugs in analgesia. Furthermore, commencement of endogenous pain inhibitory mechanisms in reaction to stress also produces magnitudes of analgesia that vary between the sexes.

Works… [Read More]

Works Cited

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Romero, Maria-Teresa, et al. "Gender-Specific and Gonadectomy-Specific Effects Upon Swim Analgesia: Role of Steroid Replacement Therapy." Physiology and Behavior 44 (1988): 257-65. Print.

Romero, Maria-Teresa, et al. "Modulation of Gender-Specific Effects Upon Swim Analgesia in Gonadectomized Rats." Physiology and Behavior 40 (1987): 39-45. Print.