Stocks And Bonds Essays (Examples)

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Stocks and Bonds 1a the
PAGES 3 WORDS 840

In both cases, the bonds that were the most severely affected by the interest rate shocks were the longer-term maturities.
A g) Even Treasury bonds are risky, because short-term fluctuations in the interest rate can impact the value of the cash flows that they are to receive. The main difference between corporate bonds and Treasury bonds is that the latter are guaranteed by the government. Thus, they are considered risk free, in the sense that there is no default risk, only market risk. Corporate bonds, however, contain default risk. Therefore, it is important for the issuers of corporate bonds to understand that they must add in a risk premium to account for the default risk. The degree of default risk will be measured by bond rating agencies and that will determine the risk premium that the corporation must pay in order to raise funds in the bond market.

2. The three….

Stocks and Bonds
eferences to the terms "stocks" and "bonds" are frequently heard in the mainstream media and throughout the investment literature, but the terms may not be completely understood by the general public. Therefore, making the distinction between the two financial instruments by providing current working definitions and typical examples of stocks and bonds is an important enterprise. To this end, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to develop respective definitions and examples of the terms "stocks" and "bonds," followed by a summary of the research and significant findings in the conclusion.

In corporation law, the term "stock" is used in a variety of ways. For example, according to Black's Law Dictionary, "It may mean the capital or principal fund of a corporation formed by the contributions of subscribers or the sale of shares; aggregate of a certain number of shares severally owned by the members or….

Stock and Bonds Now That
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Regardless of one's appetite for risk, it is essential that some diversification of assets is used to prevent 'losing' money by saving money in a bank account alone, although noninsured investments should not be concentrated on one area of the economy, to protect against potential losses.
Even in today's economic climate, investors should allocate some of their funds in safe, but higher-interest bearing sources. These might include certificates of deposits or CDs, which can be allocated into different accounts so the CDs mature at different times, to free up more of the saver's money. These safer investments may also include government bonds of stable governments and corporations, as well as preferred stock for companies that offer this option. Unlike CDs less than $250,000 in value, however, bonds and preferred stocks are not insured by the government.

The concept of the future value of money underlines the importance of saving in general.….

Indian Stock and Bond Markets
Do you think an investment in the Indian stock market is a good long-term investment?

The Indian stock market has experienced a number of fluctuations over the past 20 years or so that would suggest that investors might want to adopt a "wait-and-see" approach before making the plunge into these financial waters. For example, Schmidt and Hersh emphasize that, "The history of the operation of the Indian stock market has been dotted with brokers often unable to meet their commitments, allegations and proved instances of insider trading, and deliberate manipulation of stock prices by bears and bulls" (2000, p. 131). The prices for stocks listed on the Indian stock have experienced a number of highs and lows, with the most significant boom taking place during the period 1993 to 1995; however, although there have been some spikes, there has been a downward trend experienced since that….

For example, if the Fed sees inflation as a risk going forward, the market will place a weighting on that statement, allocating some form of increased interest rate to the future cash flows.
At the time of course, the exact implications of the Fed's comments are unknown. They imply that rates may move in one direction or another, but they are not an actual movement and the Fed reserves the right to change its mind before it meets again. The bond market is thus working with imperfect information. This can lead to general price movements but of unknown quantity. Over time, a reasonable correlation can be established, such as the elasticity of bond prices in relation to, for example, strong warnings from the Fed about inflation. Such a correlation can be drawn with a large enough sample size that it can be used in bond prices.

Overall, though, the exercise still….

Raising Corporate Capital Issues
It appears fairly clear that the most advantageous means of raising capital for a corporation is to sell common stock. However, it is critical to realize that there are other things that a corporation must do in addition to selling common stock to make this method provide the degree of efficacy that the corporation desires. The reason that selling common stock can help to raise capital for the corporation is that it is possible to get many different people to invest in the company through this means. However, these individuals will tend to do so in greater numbers and in ways that continue to benefit the corporation if the company itself excels. Specifically, the company must simultaneously focus on its core business and keep abreast of its competition so that it can continue to generate revenue and, hopefully, provide the sort of profit margins that are viewed….

Bond-buyers are also traditionally older and might have been more leery about investing in a new technology such as the Internet during the 1990s.
The choice of these companies to pay a higher rate of return to compensate for the greater risk would have defeated the purpose of the corporation issuing bonds in the first place, as what makes the issuing of bonds so attractive is that the interest rates on bonds that corporations must pay investors are traditionally lower than rates for most other types of borrowing ("How Corporations Raise Capital," U.S. Department of State, 2007). For young, untried companies like the Internet companies of the 1990s this would not necessarily be the case, thus it made more sense to generate revenue through issuing common stock, as if the company faltered for a time, this would not have to be repaid, and buyers of stock were the right, less-risk….

50) to 2097 -- the price of this bond is of $58 (Yahoo Finance, 2009).
Despite their past low popularity, the investors are now beginning to seek more vividly the Ford preferred stock (F-PF) and this is generally explained by the fact that the popularity of the common stock has suffered demises. The company officials have decided to allow owners of common stocks to exchange them with preferred stocks and vice versa, in order to increase investor satisfaction. The preferred stock is being traded at a value of $38.86. Preferred stocks are among the riskiest investments and the specialized advice is that they be kept for long periods of time, but in small amounts. Additionally, it is necessary to diversify the portfolio and the preferred stock should not make up more than one percent (Neubert, 2007).

eferences:

Neubert, D., 2007, Ford Preferred (F-PS): Used Only with Diversification, The Panelist, http://thepanelist.com/Neubert%27s_Trades/Neuberts_Trades/_20070805502/last accessed on July….

It is expected that the bond will mirror the performance of the S & P. 500. ("Transaction History," 2010)
November 24, 2010

On November 24th several more new purchases would take place to include: General Motors, erkshire Hathaway, the Fidelity Immediate Government Fund and the Strategic Advisors Income Fund.

Stocks

General Motors was selected, because it could help to provide the portfolio with above average growth. The results were that that stock would see an increase of 1.4%. ("Transaction History," 2010)

erkshire Hathaway was purchased to provide the portfolio with stability and diversification. This investment is expected to outperform the major market averages. The results were up .96%.( "Transaction History," 2010)

Mutual Funds

The Fidelity Intermediate Government Fund was selected because of their focus on medium term Treasury investments. This is expected to underperform the market averages. The results were that the position declined by 2.55%. ("Transaction History," 2010)

The Strategic Advisors Income Fund was selected to….

Since inception, the Amex Composite Index has shown an increase of 57.3%, as compared to the NASDAQ Composite's gain of 26.6%, the S&P 500's gain of 7.1%, and the NYSE composite's gain of 14.3% (American Stock Exchange).
Values and volumes of stocks and options at the AMEX are significant. Closing values as of 10/11/2004 at 5:07 PM ET show significant activity. As of this date, the total volume was 44,288,030, with 1,359 block trades. Total options volume was 576,653, and bond volume was 102,000 (American Stock Exchange).

Like other stock exchanges, the AMEX is run by a number of officials. Officers of the AMEX include Chairman and Chief Executive Officer SALVATOE F. SODANO, the President Peter Quick, Executive Vice President alph . afaniello, and Chief Financial Officer and Controller MICHAEL T. D'EMIC. The AMEX also has a Board of Governors, trustees, a nominating committee, exchange officials, floor officials and a disciplinary….

Finance - Bond Pricing
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Finance Discussion
The market for bonds is not always liquid, but the same bond should buy/sell at the same price, if at the same time. If not, this will create an arbitrage opportunity and that arbitrage will align the prices on the different markets where the bond was priced differently. However, at different times, the price can change, based on the underlying factors that affect bond prices (Feldhutter, 2012). One such factor is time. Each bond has a time value, which represents the present value of the future cash flows, and the risk that interest rates will change in that time. Thus, the same bond will see its price change, the closer it gets to maturity, even when the only thing that has changed is the time.

Other changes will also affect bond prices. A change in interest rates will affect the opportunity cost of owning a given bond, leading to a….

Apple: Borrower Analysis
The size of the loan that Apple (AAPL) is procuring is $6.5 billion dollars in corporate bonds (Colt, 2015) with the intention of raising another $1.6 billion through the sale of Australian currency bonds in the form of seven-year notes (Purvis, 2015). The intention of the loan is to lift share holder value through the increase of dividend payments while avoiding hefty tax payments by repatriating its stockpile of cash ($145 billion to be exact) held in offshore accounts (Ehrman, 2013).

Thus, this transaction is useful to Apple because it allows the company to maintain its significant cash reserves and to boost its stock price by giving investors greater incentive to buy. Some critics might argue that the loan does nothing to really boost the company's fundamentals (in terms of development projects) but in an age where fundamentals are increasingly insignificant (which is what happens when QE to infinity….

Stock Exchange Investment
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Investment Strategy
When the market crashes, turns bearish, or severely corrects, investors not only lose objective things such as money, they also lose the sustaining functions of which the investing process (and/or money, which may psychologically represent self-esteem, independence, power, etc.) has been the source. That means, in addition to objectively not having the money to buy that new house or car, self-esteem drops, and the investors capacity to calm themselves down is diminished, motivation wanes, confidence is shaken, and vitality ebbs. A down market represents an injury to our total sense of self and all the functions that sustain it. In a general way it represents a hope or fantasy lost.

For the young investor, with a large amount of earning power remaining in his life, the ups and downs of the market are small obstacles to the long-term objective of amassing a financial nest egg on which to retire. However,….

Finance
Question 1.a) Bond ratings encompass a wide range of elements related to the credit risk of the firm. Moody's notes that bond ratings include elements of default probability, loss severity, "financial strength" and "transition risk" (Cantor & Fons, 1999). The authors note that within the same sector, bonds of the same rating tend to be comparable both with respect to overall credit quality and specific credit quality characteristics. Over different segments of the bond market, this is not necessarily the case. Bond ratings tend to take in factors like the balance sheet strength of the firm, as well as the expected loss in the event of a default. Thus, the type of assets that the firm holds is an important characteristic. The transition risk reflects the likelihood that the firm will experience outright default without transitioning down through the different risk categories. Firms that are almost assuredly going to transition….

Stocks and Bonds Basics
There are a number of different types of bonds that are existent. These bonds are typically redeemable in different ways and for different types of value. For instance, a convertible bond is the type that one can redeem for stock options at various prices (Yamam, 2014, p. 63). The number of stock options for which it can be redeemed varies, which affects the valuation of the bond. Another type of bond is a pure discount bond, which must mature before it can be redeemed for cash. Once such a bond does mature, however, it is always redeemable for its face value -- which certainly contributes to the factors for the valuation of this variety of bond. Other types of bonds include a callable bond. This bond enables the entity that has disseminated the bond to buy it back. However, the bond issuer can only repurchase this bond….

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3 Pages
Research Proposal

Economics

Stocks and Bonds 1a the

Words: 840
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Research Proposal

In both cases, the bonds that were the most severely affected by the interest rate shocks were the longer-term maturities. A g) Even Treasury bonds are risky, because short-term…

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4 Pages
Essay

Economics

Stocks and Bonds References to the Terms

Words: 1289
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Essay

Stocks and Bonds eferences to the terms "stocks" and "bonds" are frequently heard in the mainstream media and throughout the investment literature, but the terms may not be completely…

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1 Pages
Thesis

Economics

Stock and Bonds Now That

Words: 403
Length: 1 Pages
Type: Thesis

Regardless of one's appetite for risk, it is essential that some diversification of assets is used to prevent 'losing' money by saving money in a bank account alone,…

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2 Pages
Essay

History - Asian

Indian Stock and Bond Markets Do You

Words: 664
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Indian Stock and Bond Markets Do you think an investment in the Indian stock market is a good long-term investment? The Indian stock market has experienced a number of fluctuations…

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6 Pages
Research Proposal

Economics

Bond Pricing the Most Fundamental

Words: 1833
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Research Proposal

For example, if the Fed sees inflation as a risk going forward, the market will place a weighting on that statement, allocating some form of increased interest rate…

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2 Pages
Term Paper

Business

Stocks vs Bonds for Capital

Words: 606
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Raising Corporate Capital Issues It appears fairly clear that the most advantageous means of raising capital for a corporation is to sell common stock. However, it is critical to realize…

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1 Pages
Term Paper

Economics

Bond Issuance Before Bond Issuance

Words: 457
Length: 1 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Bond-buyers are also traditionally older and might have been more leery about investing in a new technology such as the Internet during the 1990s. The choice of these companies…

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1 Pages
Thesis

Economics

Bonds or Preferred Stocks the

Words: 371
Length: 1 Pages
Type: Thesis

50) to 2097 -- the price of this bond is of $58 (Yahoo Finance, 2009). Despite their past low popularity, the investors are now beginning to seek more vividly the…

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8 Pages
Research Paper

Economics

Stock Track Analysis Over the

Words: 2239
Length: 8 Pages
Type: Research Paper

It is expected that the bond will mirror the performance of the S & P. 500. ("Transaction History," 2010) November 24, 2010 On November 24th several more new purchases would…

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2 Pages
Term Paper

Business

AMEX the American Stock Exchange

Words: 718
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Since inception, the Amex Composite Index has shown an increase of 57.3%, as compared to the NASDAQ Composite's gain of 26.6%, the S&P 500's gain of 7.1%, and…

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2 Pages

Economics

Finance - Bond Pricing

Words: 726
Length: 2 Pages
Type:

Finance Discussion The market for bonds is not always liquid, but the same bond should buy/sell at the same price, if at the same time. If not, this will create…

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3 Pages
Research Paper

Literature

AAPL Issuing Corporate Bonds to Fund Dividend Increases

Words: 1053
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Apple: Borrower Analysis The size of the loan that Apple (AAPL) is procuring is $6.5 billion dollars in corporate bonds (Colt, 2015) with the intention of raising another $1.6 billion…

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3 Pages
Term Paper

Economics

Stock Exchange Investment

Words: 1013
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Investment Strategy When the market crashes, turns bearish, or severely corrects, investors not only lose objective things such as money, they also lose the sustaining functions of which the investing…

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4 Pages
Essay

Economics

Finance Question 1 A Bond Ratings Encompass a

Words: 1218
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Essay

Finance Question 1.a) Bond ratings encompass a wide range of elements related to the credit risk of the firm. Moody's notes that bond ratings include elements of default probability, loss…

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2 Pages
Essay

Economics

Various Forms of Corporate Capital

Words: 690
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Stocks and Bonds Basics There are a number of different types of bonds that are existent. These bonds are typically redeemable in different ways and for different types of value.…

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