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Phoenix, in preference to purchasing locally available products, is reducing on importing raw materials and other products. The company for instance minimized on stylistic packaging glasses. However, it has indulged in using standard models. This consequently promotes and enhances the local economy. Though avoiding products made from fossil fuel, the company has prevented their consumers from chemically associated complications. This is with glass bottles as preferred from plastics.
Phoenix has the interest of organics and therefore reduces on the use of chemicals through adapting the BioGro certification, to prevent pesticide-associated complications. The company only acquires organically proficient products or those that meet the standards of BioGro certification. They also advocate the locals to get BioGro certified. This consequently will enable the company to purchase products from the local industry.
Phoenix's positive impact on the natural ecosystem has been throughout. Committing itself to organics, the company enhances the environment; it participates…
Allison, J. (2003). Water in the garden. Dorking: Interpet. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin
Furrer, O., Thomas, H., & Goussevskaia, a. (2008). The structure and evolution of the strategic management field: A content analysis of 26 years of strategic management research. International Journal of Management Reviews.
Mattel's managers were slow to adapt because they had become complacent. Barbie is a billion-dollar brand (Mattel 2014 Annual eport) and had been able to beat many prior competitors. There was no motivation for the Barbie team to change, because there were no major challengers, and it had been a long time since a viable threat to the brand had emerged. Without incentive, many managers become complacent and then they refuse to change and to innovate. The financial incentives for these managers were likely tied to profitability, and Barbie was still highly profitable. It was only after Bratz knocked Barbie's sales down 30% that the Barbie managers took notice of the threat (Pimentel, 2007).
The cognitive errors that would contribute to this would include feeling that if Barbie had been able to deflect new entrants in the past that it would be able to do so in the future.…
Mattel 2014 Annual Report. Retrieved December 10, 2015 from http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/MAT/0x0x820303/68C602DD-88F3-47F8-ABB5-46635E8495D8/Mattel_-_Bookmarked_2014_Annual_Report_Final_.PDF
Pimentel, B. (2007). How employee financial incentives can backfire. Insights by Stanford Business. Retrieved December 10, 2015 from https://www.gsb.stanford.edu/insights/jeffrey-pfeffer-how-employee-financial-incentives-can-backfire
Collaborative Decision Making Through Share Governance
I attended a committee meeting at a local school. The committee was formed in order to come up with a proposal on how they could improve the performance of the school. Those who attended the meeting were supposed to see to it that they come up with a proposal on how the performance of the students could be improved. I was quite keen on how the committee members interacted and the process the committee used to arrive at their decisions.
I observed that the committee used both managerial level and group levels in the decision making process. First of all I observe that there were proposals from the management that were forwarded to the committee members. The management of the school had come up with their own measures that would be taken to ensure that the performance of the school would be improved. This…
MountHolyoke.(2009). Skill Building -- Group Decision Making.Retrieved August 29, 2014 from www.soas.ac.uk/admin/.../file37354.pdf
Chand, S. (2010). 4 Techniques for Group Decision Making Process More Effective. Retrieved August 29, 2014 from http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/management/4-techniques-for-group-decesion-making-process-more-effective/3506/
Decision Making Model
Decision making is defined as the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives (Wikipedia, 2004). Effective decision making, however, is contingent on an individual or group's ability to select the course of action, which is most likely to result in goal or task accomplishment. In the business world, this is easier said than done since most decisions involve taking into consideration a myriad number of variables such as environmental factors, competitive activities, customer needs, internal goals and organizational constraints. Therefore, most organizations deem it advisable to use decision making support systems or models, which have been developed specifically to assist in the through analysis and evaluation of various alternative courses of action.
One such model is the Force Field Analysis. It is the objective of this paper to describe how the Force Field Analysis model helps weigh the pros and cons of…
Ashley, W.C., & Morrison, J.L. (1997, September -- October). Anticipatory Management:
Tools for Better Decision Making. The Futurist. Vol. 31:5, p. 47+ Retrieved Nov. 24, 2004: www.questia.com
Bauer, G.J., Baunchalk, M.S., Ingram, T.N., & Laforge, R.W. (1998). Emerging Trends in Sales Thought and Practice. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Bounds, G.M., & Stahl, M.J. (1991). Competing Globally through Customer Value: The
Barnes and Noble Inc. is one of the most successful bookstores in the world. The company operates throughout the United States and boasts roomy inviting stores. In addition to books, the company also sells DVDs and music. The company operates both brick and mortar stores and it is also the largest internet bookstore. Furthermore, Barnes & Noble, Inc. is a Fortune 500 company and the largest bookseller in the world. In addition, "The company is a leading content, commerce and technology company that provides customers easy and convenient access to books, magazines, newspapers and other content across its multi-channel distribution platform. As of January 29, 2011, the company operates 705 retail bookstores in regional shopping malls, major strip centers and freestanding locations in 50 states, and 636 college bookstores serving nearly 4 million students and faculty members at colleges and universities across the United States (For Investors)." The…
Barnes & Noble Annual Report 2010. Retrieved from; http://www.barnesandnobleinc.com/documents/bn_annual_report_2010.pdf
Corporate Governance Guidelines. Retrieved from; http://www.barnesandnobleinc.com/for_investors/governance/Corporate_Governance_Guidelines/Corporate_Governance_Guidelines.html
For Investors. Retrieved from; http://www.barnesandnobleinc.com/for_investors/for_investors.html
Forman C., Ghose, A., Goldfarb, A. (2009) Between Local and Electronic Markets: How the Benefit of Buying Online Depends on Where You Live. 55(1)
Decision making is a term that can be described as the process of choosing between alternatives and entails identification, development, and selection. Based on academic literature decision making and analysis can be widely divided into two schools of thoughts i.e. analytic and experiential or incremental decision making processes (Sipp & Carayannis, 2013, p.18). The analytic school of thought on decision making and analysis primarily focuses on problem definition and identification, assessment and selection of alternatives. In this school of thought, implementation in the decision making process basically entails simple execution of the cautiously selected alternative. On the contrary, even though experiential or incremental school of thought incorporates the two major steps in decision making just like the other school of thought, it focuses more on the execution of the alternative. This school of thought on decision making also utilize feedback to make necessary adjustments to the selected alternative in order…
Barnard, M. & Stoll, N. (2010, October). Organizational Change Management: A Rapid Literature Review. Retrieved from Bristol Institute of Public Affairs website: http://www.bristol.ac.uk/media-library/sites/cubec/migrated/documents/pr1.pdf
Choi, M. & Ruona, W.E.A. (2011, March). Individual Readiness for Organizational Change and Its Implications for Human Resource and Organization Development. Human Resource Development Review, 10(1), 46-73.
Manuela, P.V. & Clara, M.F. (n.d.). Resistance to Change: A Literature Review and Empirical Study. Retrieved from University of Valencia website: http://www.uv.es/~pardoman/resistencias.PDF
Mykkanen, M. & Vos, M. (2015). The Contribution of Public Relations to Organizational Decision Making: Insights from the Literature. Public Relations Journal, 9(2), 1-17.
50). Therefore, the ability of planners in both civilian and military aviation settings will need to ensure this integrated approach to information management to identify opportunities for improvement and what steps will be needed today to ensure their successful outcome in the future.
The research showed that resource management and strategic decision making processes in the civilian and military sectors of the aviation industry have been profoundly affected by innovations in technology that continue to have an enormous impact today. The research also showed that although there is much to be considered in developing effective resource management techniques, the strategic decision process can help organizations of all types identify opportunities for improvement today and take the steps today to help ensure their successful development and implementation in the future. In the final analysis, the body of knowledge in these areas is growing at exponential rates, and the terrible costs…
Goodman, W.C. (2000). Transportation by air: Job growth moderates from stellar rates. Monthly Labor Review, 123(3), 34.
Harris, W.C., Goernert, P.N., Hancock, P.A., & Arthur, E.J. (1994). The comparative effectiveness of adaptive automation and operator initiated automation during anticipated and unanticipated taskload increases. In Hollnagel at p. 159.
Hendrick, H.W. & Kleiner, B.M. (2002). Macroergonomics: Theory, methods, and applications. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hollnagel, E. (2003). Handbook of cognitive task design. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
"Critically evaluate the usefulness of rational decision-making for managers when making strategic choices"
Characteristics of strategic decisions
Long-term survival of the organization
Scope of organization activities
esources and competences / Competitive advantage
Then strategy is concerned with the strategic fit to the external environment
Power in the organization - The expectations and worth of powerful agents in and around the company
Strategy as ational decision making
Improvement in strategic decision making
Involvement of different stakeholders
Organization should have focus and flexibility
Organization should learn the strategy
Strategic management is the process of determining clear objectives of the company, and evaluation of internal and external environment in order to form a strategy solution, implement it, assess the progression, and make adjustments accordingly. In this report we will discuss the usefulness of rationale decision making for managers while making…
Bazer. M 2006, 'Judgement in Managerial decision making', Ed. 6th, New York, Publisher, Wiley.
Bontempo, R., Lobel, S. & Triandis. H 1990, 'Compliance and value internalization in Brazil & the U.S. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology', 20, pp., 200-213
Cooke, S & Slack, N 1991, 'Making Management Decisions', Ed. 2nd, Publisher, Prentice Hall.
David Hunger & Thoman L.Wheelen 2010, 'Strategic Management and business policy' Ed.12th, Saint Peterburg, Florida, Publisher, Prentice Hall.
Components contributing to the library's decision making process include the library per se; its purposes' its structure and organization' its functions and forms/kinds of data; its resources in/for staff/volunteers; its facilities; its equipment.
Management teams and other groups play a key role in strategic decision making," Nancy H. Leonard, Laura Beauvais, and Richard Scholl (2005) relate the importance of involving groups in strategic decision making. "These groups include top management teams (Hambrick and Mason, 1984), boards of directors (Forbes, 1999; Pettigrew, 1992), and planning task forces (Van de Ven, 1980)" (Leonard, Beauvais, and Scholl ¶ 2). To effectively manage work groups and decision-making teams, Leonard, Beauvais, and Scholl stress, managers must understand that underlying psychological cognitive styles and social interaction of an individual impact them and their decision making. hen mangers better understand the concept of group cognitive style, they may be able to create groups with various strengths based…
Burrows, Toby. "The 'digital library hammer'?" The Australian Library Journal. Australian Library and Information Association. 2004. HighBeam Research. 1 Mar. 2009 http://www.highbeam.com .
Carpenter, Kenneth E. "A Library Historian Looks at Librarianship." Daedalus 125.4 (1996): 77+. Questia. 1 Mar. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000447498 .
The Columbia World of Quotations. Columbia University Press. New York. 1996, 2 Jan. 2009. www.bartleby.com/66/.
Dunham, J.. Developing Effective School Management. Routledge. New York.. Questia. 1995. 1 Mar. 2009. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108823897 .
Strategic Framework in BP-Deepwater horizon accident
One of the most eminent names in the oil and gas industry is British Petroleum, considered as the largest provider of oil and gas to its customers for transportation, energy for heating and light and retail services for petrochemical products globally. The financial and operational picture of the company's performance is illustrated in table1 below.
Performance at a glance for 2010
Facts and figures
Sales and other operating revenues
eplacement cost profit
Number of employees
efineries (wholly or partly owned)
$297,107 million (year 2010)
($4,519) million (year 2010)
79,700 (at 31 Dec 2010)
18,071 million barrels of oil equivalent
Active in 29 countries
2,426 thousand barrels per day (year 2010)
(BP's Corporate website, 2010)
On 20th April 2010 the company faced a serious challenge when one of its oil rigs started leaking and simply couldn't…
BP's Corporate website, 2010. Annual Report 2010. Retrieved through http://www.bp.com/sectionbodycopy.do?categoryId=9035798&contentId=7066618 on 12th August 2010
Corner, P. Kinicki, A. And Keats, B. (1994) Integrating organizational and individual information processing perspectives on choice, Organizational Science, vol. 3.
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Therefore, they use strict evaluation criteria to make choice among different alternatives. Keeping in view the strength of customers' bargaining power, Toyota and other automakers are expending huge amounts on advertisements and promotional campaigns to create awareness about their brands and convince these customers to prefer them over all other brands (Jenny & Scammon, 2010).
5. Internal Environmental Analysis for Toyota Motor Corporation
5.1. The esources Types:
Like other types of business corporations, Toyota also relies on four different organizational resources. These are: financial resources, human resources, informational resources, and physical resources. Financial resources are the money invested by the company's shareholders and the profits left after paying off liabilities. These resources enable the company to run its day-to-day operations, run marketing campaigns, and make strategic investments to keep it innovative and competitive in all aspects. Secondly, the human resources are the intellectual capital that plays a major role in…
Bearden, W.O., Ingram, T.N. & LaForge, R.W. (2007). Marketing: Principles and Perspectives, 5th Edition. Boston, Mass: McGraw-Hill
Blythe, J., & Megicks, P. (2010). Marketing Planning: Strategy, Environment and Context, 3rd Edition. U.K: Prentice Hall
Brassington, F. & Pettitt, S. (2006). Principles of Marketing, 4th Edition. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall
Frederic, M., Agnes, V. & John, M. (2011). Pest Analysis, 2nd Edition. U.K: Gardners Books
Amazon.com's vision is to become "Earth's biggest selection and to be Earth's most customer centric company."
Mission of Amazon.com:
The mission on Amazon.com is to create shareholder value over the long-term which is the fundamental measure of our success. We accomplish this mission by:
Investing aggressively to expand and leverage our customer base, brand, and infrastructure as we move to establish an enduring franchise.
Making investment decisions in light of long-term market leadership considerations rather than short-term profitability considerations or short-term Wall Street reactions.
Focusing relentlessly on our customers.
Market Penetration in China
Amazon.com entered the Chinese e-commerce market in 2004 by taking over Joyo.com (China IT & Telecom eport, 2007). However, as the GE matrix indicates, Amazon.com is underperforming and has lost its position as market leader (Dean, The Wall Street Journal, 2006). Market penetration in China is a…
Business Wire, 2007 "Amazon.com headlines list of keynot addresses for LinuxWorld San Francisco and next generation Data Center." Business Wire May 16, 2007 [accessed: 23 Jan 2008]
China IT & Telecom Report, 2007 "Joyo.com renamed Joyo Amazon" InterFax News Agency, June 8, 2007 [Accessed: 3 Feb 2008 22:16:28]
Sorce, P., Perotti, V., & Widrick, S. (2005). "Attitude and age differences in online buying," International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 33(2), 122-132
Teather, D, 2007, Challenge Amazon: Amazon is pretty much the undisputed champion of internet book sales in the UK, but might an ambitious new competitor challenge its market dominance?; The BookSeller 4th May 2007 [accessed: 23 January 2008 10:02:48]
Employees and business management personal are taught business ethics as a fundamental guideline. It is tasked with assigning a particular meaning and role to business on the whole. Taking ethical decisions entails keeping certain aspects in mind. Written below is a brief argument on the points regarding ethics and a scenario is setup where business ethics are employed.
In layman words, business ethics entails working within reasonable means in a financial environment. Some particular aspects are required to achieve that (Brusseau). The decisions are guided by principles, comprehending the facts, making a valid argument and lastly ethics basically entails discerning between right and wrong (Brusseau). The overall result is secondary to the process at hand. The end result consists of constructing and making valid arguments. Hence, business ethics isn't really brainwashing. It's just fine tuning. The conclusions are formed from transparent values, confirmed facts and viable arguments (Brusseau).
Brusseau, J. (2011). Business Ethics Workshop (1st ed.). Flat World Knowledge. (Course Book)
Archibald, A. (2007, December 30). Employees' Responsibilities In Business Ethics. Retrieved January 9, 2014, from
eview of Making a Business Decision
Decision making is an unavoidable part of business. Smaller decisions where there is a lower perceived cost associated with making the wrong decision are psychologically easer compared to important decisions where a wrong choice could incur high costs. A recent example of a decision involved selecting an employee for an internal promotion. The position of team leader had become available for one of following the resignation of the incumbent team leader. The position was important for the team, and the department, as the team leader is key in managing the team from a practical perspective and ensuring that targets for the team would be met, as well as playing an important motivational role. The performance of the department was reliant on performance of each team, so the appointment was also important for the department I managed. The decision was important from the perspective…
Tschappeler, Roman; Krogerus, Mikael, (2011), The Decision Book: Fifty Models for Strategic Thinking, Profile Books
Organization Decision Making
Within an organization, there have to be many changes taking place at all times, without which the organization may stagnate and start to decline. These changes would have to be organization-wide, rather than small changes like changing the program, adding a new person, and so on. Some examples of organization-wide change are a change in the mission of the company, or a restructuring of operations, or maybe an addition of a new technology, or a merger, etc. In general organizational change is provoked by a need for accomplishing some preconceived goal, or it is caused by some outside force like for example, a need for cutting costs within the organization, or a need to increase declining productivity. Although it is a fact that organization wide change is difficult to accomplish, primarily for the reason that many people are afraid of change of any kind, even though it…
Are You a Good Decision Maker? Retrieved From
http://www.onlinewbc.gov/Docs/manage/decisions.html Accessed on 14 July, 2005
Best Corporate Change Resources. Retrieved From
Horn of Africa experienced what was termed the worst drought in 60 years. The drought, caused by the failure of the rains for two consecutive seasons, led to a severe food crisis across Djibouti, Somalia, Ethiopia, and Kenya, and killed more than 100,000 people while placing hundreds of thousands at risk of starvation. According to Hiller and Dempsey (2011), the greatest tragedy was that the world had seen this disaster coming, but little had been done to prevent it. From as early as 2010, there had been clear indications of a looming crisis and its consequences. La Nina, a climate condition that would lead to drier than normal conditions over the entire area had already been confirmed. Further warnings of the crisis were repeated and became more strident in 2011. In light of all the warning signs, it is, therefore, rather surprising that proper response from the international aid system…
Bart, C., 1988. Budgeting Gamesmanship. Academy of Management Executive. vol.(2)4, pp. 285-294.
Hiller, D & Dempsey, B., 2011. A Dangerous Delay: The cost of late response to early warnings in the 2011 drought in the Horn of Africa. Oxfam International and Save the Children. Available at https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/bp-dangerous-delay-horn-africa-drought-180112-en.pdf. [Accessed 25 April 2015]
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Mintzberg, H., 1987. Crafting strategy. Harvard Business Review. Vol. (65)4, pp. 66-75.
viable alternatives to strategic decision making and discuss their consequences, defend one of them as the most appropriate for the company at the time of the case scenario.
Cost containment: Southwest has always marketed itself as a low-cost airline. By limiting its destinations, amenities and the types of planes it flies, has been able to keep operating costs low and pass on these savings to the customer. Customers are often very price-sensitive regarding airfares.
Employee commitment: Southwest hires for personality, above all, and strives to create a fun workplace environment for its employees. Through silly contests, socializing and wacky promotional initiatives that involve the employees, Southwest has created a company that is fun to work for, fosters employee loyalty, and thus reduces turnover. It has also branded the company as attractive to fly, because of its low-cost approach.
Conservative growth: A critical component of Southwest has been its willingness to…
" Of these respondents, over 50% of them stated that they lack a disaster recovery plan (Anthes, 1998). However, most of the problems stem from the lack of communication at the corporate level. (Hawkins, et al., 2000).
Business Continuity Plans (BCP) and other forms of strategic planning are no longer a luxury, but a must-have factor and an important element of any organisation's risk management system. Organisations are increasingly dependent upon it systems and infrastructure and eventually subjected to many risks, so business is inherently risky. How long can your organisation afford system downtime? How long does it take to recover a disaster; and, what does it cost? These kinds of questions are the ones that have to be addressed for BCPs. Also important, however, is using strategic planning to look toward the future and determine where a business wants to be at a specific point, so that plans to…
Bolman, LG & Deal, TE (1997). Reframing Organisations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership, 2nd ed, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Bowden, P (1985). Organisation and Strategy, McGraw-Hill, Roseville.
Byrne, JA. (1996, August 26). Strategic Planning. BusinessWeek. http://www.businessweek.com/1996/35/b34901.htm .
Strategic Importance of Outsourcing in U.S. Manufacturing Company
An increase in market competitions, decision to lower production costs and shortened time to market are the driving forces that make a large number of manufacturing companies adopting the outsourcing policy. Outsourcing is the management policy of allowing the third party external providers to take up the activities of non-core activities of an organization to make firms focusing on the core businesses. In the contemporary global business environment, firms are required to produce the innovative products, and developing a new strategy to increase profitability, outsourcing has become a new business technique that firms employ to remain competitive. Thus, outsourcing helps manufacturing companies to lower costs and remain competitive in the fiercely competitive business environment. However, there is an ongoing debate that outsourcing decision can be detrimental to organization business advantage.
The objective of the essay is to explore the benefits and shortcomings…
Week 1: One strategic control would obviously be the budget. The budget is one of the main strategic controls. The company determines its spending on R&D, new market entry, marketing for different products, and this spending is indicative of what the company's priorities are for the coming year. If there is no money for something, it is not a priority. If General Mills sees innovation as a pathway forward, it will spend on R&D. If it sees an acquisition as a key strategic pathway, it will put itself in a position to absorb a rival.
Another major strategic control is the rewards system. The rewards a company sets out for its employees will orient the employees towards the specific activities that are being rewarded. If the rewards are general – say, net profit-based- they will orient employees to perform their duties well in a general sense, but that's it,…
Leadership-Level Implementation of Strategic Plan
Good leadership is a key aspect of project management. Leading a project requires working with the manager and other staff drawn from the project's functional areas. It is not accurate to say that a leader only influences the subordinates under him. esponsibilities of a leader can go either vertically or horizontally. An effective leader will not only lead the subordinates under him or her, but also all the people involved in the project including those who are his seniors. A leadership model referred to as 3D model has been fronted by various players and promotes team leadership, self-leadership as well as teamwork that is leadership oriented. Effective leadership takes the ability to spot opportunities to improve a project and also execute on the project improvement. Besides the existing good personal traits, the style of leadership can be modeled through experience, training as well as dedication.…
Abou-Zeid, E.S. (2005). A culturally aware model of inter-organizational knowledge transfer. Knowledge management research & practice, 3(3), 146-155.
Ale Ebrahim, N., Ahmed, S., & Taha, Z. (2009). Virtual teams: a literature review. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3(3), 2653-2669.
Bidgoli, H. (2013). MIS 3. Boston, Mass: Course Technology/Cengage Learning.
Caligiuri, P. (2006). Developing global leaders. Human Resource Management Review, 16(2), 219-228.
Intuition in Judgment and Decision-Making: Extensive Thinking Without Effort: A Summary
This paper looks at a strong argument made by Betsch and Glockner in the paper "Intuition in Judgment and Decision-Making: Extensive Thinking without Effort." Ultimately Betsch and Glockner argue that intuition is a mental process where complex streams of information can be processed without a huge cognitive effort (2010). The authors also argue that the intuitive process of the individual are how information can become integrated, whereas analytic information just guides the search, generation and swap of information (2010). Betsch and Glockner spend the bulk of the paper arguing in favor of this notion and demonstrating that the integration of information and the prioritization of information is something which can be engaged in without cognitive control and which is unfettered by the amount of encoded information or cognitive capacity (2010). The paper thus continues in talking about how these…
Betsch, T., & Glockner, A. (2010). Intuition in judgment and decision-making. Psychological Inquiry, 21, 279-294.
Sato, R. (2008, March 6). Intuition is not pseudoscience, say researchers. Retrieved from Dailygalaxy.com
" (Kinnunen, 2004) the work of Kaplan and Schroar (2003) states findings that the past performance is highly relative to capitals flows to private equity funds.
The work of Mishra, Kemmerer, and Shenoy entitled: "Managing Venture Capital Investment Decisions: A Knowledge-ased Approach" relates the building of a causal map of the investment decision through use of interviewing venture capitalists and then converting this information into a "causal ayes net" which are stated to be "especially suited for domains characterized by a high degree of uncertainty." (Mishra, Kemmerer, and Shenoy, 2001) This technique has also been utilized in developing artificial intelligence and even used "in medical diagnosis, modeling portfolio risk and return, and new product development..." And are based on "probability theory." (Mishra, Kemmerer, and Shenoy, 2001) This method is reported to be one that increases the likelihood of gaining an understanding of the decision-making process of Venture Capitalists (VCs) and…
Kaplan, S. & Schroar, a. 2003. Private Equity Performance: Returns, Persistence and Capital Flows. MIT Sloan Working Paper No. 4446-03; AFA 2004 San Diego Meetings.
Cochrane, John H. The Risk and Return of Venture Capital. Working paper, University of Chicago, 2001.
Kinnunen, Harri (2004) Institutional Investor's Decision Making Criteria for Investing in Venture Capital Funds. Frontiers of E-Business Research 2004. Online available at http://www.ebrc.info/kuvat/695-709_04.pdf
Patel, Pankaj and D'Souza, Rodney (2008) Uncovering Knowledge Structures of Venture Capital Investment Decision Making. A Working Paper for SBA Office of Advocacy. Jan 2008. Online available at http://www.sba.gov/advo/research/rs315tot.pdf
In the former approach, tradable goods, money or services are exchanged between buyers and sellers at a rate that is agreeable to all parties. This approach assumes both the buyers and sellers have enough money, services or goods to have their needs met. The latter approach, public provision, is when all is available to those on an as-needed basis.
The Pharmaceutical and Manufacturing Association warns that whenever there is government control of prices it only has a negative impact on those who are in need of being helped: 1) When funding for new medical technology, cures for diseases and research and development are diverted to more lucrative economic areas; 2) Incentives to enter the pharmaceutical industry decline; 3) More restrictions are placed on providers; 4) the quality of medical care suffers and 5) This leads to a rationing of care. Instead, the association says there has to be a healthcare…
Barry, W., and Shaw, V. (2006) Moral Issues in Business. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Donaldson, T., and Werhane, P. (2007) Ethical issues in business: a philosophical approach. Englewood-Heights, NJ: Prentice Hall
DesJardins.(2008) an introduction to business ethics. New York: McGraw Hill.
Friedman, M., & Becker, G. On economics. (2008) Chicago: University of Chicago.
Decision Making in the Face of Downsizing and Acquisitions
In the period of financial instability that has defined the last decade, labor realities have been unpredictable at best and downright cruel at worst. Downsizing and Acquisitions have become two of the watchwords for employee insecurity, signaling the often shifting needs of corporations either struggling for survival or seizing growth opportunities. For those with the unenviable task of decision-making in the face of these realities, an array of data, factors and approaches will enter into the ultimate process of laying off employees and bolstering the morale of those who will be retained. The discussion hereafter considers many of the conditions that drive this decision-making process and that shape its consequences.
It should universally be the case that financial imperatives provide the information from which decisions will be made. Downsizing is rarely engaged without an economic pressure or…
Church, A.H. (1996). From Both Sides Now Organizational Downsizing: What Is the Role of the Practitioner? The College of St. Scholastica.
Heil, K. (2005). Downsizing and Rightsizing. Encyclopedia of Management.
Hoffman, R. (2001). The Dynamics of Downsizing. Inc.
James, A.D.; Georghiou, L. & Metcalfe, J.S. (1998). Integrating Technology Into Merger and Acquisition Making. Technovation, 18(8-9), 563-573.
Decision making in institutes have been depicted as a progression of conduct with the full amount of level-headedness at individual excessive, as well as absolute illogicality at the other excessive. The depiction entails that no more than illogical decision making brings about individual morals priority in excess of economic principles. There must be a way of finding some focal point amid these ends, as it is obvious that any of this set of values can be overlooked. Many a times, managers have been brazen out with the responsibility coming up with stern, objectionable, as well as obnoxious slashes of workers along with services in a speedy approach, for the reason that, in a way, they botched to pay attention to the earlier decisions as per economic values. In the same way, institutions have also been pushed to decision retracting as well as acting in a more confusing way…
PCM Strategic Management
As per strategic management principles, many companies and organizations decide to outsource some of their services because various reasons. PCM management outsourced almost all the aspects of mine design such that they can reduce and control operational costs. When some aspects are outsourced, the company offering the services will incur the costs of all the operating machines and labor used. It is cheaper for many organizations to outsource than to acquire all the tools needed, and employ qualified personnel to work on the elements. PCM management would incur more costs as compared to outsourcing. The management would need to generate electricity supply ventilation, which is very expensive to the company. Constructing the mine, environmental safety process, and extracting coal requires expensive tools that will be used in all these operations. In addition, the company will employ qualified professionals to operate in these processes and even financial management,…
Freeman, R.E. (2010). Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Cambridge University Press.
Hitt, M. & Hoskisson, R. (2012). Strategic management cases: competitiveness and globalization. Cengage Learning.
Eden, C., & Ackermann, F. (2013). Making strategy: The journey of strategic management. Sage.
Stead, J.G., & Stead, W.E. (2013). Sustainable strategic management. ME Sharpe.
The emphasis strategic decisions companies make ethical implications. You briefly summarize ethical dilemmas
Strategic decisions that companies make and ethical implications
According to Laura Olkkonen and Vilma Luoma-aho's article "Managing mental standards with corporate citizenship profiles," "when talking about corporate responsibility and stakeholder thinking, companies need to find ways to combine two profound needs to function; the society's need for production and companies' need for societal consent" (Olkkonen & Luoma-aho 2011:12). Corporations are ethically bound to show a profit for their shareholders. It also could be argued they have a responsibility to stay in business keep their employees at work, as well as to honor the vision and mission statement of the founder. But what happens when the ethics of social responsibility seem to conflict with the need for a company to make money?
But acting unethically does not automatically result in profits in the long-term. Companies that…
Olkkonen, Laura & Vilma Luoma-aho. (2011). Managing mental standards with corporate citizenship profiles. Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies, 16 (1): 13-20.
Strategy & Decision Making
Wal-Mart has become a global corporation. The company's primary vision focuses on a more global presence and promotion of the organization's ethical culture across global stakeholders. The company's concept of a vision statement focusing on a culture of ethics is vital in globalization. The company has embraced diversity and culture in their global operations thus leading to a competitive advantage and good reputation. By promoting a culture of ethics, Sam Walton has assisted stakeholders and customers to make informed decisions thus doing the right thing (Griffin, 2012).
Wal-Mart's mission statement focuses on quality customer service, striving for excellence and respect for individuals. Therefore, based on their core beliefs and values, the mission of the company emphasizes on the provision of daily low prices and exceptional services to customers. The company has managed to uphold their business for long because the top executives and managers work…
Griffin, R.W. (2012). Fundamentals of management. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage
Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2009). Strategic management: Competitiveness and globalization. Mason, OH: South-Western
Husted, B., & Allen, D.B. (2011). Corporate social strategy: Stakeholder engagement and competitive advantage. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
III. Talent 3: A good manager can "muddle without a purpose"
According to the author, this is the most important talent that a modern manager is required to have. Paraphrasing the definition for this talent given in the article, a talented manager will always be aware of the fact that not all his programs and solutions are likely to be accepted and applied throughout the organization by the company's employees. In this sense, a good manager will recognize the futility of trying to successfully implement all his programs and will regard it as a successful venture if at least some of the programs are implemented and the movement is in the direction that he has seen fit.
This is not only something that should be related with directing and implementing, but also with evaluation and control. As such, if at the end of a certain period of time, the evaluation…
1. Wrapp, Edward H. Good Managers don't make policy decisions. Harvard Business Review. July - August 1984.
ole of Accounting Information in Decision Making Process
Accounting information plays an influential role in guiding decision making process in an organization. Our research shows that not all organizations would use accounting information in the same manner even though they might all utilize it for making better decisions. However some organizations might limit those decisions to the area of cost control while others would be comfortable using accounting information for making all kinds of strategic decisions from expansion, contraction to downsizing and technological overhaul.
Thus accounting information indeed has a significant place in the decision making process. However it all comes down to the level of trust that exists in a firm between accountants and senior management. The senior management must fully accept the information presented to them and also be able to rely on that in order for it to take it seriously and make decisions based on that…
Emmanuel, C., Otley, D. And Merchant, K. (1990), Accounting for Management Control,
2nd edition, London: Chapman & Hall publishing
Horngren, C.T. Sundem, G.L. Stratton, W.O. (2002), Introduction to Management
Accounting, 12th edition, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall International
"Serving small rather than large customers or densely rather than sparsely situated customers are other examples in which the best way to configure marketing, order processing, logistics, and after-sale service activities to meet the similar needs of distinct groups will often differ" (Porter, 1996, p.67).
But choosing a unique position, however, is not enough to guarantee a sustainable advantage. A competitor can reposition itself to match a superior performer by copycatting, like J.P. Penny did with Sears, or straddle customer segments in its marketing strategy" to match the benefits of a successful position while maintaining its existing position" like a luxury line offering a value line (such as Continental Airlines offering 'Continental Lite' (Porter, 1996, p.67). But there are always trade-offs, as straddling can create inconsistencies in image or reputation, dilute finite resources like labor and capital, and also from limits on internal coordination and control (Porter, 1996, p.67).
Ferrell, O.E. & Michael Hartline. Marketing Strategy. 4th Edition. Mason, OH: Thomas Learning/
Southwestern College Publishing, 2008.
Porter, Michael. "What is Strategy?" Harvard Business Review. Nov-Dec 1996. Reprint 96608.
hode's discussion illustrates that moral leadership combines several comprehensive business and social issues based on law, psychology, leadership, ethics, and political science. The evaluation allows strategic leadership to provide practical and theoretical policy guidelines. His study explores regarding moral leadership like the manner in which leaders sustain, transmit, and form their moral commitments (Parker & Fischhoff, 2005). Moral leadership evaluates the conditions that such processes are most useful. hode's discussion offers insight to the impacts of ethics training programs, codes, officers, and similar organizational initiatives. The focus also includes how practices and standards vary based on their contexts and cultures (hode, 2006).
hode is interested in what people do to other individuals, organizations, and societal levels for purposes of fostering moral leadership. Throughout hode's discussion, the scope of delivery identifies the elements that people are aware of and perceive to know based on the impact of ethics to…
Burton, B., & Goldsby, M. (2010). The moral floor: A philosophical examination of the connection between ethics and business. Journal of Business Ethics, 91(1), 145-154.
Discus Parker, A., Fischhoff, B. (2005). Decision-making competence: External validation through an individual-differences approach. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 18(1), 1-28.
Hartman, L.P., DesJardins, J.R., & MacDonald, C. (2013). Business ethics: Decision-making for personal integrity & social responsibility (3rd Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
Michel, L. (2007). Understanding decision making in organizations to focus its practices where it matters. Measuring Business Excellence, 11(1), 33-45.
The use of budget data for decision-making is a garbage in, garbage out scenario. If the assumptions built into the budget are poor, then the decisions made will be poor. As such, it is important that budgets are constructed with the best information and analysis available. There are different types of budgets, so the first part of the process will be to select the best type. In many organizations, static budgets are the norm, where the organization sets out a budget based on incremental changes to the previous year's budget. This technique has the benefit of being easy to implement, but it is not necessarily going to yield the most robust data. If the organization is exceptionally stable and has many years of historical data from which to draw its estimates of change, then the budget may well be accurate, but for many organizations this is a poor…
ALCTS (2016). Data-driven decision making. ALCTS. Retrieved April 15, 2016 from http://www.ala.org/alcts/ianda/7meas/data
Chen, X., Lin, Q. & Zhou, D. (2015). Statistical decision making for optimal budget allocation in crowd labeling. Journal of Machine Learning Research. Vol. 16 (2015) 1-46.
We humans make a whole lot of important decisions daily. While some are very unconscious biological decisions, most are decisions arising from conscious efforts. All human activities center on decision-making. This makes all of us decision-makers. As a matter of fact, every sound decision choice begins with a successive, focused, strategic-thinking process. Self-incurred tutelage still holds a whole lot of people bound. Tutelage simply implies that the person involved is unable to make his or her own decisions. In this tutelage, self-incurred is not based on the inability to reason, but may be due to lack on courage and resolution to make use of it without anything or anyone telling that individual what to do (Arsham, 2015).
How Human Beings Make both isky and Logical Decisions
People are inundated with both big and small decisions daily. One area of cognitive psychology that has received lots of attention is, understanding…
Acevedo, M., & Krueger, J. (2004). Two egocentric sources of the decision to vote: The voter's illusion and belief in personal relevance. Political Psychology, 115-134.
Arsham, H. (2015, September 8). Applied Management Science: Making Good Strategic Decisions. Retrieved from http://home.ubalt.edu/ntsbarsh/opre640.htm
deBruin, W., Parker, A., & Fischoff, B. (2007). Individual differences in adult decision- making competence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology., 938-956.
Dietrich, C. (2010). Decision Making: Factors that Influence Decision Making, Heuristics Used, and Decision Outcomes. Retrieved from Student Pulse: http://www.studentspulse.com/articles/180/decision-making-factors-that - influence-decision-making-heuristics-used-and-decision-outcomes
This goes for the decision of whether or not to import as well. As one cost rises, others fall. In order to maximize profit, management must determine the course of action that sees the greater reduction in total costs, related to the greatest increase in revenues.
Variance must also be taken into account. When taking cost relationships into account, the variability of costs helps management understand the stability of cash flows. In instances where there is a relationship between costs, the variability must be understood on a systemic level, as a change in one cost will result in changes to costs throughout the company. Such relationships will amplify the impact of one change, adding volatility to the expected cash flows. Therefore, it is critical that management understand the nature and intensity of cost relationships when making strategic decisions of…
Decisions in Paradise
The many infrastructure and culturally-based challenges that Nik, his team and Mr. Morales face illustrate how challenging new business development can be in an island nation the size and location of Kava. What is immediately apparent from the case is that there is ample opportunity to enrich the island's economy and people while also building a strong, scalable business at the same time. Today however the island nation has an infrastructure that is lacking, an economy that is for the most part agrarian, and a young inexperienced workforce lacking advanced skills and education. It's going to be very challenging for Nik and his team to build a business on Kava, making the selection of a common vision, strategic plan and objectives, and core values of the team critical for their success. The decision making tools used, and the selection of vision, mission and goals all need to…
Alstyne, Marshall van, Erik Brynjolfsson, and Stuart Madnick (1997). "The Matrix of Change: A Tool for Business Process Reengineering." MIT Sloan School http://ccs.mit.edu/papers/CCSWP189/ccswp189.html
Muller, R., & Turner, R.. (2010). Leadership competency profiles of successful project managers. International Journal of Project Management, 28(5), 437.
Pandelica, I., Pandelica, A., & Dabu, B.. (2010). The Response of Organizations in Crisis Conditions. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 15(2), 151-160.
Paul, R. And Elder, L. (2001) - Critical Thinking-Tools for Taking Charge of Your
S. economy is down, Target profits are likely to go down in response.
The main strategic problem is low employee wages, which has altered public perceptions. The retail industry is very unstable and some of the competition Target faces ebbs and flows quickly. The main competitors Target faces are Wal-Mart, K-Mart and Sears. Most cities have other smaller stores and department stores, which all compete with Target for the same customers. Wal-Mart has more locations than Target, which makes Wal-Mart more accessible to customers. In addition, Wal-Mart has tapped into the foreign market places. This competitor is well-known for its low prices and discounted prices. The goods Wal-Mart offers is not of as high a quality as Target, but most of the consumers who patronize this store is looking for the money savings. The competitors Target faces are a constant threat to the profit margin of the organization.
House, C. (2008). Target Corporation SWOT Analysis. London: Datamonitor Plc.
Target Corporation. (2010). Our Company. Retrieved from http://sites.target.com/site/en/company/page.jsp?contentId=WCMP04-030795
Target Corporation. (2012). Investors: Corporate overview. Retrieved from http://investors.target.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=65828&p=irol-homeprofile
Although the company relies on information technology it is not at the forefront so can adapt more slowly. There are limited political-legal and societal implications. The most important force -- economic -- does vary but the North American market is by far the most important. Jet fuel prices do not vary significantly from country to country.
Industry competition is driven by overall demand levels, price and service. These forces do not vary globally. There is low threat of new entrants due to high entry costs. Buyers have average buying power due to competition. There is a high threat of substitution from electronic communications and slower shipping services. Rivalry among firms is intense. Unions, governments, interest groups have low relative power.
Customers are the only immediate factor affecting FedEx, as they have curtailed spending on shipping. A major threat is that customers will find ways to reduce shipping permanently. An opportunity…
MSN Moneycentral: FedEx. (2009). Retrieved December 8, 2009 from http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/invsub/results/hilite.asp?Symbol=FDX
Carey, N. (2009). FedEx says taking market share despite slump. Reuters. Retrieved December 8, 2009 from http://www.reuters.com/article/pressReleasesMolt/idUSTRE52I3C820090319
Shult, K. (2008). Battle of the brands: UPS vs. FedEx. Blogging Stocks. Retrieved December 8, 2009 from http://www.bloggingstocks.com/2008/05/05/battle-of-the-brands-ups-vs.-FedEx/
2009 FedEx Annual Report. Retrieved December 8, 2009 from http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/FDX/791567587x0x312397/557bd7f3-8372-4afe-a664-1fdb82a488b0/FedEx2009AnnualReportl.pdf
" (Chennameni, 2006) it is reported that this "incessant interaction and conversion in turn results in joint creation of knowledge by individuals and organizations." (Chennameni, 2006) Organizations are reported to play a key role in activating the "explicit and tacit dimensions of knowledge and in providing a forum for the knowledge spiral through four modes of knowledge creation" (Chennameni, 2006) Those four modes are stated to include: (1) socialization; (2) externalization; (3) combination; and (4) internalization. (Chennameni, 2006)
Socialization speaks of the exchanging of "tacit knowledge among members through the social interactions and shared experiences." (Chennameni, 2006) Externalization refers to the translation of tacit knowledge into from explicit knowledge." (Chennameni, 2006) it is reported that each of the modes of conversion are both "interdependent and tangled." (Chennameni, 2006)
B. Diffusion of Innovation
ogers Diffusion of Innovations explains change via Social Networks. The Diffusion of innovations theory explains the process of…
Chennamaneni, a. (2006) Determinants of Knowledge Sharing Behaviors: Developing and Testing an Integrated Theoretical Model. The University of Texas at Arlington. Dec 2006. Retrieved from: http://dspace.uta.edu/bitstream/handle/10106/305/uta-etd-1428.pdf?sequence=1
Darnton, a. (2008) Reference Report: An overview of behavior change models and their uses. GSR Behavior Change Knowledge Review. Jul 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.civilservice.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Behaviour_change_reference_report_tcm6-9697.pdf
O'Malley, P. (2006) Strategic Communications Planning. A Presentation to IABC Ottawa. Retrieved from: http://www.omalco.com/iabc.htm
Planned Behaviour: A Meta-Analysis," (22:3),2003.
In order to achieve the economies of scale, the company has vast network of sales and distribution along with acquisitions and mergers to support increased production of which Cadbury is a recent example. The company also tries to sustain and enhance its brand image by virtue of comprehensive branding strategy. Vertical and horizontal expansion of companies' product range is also indicative of Kraft's sustained strategic expansion. ecently the company split into Mondel-z International, Inc. And Kraft Foods Group, North America.
The potential discrepancies in the strategic and business level strategies of the company are based in the functional capacity of the firm. There have been issues related to internal control of the company being not stringent enough to ensure integrity of financial reporting and for this purpose; the company also adopted an audit committee charter. Aim was to improve the functional management in relation to finance and operations.
Bhaskaran, S., Polonsky, M., Cary, J., & Fernandez, S. (2006). Environmentally sustainable food production and marketing: opportunity or hype-British Food Journal, 108(8), 677-690.
Kraft Foods. (2013). Make a Legacy. Kraft Foods Group. Retrieved from: http://www.kraftfoodsgroup.com/About/index.aspx
Low, W., & Davenport, E. (2005). Has the medium (roast) become the message? The ethics of marketing fair trade in the mainstream. International Marketing Review, 22(5), 494-511.
Thomson, N., & Baden-Fuller, C. (2010). Basic Strategy in Context: European text and cases. Wiley-Blackwell.
Strategic Management Action: Strategic Position, Choices, And Strategy Implementation
Strategic management is stated to be the "process by which an organization formulates its objectives and manages to achieve them. Strategy is the means to achieve the organizational ends." (Thomas, nd) Managers are required to have a strategic vision in order to become strategic managers and implement strategic management initiatives. The strategic vision of the manager is inclusive of the following elements:
(1) The ability to solve complex and more complex problems;
(2) The knowledge to be more anticipatory in perspective and approach, and (3) The willingness to develop options for the future. (Thomas, nd)
The work of Peter Drucker states that the primary task of strategic management is the focus on the business overall mission and states:
"…that is, of asking the question What is our usiness? This leads to the setting of objectives, the development of strategies, and the…
Futuring: Strategic Planning for Making Your Visions Come True. J. Scott Thornton. American Society of Association Executives, 1986.
Introducing Strategy (nd) Strategy Lab -- Chapter 1. Retrieved from: http://catalogue.pearsoned.co.uk/assets/hip/gb/hip_gb_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0273757253.pdf
Long-Range Planning. American Society of Association Executives. 202/626-2748 2. Planning for the Future. By Stephen Gilbert. American Society of Association Executives, 1986.
Manual OD Toolkit (nd) Retrieved from: http://www.zenska-mreza.hr/prirucnik/en/en_manual.htm
If the question is left unaddressed, this would result in increasing dissatisfaction among customers and staff, and a possible loss of library patrons.
Another strategic issues is the shift to the central purchasing of books. This policy entailed the decision to move the book buying capability to the Service Center in order to implement the goal of a more in-depth and sophisticated level of collections. This was implemented without consulting with the branch managers, who were directly affected by the decision. From the viewpoint of patrons, this new policy would indeed create a better selection of materials to better serve their needs by means of greater diversity and avoiding duplication. However, this created a large amount of resentment among librarians, who regarded this duty as one of their favorite responsibilities that directly utilized their skills as librarians.
If left unaddressed, this issue could severely impact the job satisfaction of librarians,…
This then allows equal weight to be pulled in various decisions. Finally, utilizing executive compensation as a method for proper governance which is many times set by a board of trustees or directors also proves beneficial in some circumstances. This allows top executives to be compensated for their influence within organizational decision making. These last two prove to be weaker than bearing weight on the stock holders, for they only allow a few voices to be heard.
3) Briefly describe how the external corporate governance mechanism "the market for corporate control" acts as a restraint on top-level managers' strategic decisions. Also, while corporate governance should foster ethical strategic decisions, what are at least two crucial factors that can negate this?
As much as organizations would like to control every situation in the business environment, this has never been the case. In terms of external market factors, managers and executives are…
MSN Money. (2009). Walmart Stores Inc.: financial statement. Retrieved May 29, 2009 at http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/invsub/results/statemnt.aspx?symbol=WMT
Strategic National isk Assessment
Compare and contrast the deductions about the national-level threats and hazards as listed by the DHS in the SNA against the findings you made in Week 5's analysis of the WTAs. As always, assume what is listed first is the greatest risk [also called "most dangerous"] and probability [also called "most likely"] and the last is least
The Strategic National isk Assessment (SNA) is designed to provide the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) with the tools it needs to effectively deal with various challenges. The threats and hazards are illustrating the overall scope of the problems and the probability that they will occur at some point in the future. They are classified into different categories called most dangerous and likely.
The most dangerous threats are areas where there is an immediate risk to the U.S. homeland and different national interests. A few of the most notable…
"Strategic National Assessment." DHS. (2011): 1 -- 7.
US DHS. National Infrastructure Plan. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006.
Turabian Format http://www.libs.uga.edu/ref/turabian2009.pdf
"Strategic National Assessment," DHS, 2011, 1 -- 7.
Organizational mandates refer to the authoritative basis for a company's actions. Companies today are all subject to certain laws, regulations, articles of incorporation, and so on. These mandates concern a wide variety of company operations, including the assurance of fair competition and financial honesty.
There are both formal and informal mandates. The formal mandates have been mentioned above, and concern formal rules and requirements by authorities. Informal mandates, in turn, are concerned with the norms and expectations of key stakeholders such as elected officials. There could be certain specific rules and regulations required or expected by these authorities, which a company must comply with.
Customers can also dictate mandates, such as that a product must be of a certain quality if a certain price is expected for it, and so on. Good customer service is an example of this, where company employees are expected to liaise with customers…
Strategic planning is a systemic and elaborate plan of action expressing the future move or plans a company plans to take. It is a long-term plan that a company puts down in an attempt to shape or build the future. It gives an organization the direction and a goal. This plan can be laid down to cover the near future, but it can run longer depending on the organization's plans. For most organizations, the strategic plan usually focuses on the entire organization. However, a strategic plan can focus on a department or on one product only. This is referred to as a business plan. Strategic planning involves different models, perspectives and approaches, and this depends on the organization leadership, its culture, the planners and also its size, Boyd & euning-Elliott, 1998()
The Sweet Peas Catering services company has the objective of not only delivering their products to the customers but…
Boyd, B.K., & Reuning-Elliott, E. (1998). A Measurement Model of Strategic Planning. Strategic Management Journal, 19(2), 181-192.
Powell, J.H. (2001). Generating Networks for Strategic Planning by Successive Key Factor Modification. The Journal of the Operational Research Society, 52(4), 369-382.
ii. Operational Objectives:
The second key objective of the company encompasses its aim to become operationally stronger and unbeatable in the long run. McDonald's is currently the market leader in the global fast food industry due to various competitive advantages and core competencies: including extensive &D, quality management, efficient manufacturing capabilities, strong supply chain and distribution network, excellent customer services, etc. All these competitive advantages and strengths are focused on achieving its operational objectives (Hitt, Ireland, & Hoskisson, 2011). By achieving these objectives, McDonald's aims to prove itself as the most competitive fast food brand which is always the first choice of customers.
iii. Human esource Objectives:
McDonald's has employed around 1.7 million employees in its production plants, regional offices, restaurants, and the Headquarters (McDonald's, 2013). It considers these employees as the most valuable resource for its business. Therefore, its five key objectives also constitute the human resource aspects of…
About McDonald's, (2011). Sustainability Scorecard. Retrieved on July 7th, 2013, from
Hill, C.W., & Jones, G.R. (2012). Strategic Management Theory, 10th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western, Cengage Learning
Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2011). Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization - Concepts, 9th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning
McDonald's, (2013). Our Story. Retrieved on July 7th, 2013, from
Strategic Plan & Analysis of New Commercial Endeavor
Louisville Community Development Bank was set up in the year 1997 as a consequence of a scheme by Louisville mayor Jerry Abramson and a team of business, community and religious leaders to ensure betterment of the Louisville inner city. The Bank's mission is to inspire economic growth with the West End and the Smoke town, Shelby Park and Phoenix Hill localities of Louisville, Kentucky, by offering a range of financial and development resources. (Louisville Community Development Bank from a Home Business to a Million-Dollar Plaza)
Why you have selected the business or department
As the sphere of Banking comes aptly well within my domain knowledge, I would choose for a current venture as that of a local community development bank. Louisville Community Development Bank (LCDB) is a profit oriented, FDIC guaranteed, commercial bank that focuses its functions in the…
"Catholic Health Initiatives Commits $1 Million to Louisville Community Development Bank" Retrieved from http://www.morethanabank.com/whatsnew100.htm Accessed on 26 September, 2004
"Community Development Banks" Retrieved from http://www.betterworldhandbook.com/action7(banks).html Accessed on 26 September, 2004
"Directory: Louisville Community Development Bank" Retrieved from http://www.morethanabank.com/staff2.htm Accessed on 26 September, 2004
"Federal tax credit announcement spurs inquiries" (21 May, 2004) Retrieved from http://louisville.bizjournals.com/louisville/stories/2004/05/24/story3.html
Decisions are an important part of everyday life, organizations, and particular of leadership goals and behaviors. We know that managers and leaders are not the same, and true leadership roles are often expressed by the mastery of being able to overcome some of the basic issues of poor decision making.
Failing to remember goals -- The old maxim of measure for success fits with the idea of goal setting. If one sets goals, keeps monitoring those goals, and then reassesses the goals, one will have an easier chance of success. Goals should always be in place and everyone in the organization should, in theory, have combined tactical goals that fit the organization's strategic goals.
Overconfidence -- There is a fine line between overconfidence and being confident. Overconfidence often implies a degree of arrogance that causes one to be egotistical and self-centered and not listen to others or see the reality…
Howell, J. And Costley, D. (2000). Understanding Behaviors for Effective Leadership.
New York: Prentice Hall.
Knapp, J. (2007). Leaders on Ethics: Real-World Perspectives on Today's Business
Challenges. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Decision-making is an important activity for top management in any enterprise. Strategic thinking is required for making useful decisions. For example, business executives plan strategies to access market share, to deal with employees, to react to competition and to decide on career growth. Decision Sciences is a discipline on its own that provides techniques and methods to take decisions in any practical situations. In this paper, a list of journals and websites that provides information on Decision Sciences is provided. This list is expected to be useful to top management. (America's Investment in the Future: Decision Sciences-How the Game Is being played)
Decision Sciences" is a quarterly, professional journal published by Decision Sciences Institute. This journal utilizes the current methods of mathematics and statistics along with computer technology and behavior science. This journal is read by business professionals and teaching professionals. From 2003, Blackwell Publishing is publishing this…
America's Investment in the Future: Decision Sciences-How the Game Is being played" Retrieved at http://www.nsf.gov/about/history/nsf0050/decision/decisionsx2.htm . Accessed on 21 February 2005
Asia Pacific Decision Sciences Institute: Theme - Collaborative Decision Making in the Internet Era" retrieved at http://www.calpoly.edu/~eli/apdsi/apdsi2005/ . Accessed on 22 February 2005
Decision Analysis Society" Retrieved at http://faculty.fuqua.duke.edu/daweb/ . Accessed on 22 February 2005
Decision Line" (October 2004) Volume 35(5) retrieved at http://www.decisionsciences.org/DecisionLine/Vol35/35_5/index.htm . Accessed on 21 February 2005
Using Benchmarking to Create a Mass Communications Strategy
While the focus is on creating educational television as the basis for launching an educationally-based business, the use of benchmarking could also be used as the basis for giving Nik and his team credibility throughout the nation as well. The publication of benchmarks and their explanation leads to authenticity and trust being created over time (Pemberton, Stonehouse, Yarrow, 2001). These benchmarks could then be used for creating the foundation for funding for healthcare programs and the initial development of clinics, based on the training accomplished over time. Benchmarking over time would also provide insights into which specific industries have the greatest potential over time to invest in as well. The immediate impact of this decision is in the benchmarking of demographic data over time relative to educational attainment. Creating benchmarking to provide segment-specific insights can be used for development of launch plans…
Jonathan D. Pemberton, George H. Stonehouse, & David J. Yarrow. (2001). Benchmarking and the role of organizational learning in developing competitive advantage. Knowledge and Process Management, 8(2), 123.
Siemiatycki, M.. (2009). Benchmarking and the bottom line. Public Policy Research, 15(4), 224-228.
The partnership strategy will bring capital investment to the island in the form of clinics while at the same time creating jobs for graduates. The same model needs to be applied to the banking industry as well. Creating an alliance strategy that will attract banking partners to Kava to create micro-lending programs and open branches will in turn create jobs for the Kava Educational Network. It will also serve as a source of funding to pay for vocational school tuitions as well. Throughout the strategic planning process, the potential to both enrich the island from a socio-economic basis through CS programs (Estes, 2008) while also building out key industries to ensure their profitable growth (ehme, 2007) is key. The strategic plan will need to balance the defining of the educational business as the foundation and the definition of healthcare and banking as the immediate industries of interest.
Evaluating the Ethical…
Estes, P. (2008, September). Value Add for the Community. Mergers and Acquisitions, 43(9), 77.
David Cruise Malloy, James Agarwal. (2003). Factors influencing ethical climate in a nonprofit organisation: An empirical investigation. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 8(3), 224-250.
Gunther Rehme (2007). Education, Economic Growth and Measured Income Inequality. Economica, 74(295), 493.
Indeed, if we consider a hotel, for example, in an internal analysis, the financial analysis will evaluate the financial health of the hotel, keeping in mind some of the industry's characteristics (such as seasonality) and the fact that the hotel's revenues may somewhat depend on the period it operates in. However, similar to other industries, financial ratios will be calculated based on the basic statements. An internal diagnosis of functional areas will take into account the specificity of the hospitality industry. In this sense, marketing and promotion probably plays an important role, as does public relations, in ensuring that the customers are satisfied with the services provided and that they will be using the same facility in the future as well.
The external environment analysis will take into consideration some of the factors that affect the hospitality industry. These may be, for example, legal factors (laws that may affect the…
1. Comerford, Robert a.; Callaghan, Dennis W. Strategic Management. Text and Tools for Business Policy. Second Edition. Chapter 1. On the Internet at http://www.cba.uri.edu/Faculty/Comerford/Text/Text.html
Comerford, Robert a.; Callaghan, Dennis W. Strategic Management. Text and Tools for Business Policy
Second Edition. Chapter 1. On the Internet at http://www.cba.uri.edu/Faculty/Comerford/Text/Text.html
Each will be tied to different tactical objectives and timeframes. The effectiveness of the process will be measured in terms of adherence to time frames, cost and key market variables such as penetration and market share. Each variable should be quantitative to facilitate ease of measurement and evaluation.
A wide variety of legal issues will need to be considered. Doing business is foreign countries creates significant exposure to risk, in that the foreign legal environment can be substantially different from the domestic one. The nature and intensity of these differences will be considered. Also, it will be considered if there are any legal or ethical considerations domestically as a result of overseas expansion. To use an extreme example, setting up a factory in Cuba would create a host of legal and ethical concerns that would need to be accounted for in the option evaluation process. It will be critical to…
Mitchell, Charles & Curry, Jeffrey E. (2003). A Short Course in International Business Ethics: Combining Ethics and Profits in Global Business. World Trade Press, Petaluma. 2003.
No author. (2000). Chapter Four: The Legal, Political/Trade Environment. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved February 22, 2009 at http://www.fao.org/docrep/W5973E/w5973e08.htm
Boyce, Sharon Yvette. (2007). Using Intellectual Capital and Organizational Capacity to Enhance Strategic Implementation for Pharmaceutical Firms. Journal of Business and Public Affairs. Retrieved February 22, 2009 at http://www.scientificjournals.org/journals2007/articles/1072.htm
The modern day working environment is the result of decades of evolution. The labor force initially set its basis in the Industrial Revolution, when the people moved from villages to towns and cities in order to become factory workers and pursue better lives. What they found was nevertheless different from a better life, as they were exploited, overworked, underpaid and forced to live and function in unsafe and unsanitary conditions.
Since those times however, the labor force has gained more and more rights, which are enforced through legislations. The modern day employees then are the most valuable asset within the company, as they support the company in attaining its objectives. In such a setting, the role of the Human Resource Department in the organizational setting has become more complex, to be assessed as part of an integrated and multifaceted strategic setting. At this level, it is important to…
Achieving a strategic vision in an era of globalization and increasing competitiveness from rapidly emerging economies is complex and multidimensional in scope. The notion of including an ethical component may appear to be a luxury that some companies cannot afford, yet it is something expected by more and more stakeholders, as well as the general public. Achieving and sustaining a competitive advantage in an increasingly globalized marketplace demands that companies of all sizes and types take advantage of every opportunity to reduce costs and add value. For example, Sussan (2006) emphasizes that companies of all sizes and types require effective leadership in order to formulate a corporate vision and make informed day-to-day decisions. The need for leaders to integrate values and ethics in their decision making has been fueled, in part, by three global trends:
Successful leaders in all types of organization understand that ethics and values are…
Bryson, J. (2011). Strategic Planning For Public and Nonprofit Organizations. 4th ed.
New York: Wiley.
Burke, F. (1999). Ethical Decision Making: Global Concerns. Public Personnel
Management. 28 (4): 529-31.
Then they can transfer them to all the business units and follow through. A best practice of an organization provides it with unique and distinctive competence and cost/benefit impact. Therefore the transfer and sharing of the best practice organization wide becomes necessary for attaining a competitive edge.
enchmarking attempts to improve business processes by analyzing the top-notch approaches of others and adapting it to one's own organization to achieve a competitive lead. est practices and benchmarking can give an organization strategic, operational, and financial advantage. ench marking is an attempt by an organization to look for continuous improvement. Japanese concept of "Kaizen" or continuous improvement also considers benchmarking an important part of its philosophy. enchmarking can also require management to think out of the box. For example, if someone wants to see the standards for team management in the steel industry they might look for the best practice in the…
Choy, C., Suk, C. 2005, 'Critical Factors In The Successful Implementation Of Knowledge Management', Journal of Knowledge Management Practice, Available at;
David, Fred R. 1991, Strategic Management. 3rd Ed. McMillan
Dehoff K., Neilson, G. et al. 2001, 'Best practices transfer: Unleashing the value within', Available at;
Strategic Management at McDonald's
McDonald's Strategic Management
Strategic Management at McDonald's
Strategic Management at McDonald's
Organizational Structure and Corporate Governance
Industry Sector Analysis
Michael Porter's Five Forces Model
Key conditions in the External Operating Environment of McDonald's and its Industry
The Value Proposition on McDonald's Products
SWOT Analysis for McDonald's
TOWS Matrix for Alternative Strategies
BCG Growth Share Matrix for McDonald's
Marketing, Financial, and esearch & Development Strategies
Joint Ventures, Strategic Alliances, and Partnerships
Performance Measurement Methods and Benchmarks
Table of Contents
Figure 1: Organizational Structure of McDonald's
Table 1: TWOS Matrix
Figure 2: BCG Growth Share Matrix
Table 2: Gantt chart for Strategy implementation
List of Figures and Tables
This report presents a complete analysis of strategic management practices at the world's largest fast food restaurant chain, McDonald's. The report starts by introducing and…
About McDonald's, (2011). Sustainability Scorecard. Retrieved on November 24th, 2012, from
ADVFN, (2012). McDonald's Historical Stock Chart. Retrieved on November 24th, 2012, from
Baertlein, L., & Dorfman, B. (2012). McDonald's July same-store sales flat, worst in 9 years. Retrieved on November 24th, 2012, from
Hill, C.W., & Jones, G.R. (2012). Strategic Management Theory, 10th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western, Cengage Learning
(Quick MBA, 2004)
Q4. Choose any 3 leaders and discuss the actions that they took or their personal characteristic that you think influenced firm's strategy.
Sam alton's desire to offer the best prices, all the time at his al-Mart, rather than high-low pricing like K-mart's Edward Lampert that requires printing costly circulars and newspaper ads to advertise special deals, indicate alton's revolutionary de-emphasizing of marketing specific products as inexpensive in contrast to Lampert's stress on making consumers think they got a special deal as an incentive. (Haber, "It's a Lean Operation," 2003)
However, within the K-Mart empire, ironically, Martha Stewart has deployed an effective branding strategy of her aspy image of good living, combined with quality products, that have resulted in continued product loyalty, despite her financial woes.
Q5. Discuss corporerate governance.
Reach, competitive contact, managing businesses and business advantages, management practices and activities are all under the realm of…
Consumer Psychologist (2004) "DISTRIBUTION: Firm, Brand, and Product Line Objectives." Retrieved on September 13, 2004 at http://www.consumerpsychologist.com/distribution.htm
Haber, Gary. (May 7, 2003) "Kmart hopes pricing, brand names work: It's a lean operation leaving bankruptcy." Detroit Free Press. Retrieved on September 12, 2004. http://www.freep.com/money/business/kbox7_20030507.htm
Pavilion, Corwin. (April 12, 2004) "Wal-Mart: Template for 21st Century Capitalism?" Retrieved on September 13, 2004 http://www.ihc.ucsb.edu/walmart/
Retail Forward. (2004) "Distribution Channels Strategy." Retail Forward Website. Retrieved on September 13, 2004 at http://www.retailforward.com/freecontent/distributionchannels.asp