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Stress Evaluation and Intervention Proposal
Stress Management in Public Safety Organizations
Public safety organizations are one of the most important components of any society as they are responsible to provide support and assistance to the community in times of crisis. The employees of such organization however are always exposed to stressful situations and they need to be mentally and emotionally strong to take the challenge, deal with it and help other dependents out of it. This is of great concern for public administration authorities as constant exposure to stressful situations leads to development of some kind of psychological disorder among the employees. This paper aims at evaluating how stressful conditions can be identified, evaluated and intervened so as to provide a coping strategy to deal with a stressor. The paper evaluates various literature pieces that are available in the relevant field of study and also analyzes stress management…
Alexander, C.N., Schneider, R.H., Staggers, F., Sheppard, W., Clayborne, B.M., Rainforth, M. et al. (1996). Trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African-Americans: II. Sex and risk subgroup analysis Hypertension, 28, 228-237.
Cheryl Tatano Beck, Jeanne Driscoll (2006), postpartum mood and anxiety disorders: a clinician's guide
Bazargan, M., Calderon, J.L., Heslin, K.C., Mentes, C., Shaheen, M.A., Ahdout, J,. (2005). A profile of chronic mental and physical conditions among African-American and Latino children in urban public housing. Ethnicity & Disease, 15(4 Suppl 5), S5-3-9.
Cohen, S., Kessler, R.C.; & Gordon, L.U. (1995). Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scientists. New York: Oxford University Press.
55). In other words, stress can create a life-long physiological change in and impairment of brain and body functioning. uch recent findings suggest that victims of stress may in fact suffer from a neurological disorder rather than just from a character flaw, mental weakness, or bad luck.
Chronic stress can impact individual perception and thinking in significant ways. Research in cognitive neuropsychology has been particularly helpful in identifying some of these patterns. Psychiatrists at the Dartmouth Medical chool have identified certain common styles of thinking present in those who as a result of traumatic stress suffer from chronic life stress (Mueser, Rosenberg, & Rosenberg, 2009, pp. 99-120). These thought patterns, or schemas, shape the individual's perception of the world and have a degree of negative control over their emotions (Mueser, Rosenberg, & Rosenberg, 2009). The problem is that they are inaccurate and destructive thoughts and beliefs. They exacerbate distress rather…
Stress has been linked to more serious impairments such as PTSD, depression, somatic disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. Bremner (2002) argued that these disorders may be considered in relationship to a "common stress-induced neurological deficit" (p. 34). That is to say, stress actually changes the way the brain operates. In even more extreme cases, studies have shown clear connections between stress and the mental disorder of schizophrenia (Lewine, 2005). While most researchers understand that there are genetic predispositions in those who develop schizophrenia, they generally realize that environmental factors combine with this inherited vulnerability to produce the disorder (Lewine, 2005). In other words, stress contributes to the formation and perpetuation of schizophrenia. It effects the person's cognitive appraisal of the environment, which when fused with biological predispositions give rise to serious mental distress and distortions.
Lewine (2005) examined the kinds of stress that research has connected with the development of schizophrenic thought patterns. Such stressors include childhood trauma (e.g., parental loss) or confusing family relations involving hyper-criticism, emotional over-involvement, and hostility. Further, the manifestation of schizophrenia itself is a source of stress owing to the external and uncontrollable nature of hallucinations and the "direct distortions in information processing, affect, and interpersonal relationships" (Lewine, 2005, p. 291). Schizophrenics tend to find social life more threatening than the average person (Lewine, 2005). As a result of this, stress is increased and negatively impacts their rational capacities. Another contributing impact of stress on schizophrenic thinking is social stress and poverty, both of which contribute to demoralization, low self-esteem, alienation, and further life hardship since it creates such things as financial worry (Lewine, 2005). In sum, the extreme case of schizophrenia illustrates how stress can impact thinking and mental processes (even if associated with genetic predispositions) by contributing to distorted interpretations of the environment and cognitive impairment that is stress sensitive and threat-oriented.
Memory is another important area of the mind that stress affects. Neuroscientists have shown that the areas of the brain associated with memory play an important role in the stress response and are sensitive to stress. Bremner (2002) stated, "One important outcome is long-term dysregulation of the brain chemical systems that we need to survive the immediate threat to our lives" (p. 107). The result of stress can cause fragmented memory and dissociation because it affects the hippocampus where memory is controlled (Bremner, 2002). Other studies showed that cortisol released during stress impairs memory, producing the spaced out feeling an individual feels when under
It is important to note that the relationship between pain and anxiety is reciprocal. Painful experiences may lead to anxiety (e.g., "Something must be wrong... Increased anxiety will lead to accentuated perception of pain, which further increases the anxiety level. Obviously, potentially traumatic experiences may result unless there is some intervention in this pain-anxiety cycle. Narcotics may be helpful, but psychological interventions are quite appropriate in this regard. (King, 1991, p. 129)
5. Defining Criteria: Describe how you would know if the concept were present in a situation.
Listening to the patient and watching physical cues, such as increases pulse of BP, increased pallor, as well as listening to the patient when he or she has concerns about procedural or context questions.
6. Antecedents: Identify antecedents that you would expect to find in biological, psychological and/or social systems
Precious personal or secondary bad experiences with surgical procedures, recovery times or…
Ben-Zur, H., Rappaport, B., Ammar, R., & Uretzky, G. (2000). Coping Strategies, Life Style Changes and Pessimism after Open-Heart Surgery. Health and Social Work, 25(3), 201.
Bradley, E.L. (1994). A Patient's Guide to Surgery. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Devito, P.L. (1994, July). The Immune System vs. Stress. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 123, 27.
Guided Imagery Speeds Surgical Recovery. (1996, October). USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 125, 8.
Stress is an unavoidable fact of life, yet, what precisely is stress? It is essentially one of those things that we all have but that we all have difficulty defining and explaining. The one unarguable fact is that we all have it in our lives and, without it, our lives would be much different. If fact, the only way that one's life can be entirely stress free is upon death. Unfortunately, too much stress can be not only debilitating but fatal and it is incumbent on everyone to learn how to effectively handle stress in order to avoid adverse effects.
hat creates stress in one individual may not cause stress in another. Everyone differs as to how he or she reacts to life's events and this is one of the factors that cause the management of stress such a difficult problem. ith this difference in mind, there are a certain…
Boden-Albala, Bernadette. "Lifestyle factors and stroke risk: Exercise alcohol, diet, obesity, smoking, drug use and stress." Current Artherosclerosis Reports (2000): 160-166.
Cramer, Michelle W. "The Relationship between Household Composition and Retirement Stress." Guidance and Counseling (2005).
Elkins, D. "Waah! Why Children have a lot to cry about. ." Psychology Today (1992): 38-43.
Fairbrother, Kerry. "Workplace dimensions, stress and job satisfaction." Journal of Managerial Psychology (2003): 8-21.
This may be because the environment may be either polluted, or too noisy, or too crowded, or there may be too much crowding, or it may be too cold, or too warm. The weather too plays an important part in creating stress in an individual, especially when the individual happens to be already stressed due to some reason or the other.
Another main source of stress may be physiological, like for example, any type of illness that the student is or had suffered from, any sort of injuries in his person, insufficient sleep, and inadequate nutrition, and also in some cases, the hormonal fluctuations that are a natural occurrence for this particular age group of individuals. The very thought processes of the college student may also become a major stress inducer in him. For example, when he expects perfectionism in everything that he does, but finds that he is not…
Alternative Treatments for Depression, Anxiety and Stress: Dr. Podell's Perspective on Brain, Mind, and Mood. 2002. Retrieved at http://www.drpodell.org/alternative_treatments_for_depression.shtml . Accessed on 18 February, 2005
Archer, James; Carroll, Christina. Stress and College Students. University of Florida Counseling Center. Retrieved at http://www.counsel.ufl.edu/self-Help/studentStress.asp. Accessed on 18 February, 2005
Dedicated to Advancing Our Understanding of: The Role of Stress in Health and Illness
The Nature and Importance of Mind-Body Relationships Our Inherent. The American Institute of Stress. Retrieved at http://www.stress.org/ . Accessed on 18 February, 2005
Each of us has our own share of experiences where we find ourselves unable to cope with normal responses. Sometimes, due to circumstances that push both of our minds and bodies to precisely act on things or to meet expectations, we tend to feel that we almost want to give up. Such example in our daily experiences is what we call stress.
Stress is a psychological imbalance, which, if regularly experienced, can affect the bodily functions and can cause drawbacks to one's health. A number of medical research and studies have reached findings explaining the relationship of stress to one's health. A number of negative effects that stress causes to our health were found to be dangerous if the frequency of stressful experiences is not controlled and minimized.
One explanation to the relationship and effect of stress to one's health is indicated in a ody ulletin's article The Effects…
Danielson, R.R. (2000). The Body's Response to Stress.
Retrieved on Jan 22, 2004, from Homepage of R.R. Danielson.
Web site: http://danielson.laurentian.ca/drdnotes/4516ch03.htm
Tebbe, M.H., et. al. (2001). Role of Stress in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. Evidence for Stress-Induced Alterations in Gastrointestinal Motility and Sensitivity.
A recent study by Duke University medical research center revealed that exercises not only relive depression and distress but also bring about positive changes in important physiological markers of cardiovascular disease. For this study 134 stable cardiac patients were recruited and assigned randomly into three different groups. The exercise group received 35 minutes of aerobic training 3 times a week for 16 weeks while the 'stress management group' received stress management therapy for 1.5 hours once a week for 16 weeks. The third group, which also served as the control group, received only regular pharmacological intervention. At the end of the study period, the researchers conducted ultrasound-imaging study of the brachial artery before and after the application of a tourniquet to record endothelial dialation. The results siuggested that the experimental subjects (both exercise group as well as behavioral therapy group) achieved a 25% improvement in 'flow mediated dialation' compared to…
1) AIS, 'Stress, Definition of Stress, Stressor, What is Stress?, Eustress?',
Accessed Apr 25th 2009, available at, http://www.stress.org/ topic-definition- stress.htm?AIS=2afb4b0a5c7ac99b4e4b063591d971d2
2) Gregory E. Miller, Ph.D., Washington University at St. Louis; Sheldon Cohen,
Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon University; A. Kim Ritchey, M.D., Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, (2002), '"Chronic Psychological Stress and the Regulation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines: A Glucocorticoid-Resistance Model,," Health Psychology, Vol 21, No. 6. Available Online at, http://www.apa.org/journals/releases/hea216531.pdf
Stress is an inevitable part of life, occurring as it does in all its aspects. Indeed, the almost omnipresent nature of stress is indicated in its very definition as "the nonspecific response of the body to any demands made upon it." (Crampton et. al., cited Selye, 1995) However, while stress may always be present, it is important to note that its negative effects usually manifest when a condition or feeling is experienced that the demands of a situation exceed the personal and social resources available to an individual (Mind Tools, cited Lazarus, 1995-2005). Since negative stress can adversely affect an individual's ability to function effectively in life, it is critical to identify the cause of such stress and manage it so that its effect is neutralized. Therefore, it is the objective of this paper to describe the nature of stress, its negative effects, and stress management techniques that…
Crampton, S.M., Hodge, J.W., Mishra, J.M., & Price, S. (1995). Stress and Stress
Management. SAM Advanced Management Journal. Vol. 60:3, p. 10+.
Mind Tools. (1995-2005). Stress Management Techniques. Mind Tools Web site. Retrieved May 7, 2005: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTCS_00.htm
Statement of Authorship: I assert that this material was written by me, and that any external sources consulted are properly cited and listed in the bibliography.
University students may be under high levels of stress due to their workloads and conflicting pressures from friends, family, and job. Research points to a set of proven stress reduction techniques that can be incorporated into any student's daily life. Techniques can be varied, depending on individual preferences, needs, and situations. For example, one solution for reducing stress is to cease associating with people who are negative or angry (University of Victoria Counselling Services, 2004). However, for some students this is not possible because bosses or family members could be the culprits and it would be difficult to extricate oneself from the social situation. In general, though, the techniques of stress reduction can be carried out with the result of better health and…
Williams, K.A., Kolar, M.M., Reger, B.E., & Pearson, J.C. (2001). Evaluation of a Wellness-based Mindfulness Stress Reduction Intervention: A Controlled Trial. American Journal of Health Promotion: July/August 2001, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 422-432.
Winefield, T., Boyd, C., Saebel, J. & Pignata, S., 2008. Update on national university stress study. In Australian Universities Review 50(1).
Woolfolk, R.L., Lehrer, P.M. & Allen, L.A., 2007. "Conceptual issues underlying stress management. Chapter 1 in Principles and Practices of Stress Management. Guilford.
Added stress can cause the already violent tendency of the child to harm someone accidently or can cause future emotional and psychological damage to the child. Some children can develop anti-social tendencies leading to criminal behavior and some just withdraw from society as a whole.
The genital stage is the final stage of development and the individual is involved in the creation and enhancement of their life. The attraction to the opposite sex becomes stronger and the welfare of others takes a priority in our lives. Stress during the early years of this stage can affect the person's self-esteem and cause them to fear rejection or lack self-confidence. This will affect relationships, jobs, and all aspects of the young adult life.
Stress has led many people to become addicted to alcohol or drugs as a means to cope with the ups and downs of teen and adult life. Stress in…
Beck, E; Collins, a; Zoma, a; Bissonette, R; Brown, J; Gonzales, B; Lake, N; & Owen, a.
"Five-Minute Stress Management Techniques Any Nursing Student Can Teach." 2010.
Retrieved on May 30, 2010 from http://juns.nursing.arizona.edu/articles/Fall%202005/beck.htm
Hudiburg, R. "Assessing and Managing Technostress." July 8, 1996. Retrieved on May 30, 2010
Long periods of stress can increase or even create problems like depression, anxiety, and anger. A person who is exposed to stress may also be short-tempered and have a lack of interest in most aspects of their life, where, in the past, they have been more participatory. Levels of concentration decrease and anything that requires a decisive action becomes difficult. Memory recall can also be affected, and the individual may become more emotional and less objective in their observations and statements.
Post-traumatic stress syndrome is an extreme result of stress that affects an individual's judgment to such a level that he or she can have significant mood swings and perform acts of excessive violence or other atypical behaviors (aboutstressmanagement.com, 2009).
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en-Shahar, A.R. (n.d.). Introduction to the physiology of stress. Retrieved December 17, 2009, from health-concern.com: http://www.health-concern.com/Articles/introduction_to_the_physiology_of_stress.htm…
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Ben-Shahar, A.R. (n.d.). Introduction to the physiology of stress. Retrieved December 17, 2009, from health-concern.com: http://www.health-concern.com/Articles/introduction_to_the_physiology_of_stress.htm
Lioe, L. (2009). Psychological and physical effects of stress. Retrieved December 17, 2009, from ezinearticles.com: http://ezinearticles.com/?Psychological-and-Physical-Effects-of-Stress&id=1555933
Coping strategies, however, are not effectively conveyed in survey studies (Harpold and Feemster, 2002). Similarly, the use of FGD may result to numerous information that does not fully delve into the objectives of the study, particularly the authenticity of information, since FGD is susceptible to group pressure and inability of the researcher's to probe deeper into the thoughts and feelings of the informant for fear or embarrassment of disclosing sensitive and confidential information (Sheehan, 2003).
Thus, in-depth interviewing, which is the research method of this study, will lead to the discovery and generation of information that is sensitive, confidential, and most of all, authentic. The in-depth interview will be initially conducted by constructing an interview schedule, which will include questions that are relevant and significant to the two general objectives of the study. The researcher, of course, has the freedom to probe deeper into a particular piece of information as…
Harpold, J. And S. Feester. (2002). "Negative influences of police stress." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 71, Issue 9.
Sheehan, R. And V. Van Hasselt. (2003). "Identifying law enforcement stress reactions early." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 72, Issue 9.
Many occupations, including white-collar positions, require some degree of manual labor. When assigned to a research team for an oil and gas company during a summer internship, my responsibilities included collecting hand-written reports and data from team members, recording it in an Excel spreadsheet, and creating status and progress charts for the team leader and members. Although this type of work is routine and can even be enjoyable since it affords some level of creativity in determining what types of graphic presentations are best suited for different types of data, the data entry process involved both coding the hand-written reports and entering this data into the spreadsheet, making it as especially tedious and time-consumer enterprise.
After about 2 weeks of this type of work non-stop, I noticed a pain in my lower back and neck which was not alleviated with my conventional, cure-all “miracle drug” (aspirin). Since the research team’s…
Stress and burnout are possible in any position, but workers in helping professions including nurses and social workers experience undue amounts of stress due to the nature of their job and the demands placed upon them. Understaffing, high workloads, and case load intensity are common causes of burnout. Feeling systematically disempowered or frustrated with bureaucracy or policy can also contribute to the job-related stressors in the helping professions. Caregivers often overextend themselves, caring for others but neglecting to care for their own needs. Therefore, the best ways to mitigate the potential for burnout is to prevent emotional and physical depletion from occurring in the first place.
Specific recommendations for reducing stress and burnout include learning how to say no to supervisors who may expect extended working hours, and resisting the desire to impress others by how hard one works or by perfectionism. “Building resilience” is a key to resisting burnout…
Hughes, M. (1995). Burnout and self care in the helping professions. IAHAP. Retrieved online: http://iahip.org/inside-out/issue-20-spring-1995/burnout-and-self-care-in-the-helping-professions
Pathophysiology of Stress Reaction
Stress may be defined as the physiological reaction of the human body which acts as the mediation mechanism, connecting a particular stressor with its associated target- organ effect. In this paper, the physiological and anatomical bases of our body’s stress response will be described, within the bounds of historical bases and analyses, theories and latest research outcomes, through (1) tracing psychophysiological effector processes actually representing the above- defined stress response, and (2) dealing with fundamental neuroanatomical structures (Everly & Lating, 2012).
A grasp of the concept of stress response necessitates a discussion of its bases, residing in the nervous system’s function and structure. The nervous system’s fundamental functional units are called neurons (see Fig.1).
Neurons, which conduct motor, regulatory and sensory signals all through the body, possess the following basic units: (1) dendrites and postsynaptic dendritic membranes; (2) axon presynaptic membranes (end points of…
Everly Jr, G. S., & Lating, J. M. (2012). A clinical guide to the treatment of the human stress response. Springer Science & Business Media.
Girdano, D., Dusek, D., & Everly, G. (2009). Controlling stress and tension. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
Tort, L., & Teles, M. (2011). The endocrine response to stress-a comparative view. In Basic and Clinical Endocrinology Up-to-Date. InTech.
The stress symptom checklist helps to show how stress can manifest in different ways, including physical symptoms, psychological symptoms, and emotional symptoms. Although I did not check off a lot of symptoms, the symptoms I experience include physical, psychological, and emotional symptoms. I was surprised to learn that some symptoms of stress include feeling low self-esteem and also reduced productivity at work (“Stress Management,” 2017). There are only a few symptoms I experience every day or every other day. I occasionally have sleeping problems, and feel overwhelmed by my work. Some of the stress symptoms are obviously linked to what is going on in my life, such as too many pressures from work or school. There are no times of the day I am more likely to experience stress, with the exception of not being able to sleep at night and also feeling anxious in the morning about the things…
Morin, A. (2015). 7 ways mentally strong people deal with stress. Psychology Today. Retrieved online: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/what-mentally-strong-people-dont-do/201507/7-ways-mentally-strong-people-deal-stress
“Stress Management,” (2017). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved online: https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/stress-symptoms/art-20050987
This case study of George, age 48, presents a classic Type A personality. George operates under a consistently high level of emotional and physical stress. While some of this stress is the result of his work, part of it is also self-imposed and is the product of a personality type who often refuses to seek help unless in a crisis. George works two demanding high-stress jobs. One is as a machinist with a construction company, which is very physically stressful. The other is as a cab driver, which can place physical stress on the patient due to long hours of driving. Although only middle-aged, George has suffered three heart attacks.
There is empirical evidence to suggest that there is an association between personality and susceptibility to suffering cardiac conditions: “The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the stress hormone cortisol provide key links between emotions and the heart. The HPA axis controls…
Mosendane, T., Mosendane, T., & Raal, F. J. (2008). Shift work and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, 19(4), 210–215. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3971766/
Reduce your stress to protect your heart. (2018). Harvard Medical School. Retrieved from: https://www.health.harvard.edu/healthbeat/reduce-your-stress-to-protect-your-heart
Rees, K., Bennett, P., West, R., Smith, G. D., & Ebrahim, S. (2004). Psychological interventions for coronary heart disease. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (2), CD002902. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4170898/
The transtheoretical model. (2018). Prochange. Retrieved from: https://www.prochange.com/transtheoretical-model-of-behavior-change
Type D personality and cardiovascular risk. (2014). Harvard Medical School. Retrieved from: https://www.health.harvard.edu/newsletter_article/Type_D_personality_and_cardiovascu lar_risk
How Emotional Experiences are Influenced by One s Sense of Self
The interviewee was a mother, age 55, employee of a mortgage servicing company. Because of COVID 19, she has been stuck working from home, which is very challenging and frustrating for her as none of the conveniences of her office are at her disposal and it makes her work more difficult and time consuming. The primary emotion she feels is anger: she is physically pained by working 12 hour days sitting in a dining room chair that is hard on her back and hands, since she had spinal surgery a year ago; she misses her comfortable office chair. Her computer and wi-fi are slower than the system at work, where she has two computer screens that she can use at once to help speed up her work. With everyone working from home, the tasks are more slowly accomplished and…
Definition of stress
esearchers define stress as a physical, mental, or emotional response to events that causes bodily or mental tension. Simply put, stress is any outside force or event that has an effect on our body or mind. Acute stress is the most common form of stress. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses, but too much is exhausting. Acute stress can be episodic or chronic.
Depending on the stressors and the types of changes or events, stress can manifest itself physically, emotionally and/or mentally. Physical stress occurs when the body as a whole starts to suffer as a result of a stressful situation. Symptoms can manifest in a variety of ways and vary in their seriousness. Emotional stress are responses due to stress affecting the mind…
AIS (NDI). Stress, definition of stress, stressor, what is stress?, Eustress?" The American institute of stress. Retrieved October10, 2011, from http://www.stress.org/ topic-definition-stress.htm
Barr, N. (2008, August 14) What stress does to your body. Marie Claire. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from http://www.marieclaire.com/health-fitness/news/stress-effects-body
Mayo Clinic Staff (2010). Stress symptoms: Effects on your body, feelings and behavior. American psychological association's "Stress in America report." Mayo Clinic. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/stress-symptoms/SR00008_D
Miller, L.H. & Smith, A.D. (1993). Stress: The different kinds of stress. American psychlolgical association. In The Stress Solution. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/stress-kinds.aspx
As we have learned throughout the course of our present studies, stress and anxiety disorders can render a debilitating effect for the subject. The incapacity to control stress, to limit the physiological or emotional panic produced by stressful situations or to go about one's daily life with functional normalcy are all factors which can magnify and intensify an already imposing condition. e proceed with the understanding that chronic stress and the failure to manage this effectively is known to contribute to a host of worsening conditions both physically and emotionally. Among them, our research denotes that poor stress management can lead to chronic illness, a host of psychosomatic symptoms, an array of real bodily responses relating to the body's chemical 'fight' or 'flight' mechanism, and most importantly to our discussion, an intensifying experience of one's psychological symptoms. This is true even to the extent that poor stress management…
Lehrer, P., & Woolfolk, R. (Eds.) (2007). Principles and practice of stress management. (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Stressed Memories (APA Citation)
In the article titled "Stressed Memories: How Acute Stress Affects Memory Formation in Humans" researchers studied the hypothesis that acute stress can improve the formation of memory in the human brain. According to the authors, "Information encoded into memory during stressful experiences is generally well remembered." (Henckens, 2009, p.10111) In other words, what people experience during stressful or traumatic events is better remembered than experiences that occur under normal, or non-stressful conditions. The researchers in this article wanted to study the affects of stress on memory formation and determine the physiological processes that occur in the brain.
The study participants consisted of eighteen right-handed male volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 31 years with a median age of 22 years. There were a number of criteria which excluded participants including "history of head injury, treatment with psychotropic medications, narcotics, B-blockers, steroids, or any…
Henchens, Marloes, et al. (2009). "Stressed Memories: How Acute Stress Affects
Memory Formation in Humans." Journal of Neuroscience 29(32), 10111-10119.
Retrieved from http://www.jneurosci.org/content/29/32/10111.full
Analyzing My Stress Diary
Maintaining a stress diary has been a most useful experience, as it has led to some valuable personal insights. Though I have been aware of experiencing somewhat high levels of anxiety off and on, accompanied by a feeling of being tied up in knots, I never really attempted to either consciously monitor the frequency of such episodes or try to resolve the problem. Until I started keeping a daily 'stress log' to record the frequency, causes, and my reactions to stressful events and situations.
The daily recording of my sources of stress has now helped me realize that my common stressors are the results of term papers that I have handed in, and the presence of a couple of people in my circle of friends. Reflecting on these causes, I have reached the conclusion that both my stressors are largely caused by anxiety over…
Stress Among Police
Stress among the police
Stress among the police force
Police workforce remains an environment that is highly stressful being an occupation that a person has to deal with physical dangers and risking their lives any time they are working. esearch indicates that the prevalent stress warning signs that need to deal with immediately they appear are sudden behavior changes in behavior, erratic work behavior, increase of sick time because of minor problems, failure to preserve a train of thought, and extreme worrying. There are many ways, which departments in the police force can deal with stressing the police force. The first mechanism is provision of stress management initiatives to both offices and their spouses. There is a need for identification of officers under stress and offer them counseling to assist in alleviating their stress. Periodic screenings as well as training concentrating on stress management is necessary.
Territo, L., & Vetter, H.J. (2001). Stress and police personnel. Boston, Mass: Allyn and Bacon.
Toch, H., Bailey, F.Y., & Floss, M. (2002). Stress in policing. Washington, D.C: American Psychological Association.
It is evident that, individuals who are exposed to life-threatening events are at high risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as a result, critical incident stress debriefing does not necessarily reduce incidence of PTSD (Lewis, 2002). Due to societal costs of chronic PSTD, the mental health care professional manages to develop an early method for interventions (egel, 2010). Psychological stress debriefing was mainly designed to prevent and mitigate emotional distress among individuals (egel, 2010). In summary, the paper will discuss on how critical incident stress debriefing does not reduce the incidenceof post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as, discussing whether preventing an officer from developing PTSD should be the measure of success for a critical incident stress debriefing.
According to egel (2010), Psychological briefing refers to a brief crisis intervention, which is administered to a person during the days of traumatic event. Psychological stress debriefing is significant because…
Lewis, G. (2002). Post-crisis stress debriefings. Behavioral Health Management, 22, 4.
Regel, S. (2010). Psychological debriefing -- does it work? Health Care Counseling & Psychotherapy Journal, 10(2), 14-18.
Outsourcing Compassion: Debriefing Trauma Patients. (2013). Outsourcing Compassion: Debriefing Trauma Patients. Retrieved December 13, 2013, from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4842962
Stress Factors in Law Enforcement
his brief paper will look at some of the issues and circumstances that create stress in the lives of law enforcement officers. In particular some chronic stressors will be examined that contribute to higher than normal rates of suicide, divorce and alcoholism in the profession.
here is little debate over the contention that law enforcement officers face inordinate amounts of stress during the course of their duties. For instance, police officers have one of the highest rates of suicide in the nation. While the national rate of divorce is approximately fifty percent, the divorce rate for police officers is between sixty and seventy percent and evidence indicates that alcohol abuse is about twice the rate of the general population (Haines, 2003).
here are many programs available to deal with situations that produce acute stress, such as post shooting trauma. What is not as obvious…
The daily grind of police work exposes officers to constant stressors that slowly accumulate making them more vulnerable to traumatic incidents and normal pressures of life. Often this process is too slow to see and neither the individual nor his or her constituents are aware of the damage being done.
While programs for acute stressors are important, few officers are involved in traumatic incidents in a year as compared to the whole department, which meets stress in call after call. One of these routine stressor are traffic stops. A police officer may pull over many cars during the course of a week for a variety of reasons. The officer is apt to hear excuses to gain sympathy or indignities to demean them, and there is always the risk that the individual or individuals in the vehicle will try to kill or injure the officer. However, officers are expected to be friendly at best or neutral at worst. If an officer approaches a car with a friendly attitude, his guard is down, on the other hand if an officer approaches a driver thinking this might be the one who attacks him, he will come across as rude, gruff and uncaring. This dilemma creates opposite mental states; a person can't hold both attitudes at the same time. This produces chronic stress with the cumulative effect of breaking down defenses, exacerbating other pressures, and weakening the immune system leaving the individual vulnerable to diseases and such conditions as ulcers ("Common Stress," 2011).
Another common source of stress for a police officer is the fact that a police department is both a professional and a military organization. It is a professional organization in the
Current training paradigms have been found to create to relationship between traditional handgun training, for example, and the necessity of using handguns in the line of duty itself. Indeed, the authors provide excellent literature support for the main focus of the work, which is to emphasize the general lack of adequate and realistic on-the-job training for police officers and military personnel. The literature review futhermore emphasize the effect of unusual stress not only on the cortisol levels, but also on the ability to learn from experience and effectively incorporate such learning experiences in the long-term. In other words, these learning experiences, when provided only during the work situation itself, create a dangerous situation for both officers of the law and those who share any physical vicinity with them.
The article therefore indicates that a vital component of military and police training, in terms of creating situations that simulate probably job…
Orientation, Stress & Coping On UB's Campus
The period of transition from high school to campus life can be a difficult one. For many, this is the first time living away from home. For others, the new and heavier academic demands can be especially challenging to handle. For others still, the social conditions in college may be difficult to adjust to. This is to note that the process of orientation may bring a great deal of stress that requires an effective coping strategy. Experiences with stress and coping are highly individualized. This observation underscores the strategic and methodological imperatives driving the present investigative study.
Rationale for Chosen Strategy:
The strategy for determining how well different students cope with the stress of orientation at University of ashington, Bothell Campus will require the selection of an independent variable to be measured. This variable will have a relationship to the dependent…
Luthar, S.S.; Cicchetti, D. & Becker, B. (2000). The Construct of Resilience: A Critical Evaluation and Guidelines for Future Work. Child Development, 71(3), 543-562.
When you put these different pieces together, they will instill a sense of emotionalism and logical (helping to have the greatest impact upon the reader). The different examples will be drawn from a combination of: books, observations and experiences to add as much realism as possible.
Identifying the Pattern
The pattern that will be utilized to reach out to the audience is one that will speak to them in: a relaxed style and non-confrontational tone. As there will be select words that will be used to add that sense of emotionalism such as: drastic and extreme. This will help the reader be able to emotionally connect with the information that is being presented. The organizational style is to use a combination of text and graphics to catch the readers' attention. At the same time, you would want to use unique colors and a glossy format to make the pamphlet visually…
College Student Suicides. (2010). Suicide.org. Retrieved from: http://www.suicide.org/college-student-suicide.html
Stress Causes of College Students. (2011). Love to Know. Retrieved from: http://stress.lovetoknow.com/Stress_Causes_of_College_Students
On top of it all I had exams to study for, classes to attend, and athletics practice too.
I don't usually use drugs or alcohol to deal with stress. While I was going through the move, however, I went out several nights with friends and drank. I got drunk a few times. It helped but only temporarily. When I woke up with a hangover it was just one more thing to worry about, and one more thing to distract me from taking the action that would resolve my situation. From the moving experience I learned that I have not handled stress as well as I could have and am now aware of what I can do to improve my ability to deal with stressful life events. First, I need to expect the unexpected and remember that life will always throw punches. Second, I need to be able to address crises…
Stress, Communication, And Motivation
Stress, Communication and Motivation
Job Description- Unilever
Research and Development Executive
Reports to: Research and Development Department Head
ased at: Unilever, Canada
Job Purpose: To carry out the research and developments of the latest innovations in the field of marketing and production as well as ways in which to produce new and customer friendly products.
Key Responsibilities and Accountabilities:
The maintenance of a separate record and data base for the various business clients and their respective products,
Carry out research into the latest technologies and innovations around the globe and how those can be applied to the products of the firm,
Devise strategies and evaluate the scientific aspects of the new ideas and implementations,
Co-ordinate with the other departments in the company as well as the client heads to gather more ideas and what other ways there are to improve on the products,
Carrying out market…
Knippen, J.T. (1999). Breaking the barriers to upward communication: strategies and skills for employees, managers and HR specialists. Quorum Books.
Maxwell, S. (2005). Global knowledge networks and international development: bridges against boundaries. Routledge Publications.
Schuler, R.S. (2004). International Human Resource Management: Policy and Practice for Global Enterprise. Routledge Publications.
Stess Anothe Hazad of the Job fo Police Offices
The eseach aticle which has been analyzed is a study of how stess influences the jobs of police offices. This eseach aticle is pimaily based on the pimay eseach liteatue taken fom vaious genuine eseaches conducted in police stations of United States and Canada. This ecent eseach has all the absolute and suitable options one could have consideed.
It has a cystal clea poblem statement stated pecisely in the heading. The eseach hypothesis is stated in wods and is not that clea until middle pat of the aticle is ead. The vaiables have been clealy descibed and do not get peplexed fo the eviewe. The independent and dependant vaiables ae also discussed and so the pupose is distinct. In the study conducted, the chosen vaiables ae somehow descibed but not defined as it is has a small length.
The sample is…
references made in the article are consistent in their format. While the report is written very precisely, the language makes use of technical jargon that makes understanding it difficult as an outside party. The language used in the article is free of biased, gender and otherwise.
List of Articles
Avgerou, C. (2008). Information systems in developing countries: a critical research review. Journal of Information Technology, 133-146.
Havens, A. & Hoagland, H. (2010). Seven Electrical Safety Habits for a Safer Workplace. Retrieved from http://rendermagazine.com/articles/2010-issues/2010-october/2010-10-tech-topics/
Health and Safety Ontario. (2012, September 05). Study: Stress Another Hazard of the Job for Police Officers. Retrieved from http://www.healthandsafetyontario.ca/Resources/Articles/PHSA/Study-Stress-Another-Hazard-of-the-Job-for-Police.aspx
eceive feedback and use the feedback to better cope with the situation.
Week Four: The stressed female should be able to better cope with the situation and would have developed coping strategies that will assist him in the future.
It is important that both men and women seek help for dealing with stress. However, they may have to seek help in different ways in accordance with their social and biological differences. A man may feel more comfortable talking to another man about a stressful situation, whereas a woman may be completely comfortable talking to more than one person and receiving feedback and emotional support to assist them in dealing with stress.
Day, Arla L, Livingstone, Holly a. (2003) Gender differences in perceptions of stressors and utilization of social support among university students. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science. etrieved June 2, 2008 from; http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3717/is_200304/ai_n9225899/pg_4
Iwasaki, Yoshi, MacKay, Kelly, Mactavish, Jennifer.…
Day, Arla L, Livingstone, Holly a. (2003) Gender differences in perceptions of stressors and utilization of social support among university students. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science. Retrieved June 2, 2008 from; http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3717/is_200304/ai_n9225899/pg_4
Iwasaki, Yoshi, MacKay, Kelly, Mactavish, Jennifer. (2005) Gender-Based Analyses of Coping with Stress among Professional Managers: Leisure Coping and Non-Leisure Coping. Journal of Leisure Research. Retrieved June 2, 2008 from; http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3702/is_200501/ai_n9520740/pg_2
Melville, Kate (2006) Big Gender Differences in Language Learning. Retrieved June 2, 2008 from;
Adolescents with poor problem-solving skills are at greater risk of suicide, according to an article in the Journal of Clinical Psychology (Grover, et al., 2009). The authors concentrate on the problem of "chronic stress" in adolescents, saying it involves "deprivation or disadvantage" that is ongoing and those dynamics create a "continuous stream of threats and challenges" for the adolescent. The therapy in this research? Counselors, therapists, parents and teachers all need to help adolescents learn "well-developed problem-solving abilities" in order to "buffer the negative impact of both episodic and chronic stress…" (Grover, p. 1286).
Earlier in this paper it was asserted that up to 20% of adolescents in the U.S. will encounter some form of depression due to stress. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) suggests that the best treatment for severely depressed youths is a combination of psychotherapy and antidepressant medication; that formula works better than either…
Bradley, Kristen. (2002). Survey Shows High Levels of Teen Stress. International Child and Youth Care Network. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://www.cyc-net.org/today2002/today021016.html .
Byrne, D.G., and Mazanov, J. (1999). Sources of Adolescent Stress, Smoking and the Use of other Drugs. Stress and Health, 15(4), 215-227.
Cherry, Kendra. (2009). What Is Emotional Intelligence? About.com. Psychology. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com .
Ciarrochi, Joseph, Deane, Frank P., and Anderson, Stephen. (2001). Emotional Intelligence
227), creating a house-full of stress and tension.
Another study delves into how much children "matter" to their stepparents -- because "to matter is to be noticed, to be an object of concern, and to be needed by a specific individual" (Schenck, et al., 2009, p. 71). The authors posit that when children "feel secure and accepted in their parental relationships, they feel less threatened by stressful events" (p. 71). This study, published in the journal Fathering, involved 133 adolescents in stepfather families. The child participants were in 7th grade at the outset of the research; the end result of the research concluded, "mattering to both fathers [stepfather and biological father] was significantly related to adolescents' mental health problems" (Schenck, p. 84). Further, it was found (through teacher interviews) that when a child "mattered" to the stepfather the child was more apt to "externalize" his problems, which reduces stress and…
Adler-Baeder, Francesca, and Higginbotham, Brian. (2004). Implications for Remarriage and Stepfamily Formation for Marriage Education. Family Relations, Vol. 53, 448-458).
Bryner, Charles L. (2001). Clinical Review: Children of Divorce. Journal of the American
Board of Family Practice, 14(3), 201-209.
Divorce Rate. (2009). What is the current divorce rate in America. Retrieved July 21, 2009,
From these responses will be generated the even more specific and in-depth questions that will used to obtain a more complete picture from the focus group.
The focus group, as mentioned above, will be composed of five students from each of the three groups. That will provide the study with a big enough focus group to discern certain trends and by seeking a more in-depth knowledge of how the students feel about certain scenarios could be helpful in providing more insight into how different events are perceived by students from different backgrounds.
David L. Morgan writes in his book; Focus Groups as Qualitative esearch that "most rewarding...is the fact that focus groups are now a much more widely practiced research method within the social sciences" (p. vii).
Morgan continues by writing "there is a sizeable literature about focus groups in anthropology, communication studies, education, evaluation, nursing, political science, psychology, public…
Dole, N., Savitz, D.A., Hertz-Picciotto, I and others (2003) Maternal stress and preterm birth, American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 157, No. 1, pp. 14-24
Feliciano, C., (2005) Educational selectivity in U.S. immigration: How do immigrants compare to those left behind?, Demography, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 131-52
Goodrick, G., Kneuper, S., Steinbauer, J.; (2005) Stress perceptions in community clinic: a pilot survey of patients and physicians, Journal of Community Health, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 75-88
Moloney, D.M., (2007) in a new land, Journal of Social History, Vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 1061-1063
Stress Among Police
Police officer stress
Stress among the police force
Police workforce remains an environment that is highly stressful being an occupation that a person has to deal with physical dangers and risking their lives any time they are working. esearch indicates that the prevalent stress warning signs that need to deal with immediately they appear are sudden behavior changes in behavior, erratic work behavior, increase of sick time because of minor problems, failure to preserve a train of thought, and extreme worrying.
This stressful condition that one police may be subjected to needs to be solved as soon as it is note or even frequent diagnosis conducted since the stress has a high likelihood of affecting the entire group due to the cohesiveness that the police force shares. The police have that peculiar kind of cohesiveness around them due to several factors that are common among them. Firstly,…
Territo, L., & Vetter, H.J. (2001). Stress and police personnel. Boston, Mass: Allyn and Bacon.
Toch, H., Bailey, F.Y., & Floss, M. (2002). Stress in policing. Washington, D.C: American Psychological Association.
Dissertations Abstract International (1984). Work Group Cohesion and Job Stress Among Police
Officers (Florida). Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://digitool.fcla.edu/R/74196BICJLU3YEDHSJRI2L4TK8IVCBV58F3MI44DRV9VKD39DH-00065?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=3085840&local_base=GEN01&pds_handle=GUEST
Stress and Suicide in Law Enforcement Populations
The paper is an understanding of what stress could have on law enforcement officials. The factors which cause stress for law enforcement officials are varied ranging from personal life issues, the pressures of work, the public response towards police job, the entire criminal law system and the entire rules and procedures involved in the law system. If this stress is not alleviated then the officers start reacting in negative ways. The biggest stress on most police officers is suicide. The numbers of police officers that face death by committing suicide are very high when compared to those who are killed when they are on duty. During 1934 and 1960 the suicide rates of the police officers were nearly half of the general population. But then from 1980 to the current date this situation has changed so drastically that the death rates as to…
The third type of response is the prolonged response also referred to as chronic stress which is a response to a trigger that is unrelenting or repetitive that can be caused by work related situation, the domestic stress, unsolved financial stress and such prolonged triggers.
Stress, if not checked can be harmful to the individual but also the immediate family or those living around the victim. Hence, there is absolute need to tackle stress as soon as it shows signs as discussed above. These responses may include though not restricted to; a) Talking about it, this should be encouraged. The victim should talk about it with the family members, friends, colleagues, counselor etc. b). Taking a break, which may include going to a place one rarely goes to or doing some activities they rarely do but enjoy, it may also involve indulging in picnics or long travel holidays, engaging in…
Stressfocus, (2009). Discover the Basics of Stress. Retrieved June 9, 2010 from http://www.stressfocus.com/stress_focus_article/stress-and-its-causes.htm
Thebreastcancersite, (2010). Ten ways to tackle stress. Retrieved June 9, 2010 from http://www.thebreastcaresite.com/tbcs/Renewal/EmotionalRecovery/TenWaystoTackleStress.htm
Gill T.S., (2009). Top 7 Tips to cure stress and anxiety revealed. Article snatch. Retrieved June
9, 2010 from http://www.articlesnatch.com/Article/Top-7-Tips-to-Cure-Stress-and-Anxiety-Revealed-/1163642
Stress disorders, the stress is so great that it is debilitating and dominates the person and interferes with living one's life. Stress can be good or bad. A skiing champion described how stress helped him perform his best, but a Viet Nam War veteran describes how horrific things he had seen haunted him and intruded into his mind, while awake and while asleep.
Our bodies show clear responses to stress. We perspire, breath quicker, heartbeat rises, and muscles tense for action. WE may also turn pale, or get "goose bumps," or feel sick to the stomach. Stress can trigger anxiety problems. In stressful situations, the brain triggers a variety of body-function changes. The sympathetic nervous system rallies body functions for fight 0r flight; the parasympathetic nervous system restores us to normal functioning.
One of the most devastating of the stress disorders is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It makes sense to…
To oom or Not to oom
Again, the issue being experienced here is a lack of control over the situation, which has led to distress on the part of the complaining roommate (Abigail & Cahn, 2010, p. 128). This means the issues are almost entirely intangible; though there are tangible elements such as the unauthorized borrowing of the laptop, coming in late, etc., these are all acknowledged to be secondary elements of increasing frustration on the part of the complaining roommate, not actually primary causal issues of the conflict. There is not hyperstress based on the increasing activity load being caused by Elena's actions nor hypostress based on boredom from being left alone, but most definitely distress brought about by anticipation of the unknown and a lack of control over the future, namely the future of the roommate relationship between the complaining roommate and Elena (Abigail & Cahn, pp. 128-31).…
Abigail, a. & Cahn, D. (2010). Managing Conflict through Communication (4th Ed). New
The responses will be tabulated into data sheet that exhibit the participants ease of remembering that facts. The coding will produce levels which showing the proportionate ability to remember.
The data will then be input in a statistical program to give distributions and this will be subjected to a T-test to assess their significance level at 5%. The decision rule will be such that reject the null hypotheses if probability of occurrence of the distribution observed is less than 5%.
Implication of the esults
If the expected that the results show higher probability that the stress among older women it implies that, older women are susceptible forget and thus have a higher likelihood of encountering Alzheimer's condition. On the centrally if we reject the Null hypothesis -- failure to support the hypothesis -- it will imply that age and stress have nothing to do with memory lose and that it…
Kloet E.R., Joels M., & F., H. (2005). Stress and the Brain: from adaptation to disease. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6(6), 463-475.
Nelson, C.A., & Carver, L.J. (2008). The effects of stress and trauma on brain and memory: A view from developmental cognitive neuroscience. Development and Psychopathology, 10(04), 793-809. doi: doi:null
Sauro, M.D., Jorgensen, R.S., & Pedlow, C.T. (2003). Stress, glucocorticoids, and memory: A meta-analytic review. Stress, 6(4), 235-245.
Selye, H. (1998). A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 10(2), 230-231.
Stress on Human Memory and Cognitive Capabilities
Types of Stresses on Short-Term Memory
Symptoms of Short-Term Memory
Stress weakens a human's ability to be able to pass proper chemicals through the blood-brain barrier. The blood-brain barrier is an assemblage of blood vessels that defends the brain from toxins that circulate through one's body (Franklin Institute, 2004).
Evidence of stress on the short-term memory includes difficulty to learn new things, dizziness, headaches, and nausea (Franklin Institute, 2004).
Effects of Stress on Short-Term Memory
When stress takes place in the human body, hormones are released that divert blood glucose from the brain's hippocampus (Franklin Institute, 2004).
The lack of energy that is provided by the lost glucose creates the hippocampus to become concerned about the lack of energy. This fright causes an inability to create accurate new memories (Franklin Institute, 2004).
This can be a result o a onetime traumatic event in…
Bower, B. (2005). Early stress in rats bites memory later on. Science News, 186(17), Retrieved
from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=11&did=918673191&SrchMode=1&sid=4&Fmt =3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1294957038&clientI d=77774
Franklin Institute. (2004). The human brain-stress. Retrieved January 13,2011 from http://www.fi.edu/learn/brain/stress.html
HelpGuide.org. (2010). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Symptoms, treatment, and self- help. Retrieved January 13, 2011 from http://helpguide.org/mental/post_traumatic_stress_disorder_symptoms_treatment.htm
One study examined the impact that spiritual or religious faith had on families with autistic children. In this study 49 families of autistic children were examined for signs of stress either psychologically, emotionally or health wise. The study looked at participants who had autistic children between the ages of 4 and 20 years old. The study concluded that parents who have a strong religious or spiritual faith and support from religious groups showed a stress level that was no higher than families that do not have an autistic child (Pargament, 2001). The study attributed part of this contentment to the belief by parents that a higher power placed the autistic child in their life for a reason and he or she was one of God's gifts designed for that family. In addition, the support socially and emotionally that the parents derived from religious belonging helped the parents feel less alone…
Religious coping in families of children with autism.
Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities; 12/22/2001; Pargament, Kenneth I.
Harris, S.L., & Handleman, J.S. (1994). Preschool education programs for children with autism. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
Haworth, A.M., Hill, A.E., & Glidden, A.M. (1996). Measuring religiousness of parents of children with developmental disabilities. Mental Retardation, 34(5), 271-279.
stresses and challenges facing inmate families, especially children? Children of imprisoned parents suffer the most.
Children whose parents are imprisoned face adverse impacts. Criminal justice system focuses more on the individual guilt than the adversities that are faced by the children. It is important that the criminal justice system should keep in mind the effects that are seen in the children during their parents' imprisonment, release as well as trails and arrest systems. One of the main changes that are faced by the children includes a great change in the attitudes of the society as the children are treated in al ill manner. Being on an outside world, as compared to the world behind bars, the children are treated as inmate facing much harsher conditions created by the societies. When parents are imprisoned, children of the family, no matter how young or how old have to accept the responsibility of…
Carlson, M.P., and Garrett, S.J. (2008). Prison and Jail Administration: Practice and Theory. Edition 2. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Sweeney, M. (2010). Reading is my window: books and the art of reading in women's prisons. Univ of North Carolina Press.
Tartaro, C., and Lester, D. (2010). Suicide and Self-Harm in Prisons and Jails, G - Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series. Rowman & Littlefield Pub Inc.
Tewksbury, R., and Dabney, A.D. (2008). Prisons and Jails: A Reader. McGraw-Hill.
STRESS THIS ENOUGH).
The Media industry has a severe influence on the masses and people often end up being unable to differentiate between normal attitudes and attitudes that they take on because the media wants them to do so. The way that women and men are shown in television commercials has drawn significant attention from the general public and has made it possible for many to acknowledge that advertisements can generate provocative arguments. hile most people realize that it is essential for the media industry to use gender roles as a tool to encourage particular viewers to buy products, it is surely difficult to look away as some commercials tend to be discriminatory and to induce certain thoughts in individuals watching them.
In order to gain a better understanding of gender roles and their relationship with the media industry, one first needs to consider advertised products and the concept of…
Calvert, Sandra L. And Wilson, Barbara J.," The Handbook of Children, Media and Development" (John Wiley & Sons, 2010)
Gunter, Barrie, "Media Sex: What Are the Issues?"( Routledge, 2002)
Kirsh, Steven J. "Children, Adolescents, and Media Violence: A Critical Look at the Research," (SAGE, 2006)
Lindberg, Sara, L. "Gender-role Identity Development During Adolescence: Individual, Familial, and Social Contextual Predictors of Gender Intensification"( ProQuest, 2008)
Cardiac Stress Response: The Use of Anesthetic Technique to Promote Positive Outcome; Analyzing the Pros and Cons of Technique
Cardiac surgery by nature elicits a powerful stress response resulting from activation of stress hormones including epinephrine, norpinephine and cortisol hormones among others. Surgical trauma and blood loss may contribute to this stress response. Some surgeons have suggested that cardio pulmonary bypass surgery in and of itself activates an inflammatory response that results in a stress reaction.
The role of the anesthesiologist in cardiac surgery is to as much extent as possible, to reduce the stress response that results form cardiac surgery. Stress response can be mitigated by a variety of anesthetic technique, including use of opioids and epidural anesthesia. These ideas are explored in greater detail below.
Cardiac Stress Response: The Use of Anesthetic Technique to Promote Positive Outcome; Analyzing the Pros and Cons of Technique
INTRODUCTION stress response may…
Cook, Richard I. "Adapting to New Technology in the Operating Room." Human Factors, Vol. 38, 1996.
Cook, R.I., Woods, D.D., Howie, M.B., Horrow, J.C. & Gaba, D.M. (1992). "Unintentional delivery of vasoactive drugs with an electromechanical infusion device." Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 6, 238-244.
Cuschieri, R.J., Morran, C.G., Howie, J.C., & McArdle, C.S. (1985). "Postoperative pain a dpulmonary complications: comparison of three analgesic regimens." British Journal of Surgery, 72, 495-499.
Glaser, J., Kiecolt-Glaser, MacCallum P., Marucha, P., & Page, G. "Psychological Influences on Surgical Recovery: Perspectives from Psychoneuroimmunology." American Psychologists, Vol. 53, 1998.
Managing Stress Exercise
Managing Stress through Physical Exercise
hat is the importance of flushing stress hormones out of the body according to Seaward? hat are the specific effects of physical exercise on managing and preventing stress?
During a period of exercise, the body is responding to stress hormones the way it was intended to. Stress hormones on the body generally prompt something of a fight or flight trigger. Using exercise to burn out the energy caused by the stimulus to the stress can be an effective method of dealing with stress. Exercise has been shown to reduce the level of cortisol in the body and even effect mood. Exercise attacks stress in two ways, according to Matthew Stults-Kolehmainen, Ph.D., a kinesiologist at the Yale Stress Center (Menlinck, 2013):
He says "that raising one's heart rate can actually reverse damage to the brain caused by stressful events: "Stress atrophies the brain…
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2012, July 12). Exercise and stress: Get moving to manage stress. Retrieved from Mayo Clinic: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/stress-management/in-depth/exercise-and-stress/art-20044469
Menlinck, M. (2013, May 21). How Does Exercise Reduce Stress? Retrieved from The Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/05/21/exercise-reduces-stress-levels-anxiety-cortisol_n_3307325.html
The first step in project management involves identifying the requirements. The second step is establishment of a clear and achievable objective. The third step is finding a balance for the competing demands for quality, scope, time and cost. Finally, the fourth step in project management is the adaptation of the specifications, plans and approach to the various concerns and expectations of the client. It is necessary that the manager understand the cultural, social, international, political and physical environmental concerns of a project as "virtually all projects are planned and implemented..." (a Guide to the Project Management ody of Knowledge, 2004) within these contexts. Required interpersonal skills of the manager in project management include those as follows:
Influencing the organization;
Negotiations with conflict management; and Problem-solving. (a Guide to the Project Management ody of Knowledge, 2004)
The project management system is defined as the "set of tools,…
Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2004) PMBOK Guide. 3rd ed. The Project Management Institute.
Business: The Economy Taxing Workplace Stress (1999) BBC News. 27 Oct 1999. Online available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/the_economy/487977.stm
Gorkin, Mark (2003) the Four Stages of Burnout. 'The Stress Doc'. Online available at http://www.stressdoc.com/4stages.htm
Health Stress Tops Work Sickness League (1999) BBC News 3 Oct. 1999 Online available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/463853.stm
Assigned Reading II (20%)
Briefly explain the following concepts with an example each:
i. Fight-or-flight response
Fight-or-flight response refers to the dynamics that encompass the physiological arousal of the body to survive a threat. In preparation for a threat, there are two immediate actions that one can take: either attack or fight for defense from the threat or opt to run and flee away from the threat. For example, when a person encounters a barking dog while running, the fight-or-flight response runs away or faces the dog (Seaward, 2015).
ii. Holistic medicine
Holistic medicine alludes to an approach of healing that honors the assimilation, counterbalance, and synchronization of mind, body, spirit, and emotions for encouraging internal peace. It is an attitudinal method to healthcare instead of a certain set of techniques (Gordon, 1982). Examples of holistic medicine comprise homeopathy, acupuncture, and also massage therapy.
iii. Stress reaction
Awasthi, P. (2018). Stressful Experiences, Workplace Stress, and Type 2 Diabetes: Management of Diabetes. PURUSHARTHA-A journal of Management, Ethics, and Spirituality, 10(2), 82-89.
Carducci, B. J. (2009). The psychology of personality: Viewpoints, research, and applications. John Wiley & Sons.
Folkman, S. (2010). 22 Stress, Health, and Coping: Synthesis, Commentary, and Future Directions. The Oxford handbook of stress, health, and coping 453.
Gordon, J. S. (1982). Holistic medicine: advances and shortcomings. Western Journal of Medicine, 136(6), 546.
Harris, M. L., Oldmeadow, C., Hure, A., Luu, J., Loxton, D., & Attia, J. (2017). Stress increases the risk of type 2 diabetes onset in women: A 12-year longitudinal study using causal modeling. PloS one, 12(2), e0172126.
Hiriyappa, B. (2013). Stress Management: Leading To Success. Booktango.
Jordan, M., & Hinds, J. (2016). Ecotherapy: Theory, research, and practice. Macmillan International Higher Education.
Kurlansik, S. L., & Ibay, A. D. (2012). Seasonal affective disorder. American Family Physician, 86(11), 1037-1041.
There are many sources of stress, and one of the keys to managing stress is to identify its sources, and address them. I feel that I have stress relating to many things, including money and family and career. But at this stage of my life, I also feel that while there is a lot of pressure, these sources of stress are pretty reasonable. I have taken on responsibilities in the past few years, and especially since I started going to school (which is part of the career stress) that have increased what is expected of me by others. Ultimately, I feel that it comes down to how I perceive the pressures upon me, and I know that I perceive them maybe more strongly than they are -- I expect to be perfect, even when others do not expect that of me. So I see people noticing my mistakes…
Organismic-holistic: The plant makes the cells, not the other way around. or, an organism must be seen as more than just the sum of its parts. This organism seeks environments somewhere between overload and understimulation.
Sociopetal and sociofugal: Two kinds of space defined by Osmond 1957, to describe environments that inhibit or encourage conversation. (environmental cause of behavior). Sociopetal (high ceilings, large volume, high lighting) led to less conversation. Sociofugal (low lighting, low ceilings, etc.) led to more conversation.
Theories originating within the person: Seeing human behavior as a result of what each individual brings to a situation is known as trait theory. The opposite is situational determinism which states that the individual is unimportant, only the environment is important.
Stress: (Seyle 1956). Environments can be stressful. Individuals deal with stress through belief systems.
Belief systems: All people have them. They give people the illusion of control and cause discord…
Control: (Langer 1983). Control is only helpful when the individual wants it, believes he or she is capable of taking control, and is actually capable of taking control.
Ecological Psychology: (Barker, 1986). Mix of organism and environment theories. Humans and environments are inseparable.
Conclusion: The aforementioned theories all have predictive value, provide understanding, summarize data well, and are heuristic, which are requirements of good theory.
115). Congress certainly has the sole right to enact the legislation with which administrative agencies must comply. Moreover, the Congress has an oversight function, and it can and does react when people respond negatively to administrative actions, as occurred in the SSI and disability review examples (Derthick, p.153). Of course, the Court system is the major overseer in the United States. Derthick maintains that courts and administrative agencies perform sufficiently similar roles, making their potential for conflict great (Derthick, p.131). Both courts and administrative agencies are tasked with filling in statutes, but courts are generalists while administrators are specialists, making conflict between their decisions almost inevitable (Derthick, p.131). Moreover, courts may interpret laws differently in different jurisdictions, meaning that a single federal agency could ostensibly have to meet several different federal guidelines (Derthick, p.131). In both the SSI and the review scenarios, court involvement complicated the agency's task, with some…
Martha Derthick. Under Stress: the Social Security Administration in American Government.
Washington, D.C., Brookings Institution, 1990.
Perfectionism: A Good Predictor of Stress and Anxiety
Personality research has revealed a number of interactions between traits and clinically-significant mental health issues. For example, neuroticism has been shown to be predictive of anxiety and depressive disorders, while introversion is a common trait among those suffering from social phobias (reviewed by Bienvenu et al., 2004). While some these traits may be refractory to clinical intervention, insights into relationships between lower-order personality dimensions and clinically-significant psychological problems may open up new avenues for treatment. Among the more interesting personality traits is perfectionism, because it has been linked to eating, anxiety, depressive, and obsessive-compulsive disorders, in addition to personal self-efficacy and achievement (Stairs, Smith, Zapolski, Combs, & Settles, 2011). To better understand the clinical relevance of perfectionism the findings of several studies will be reviewed here.
A large (N = 731) study examined the prevalence of the big five personality domains among…
Bienvenu, O.J., Samuels, J.F., Costa, P.T., Reti, I.M., Eaton, W.W., & Nestadt, G. (2004). Anxiety and depressive disorders and the five-factor model of personality: A higher- and lower-order personality trait investigation in a community sample. Depression and Anxiety, 20(2), 92-7.
Dittner, A.J., Rimes, K., & Thorpe, S. (2011). Negative perfectionism increases the risk of fatigue following a period of stress. Psychology and Health, 26(3), 253-68.
Gnilka, P.B., Ashby, J.S., & Noble, C.M. (2012). Multidimensional perfectionism and anxiety: Differences among individuals with perfectionism and tests of a coping-mediation model. Journal of Counseling & Development, 90(4), 427-36.
Lovibond, S.H., & Lovibond, P.F. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. (2nd ed.). Sydney: Psychology Foundation.
The Need to Rein in Stress at the Workplace
Human capital is a key component in the organizational success equation. For this reason, an organization ought to adopt the appropriate strategies with an aim of protecting and promoting this key resource. Organizations that are able to effectively manage their human capital are likely to outperform their peers in the marketplace because organizational culture as well as the skills and competencies of employees cannot be replicated by competitors. When employees have mental or emotional concerns that prevent them from performing at optimum, organizational performance suffers as the said employees are likely to be less focused and motivated. Towards this end, employees should be taught stress management strategies and techniques so that they can be able to better perform optimally at the workplace; as this would further enhance the performance of the organization.
There are many strategies that organizations could…
he education to employment paradigm in Canada and around the world is stressful enough. However, stress really needs to be addressed and dealt with before that transition even takes place or even starts. Indeed, if students are unable to manage the stress of school, they will be ill-prepared for the work environment when they reach it. Even when comparing two different countries like the United States and Canada, the statement remains true although the manifestations and patterns will be different in those two countries or any other set of countries being compared. Given that, preparing students in advance of that transition to manage stress is the wise course of action. his report will offer the dimensions that will be analyzed, the rationale for the focus, a brief discussion of the matter from a societal/sociological perspective, a discussion of the theoretical frameworks involved and a brief annotated bibliography using…
This source is being looked at because it is a confluence of the work (teachers) and educational (students) stressors and how they can feed off of each other. The students and their ability to manage stress is an important subject to look at but how teachers and administrators react when teaching is another that can and should be looked at. Teachers need to be the regulators and examples for their students but if they are unable or unwilling to set the proper standard and show the proper example, this will create or aggravate stress and stressors with the students.
O'Hara, R.E., Armeli, S., Boynton, M.H., & Tennen, H. (2014). Emotional stress-reactivity and positive affect among college students: The role of depression history. Emotion, 14(1), 193-202. doi:10.1037/a0034217
Yet another source that looks at mental health issues that are incurred outside or inside a school environment yet both affect the educational sphere (and thus any transition to the workplace) in much the same way. Obviously, the source of depression and anxiety matter and it can indeed come from within the school experience rather than just affecting it after starting elsewhere.
Post- Traumatic Stress as a Psychological Effect of the 9/11 ombings to Americans
On September 11, 2001, America and the whole world witnessed the most recent terrorist attack of a free, democratic country, wherein the World Trade Center Towers in New York City collapsed after two planes had crashed towards the two towers. The said incident was a terrorist attack by Osama bin Laden and his terrorist group Al Qaeda in Afghanistan, and the said terrorist attack resulted to thousands of deaths, which are mostly composed of people inside the building and within its perimeters. In addition to the numerous deaths and physical injuries that the attack had caused, great damage also resulted with the destruction of the World Trade Center Towers. Indeed, the terrorist attack in America had resulted to considerable material and human damage, and these dangerous results as caused by the attack had prompted that U.S. government…
Cowley, Geoffrey. "After the Trauma." 1 October 2001. Newsweek Magazine. p. 52-52B.
Gibbs, Nancy. "The Argument for Arguing." 15 October 2001. TIME Magazine. p. 72.
Willens, Kathy. "Warning Signs and Ways to Help." 1 October 2001. Newsweek Magazine. p. 52B.
Stress Case Study
I told the mother that it was no problem whatsoever, and that I was only too happy to meet her that Tuesday morning on such short notice. In truth I had been trying to contact her for the past couple of weeks, and was relieved that she was finally willing to talk about some of the issues she had been going through. Still, the look of worry on her face did not help to ease the sense of instinctive foreboding I got at her sudden call last night. She explained that she had received my previous voice messages, but had just been too busy looking after her daughter and trying to make a home with her new husband.
I asked her how the childcare issues had been going and expressed my surprise that her new husband seemed to be living with her now. Significantly, she chose to…
Unit 4 Assignment Worksheet
In the Units 3 and 4 Discussions, you created a thesis statement that offered a solution to a problem in your community or workplace. In this unit’s Assignment, you will revise and evaluate the effectiveness of that thesis using the Toulmin Model.
Part I: First of all, you will revise the provisional thesis statement that you generated in the previous unit Discussion. Make sure the thesis is concise (1–2 sentences) and includes two parts: a proposal for solving a problem and a reason that solution is needed. For more on creating effective persuasive thesis statements, review the following Writing Center resources:
· “Give Your Paper Direction: Developing a Strong Thesis Statement”
· “Writing a Thesis for a Persuasive Essay”
Write your revised two-part thesis statement here, and be sure to include a claim + reason (the “because” or “since” clause):
Employees should be taught stress management…
Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) program is used to assess young children, their caregivers, and the program environment. One of the areas highlighted in the checklist focuses on responsive caregiving as an avenue for parents and other caregivers to reflect on and change -- where needed -- the way they interact with their young charges (osas, et al., 2012). Moreover, considerable research has been conducted on the implementation of parenting and mental health models within the early childhood education setting (osas, et al., 2012). The proposed research would employ the DECA and a questionnaire constructed specifically for this study to identify children who may be at risk for stress related to parental arguments and household conflict.
Initial Topical Literature eview
Current research on the impact of arguments between parents that occur near sleeping babies indicates that the brain activity of infants is responsive to the tone and loudness of the…
Copeland, W.E., Wolke, D., Lereya, S.T., Shanahan, L, Worthman, C., & Costello, J. (2014, May 27). Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(21), 7570-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1323641111 Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24821813
DaBerko, T. (2013). Hush! Sleeping infants still know when mom and dad are fighting. Phenomenon. Smithsonian Magazine, October, 20.
Graham, A. (2013, March 25). Arguments in the home linked with babies' brain functioning. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon, Retrieved http://uonews.uoregon.edu/archive/news-release/2013/3/arguments-home-linked-babies-brain-functioning
Graham, A., Fischer, P., & Pfeifer, J. (2013). What sleeping babies hear: An fMRI study of interparental conflict and infants' emotion processing. Psychological Science, in print.
Stress in Law Enforcement
Stress and Law Enforcement
Professionals of law enforcements are responsible for some crucial and informative decision-making in their offices and fields which requires a standard operating procedures or codes to find the solutions of many issues. This procedure may look simple at first glance, but it can easily build up stress due to unpredictable situations and add up of infinite variables of the general public. Law enforcement officials have been expected to sustain discipline and remain neutral during the attempt of solving disputes safely. Physical and mental stress takes toll when professionals are observed by public and constantly stay under surveillance. Physical danger linked with work performance is the highest stress triggered (Bennett and Hess, 2007).
There are many forms of stress which vary according to the sources and the personal responses linked with it. Stress is usually categorized as acute and chronic stress and further…
Bennett, W.W., & Hess, K.M. (2007). Management and Supervision in Law Enforcement. Belmont: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Jackson, E. (2006). Workplace Stress: What's Causing it and What Can Be Done? Retrieved from Australian Psychological Society: http://www.psychology.org.au/publications/inpsych/stress_work/
Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2013). Stress Management. Retrieved from MayoClinic.com: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/stress-symptoms/SR00008_D
Sewell, J.D. (2000). Identifying and Mitigating Workplace Stress Among Forensic Laboratory Managers. Retrieved from The Federal Bureau of Investigation: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/lab/forensic-science-communications/fsc/april2000/index.htm/sewell.htm