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Substance Abuse Clients and the
Words: 1519 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28147421
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This is also a condition when a person does not think beyond what is observed in the surroundings. So children should be given exercise to create new thoughts which are devoid of substances in their surrounding or mentality. The most effective method of cognitive approach is to teach recovery techniques to a client that assist to overcome the condition, rather than find methods to change the mentality of a person directly. This is attained by self-monitoring, self-assessment and self consequation. Each step is followed by the other till the patient reach a significant point of recovery. Self consequation is the final stage when a person appreciates himself for the significant change in the behavior. (Mennuti; Arthur, 2006)

eferences

Blow, Frederic C. (1999) "Substance Abuse among Older Adults: Treatment Improvement

Protocol" Diane Publishing.

Mennuti, osemary B. Arthur, F. (2006) "Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions in Educational

Settings: A Handbook for..." outledge.

Onken, Lisa S;…

References

Blow, Frederic C. (1999) "Substance Abuse among Older Adults: Treatment Improvement

Protocol" Diane Publishing.

Mennuti, Rosemary B. Arthur, F. (2006) "Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions in Educational

Settings: A Handbook for..." Routledge.

Substance Abuse Among Licensed Counselors
Words: 3892 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82037251
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However, a different kind of problem may arise, when the counselor himself was a user and an addict, and has recovered fully from his addictions, to move on to become a legal counselor of others like him. (NIDA, Introduction and overview)

Take for example, the case of when a drug abuse and substance abuse counselor was among the fifteen people who were arrested recently in Harlem. The police charged this particular individual with being a part of a fifteen-member gang of cocaine and crack distributors on Long Island. Andrew J. Maloney, the United States Attorney for the Eastern District of New York, identified the counselor as Al ichardson, 40 years old, who was allegedly a distributor in a drug-selling ring, in which each 'runner' in the enterprise, or in other words, the individual who makes the actual sale of the drug, cocaine or crack, sold as much as $2,000 a…

References

ACA Code of Ethics: The ACA Governing Council." Retrieved at http://www.cacd.org/ACA_2005_Ethical_Code10405.pdf. Accessed 20 August, 2006

ACA Code of Ethics and Standards of practice" Retrieved at http://www.cacd.org/codeofethics.html. Accessed 20 August, 2006

Boren, John J; Onken, Lisa Simon; Carroll, Kathleen M. "NIDA, Introduction and overview"

Retrieved at  http://www.nida.nih.gov/ADAC/ADAC2.html . Accessed 20 August, 2006

Substance Abuse Is a Common Affliction Among
Words: 4221 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 39159150
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Substance abuse is a common affliction among the elderly population. Several factors may contribute to the prevalence of alcoholism and drug abuse among older adults, including loneliness, poor health, and depression. The most rapidly growing segment of the American population is the elderly, and whether or not alcohol can be considered beneficial or detrimental in this population depends on the doses being consumed (Ferreira and Weems, 2008). However, the population of older adults is increasing and so is the proportion of elderly individuals demonstrating alcohol abuse (Ferreira and Weems, 2008).

It is estimated that by 2030 the proportion of adults comprising the elderly population (65 years and older) will reach 20%, which marks double the current number (Duncan et al., 2010). Interestingly, substance abuse in general has shown increases in the elderly population, with a steady increase in primary substance abuse problems other than alcohol observed in the elderly population…

References

Atkinson, R.M. (1990). Aging and alcohol use disorders: diagnostic issues in the elderly. International Psychogeriatrics, 2(1), 55-72.

Bobo, J.K., Greek, A.A., Klepinger, DH, Herting, J.R. (2010). Alcohol use trajectories in two cohorts of U.S. women aged 50 to 65 at baseline. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 58(12) 2735-80.

Chiu E. (2008). Alcohol for the older person -- friend or foe? Age and Ageing, 37(5), 493-4.

Duncan, D.F., Nicholson, T., White, J.B., Bradley, D.B., Bonaguro, J. (2010). The baby boomer effect: changing patterns of substance abuse among adults ages 55 and older. Journal of Aging and Social Policy, 22(3), 237-48.

Substance Abuse in the Elderly
Words: 4246 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 50685726
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Substance / Alcohol Abuse among the Elderly

Substance/alcohol abuse among the elderly 60 years and older

Alcohol and substance abuse among the elderly is a significant social problem, not only because people in this age group tend to have very permissive attitudes towards social drug and alcohol usage but also because the stressors that accompany aging may result in increases in drug or alcohol usage to problematic levels. While people may begin experiencing age-related problems in their 40s and 50s, it is not generally until their 60s that most people begin to experience significant physical or emotional challenges related to age. These challenges are often accompanied by major life changes, such as retirement, the death of a spouse or friends, relocation, and diminished physical and intellectual capabilities. These changes may mean a lack of access to the coping mechanisms that have traditionally served the individual, leading to a rise in…

References

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2012). Substance abuse among older adults: Treatment improvement protocol (TIP) series, No. 26. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 12-3918. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Finkelstein, E., Prabhu, M., & Chen, H. (2007). Increased prevalence of falls among elderly individuals with mental health and substance abuse conditions. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15(7), 611-619.

Folkman, S., Bernstein, L, & Lazarus, R.S. (1987). Stress processes and the misuse of drugs in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 2(4), 366-374.

Garland, E.L., Schwarz, N.R., Kelly, A., Whitt, A., & Howard, M.O. (2012). Mindfulness-oriented recovery enhancement for alcohol dependence: Therapeutic mechanisms and intervention acceptability work. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 12, 242-263. doi:10.1080/1533256X.2012.702638

Substance Abuse Counseling Theories Substance
Words: 3044 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 13009622
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It has been argued that despite this fact, because substance abuse treatment has been developed by men, for men, it emerged "as a single-focused intervention based on the needs of addicted men." (Covington 2008). ithout empowering substance abusers whose lives have become severely impaired in terms of basic life functioning, treating the abuse or disability as a purely biological function will have little effect, and only address the physical withdrawal symptoms, and surrendering to the addiction may not address the need to seek out new, positive social relationships and to actively construct an environment that does not facilitate the addiction.

Even addicts with jobs who are minimally socially functional may have social structures revolving around their addiction. In the case of many women in particular, the life pattern of being involved with an abusive partner, which may have driven the women to abuse drugs in the first place, becomes a…

Works Cited

Bakalar, Nicholas. (2006, July 25). Review sees no advantage in 12-step programs.

The New York Times. Retrieved September 27, 2009 at  http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/25/health/25drin.html 

Buddy, T. (2009, March 7). Are you a functional alcoholic?

About.com. Retrieved September 27, 2009 at  http://alcoholism.about.com/od/problem/a/functional.htm

Substance Abuse Disorder That Can Mimic a
Words: 1422 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13239881
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substance abuse disorder that can mimic a mental health or medical diagnosis. -Addictions or substance abuse counseling

Brooks, AJ & Penn, PE (2003) Comparing reatments for Dual Diagnosis: welve-Step and Self-Management and Recovery raining HE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE, 29, 359 -- 383

Brooks and Penn (2003) compared the effectiveness of the 12-step approach with the cognitive-behavioral (Self-Management and Recovery raining [SMAR]) approach for people with a dual diagnosis of serious mental illness and substance use disorder. he 112 participants were tested in an intensive outpatient/partial hospitalization setting and were assigned to two treatment conditions. 50 participants completed the 6-month treatment program. he participants were tested during five intermittent periods. Researchers discovered that the 12 Steps program was more efficacious in decreasing alcohol use and increasing social interactions, but that it resulted in a worsening of medical problems, health status, employment status, and psychiatric hospitalization. SMAR, on…

The authors found positive associations to exist between these six components and treatment completion, length of stay, decreased use of substances, reduced mental health symptoms, improved birth outcomes, employment, self-reported health status, and HIV risk reduction. The authors conclude by recommending that further research needs to be done into interventions that can be efficacious for women in order to best treat that gender.

The study is helpful to people who work with substance abuse since research has clearly indicated gender-based differences in etiology of substance abuse and reaction to interventions. In this case, it only makes sense to evaluate the existent research on pertinent gender differences and to structure substance-abuse programs for each gender accordingly.

The studies, however, that authors employed - only 38 -- may have been too few. They may also have been from biased samples and may have reflected specific and limited populations and contexts. Substance abuse is a complex and multi-variegated field with patients possessing many variables. It is, therefore, important that a more comprehensive and exhaustive study (both longitudinal and cross-sectional) be conducted and that further meta analytic studies including a more diverse population be conducted. Given the limited purview of this study, Ashley et al.'s (2003) findings may not be generalizable to all treatment programs and treatment populations. Furthermore, most of the articles employed were non-randomized rather than randomized studies, containing lesser reliability. Given accomplishment of these factors, future research on this same topic would be extremely helpful to researchers and social workers since substance abuse programs may be substantially improved for women helping both women and their offspring.

Substance Abuse on Posttraumatic Stress
Words: 1466 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41842501
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The National Institute on Drug Abuse cautions that while no standardized, effective treatment has been identified for PTSD sufferers, researchers have determined that cognitive behavioral therapy, group therapy, or exposure therapy has shown some promise, with the latter technique being viewed as one of the more efficacious approaches available. In this regard, the National Institute on Drug Abuse reports that, "Exposure therapy is thought to be one of the most effective ways to manage PTSD. Recent studies suggest that some individuals with PTSD and comorbid cocaine addiction can be successfully treated with exposure therapy. Individuals in a recent study who suffered from both disorders showed significant reductions in all PTSD symptoms and in overall cocaine use" (quoted in the link between PTSD and substance abuse at p. 3). The use of cognitive behavioral therapies to treat substance-abusing PTSD patients is also reported by Tull (2008) who notes, "Alcohol and drug…

Janikowski, T.P., Donnelly, J.P. & Lawrence, J.C. (2007). The functional limitations of clients with coexisting disabilities. The Journal of Rehabilitation, 73(4), 15-16.

Mckelvey, T. (2008, July-August). Combat fatigue: As returning veterans suffer post-traumatic stress disorder in record numbers, a controversial new drug is being tested that would dampen their memories. The American Prospect, 19(7), 5-6.

Volpicelli, J., Balaraman, G., Hahn, J., Wallace, H. & Bux, D. (1999). The role of uncontrollable trauma in the development of PTSD and alcohol addiction. Alcohol Research & Health, 23(4), 256.

Substance Abuse
Words: 1037 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38515243
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High-isk Population for Group Therapy-Substance Abuse/Addiction

One high-risk population that has been pinpointed when it comes to engaging in therapy with substance abuse are Hispanic and Latino women. "The pattern of illicit drug use among Hispanics/Latinas is influenced by level of acculturation and country of origin. In one study based on the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) data, illicit drug use among Hispanics/Latinas generally increased with acculturation (Amaro et al. 1990)" (CSAT, 2009). This research found that overwhelmingly, women from this population were more at risk for opiate use. Another factor which made individuals from these groups more at risk was the socioeconomic status, age and period of time they had lived in the U.S. From this specific group, the most significant risk for substance abuse was the age of when the woman immigrated to the U.S.: this means that the earlier a woman immigrated to the U.S.,…

References

Boyd, M. (2008). Psychiatric Nursing: Contemporary Practice. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT). Substance Abuse Treatment: Addressing the Specific

Needs of Women. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services

Administration (U.S.); 2009. (Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series, No. 51.)

Transtheoretical Model Substance Abuse
Words: 1506 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 41360451
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Substance Abuse in America

The objective of this study is to apply change theory and the Transtheoretical Model of ehavior Change to health promotion activities in the health care environment and examine how the 'readiness to change' factor impact the success of a change in behavior.

Substance abuse in America is a prevalent problem and a challenge faced by health care provides in terms of identifying and applying effective modes of treatment to bring about behavior change in those with substance abuse problems.

Transtheoretical Model Stages of Change

The Transtheoretical Model Stages of Change was developed at the University of Rhode Island by James O. Prochaska in the latter part of the 1970s and is comprised by four components: (1) stages of change; (2) processes of change; (3) decisional balance; and (4) self-efficacy. (Inspire Malibu, 2015, p. 1) The reason for the name 'Transtheoretical" being assigned to this model is…

Bibliography

Zemore, SE, and Ajze, I. (2014) Predicting substance abuse treatment completion using a new scale based on the theory of planned behavior. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2014 Feb;46(2):174-82. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2013.06.011. Epub 2013 Aug 15.

Reisenhofer S (2013) Women's journey to safety - the Transtheoretical model in clinical practice when working with women experiencing Intimate Partner Violence: a scientific review and clinical guidance. Patient Educ Couns. 2013 Dec;93(3):536-48. doi: 0.1016/j.pec.2013.08.004. Epub 2013 Aug 19. PubMed

Harrell PT (1), Trenz RC, Scherer M, Martins SS, Latimer WW. (2013) A latent class approach to treatment readiness corresponds to a transtheoretical ("Stages of Change") model. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2013 Sep;45(3):249-56. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2013.04.004. Epub 2013 May 22.

Ward RM (1), Schielke HJ. (2011) Assessing the predictive ability of the transtheoretical model's heavy episodic drinking constructs among a population of underage students. Subst Use Misuse. 2011;46(9):1179-89. doi: 10.3109/10826084.2011.559607. Epub 2011 Mar 21. PubMed.

Substance Abuse Continued Use of Research Continued
Words: 939 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18191151
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Substance Abuse

Continued use of research

Continued use of research in professional life:

Stable housing for substance abusers

Substance abuse is strongly correlated with a wide array of risky behaviors, including a failure to live in some form of stable housing, as well as high-risk sexual behaviors. This is significant, because stable housing situations in the form of rehabilitation centers or 'halfway' homes are often used as bases of treatment for addicts. However, a review of the existing literature indicates that simply providing housing for addicts should not be regarded as a panacea or as an automatic form of treatment for addiction. In fact, the results are mixed regarding a correlation between substance abuse and the ability to obtain stable housing. For the purposes of this review, a definition of 'stable housing' will be defined as "not having lived on the street" versus "living in a shelter or single room…

References

Des Jarlais, D., C., Braine, N., & Friedmann, P. (2007). Unstable housing as a factor for increased injection risk behavior at U.S. syringe exchange programs. AIDS and Behavior, 11, 78-84.

Elifson, K.W., Sterk, C.E., & Theall, K.P. (2007). Safe living: The impact of unstable housing conditions on HIV risk reduction among female drug users. AIDS and Behavior, 11, 45-55. Retrieved: doi:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-007-9306-8 

Palepu A, Marshall BD, Lai C, Wood E, Kerr T. (2010). Addiction treatment and stable housing among a cohort of injection drug users. PLoS One. 5(7):e11697. Retrieved:

 http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011697

Substance Abuse Assessment Instruments
Words: 1527 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29175688
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Substance Abuse Assessment

There are a variety of assessment or diagnostic instruments which can determine substance abuse. It is interesting to compare and contrast the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Chemical Dependency Assessment Profile (CDAP), and the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI).

Michigan Alcoholism Screening

The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (Mast) is a "binary-choice, 25-item test which is considered the most widely used test of its type for adults (Hodgson, 2002)."

This can be attributed to the time it takes to administer the test, which is approximately 5 minutes, and how easy it is to score. The MAST consists of a "questionnaire that requires a 'yes' or 'no' response and addresses drinking patterns, social, occupational, and medical aspects of drinking, and previous attempts at treatment. The three primary questions in the survey instrument are: 1) Have you ever attended a meeting of Alcoholics Anonymous?; 2) Have you ever gone…

References

Blevins, L. David. Joann B. Morton and Kimberly A. McCabe. (01 June, 1996). "Using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test to identify problem drinkers under federal supervision." Federal Probation.

Chemical Dependency Assessment Profile (CDAP). (accessed 17 May 2004). www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/cdap.htm).

Hodgson, Joele M. (22 December, 2002). "An adolescent version of the Michigan

Alcoholism Screening Test." Adolescence.

Substance Abuse Among Police Officers
Words: 1704 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 36719883
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Research has shown that people who experience high stress remain more at risk for alcohol abuse (Violanti, Choir Practice:..., n.d.).

A prevention approach has the long-range potential to reduce alcohol abuse. Police departments should note that proactive prevention strategies designed to prevent alcohol abuse are more economical and practical than curing those who abuse alcohol.

ibliography

Jared. (2008, October 28). Substance abuse among public safety officers. Retrieved April 4, 2009, from Treatmentsolutionsnetwork.com: http://www.treatmentsolutionsnetwork.com/blog/index.php/2008/10/28/substance-abuse-among-public-safety-officers/

Law enforcement wellness association. (n.d.). Retrieved April 4, 2009, from cophealth.com: http://www.cophealth.com/index.html

National Crime Prevention Council. (n.d.). Workplace substance abuse. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from Philadelphia police department: http://www.ppdonline.org/prev/prev_work_abuse.php

Page, D. (2005, September). Drug screening of police: on the high road. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from officer.com: http://www.officer.com/print/Law-Enforcement-Technology/Drug-Screening-of-Police -- on-the-High-Road/1$26,232

Violanti, J. (n.d.). Choir Practice: Alcohol abuse in policing:. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from Central Florida: Police stress unit: http://www.policestress.org/choir.htm

Violanti, J. (n.d.). Dying from the job:…

Bibliography

Jared. (2008, October 28). Substance abuse among public safety officers. Retrieved April 4, 2009, from Treatmentsolutionsnetwork.com:  http://www.treatmentsolutionsnetwork.com/blog/index.php/2008/10/28/substance-abuse-among-public-safety-officers/ 

Law enforcement wellness association. (n.d.). Retrieved April 4, 2009, from cophealth.com:  http://www.cophealth.com/index.html 

National Crime Prevention Council. (n.d.). Workplace substance abuse. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from Philadelphia police department:  http://www.ppdonline.org/prev/prev_work_abuse.php 

Page, D. (2005, September). Drug screening of police: on the high road. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from officer.com:  http://www.officer.com/print/Law-Enforcement-Technology/Drug-Screening-of-Police  -- on-the-High-Road/1$26,232

Substance Abuse and Theology The
Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21755847
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Covert participant anthropological observations of AA and NA meetings indicate that in practice the use of theological components of the program is even more explicit than the 12 steps might indicate. During the meeting the members hold "each other's hands, and lead the membership into a recitation of the Lord's Prayer. Affixed to the Lord's Prayer is an AA ending: 'Keep coming back; it works'" (Alexander & ollins, 1984, p.7). Anthropologists and critics alike have commented upon the 'cult-like' nature of AA and NA: new adherents are encouraged to leave their jobs and cut family ties to facilitate their path to sobriety; there is a ritualistic aspect to the group's meetings; a demand for purity on the part of the membership; and required adherence to all of the group's rules (Alexander & ollins, 1984, p.8). The emphasis on the need to confess and tell one's stories, the need to prioritize…

References

Alexander, Francesca & Michele Rollins. (1984). Alcoholics Anonymous. The unseen cult.

California Sociologist, 7(l): 33-48. Retrieved March 15, 2010.

 http://www.webcitation.org/5lyBcw4EM 

Egelko, Bob. (2007, September 8). Appeals court says requirement to attend AA

Substance Abuse Amongst the Elderly
Words: 629 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60854075
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Q4. Participants at treatment facilities might be disproportionately affluent and white, given that historically, individuals of color suffering from addictions have more often been relegated to prisons, rather than received support and assistance. Public as well as private treatment facilities may need to be compared, to ensure a more representative sampling.

Part B:

Article:

Benshoff, John J., Laura K. Harrawood, & Darwin Shane Koch. (2003, April-June). Substance

abuse and the elderly: unique issues and concerns. Journal of Rehabilitation. 69.

In this study, the authors used a literature review format to examine a variety of previous studies of substance abuse amongst the elderly. In general, while individuals tend to age out of illicit drug use, alcohol abuse remains a risk throughout an individual's lifespan, given the lack of social and cultural taboos. Broad-ranging studies have found that alcohol abuse amongst the elderly is a silent epidemic, and both late and early-onset…

Substance Abuse and Dependency Discuss
Words: 828 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73910556
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' If a person does not disclose their drinking behavior if they seek outside help, they may be misdiagnosed as having an anxiety disorder. Mixing alcohol and medications for anxiety disorders can have lethal consequences, as well as prolonging a process of addiction." (Losinno, p. 1)

This denotes that especially in the face of trauma, those who are predisposed to dissonant responses and unhealthy coping mechanisms will struggle at a higher level to be liberated of chemical dependency. ith respect to treatment, outreach to specific risk groups such as those who are proven to be vulnerable to PTSD should be seen as a primary intervention strategy. Military veterans, families that have suffered the loss of a loved one, victims of system abuse and victims of traumatic injuries are all targeted candidates for this type of intervention.

3. Discuss genetic impact of chemical dependency? hat is the likelihood of some individuals…

Works Cited:

Gans, S. (2006). New Genes Found for Excessive Alcohol Drinking. About Alcoholism.

Grinsteinner, K. (2006). Targeting Teen Drinking. Hibbing, MN: The Daily Tribune.

Losinno, N.D. (2007). Double Trouble: Anxiety and Substance Abuse. Employee Assistance Program Manager.

Stephens, P. & Smith, R. (2012). Substance Abuse Counseling: Theory and Practice. Merrill Education/Prentice Hall.

Substance Abuse Among Adolescents Substance
Words: 824 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 63018320
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Treatment is also viewed as a tool to address an adolescent's use of one substance, whereas prevention programs address the risks of multiple substances (Sussman, 2011). Prevention programs that have provided some evidence of effectiveness include school-based educational programs and family-based programs (Sussman, 2011). Educational programs typically focus on social influences that lead to substance abuse, and work to build personal and social skills to help avoid abuse in social situations (Sussman, 2011). Family involvement in prevention is also effective within compliant families and can complement educational efforts. Programs providing motivation, skills, and enhancing decision making ability show the greatest potential to alter attitudes that influence behavior change, and prevent the use of drugs and alcohol (Sussman, 2011).

There are an estimated 1.4 millions teens with an alcohol or drug problem and only 10% are receiving treatment, compared to 20% of adults (Sussman, 2011). There is a general lack of…

References

Sussman, S. (2011). Preventing and treating substance abuse among adolescents. The Prevention

Researcher, 18(2), p. 3-7.

Substance Abuse Among High School Students
Words: 2589 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 56582143
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Substance Abuse

Introduction to the Characteristics and Extent of Alcohol, Tobacco or Other Drug Use.

Addiction means physical dependence on a drug, with withdrawal symptoms when its use ceases, and in this sense, alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, hashish, opiates and amphetamines are all addictive drugs. In addition, these drugs also cause psychological dependency since they enhance a person's sense of pleasure, sociability, sexuality and emotional satisfaction, and also mask pain, low self-esteem and anxiety (Wilson and Kolander, 2011, p. 6). Student surveys are "likely to underreport the overall level of substance use and abuse by young people," and since black and Hispanic students have higher dropout and absenteeism rates, this affects survey results as well (Mosher and Akins, 2007, p. 136). Hard drug users and addicts are also more likely to be homeless, which means that their true numbers are always unknown.

All studies and surveys confirm that marijuana…

REFERENCES

Goldberg, R. (2010). Drugs across the Spectrum, 6th Edition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Maisto, S.A. et al. (eds). (2010). Drug Use and Abuse, 6th Edition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Mosher, C.M. And S. Akins. (2007). Drugs and Drug Policy: The Control of Consciousness Alteration. Sage Publications.

Wilson, R. And C.A. Kolander. (2011). Drug Abuse Prevention: A School and Community Partnership. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Substance Abuse During Pregnancy PSA
Words: 765 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 80081643
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The bill includes no provisions for other types of expanded access to prenatal and post-natal care for impoverished women, or expanded funding for drug treatment of pregnant women outside of prisons. It seems like a convenient way to test the constitutionality of Roe v. Wade, as if the bill is contested, the issue of legal abortion will certainly arise in the appellate courts, perhaps even in the Supreme Court. But even if abortion does not become the primary focus of the bills proponents and opponents, the bill also raises the troubling civil rights issue of special litigation that penalizes substance-abusing women who can become pregnant more than women who cannot, or men.

I understand that some members of the hospital staff are hopeful that the bill will enable some women to enter drug treatment more easily. However, as no additional funding for such treatment is provided in the bill, it…

Substance Abuse Patterns Among Different
Words: 302 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 38169609
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The author takes care to distinguish between stereotyping and fact, pointing out the need to examine both Native American and Hispanic-Americans not as monolithic groups but as diverse and heterogeneous ones. Yet Weaver accomplishes the research objective without denying the relevance of cultural factors that impact attitudes toward assimilation and oppression. The main weakness of the research is that Weaver spends far more time addressing Native American substance abuse issues than Hispanic and could easily have narrowed down the report.

Two questions for stimulating group discussion include the following. First, given the results of Weaver's research and the lack of evidence that supports sweeping stereotypes, what treatment intervention models and programs would be particularly efficacious for Native American communities? Second, what does Weaver suggest about approaching substance abuse in general, regardless of ethnic heritage? In other words, what factors appear to be universal among substance abusers?

Substance Abuse and Society Substance
Words: 2570 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 58323622
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They develop a tolerance to alcohol and simply need more to satisfy their craving (MayoClinic, 2009a). This is a key difference between alcoholism and other drug addictions.

The causes of alcoholism and drug addictions are complex and involve the interaction of several factors. The first is genetics. Certain genetics factors can cause a person to be more vulnerable than others to develop alcoholism and the other addictions mentioned. A person's emotional state can also affect their propensity to develop substance abuse. Certain psychological factors, such as low self-esteem, peer groups that have substance abuse problems, or other factors that promote drinking and drug abuse also play a role in the development of substance abuse. Social and cultural factors also play a role, such as advertisements that glamorize drinking, or media that send messages regarding substances are also factors in the development of an addiction (MayoClinic, 2009a).

Conclusion

Substance abuse affects…

References

Abbott, A. (2002). Health Care Challenges Created by Substance Abuse: The Whole Is

Definitely Bigger Than the Sum of Its Parts. Health and Social Work. 27 (3): 162+.

Anderson, N. (ed) (2004). Alcohol Abuse and Dependence. Encyclopedia of Health and Behavior Management. Sage Publications. Retrieved March 25, 2010 from http://www.

Credoreference.com/entry/sageohabm/alcohol_abuse_and_dependence.

Treating Adolescents With Substance Abuse Disorders
Words: 1945 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69501873
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Adolescent Substance Abuse

Substance abuse, commonly referred to as drug abuse and alcohol abuse, has recently gained popularity amid the youth of America. This has been confirmed by SAMHSA (2003) whose survey indicated that around 2.2 million teenagers were convicted of being involved in substance abuse in 2003. Teenage is called the golden period of a person's life as this is full of excitement and energy. People are willing to experience all the good and bad things in life, and for some natural reason, bad things tend to be more attractive. Therefore, the inclination of youth towards excessive usage of drugs and alcohol is not surprising. However, the teenage period does not last long. If people continue the same activity as adults, this can ruin a person's social, academic life, putting a stop to his professional career. This makes it a critical problem that should be resolved as a priority.…

References

Diller, J.V. (2007). Cultural Diversity: A Primer for the Human Services. 3rd ed. pp. 28.

Mark, T.L, Song, X., Vandivort, R., Duffy, S., Buttler, J., Coffey, R., Schabert, V. (2009). Characterizing substance abuse programs that treat adolescents. Retrieved from  http://www.samhsa.gov /samhsa_news/VolumeXIV_5/article12.pdf

SAMHSA. (2003). Results from the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Retrieved from http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/nhsda/2k3nsduh/2k3Results.htm

Tripodi, S.J.; Bender, K; Litschge, C; Vaughn, V.G. (2010). Interventions for Reducing Adolescent Alcohol Abuse: A Meta-analytic Review. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010; 164(1):85-91

Counselor Turnover in Substance Abuse
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As a caveat, it must be noted that the measures of turnover varied across centers. epresenting 62% of the treatments centers, hospitals overwhelmingly constituted the largest group, with only 31% of centers classified as for-profit. Centers of both types averaged approximately 115 clients each, ranging, on average, over four or five levels of care. The demographic composition of the couselor workforce was 57% female, 13% minority group members, 50% with graduate degrees, 56% certified, and 37% in recovery. Counselors' salaries averaged $30,134, with a range of $15,000 -- $62,640. With respect to the client population, an average of 54% had experienced a relapse. Twenty-nine percent will in a program due to a court mandate. Twenty-six percent of clients were covered by Medicaid and 18% were covered by managed care.

Discussion

McNulty et al. tested ten hypotheses in four conceptual blocks of variables. Their "key hypotheses" (p. 173) concerned the role…

References

McNulty, T.L., Oser, C.B., Johnson, J.A., Knudsen, H.K., & Roman, P.M. (2007).

Counselor turnover in substance abuse treatment centers: An organizational-level analysis. Sociological Inquiry, 77 (2), 166 -- 193.

Glbt Substance Abuse Therapies the
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Indeed, the lack of "recognition and protection" by schools in general contributes to the "critically high level of suicide" among this community of minority students (146).

Surely alert, competent, contemporarily up-to-date school counselors understand that they have the "daunting but imperative obligation to become social activists for gay, lesbian, and bisexual students" since these students are the most "stigmatized members of school environs," Stone continues. There is no doubt that certain legal and ethical issues come in the way of school counselors' being free to help LGBT adolescents with their difficult decisions.

It is a "complex landscape" for counselors indeed, and they need to use caution in discussing birth control, abortion, drug abuse and more with straight and gay / lesbian students; moreover, since parents have the ultimate authority when it comes to counseling their children on important matters (the U.S. Supreme Court has affirmed that fact in several cases),…

Works Cited

Cabaj, Robert Paul, and Smith, Mickey. (2008). Overview of Treatment Approaches, Modalities,

and Issues of Accessibility in the Continuum of Care. Center for Substance Abuse

Treatment. Retrieved August 27, 2011, from  http://www.samhsa.gov .

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2008). A Provider's Introduction to Substance Abuse

Programs for Drug Abuse Treatment in Prison
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Substance Abuse Programs in Prison

The work of Harrison (nd) reports that the 'Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) for State Prisoners Formula Grant Program was created by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 in response to the increasing number of incarcerated individuals in the United States with substance abuse problems." (p.vi) It is reported that RSAT grants may be used to "implement or expand treatment programs for inmates in residential treatment facilities operated by State and local correctional agencies that provide individual and group treatment activities for inmates." (Harrison, nd, p. 2) The RSAT programs must be in a six to twelve month length, provide residential treatment facilities that are apart from the general prison population, be focused at the substance abuse problems of inmates, work in developing the cognitive, social, behavioral, vocational in addition to other skills that serve to bring about resolution to the…

Bibliography

Frantz, M. (2009) What You Need to Know…Before You Go To Federal Prison. Dog Ear Publishing. 2009.

Harrison, LD (nd) Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners Implementation Lessons Learned. Google Books. Retrieved from:  http://books.google.com/books?id=bbE6-erVr98C&dq=SUBSTANCE+ABUSE+PROGRAMS+IN+PRISON&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Using Clinical Management for Substance Abusing Behaviors
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Clinical Case Management

Case management emerged during the late 19th and early 20th centuries in an effort by professional social workers to address the broad-based social problems that followed the Industrial evolution, including most especially poverty (Aufderhaar, Giddens, Holder, et al., 2013). Since that time, case management has influenced by a wide range of evidence-based practices and social workers in virtually every field use these techniques to help their clients overcome the problems that are adversely affecting their lives. To gain a better understanding of the process, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide a definition of case management, the rationale in support of its use, and a discussion concerning how case management can be useful as part of an overall treatment plan. In addition, based on a representative vignette involving a young couple and their minor daughter, this paper also examines how case management can help these clients,…

References

Aufderhaar, L., Giddens, B., Holder, L. A. et al. (2013). Social work case management. National Association of Social Workers. Retrieved from  http://www.socialworkers.org/practice  / naswstandards/CaseManagementStandards2013.pdf.

Darnell, J. S. (2013, May). Navigators and assisters: Two case management roles for social workers in the Affordable Care Act. Health and Social Work, 38(2), 123-126.

Miller, E. (2011). Individual outcomes: Getting back to what matters. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic.

Perosa, L. M. & Perosa, S. L. (2010, April). Assessing competencies in couples and family therapy/counseling: A call to the profession. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 36(2), 126-130.

Substance Problem Dash for Survival
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The Health elief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Social Learning Theory attempt to explain behavior change during treatment (Neft and MacMasters 2005). The three models have been integrated to help explain how spiritual change can effect a change in the behavior of someone with substance problems. The integrated model lacks solid theoretical or empirical mechanisms in achieving its purpose. The three models share a common goal of creating a shift from negative and punishing to positive and forgiving views of spirituality and of God. It proposes a framework of changes at several levels (Neft and MacMasters).

At the individual attributes level, the person presents his or her spiritual background or history, current level of spirituality and overall readiness for treatment in this manner (Neft and MacMasters 2005). Many substance abusers are detached from key societal institutions, such as the church. Around 85% of them are not receiving…

Bibliography

Ashley, S.S. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: a review. 20 pages. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse: Taylor & Francis Ltd.

Campbell, Cynthia and Jeffrey a. Alexander (2005). Health services for women in outpatient substance abuse treatment. 17 pages. Health Services Research: American College of Healthcare Services

Mersy, D.J. (2003). Recognition of alcohol and substance abuse. 6 pages. American Family Physician: American Academy of Family Physicians

Neft, J.A. And Samuel a. Macmaster (2005). Applying behavior models to understand spiritual mechanisms underlying change in substance abuse treatment. 12 pages. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse: Taylor & Francis Ltd.

Substance Addiction the Magnitude of
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ILIOGRAPHY

NLM (2012). Substance abuse treatment of women. Chapter 4. National Library of Medicine: National Institutes of Health. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NK83257

- Screening and assessment. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books.NK83253

rauser, D (2010), Sublingual buprenorphine relieves symptoms of neonatal opioid abstinence syndrome, Medscape: Medscape LLC. Retrieved on December 9, 2012

from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/730366

Fisher, P.A. et al. (2011). The combined effects of prenatal drug exposure and early adversity on neurobehavioral dis-inhibition in childhood and adolescence,

Developmental Psychopathology. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3335443

Hamdan, a.H. (2012). Neonatal abstinence syndrome, Medscape: Medscape LLC.

Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.emedicine.medscape.com/article/978763-clinical

Johnson, K et al. (2003). Treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome, Archive of Disease

in Childhood. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.bmj.com/content/88/1/F.2.2.ful

Johnson, K and Leff, M (1999). Children of substance abusers. Pediatrics. American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/103/Supplement_2/1085.long

Kraft, W.K. et al. (2010). Future trends…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

NLM (2012). Substance abuse treatment of women. Chapter 4. National Library of Medicine: National Institutes of Health. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK83257 

- Screening and assessment.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books.NBK83253 

Brauser, D (2010), Sublingual buprenorphine relieves symptoms of neonatal opioid abstinence syndrome, Medscape: Medscape LLC. Retrieved on December 9, 2012

from  http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/730366

Treatment of Sex Offenders the
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When one looks at the occurrence of recidivism in offenders who have partaken in treatment programs varying from organic programs to those geared to more social and emotional support programs, it becomes clear that recidivism of sexual re-offense is relatively low, compared to those who undergo no treatment program. However, there is still an issue with non-sexual re-offense. In addition, there is evidence that the contributing factors for adult and juvenile offenders are different.

As such, it is suggested that not all offenders should receive the same treatment. Correctional literature indicates that high-risk offender require the greatest use of resource, while lower risk offenders require the lowest level of resources (Andrews & Bonta, 2003).

As such, blanket policies that deem all offenders as 'high risk' are neither effective nor efficient. In addition, it may take away resources from those who truly need it, such as juvenile offenders who require longterm…

References

Abracen, J., Looman, J., DiFazio, R., Kelly, T., & Stirpe, T. (Mar 2006). Patterns of attachment and alcohol abuse in sexual and violent non-sexual offenders. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 12(1). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.

Andrews, D. & Bonta, J. (2003). The psychology of criminal conduct. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.

Bates, a., Saunders, R., & Wilson, C. (Spring 2007). Doing something about it: A follow-up study of sex offenders participating in Thames Valley Circles of Support and Accountability. British Journal of Community Justice, 5(1). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from SocINDEX database.

Calley, N. (Spring 2007). Integrating theory and research: The development of a research-based treatment program for juvenile male sex offenders. Counseling & Development, 85(2). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.

Substance Abuse in the Military
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Drugs and Alcohol Abuse

The United States military faces considerable difficulty related to substance abuse amongst its personnel. It is critical to denote that its substance abuse issues pertain to both active personnel on duty, as well as to veterans. Of the myriad issues that the military faces, one is the evolving nature of substance abuse in the 21st century. Whereas such abuse has traditionally focused on alcohol and illegal narcotics, there is a stronger emphasis on the abuse of prescription medication. This abuse, in addition to binge drinking, (Institute of Medicine, 2015, p. 243) has considerable ramifications for the aforementioned military personnel. Active personnel face situations in which their readiness and ability to engage in combat is impaired by over-consumption of drugs and alcohol, whereas veterans must reckon with decreased quality of life and ability to successfully reintegrate into society because of the same problems.

Consequence of War ?…

References

American Psychological Association. (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. American Psychologist. 58(5), 377-402.

Bohart, A.C., Tallman, K. (1999). How Clients Make Therapy Work: The Process of Active Self-Healing. New York: American Psychological Association.

Furuya, S., Slobodzien, J. (2015). ASAP Triage (brief screen note) for:.

Furuya, S., Slobodzien, J. (2015). Confidential treatment program. ASAP Triage.

Criminal Justice Substance Abuse
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6884903
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ubstance abuse greatly impacts many, if not all, aspects of an individual's life and is typically linked to behavioral, economic, educational, legal, medical, psychological, public health, and social problems. In the past 10-15 years, attention has been increasingly focused on the correlation between psychiatric disorders and substance abuse. Numerous researchers have discovered a strong contemporaneous relationship between psychiatric disorders and substance abuse in both clinical and general population samples of adolescents (Boyle and Offord, 1991; Brook and Brook, 1990; Kessler et al., 1996) and adults (Breslau et al., 1993; Helzer and Pryzbeck, 1998; Kessler et al., 1996). For example, Kessler et al. (1996) found that psychiatric disorders generally preceded the development of addictive disorders in individuals with both co-occurring psychiatric disorders and substance abuse. Other researchers have found a correlation between the diagnosis of behavior or psychiatric disorder and the frequency of alcohol and tobacco use (Boyle and Offord, 1991).…

Seven out of every ten men and eight out of every ten women in the criminal justice system used drugs with some regularity prior to entering the criminal justice system (Lipton 1998, pp. 106-109). With that many people in prisons that are using drugs and the connection between drug use and crime, then if there was any success at all it seems like it would be a step in the right direction. Many of these offenders will not seek any type of reform when they are in the community. They feel that they do not have the time to commit to go through a program of rehabilitation. It makes sense, then, that they should receive treatment while in prison because one thing they have plenty of is time.

In most therapeutic communities, recovered drug users are placed in a therapeutic environment, isolated from the general prison population. This is due to the fact that if they live with the general population, it is much harder to break away from old habits. The primary clinical staff is usually made up of former substance abusers that at one time were rehabilitated in therapeutic communities. The perspective of the treatment is that the problem is with the whole person and not the drug. The addiction is a symptom and not the core of the disorder.

The primary goal is to change patterns of behavior, thinking,

Substance Use African American Males
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old African-American male, the client represents a seriously underserved population cohort when it comes to providing effective substance abuse prevention and intervention support. According to Williams & Chang (2000), research on adolescent substance abuse treatment is sparse. Available evidence is even scantier when addressing the needs of non-white youth. Yet to be effective, interventions need to be tailored to the specific population.

Empirical evidence supporting a comprehensive and effective substance abuse intervention for the adolescent cohort began with an evaluation of the case. The client has experienced trauma, which should be taken into consideration while developing a treatment plan and during the course of treatment. At the age of twelve, the client's mother's sister in law and her two children -- the client's cousins -- were murdered. The client was deeply affected by the event, as was his family. It took a decade before the perpetrator of the crime was…

References

Cooper, R. L., MacMaster, S., & Rasch, R. (2009). Racial differences in retention in residential substance abuse treatment: The impact on African-American men. Retrieved from University of North Carolina, Greensboro:  http://libres.uncg.edu/ir/uncg/f/R_Rasch_Racial_2009.pdf 

Costen, J. A. (2009). Drug use and the Black American male. Retrieved from Kennesaw Sate University:  http://ksuweb.kennesaw.edu/~jcosten/papers/paper_drug-use-and-the-black-american-male.pdf 

Williams, R. & Chang, S. (2000). Addiction Centre Adolescent Research Group. A Comprehensive and Comparative Review of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Outcome. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 7(2): 138-166.

Treatment for the Homeless
Words: 5851 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 27753025
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Homeless Mental Health

Mental health is an issue that is deemed to be very under-treated and very under-diagnosed within the United States. Beyond that, there are populations that are much more at risk than others. A good example would be the prison population where drug use and mental health issues are both rampant. However, there is another group that is highly stricken and very vexing and difficult to treat and that would be the homeless. Indeed, many people that are homeless are in that position due to mental health issues. Mental health is often not the only issue involved as comorbidity can exist with substance abuse. However, mental health will be the focus of this report. Facets of the homeless with mental health that will be focused upon within this report will include issues like diversity, ethics, values, social justice, diagnosing of patients, initiation/termination of care, aftercare, and the broader…

References

Belcher, J. R. (1988). Rights vs. Needs of Homeless Mentally Ill Persons. Social Work, 33(5), 398.

Chambers, C., Chiu, S., Scott, A., Tolomiczenko, G., Redelmeier, D., Levinson, W., & Hwang,

S. (2014). Factors Associated with Poor Mental Health Status Among Homeless Women

With and Without Dependent Children. Community Mental Health Journal, 50(5), 553-

PTSD and Substance Abuse on
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Professionals should treat African-American females with PTSD with utmost support and therapy that is beneficial to the victim. Further, the issue of substance abuse must be addressed in a manner that is acceptable to the victim.

Treatment of problems associated with substance abuse and PTSD must be designed in a consistent way that provides a solution to both substance abuse and PTSD altogether. Although the professionals are required to focus more on treating PTSD, they must incorporate treatment of alcohol and substance abuse.

Prevention for relapses is of utter importance because they prepare the victim to enter state of soberness and cope with symptoms of PTSD. These symptoms have been reported to become worse as African-American females attempt to abstain from substance abuse.

For many African-American females with PTSD and substance abuse disorder, it is recommended that they consult the membership directories. This is an international society for PTSD that…

References

Adams, R. & Boscarino, J. (2005). Differences in mental health outcomes among Whites and African-Americans. Washington, DC: Human Kinetics.

Adams, R. & Boscarino, J. (2006). Predictors of PTSD and delayed PTSD after disaster.

Virginia: Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Alcantara, C. & Gone J. (2007). Reviewing suicide in Native American communities. California:

Harm Reduction and Substance Abuse
Words: 4571 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48858447
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This allows the client to place their level of behavior on the continuum and assess the levels of risk associated with their behaviors. The continuum also allows the client to assess the ways in which their behaviors over time, by examining the ways in which their behaviors are now different to past behaviors. This may allow clients to recognize that they have already made some progress toward less harmful behaviors, or may allow them to identify specific events which led to developing more risky behaviors. The harm reduction model allows the client to assess their current situation and plan the actions which they wish to take to change their future behaviors.

Applications of the model

The harm reduction model has been applied predominantly to drug misuse issues, however it is also appropriate to apply the model for a wide range of social and health behavior changes. The model has been…

References

Amato, L., Davoli, M.A., Perucci, C., Ferri, M., Faggiano, F.P. And Mattick, R. (2005) an overview of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of opiate maintenance therapies: Available evidence to inform clinical practice and research. Journal Substitutes Abuse Treatment, 28, 321-329.

Bluthenthal, R.N., Kral, a.H., Erringer, E.A. And Edlin, B.R. (1998) Use of an illegal syringe exchange and injection-related risk behaviors among street-recruited injection drug users in Oakland, California, 1992 to 1995. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Human Retrovirology, 18, 505-511.

Bradley-Springer, L. (1996) Patient education for behavior change: Help from the transtheoretical and harm reduction models. JANAC, 7(1), 23-33.

Des Jarlais, D.C. (1995) Harm reduction: A framework for incorporating science into drug policy. American Journal of Public Health, 85, 10-12.

Minority Youth Substance Abuse Solutions
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, Ellingstad,

Timothy, and Brown, Sandra A. (2006). Adolescent Self-Selection of Service Formats:

Implications for Secondary Interventions Targeting Alcohol Use. The American Journal on Addictions, ol. 15, 58-66.

The authors employed three formats of intervention (individual, group, and website) on youth in four schools over a four-year window of time. The results of this survey (which involved "Project Options") of 1,147 students is that minority teens who willingly sought alcohol services preferred to receive interventions in a private context rather than in group therapy.

Gil, Andres G., Wagner, Eric F., and Tubman, Jonathan G. (2004). Culturally sensitive substance abuse intervention for Hispanic and African-American adolescents: empirical examples from the Alcohol Treatment Targeting Adolescents in Need (ATTAIN) Project. Addiction,

2(99), 140-150.

This article offers a strategy that (in this case) significantly reduced use of marijuana and alcohol in all ethnic groups involved in the project. Some 213 juvenile offenders participated in…

Von Wormer, Katherine, and McKinney, Robin. (2003). What Schools Can do To Help Gay/

Lesbian/Bisexual Youth: A Harm Reduction Approach. Adolescence, 38(151), 409-420.

Von Wormer asserts through this article that because adjusting to heterosexual environment in public schools -- and dealing with the bias that often is in evidence -- is difficult, it is a "major cause of psychological problems" which leads these minorities to alcohol and drug abuse issues.

Behavioral Techniques for Substance Abuse
Words: 1355 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 44811731
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Kyle is a 42-year-old, single, Caucasian male, with 16 years of education. He works as a software programmer. Kyle reports that he is seeking assistance in helping to "kick his drinking problem." Kyle explains that his use of alcohol has gotten progressively worse over the last five years. He explains that he began drinking as a teenager in high school, but then only occasionally. He never felt that his drinking was problematic until he returned from the service and in the last five years it has gotten worse. He began drinking more regularly following his deployment in the Gulf War. As a reservist in the U.S. Marines Kyle served in Iraq and while on a weekend leave just before he was sent back to the United States Kyle was exploring a rural marketplace with several military colleagues. A bomb detonated at the market killing several dozen local civilians and one…

References

Cartwright, A.K. (1981). Are different therapeutic perspectives important in the treatment of alcoholism? British Journal of Addiction, 76 (4), 347 -- 361.

Drummond, D.C., Cooper, T., & Glautier, S.P. (1990). Conditioned learning in alcohol

dependence: implications for cue exposure treatment. British Journal of Addiction, 85(6), 725-743.

Hembree, E.A., & Foa, E.B. (2004). Promoting cognitive change in posttraumatic stress disorder. In M.A. Reinecke & D.A. Clark (Eds.), Cognitive therapy across the lifespan: Evidence and practice (pp. 231 -- 257). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Harm Reduction in Substance Abuse
Words: 712 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 787360
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It suggests to current users that the government has accepted illegal drug use as part of society, rather than something to be opposed and eradicated. While in theory, harm reduction strategy may seem like a good idea, putting it into practice has proven difficult. Take the case of 'Needle Park' in Switzerland: "In the 1990s, Zurich experimented with what became known as Needle Park where addicts could openly purchase drugs and inject heroin without police intervention. Zurich became the mecca for drug addicts across Europe, who would travel to Needle Park. In 1992, when authorities decided to close Needle Park, the addicts moved to Letten railroad station until its closure in 1995" (Zurich, 2010, USDA). Innocent residents near the Park were plagued with the constant presence of drug addicts, and experienced a loss of quality of life as a result.

Harm reduction strategies are seldom pursued in a unified fashion,…

References

Priya, Kumar Ravi, Siddharth Singh, Jimmy Dorabjee, Suneet Varma, & Luke Samson. (2005).

How effective are harm reduction programs for drug users? Some insights from an evaluation of the program at Sharan in Delhi. Journal of Health Management. 7 (2):

219-236.

Reducing harm: Treatment and beyond. (2010). Drug Policy Alliance Network (DPA).

Youth Culture and Substance Abuse
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ole of Drugs as Part of Youth Culture

The use of drugs among the youth has become a normal part of dance and culture of young people. Generally, drugs have been regarded as a part of daily life, particularly among the youth to an extent that it has been involved in many youth cultures. The role of drugs as part of youth culture has been fueled by other components that have become common characteristics of today's youth. Actually, today's youths are becoming synonymous to rave, dance and club cultures, which has also been accompanied by increased drug use. Similar to the 60s, taking drug while in town, clubs or dancing is increasingly becoming the norm in the lifestyles of many young people. Given the prevalence of drugs as a motivator in the youth culture, several initiatives have been established to help deal with the problem. The juvenile justice system has…

References

Chassin, L. (2008). Juvenile Justice and Substance Use. Juvenile Justice 18(2). Retrieved April 25, 2016, from  http://futureofchildren.org/publications/journals/article/index.xml?journalid=31&articleid=46&sectionid=159 

Cortis, N., Katz, I. & Patulny, R. (2009, June). Engaging Hard-to-reach Families and Children. Retrieved from Department of Social Services -- Australian Government website: https://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/families-and-children/publications-articles/number-26-engaging-hard-to-reach-families-and-children-HTML

Cormobidity of Mental Illness and Substance Abuse
Words: 4477 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71299370
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Mental Illness and Substance Abuse

Does mental illness cause substance abuse addiction or does substance abuse addiction cause a mental illness diagnosis? Does it go both ways?

A complex relationship exists between substance abuse and mental illness. Those suffering from depression, anxiety and other mental illnesses may use alcohol and drugs as self-medication. Unfortunately, though such options may appear to work temporarily, substance abuse is no treatment for any condition; in fact, it often aggravates the problem during severe intoxication as well as in the course of substance withdrawal (NAMI, 2010).

Furthermore, alcohol and drugs can initiate mental illness in persons who are otherwise mentally healthy, while worsening problems in those who are already mentally ill. Active substance users will tend to not follow-through properly with therapy, and are more vulnerable to serious health complications and even premature death. Those having dual diagnosis will also be more prone to violent…

References

Anderson P, & Baumberg B. (2006). Alcohol in Europe: a public health perspective. London: Institute of Alcohol Studies.

Anderson, M. L., Ziedonis, D. M., & Najavits, L. M. (2014). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and substance Use Disorder Comorbidity among Individuals with Physical Disabilities: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27(2), 182-191. doi:10.1002/jts.21894

Book SW, & Randall CL. (2002). Social anxiety disorder and alcohol use. Alcohol Res Health; 26:130-5.

Cerda M, Sagdeo A, Galea S. (2008). Comorbid forms of psychopathology: key patterns and future research directions. Epidemiol Rev; 30:155_177.

Adolescent Substance Abuse and Mental Illness
Words: 937 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71025039
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Psychiatric Disorders

There is a high correlation between youth with substance abuse problems and youth with mental illness. Often, the substance abuse is a means of self-medicating. There are a lot of potential underlying factors for this high comorbidity, but it is important to recognize that the comorbidity exists, and it has implications for treatment. Proper psychiatric care is often required in concert with addiction treatment interventions, in order to ensure that youth facing these issues are able to overcome their addictions.

Psychiatric Disorders

There are a number of psychiatric disorders that can occur with substance abuse during adolescence. For example, among those with an alcohol use disorder, 37% had comorbidity with a mental disorder. The odds are particularly high for multiple addictive disorders, such as drug use disorders. Some of the most common comorbidities with substance abuse disorders are antisocial personality disorder, schizophrenia and bipolar disorders (egier et al.,…

References

Bukstein, O., Brent, D. & Kaminer, Y. (1989). Comorbidity of substance and other psychiatric disorders in adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry. Vol. 146 (9) 1131-1141.

Greenbaum, P., Prange, M., Friedman, R. & Silver, S. (1991). Substance abuse prevalence and comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders among adolescents with severe emotional disturbances. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Vol. 30 (4) 575-583.

NIH (2011). Comorbidity: Addiction and other mental disorders. NIH.gov. Retrieved April 11, 2016 from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/comorbidity-addiction-other-mental-disorders

NIH (2016). Comorbidity: Addiction and other mental illnesses. National Institute of Drug Abuse Retrieved April 11, 2016 from  https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/comorbidity-addiction-other-mental-illnesses/why-do-drug-use-disorders-often-co-occur-other-mental-illnesses

Teenage Substance Abuse Substance Abuse
Words: 5378 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9674352
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Help her to realize that having a child may interfere with her future career, but that many mothers have successful home and job lives. There are an infinite number of options, and a determined teenager can find a way to success. Do not skirt around the issues of danger, however, as teenagers are more likely to miscarry or have other complications with their pregnancy such as premature labor and low birth weight of the child. Teenage mothers are more likely to need bedrest during the late stages of pregnancy, and a cesarian section during birthing, and the child is at greater risk for any number of complications.

Of course, while supporting a pregnant teen is vital, the key to solving the problems faced by teenagers dealing with pregnancy is to stop it before it happens.

Provide accurate and unashamed information about sex and pregnancy to children and teenagers, and encourage…

Bibliography

Adolescent Anger and Aggression." Psychiatric Institute of Washington. 2001.  http://www.psychinstitute.com/mental_illness/adol_anger.html 

Combat Teenage Sexual Abuse." NSPCC. 2001.  http://www.nspcc.org.uk/html/home/informationresources/combatteenagesexualabuse.htm 

Getting a Sexually Transmitted Disease." Frequently Asked Questions. American Social Health Association. http://www.iwannaknow.org/faqs/getting.html

Lamprecht, Catherine. "Talking to your Child about STDs." KidsHealth. Nemours Foundation. 2001.  http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=KidsHealth&lic=1&ps=107&cat_id=171&article_set=23006

Adolescent Substance Abuse and Depression
Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 70185528
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His article does an excellent job of discussing in comprehensible terms the recent research which has addressed the current state of knowledge about the relationship between substance abuse amongst teens and mood disorders and provides a breakdown of possible treatment options.

Flaherty, L., & Flaherty, M. (2005). Adolescent psychiatry: he annals of the American society for adolescent psychiatry (Vol. 29). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Analytic Press.

his resource is from a special edition of Adolescent Psychiatry that pertains specifically to issues that arise along with adolescent substance abuse issues. he topics within range from teenagers with Ecstacy addiction to gambling problems. o the practitioner and the interested adult, parent, or educator, the information within this journal provides a fastidious and compelling look into the vast range of issues that may coincide with an adolescent's substance abuse problem. With specific regard to adolescents, depression, and substance abuse, two articles are especially illuminating:…

This resource is from a special edition of Adolescent Psychiatry that pertains specifically to issues that arise along with adolescent substance abuse issues. The topics within range from teenagers with Ecstacy addiction to gambling problems. To the practitioner and the interested adult, parent, or educator, the information within this journal provides a fastidious and compelling look into the vast range of issues that may coincide with an adolescent's substance abuse problem. With specific regard to adolescents, depression, and substance abuse, two articles are especially illuminating: one which discusses comorbidity amongst teenagers with depression and substance abuse issues and another which discusses issues related to dual diagnoses in adolescents with depression and substance abuse issues.

Schwartzberg, A.Z. (Ed.). (1998). The Adolescent in Turmoil. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. Retrieved April 17, 2010, from Questia database:  

Teenage Health Vulnerabilities with Substance Abuse United States
Words: 2540 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 53489410
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Discuss how you would use regression to learn more about the nature of the relationship between the variables
Regression is a significantly common technique used for analyzing data. Regression analysis is employed to delineate the relationships between a group of independent variables and the dependent variable. In this case, the dependent variable is substance abuse. On the other hand, the set of independent variables comprise of exposure to substance abuse, ethnicity, age, and gender, poverty, and loneliness. Regression would play a significant role in helping with the learning process regarding the nature of the relationship between the variables. The analysis will particularly entail descriptive statistics as well as regression, correlation, and ANOVA analysis. Descriptive statistics will be used to present demographic data and provide measures of central tendency such as averages and median, while the statistical analyses will be important for testing the relationship between the dependent and independent variables…

Treating Child Abuse Related Posttraumatic Stress

Comorbid Substance Abuse in Adolescents

Judith a Cohen et.al

Strong empirical evidence based on previous research shows a clear association between child abuse and subsequent development of PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) and SUD (Substance Use Disorder). This article by Cohen et.al is a research review of several independent studies that show correlation between PTSD and SUD. The authors also discuss specific treatment modalities that are effective in treating child abuse related PTSD and SUD.

The Co-occurrence of child abuse and development of PTSD and SUD as co-morbid conditions implies the necessity of specific treatment methods that take into account the previous history of abuse.

Method

The authors performed a literature review of current treatment practices for adolescents with abuse related PTSD and SUD and synthesized the results. Empirical treatment methods for abuse related PSTD and SUD are discussed. Over a broad spectrum of…

Bibliography

Judith A Cohen, Anthony P. Mannarino, Aren C. Zhitova, Margery E. Capone, " Treating

Child Abuse Related Posttraumatic Stress and Comorbid Substance Abuse in Adolescents," Child Abuse & Neglect, 27 (2003) 1345-1365

mentally ill and'substance abusing prisoners
Words: 1053 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58743760
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special needs, mentally ill, and substance-abusing prisoners affect the jail and prison systems at state and federal levels?

The Federal ureau program functions inside the prison and is a drug abuse platform which has individual units in several prisons. It has programs, lengths of treatments, structure and staffing provided to work with addictions. The 500-hour program has to be attended by all the inmates and live in the treatment entity which is apart of the prison population. This particular program needs the inmates to accept accountability for their conduct and to settle on a conscious choice to abstain from taking part in drug abuse or criminal conduct (Washburn, 2012). Evidence has demonstrated that these sorts of projects are compelling in both decreasing recidivism and drug abuse. It assists them get positive fundamental skills as well as have physical health, and develop family relationships. It is additionally supplemented by different projects…

Bibliography

Seiter, R. (2011). Corrections: An Introduction (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Smith, K. (2013). Special needs Prisoner: Specialized Prisons and Services. Prison J.

Washburn, K. (2012). Prisoners with Special Needs. CJA.

Substance Misuse Issues Substance Misuse
Words: 2518 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2707076
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Some patients knowingly abuse the healthcare system to obtain drugs and substances, which only adds to the complexities of the substance misuse relationship with the medical community. In 2008, the National Survey on Drug Use and Health reported approximately 4.7 million Americans used pain medications for non-medical use within the last month (Fishbain et al., 2010). This statistic is only one indication of the substance misuse prevalence and its inherent demand on the medical community.

The medical community not only combats substance misuse in adult patients, but must also address misuse among adolescents. The years of adolescence are widely regarded as an age defined by curiosity and experimentation (Crome, 2004). Adolescents are continuously trying to identify with their world and engage in new experiences. Within this context, taking drugs and experimenting with such substances as alcohol and tobacco can be understood within a setting of normal behavior. The time of…

References

Crome, I. (2004). Young people and substance misuse. London, UK: Gaskell.

Fishbain, D., Johnson, S., Webster, L., Greene, L., & Faysal, J. (2010). Review of regulatory programs and new opioid technologies in chronic pain management: balancing the risk of medication abuse with medical need. Jounral of Managed Care Pharmacy, 16(4), 276-287.

Rassool, G. (1998). Substance use and misuse: nature, context, and clinical interventions. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Company.

Stark, M., & Payne-James, J. (2003). Symptoms and signs of substance misuse. (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Greenwich Medical Media Limited.

Treatment of Women Offenders The
Words: 3904 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52229761
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CAEFS takes the position that women with mental health problems do not belong in prisons and that the treatment, support and assistance they need should be provided to them in the community, rather than in prison.

Recommendation #2)

The above statement clearly outlines central problem areas that should be the focus of investigation. As this study and others emphasize, women who enter prison with mental issues and problems require intensive support. However, this is at present not the case and many women prisoners who suffer from mental problems are not afforded the necessary support and adequate intensive therapy. Some critics also suggest that alternatives be investigated for women with mental issues. "... The public need for the appearance of retribution may deter government from considering alternatives to sentencing persons with mental disabilities to imprisonment." www.elizabethfry.ca/submissn/dawn/17.htm" (ibid)

Another factor which relates to mental and psychological issues is that women experience stress…

Bibliography

Bilchik, Shay, Cyntha Seymour, and Kristen Kreisher. "Parents in Prison." Corrections Today Dec. 2001: 108+. Questia. 17 Feb. 2005  http://www.questia.com/ .

Bjorhus, Jennifer. "Getting into Prison." Columbia Journalism Review July-Aug. 1994: 14+. Questia. 17 Feb. 2005

Treatment of Alcoholics in Low-Income Areas
Words: 2687 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31166019
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S. Census Bureau) It is clear after having reviewed this information that this area is quite needy in provision of alcoholism treatment and intervention.

VI. Treatment Program Community Marketing Process

In the initiative of reaching the community both through media and public relations as tools to raise awareness the organization will be enabled to alert members of the community about the services available. Promotions, marketing, public relations and media advocacy are all critical specifically as these are all integrated with the business sector and as well adapted by nonprofit organizations. In the attempt to market or advertise to the community the available services all venues of the media should be sought and the mass media in the form of newspaper and magazines and other printed material as well as media through television and radio broadcast communications and finally through the Internet's provision of electronic media. Communication with the media should…

References

Ervin, N.E. (2002). Advanced community health nursing practice: Population-focused care. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall. ISBN# 0-8053-7364-0.

Bensley, R.J., & Brookins-Fisher, J. (EDs). (2003). Community health education method: a practitioners guide. (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett. ISBN# 0-7637-1801-7

Andreasen, A.R. (1995). Marketing social change: Changing behavior to promote health, social development, and the environment. San Francisco CA: Jossey-Bass. ISBN# 0-7879-0137-7

Medicaid EPSDT and AOD Treatment Services Policy Brief entitled Resources for Recovery: State Practices that Expand Treatment Opportunities" Medicaid EPSDT and AOD Treatment Services" (O'Brien, et al., 2005) National Program Office, Technical Assistance Collaborative, Inc. Online located at: www.resourcesforrecovery.org

Harm Reduction Model for Substance
Words: 960 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 53539217
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Therefore, HM is designed to help those who would likely not succeed in traditional treatment methodologies as well as to address the indirect harms associated with the behavior targeted for intervention (Brocato & Wagner, 2003).

In that respect, existing HM-based drug treatment programs have confirmed the social benefit and individual welfare achievable through the more tolerant form of intervention. Universally, the literature documents the extent to which social problems such as petty crime and personal harm such as disease transmission and other types of intravenous infection have been substantially reduced through the HM approach to drug abuse.

In Opposition to the Harm eduction Model

Critics of the HM (especially in connection with illicit drug abuse) strongly object to that approach, largely because they believe that it is tantamount to condoning that behavior or even enabling it in the classical codependency context (O'Neill, 2002). In general, that is equally true with…

References

Brocato, J. And Wagner, E.F. (2003). "Harm reduction: A social work practice model and social justice agenda." Health & Social Work. Retrieved November 02, 2010 from HighBeam Research:  http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-334573631.html 

Denning, P. (2000). Practicing Harm Reduction Psychotherapy: An Alternative

Approach to Addictions. New York: Guilford Press.

Ghetti, C.M. (2004). "Incorporating Music Therapy into the Harm Reduction Approach

Psychology Motivational Interviewing and Addiction Substance
Words: 1252 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 42659880
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The book adds substance, extent, lucidity, and substantiation to the clinical and training processes, and will add energy to mainstreaming motivational advances to behavior change in health care. Primary care physicians and practitioners can augment their expert work and improve patient outcomes by learning about motivational interviewing.

Motivational Interviewing can be defined as a client-centered, directive method for making better inherent motivation to change by investigating and resolving ambivalence. It comprises a mixture of philosophical and clinical aspects that together make up the whole of MI. Motivational interviewing distinguishes and recognizes the fact that clients who need to make changes in their lives move toward counseling at dissimilar levels of eagerness to change their behavior. If the counseling is mandated, they may never have thought of altering the behavior in question. A few may have thought about it but not taken action to do it. Others, particularly those freely seeking…

References

Miller, William R. & Rollnick, Stephen. (2002). Motivational interviewing: preparing people for change. New York: The Guilford Press.

Smith, David E. & Seymour, Richard. (2001). Clinician's Guide to Substance Abuse. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Female Substance Use Disorder Gender
Words: 2505 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21550261
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..in their view, rather than promoting wholeness and recovery, the experience recreated the secrecy of abuse and fed the stigma associated with each of the three issues."

In the hopes of a more well-organized approach to providing these key services to women, the WELL project instituted a mechanism for promoting strategy and collaboration changes at the state, regional, and local levels. The WELL project also recommended an open dialogue between agencies as to better systems to put in place, and suggested giving individuals within each area of service "freedom to make change at any given moment" when a better approach can be taken by a trained professional healthcare provider.

Predominantly Female Caseloads: Identifying Organizational Correlates in Private Substance Abuse Treatment Centers, a piece in the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & esearch (Tinney, et al., 2004), speaks to the issue of the need for healthcare providers to be meeting "distinctive…

References

Conrad, Patricia J., Pihl, Robert O., Stewart, Sherry H., & Dongier, Maurice. (2000). Validation

Of a System of Classifying Female Substance Abusers on the Basis of Personality and Motivational Risk Factors for Substance Abuse. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14(3),

Markoff, Laurie S., Finkelstein, Norma, Kammerer, Nina, Kreiner, Peter, & Prost, Carol a.

2005). Relational Systems Change: Implementing a Model of Change in Integrating

Enforcement of Psychology Treatment for the Mentally Ill
Words: 8451 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 95839705
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Psychology Treatment

For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local mental institutions on a long-term basis. Most had been involuntarily committed by orders from courts or physicians, and the discharge rate was very low. Before the 1950s and 1960s, there were few effective treatments for mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia, which were commonly considered incurable. Only with the psycho-pharmacological revolution in recent decades and new anti-depressant and anti-psychotic medications has it been possible for the severely mentally ill to be treated on an outpatient basis through community mental health centers. Of course, as the old state hospitals have emptied many of the mentally ill have ended up homeless, since they are unable to hold maintain regular employment or continue on a medication regimen without supervision. According to present-day…

REFERENCES

Bacon. H. "Book Review: Jonathan Willows, Moving On after Childhood Sexual Abuse: Understanding the Effects and Preparing for Therapy in Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. (15)1 January 2010, pp. 141-42.

Bartels, S.J., A.D. van Citters and T. Crenshaw (2010). "Older Adults" in Levin, B.L., J. Petrila and K. Hennessy Mental Health Services: A Public Health Perspective. Oxford University Presss: 261-82.

Behar, E.S. And T.D. Borkovec. (2003). "Psychotherapy Outcome Research" in I.B. Weiner et al., eds. Handbook of Psychology: Research Methods in Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Carron, V.G. And K. Hull. (2009). "Treatment Manual for Trauma-Exposed Youth: Case Studies." Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 15(1) 13 November 2009, pp. 27-38.

Drug Abuse in Eastern Kentucky
Words: 3027 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 29623389
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drug use and abuse in the United States and presents differing approaches that are used (or proposed) to get a handle on the problem. There is no doubt that the drug abuse issue is not new and it is not being reduced by any significant amount. This paper presents statistics and scholarly research articles that delve into various aspects of the drug abuse issue in the United States, with particular emphasis on drugs that are abused in eastern Kentucky and generally in the Appalachian communities.

History of Drug Use & Availability

The history of illegal drug use in the United States goes back to the 19th Century, according to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). The DEA has a Museum in Arlington, Virginia, that illustrates the history of drug discoveries, drug use, and drug abuse through the years. The DEA reports that morphine, heroin, and cocaine were "discovered" in the…

Works Cited

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2008). Drugs and Crime Facts / Drug Use / Youth. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://bjs.ojp.usdog.gov.

Drug Enforcement Agency. (2012). Illegal Drugs in America: A Modern History. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from  http://www.deamuseum.org .

Grant, Judith. (2007). Rural women's stories of recovery from addition. Addiction Research and Theory, 15(5), 521-541.

Havens, Jennifer R., Oser, Carrie B., and Leukefeld, Carl G. (2011). Injection risk behaviors

Drug and Alcohol Abuse in the Military
Words: 2583 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 36327230
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Army Substance Abuse Program, in terms of the program's history, its employment requirements, and the rationale behind them. It looks at various jobs within the hierarchy of this program, from the commanders responsible for implementing the program on the level of installations or garrisons, to the trained personnel taking urine samples. By way of demonstrating the utility of the continued education requirement even for the personnel collecting urine, the paper notes the existence of such widespread willingness to deceive testing, and then reviews recent peer-reviewed studies with potential relevance for successful implementation of Army Substance Abuse Program theories, curricula, and policies.

Introduction

The Army Center for Substance Abuse Programs was first established in 1971 in response to a law requiring the Secretary of Defense to identify, treat, and rehabilitate members of the U.S. military determined to be dependent upon alcohol or illicit drugs; similar legislation followed to require the same…

References

Lande, R.G.; Marin, B. (2009) Biomarker characteristics of alcohol use in the U.S. Army. J Addict Diseases 28: 158-163. DOI:10.1080/10550880902772506

Larson, M.J.; Wooten, N.R.; Adams, R.S.; et al. (2012). Military combat deployments and substance use: Review and future directions. J Soc Work Pract Addict 12: 6-27. doi: 10.1080/1533256X.2012.647586

McFarling, L.; D'Angelo, M.; Drain, M.; et al. (2011). Stigma as a barrier to substance abuse and mental health treatment. Military Psychology 23: 1-5  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08995605.2011.534397 

Milliken, C.S.; Auchterlonie, J.L.; Hoge, C.W. (2007). Longitudinal assessment of mental health problems among active and reserve component soldiers returning from the Iraq War. JAMA 298: 2141-2148 doi:10.1001/jama.298.18.2141

How to Assess Whether Outpatient Treatment Is Successful
Words: 2989 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 97856247
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gathered using a number of key word searches and combinations of terms, such as "adolescent," "substance abuse," "treatment," "drug," "outcome," "drug abuse, "juvenile drug abusers," juvenile drug use," "juvenile drug treatment," "adolescent drug treatment," and "adolescent drug use." These key word searches were conducted in online databases such as PsychInfo, PubMed, NCBI, JSTO, National Institute of Mental Health, National Criminal Justice eference Service, and Google Scholar. These searches resulted in a number of studies that appeared useful for this analysis. The five chosen were chosen because of common key words and their relevance to this study's focus on if adolescent males with substance disorder are given inpatient treatment instead of outpatient treatment whether they will have a greater chance of maintaining their sobriety.

Description and Technique

Article

Branson, Clemmey, and Mukherjee (2013). This study is a sample size 48 adolescents with roughly half Latino and half African-American, male and female.…

References

Branson, C., Clemmey, P., Mukherjee, P. (2013). Text message reminders to improve outpatient therapy attendance among adolescents: a pilot study. Psychol Serv, 10(3): 298-303.

Esposito-Smythers, C., Spirito, A., Kahler, C., Hunt, J., Monti, P. (2011). Treatment of Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Suicidality among Adolescents: A Randomized Trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(6): 728-739.

Friedman, A, Terras, A., Ali, A. (1998). Differences in characteristics of adolescent drug abuse clients that predict to improvement: for inpatient treatment versus outpatient treatment. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 7(3): 97-119.

Waldron, H., Slesnick, N., Brody, J. (2001). Treatment outcomes for adolescent substance abuse at 4 and 7-month assessments. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(5): 802-813.

Aromatherapy in Addiction Treatment for
Words: 5849 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23652968
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S ome aromas even affect us physiologically" (p. 38). esearchers exploring human olfaction have determined that:

faint trace of lemon significantly increases people's perception of their own health.

Lavender incense contributes to a pleasant mood -- but it lowers volunteers' mathematical abilities.

A whiff of lavender and eucalyptus increases people's respiratory rate and alertness.

The scent of phenethyl alcohol (a constituent of rose oil) reduces blood pressure.

These findings have contributed to the explosive growth in the aromatherapy industry; according to Furlow (1996), "Aromatherapists point to scientific findings that smell can dramatically affect our moods as evidence that therapy with aromatic oils can help buyers manage their emotional lives" (p. 38). According to Ornstein and Sobel, one recent experiment to determine the effect, if any, of fragrances on mind/body involved subjects being wired to physiological monitoring equipment, and then being interrogated with stress-provoking questions, such as "What kind of person…

References

Anderson, B.J., Manheimer, E. & Stein, M.D. (2003). Use and Assessment of Complementary and Alternative Therapies by Intravenous Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(2), 401.

Aromatherapy Therapy Chart of Essential Oils by Therapeutic Effect. (2004). MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart. Available:  http://www.moondragon.org/aromatherapy/aromatherapychart.html .

Ba, T.R.D.N. (Ed). (2003). An Introduction to Complementary Medicine. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Battista, J.R., Chinen, A.B. & Scotton, B.W. (1996). Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology.

Drug Abuse and Rehabilitation in Long Island
Words: 1234 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 18922499
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Drug Abuse in Long Island, New York

With more than seven and a half million residents, Long Island, New York is a major center of commerce and education, but like many other densely populated large urban centers, this city also has a significant drug abuse problem. To determine the facts about the problem, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide epidemiological evidence concerning the incidence of drug abuse in Long Island, and what community-based resources are available to its resident. Finally, a review of a recent research study article concerning these issues is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning drug abuse in Long Island in the conclusion.

eview and Analysis

Epidemiological evidence concerning drug abuse in Long Island

Like many other major American urban centers, all types of drugs are abuse in Long Island, but heroin abuse in particular has become a serious problem…

References

About Long Island Addiction Resources. (2017). Long Island Addiction Resources. Retrieved from http://liaddictionresources.com/.

About Long Island Center for Recovery. (2017). Long Island Center for Recovery. Retrieved from  http://www.longislandcenterrecovery.com/ .

About Outreach House. (2017). Outreach House. Retrieved from  http://www.opiny.org/  outreach-treatment/adolescent-residential-svcs/brentwood-long-island.

About Seafield Center Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment. (2017). Seafield Center Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment. Retrieved from http://www.seafieldcenter.com/ about_us.

Child Abuse Prevention and Intervention
Words: 1700 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17856720
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232).

eferences

Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.

Bradley, .H., & Corwyn, .F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual eview of Psychology, 371.

Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.

Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.

Eisler, . (2000). Tomorrow's children: A blueprint for partnership education in the 21st century. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Garcia, P., & Holt, C.B. (2005, December). Preparing teachers for children in poverty: The Nashville District picks up the mantle for qualified instruction in high-needs schools. School Administrator, 62(11), 22.

Gilbert, N. (1997). Combating child abuse: International perspectives and trends. New York: Oxford University…

References

Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.

Bradley, R.H., & Corwyn, R.F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 371.

Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.

Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.

Family Preservation Policies and Child Abuse
Words: 2956 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Policy Analysis Paper #: 85237175
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Introduction
Child welfare services have a complicated history in America and still today face a continual crisis. On the one hand, foster care requires resources from the state and breaks up families; on the other hand, implementing family preservation plans carries its own risk. This policy reform paper will examine the problem presented by The Family First Prevention Services Act (FFPSA), enacted as part of Public Law (P.L.) 115–123, also known as the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018. It will then provide analysis of the problem from the standpoint of historical, social, economic, and political perspectives. It will then examine the policy, evaluate it and discuss current proposals for reform.
Problem Overview
It is recognized that removing children from their families and placing them in foster group home services can be psychologically and emotionally damaging for the child (Ringel et al., 2018). However, leaving children in families where abuse is…

References
Behrmann, S. (2019). Former DHS Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen says she left post because 'saying no' wasn't enough. Retrieved from  https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2019/10/22/kirstjen-nielsen-former-dhs-secretary-said-she-left-post-because-saying-no-wasnt-enough/2450196001/ 
Definitive Contract. (2016). Retrieved from  https://govtribe.com/award/federal-contract-award/definitive-contract-hsfe3013c0366 
Mallon, G., McHartt-Hess, P. (2013). Child Welfare in the 21st Century. 2nd Edition.Columbia University Press.
O’Connor, S. (2001). Orphan Trains: The Story of Charles Loring Brace and the Children He Saved and Failed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Patwardhan, I., Hurley, K. D., Thompson, R. W., Mason, W. A., & Ringle, J. L. (2017). Child maltreatment as a function of cumulative family risk: Findings from the intensive family preservation program. Child Abuse & Neglect, 70, 92-99.
Reid, P. (2019). DHS Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen speaks for first time since resignation announcement. Retrieved from  https://www.cbsnews.com/news/kirstjen-nielsen-resigning-dhs-secretary-expected-to-offer-resignation-today-live-updates-2019-04-07/ 
Ringel, J. S., Schultz, D., Mendelsohn, J., Holliday, S. B., Sieck, K., Edochie, I., & Davis, L. (2018). Improving child welfare outcomes: balancing investments in prevention and treatment. Rand health quarterly, 7(4).
Wiltz, T. (2018). This New Federal Law Will Change Foster Care As We Know It. Retrieved from  https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/blogs/stateline/2018/05/02/this-new-federal-law-will-change-foster-care-as-we-know-it