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Teachings of Islam Sufis Is
Words: 759 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25914303
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In Sufism anyone who is in a position to give out what they have has an obligation to do so. Through this giving they get an opportunity to purify their wealth and at the same time attain salvation. In Sufism there is strict adherence to the Quran and hence they follow what is stipulated within the Quran as what is to be subjected to the Zakat tax or the exact share of an individual's income that has to be paid at zakat. Therefore, it is expected that 2.5% of the wealth that one has should be used to benefit the poor within the society in Sufism. The fourth pillar is fasting; this is a practice that is followed in Sufism as it is stipulated in the Quran. In Sufism there is following of the three types of fasting which are ritual fasting, repentance fasting and ascetic fasting. In Sufism ritual…


Pecorino, a.P. (2001).Philosophy of religion; Islam. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from 

Rahim, B.M. (2009).Sufism and Islam. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from

Religion and Mysticism Two of the World's
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Religion and Mysticism

Two of the world's major religions, Islam and Christianity seem to be very different belief systems. hen comprising a mental picture of a practitioner of one and then the other, they seem to have very different characteristics. However, when examined more closely, it becomes evident that the two religions are based on some of the same principles of kindness towards others, inherent goodness, and most specifically some sort of supernatural or spectacular being that is stronger than anything on earth. Sufism is the branch of Islam which is most comparable with Christian Mysticism, both of which look to some sort of spiritual power that has more strength than mere mortals.

Sufism stems from the Islamic religion. Muhammad is considered the prophet of both sects and this is why the two are so often linked, however Sufism teaches that the spirituality can be combined with any religion. "No…

Works Cited:

"Sufism: The Mystical Side of Islam." Islamic Studies in Christian Perspective. Print.

"Sufism -- What is it?" All About Religion. 2002. Print.

Zuck, John. "What is Christian Mysticism?" Wild Things. 2008. Print.

Justinian the Formal Name for Justinian I
Words: 498 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89023147
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The formal name for Justinian I is Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus. Iustinianus is the name from which Justinian is derived and after Julius Caesar added Augustus to his surname as a mark of his emperorship, all subsequent Roman leaders had Augustus at the end of their names. He was an empire of the Byzantine Emperor from 527 -- 565 AD. He was the last Roman Emperor to speak Latin as his first language and he is most known for the Justinian code of law, known in Latin as Corpus Juris Civilis, translated as the body of civil law. The Corpus Juris Civilis is known as the ultimate codification of Roman law. This body of law has been passed down through numerous generations including into areas of Western Europe and is the basis of law today.

Iconoclastic Controversy

This controversy occurred in the 8th & 9th centuries. The topic…

Cracking India by Bapsi Sidhwa
Words: 2056 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1765168
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Thus, these castes being born twice in Hinduism, the principles behind Karma and Reincarnation applies to them. Karma refers to the corresponding reaction to an action or deed that an individual had done to another living thing/s. This means that if the deed was bad or considered evil, the corresponding reaction or karma will also be bad or evil. A similar analogy is applied to goodness/good deeds. Reincarnation is the return of some metaphysical part of the self into a new body -- a process of rebirth for the individual, characteristic of the concept of two births exclusively only to members of the three higher castes.

Jainism is an old religion prevalent in India and other nations in the Asian region. Originally a part of the Buddhist religion, Jainism believes not in the concept of a God, but the authority of the saints or prophets. Its religious principles are simple…

Dervishes in Islam the Dervishes
Words: 1520 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21527135
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For example, in the 1920's the Dervish movement was banned form Turkey for many years "...out of fear that their religious roots would lead them to revolt against the new secular government." (Gulati)

In conclusion, understanding the dance of the Dervishes is very difficult in terms of ordinary language. It is in the first instance a mystical experience and like all mystical experiences is beyond words. However, the experience and rituals of the Dervishes forms an essential part of the Islamic faith and adds to the depth and richness of that religion.


History of Mevlana Jelaluddin Rumi and the Whirling Dervishes. 13 December 2006.

Friedlander I. The Whirling Dervishes. 13 December 2006.

Gulati S. The insider's guide to Whirling Dervishes. December 13, 2006.

Sufism and Dervishes. 13 December 2006.


The Sufis and Dervishes of Islam. 14 December…


History of Mevlana Jelaluddin Rumi and the Whirling Dervishes. 13 December 2006.

Friedlander I. The Whirling Dervishes. 13 December 2006. 

Gulati S. The insider's guide to Whirling Dervishes. December 13, 2006. 

Sufism and Dervishes. 13 December 2006.

Sufi Mystical Experience Debate the
Words: 1154 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26505906
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" (Syed, 2006)

The Two Views Debated

Whether one is following the Islamic or the Christian religious dogma, training, or theology the 'key' to the proof is just as suggested by Richard entall in his refutation of mystical experiences is that which is an 'inner' perspective of the individual. The Sufi follow a process referred to as 'Shagal' which is the closing 'off' of the five physical sense of self in order to look and listen 'inward' for a higher voice. In Christianity it is much the same as followers of the faith seek to find the 'inner door' of which Jesus spoke as being the place that the believer would find Him, or He who is "The Way," "The Truth." (Holy ible, n.d.) in the book of John Chapter 10 and verse 9 Jesus states: "I am the door: by me if any man enter in, he shall be…


Syed, Ibrahim B. Ph.D. (2006) Sufism and Neurotheology. Islamic Research Foundation International, Inc. Online available at .

Tart, Charles, (1996) State of the Art in Transpersonal Psychology - Charles T. Tart Consciousness Library. Online available at

Holy Bible (n.d.) King James Version. Nelson Regency Publishers.

The "Spark' of the Sufi: Mystical Experiences Debate

Philosophy the Sects of Islam
Words: 1697 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75056406
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They study the book of Jafaar al-Saadaq. They also believe Ali is the purpose of life and the divine knowledge of the prophet Mohammed, which actually rises him above the Prophet in their eyes. The religion is also very secretive, and they do not publish their texts or share them with other sects.

The Alawites recognize the Five Pillars of Islam, but do not believe that anyone can practice them because no soul is pure enough to practice them. They also do not believe in a back door entrance to heaven.

The evolution of political Islam actually began during the age of Imperialism, when there was widespread corruption and oppression in the Muslim world. The politicization of Islam was a result of Muslim fundamentalists and Islamic revolutionary movements rising up in protest over this treatment, along with protests against corrupt Muslim regimes in the region. These revolutionaries hoped to create…

Islamaphobia Is One of the
Words: 1489 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46384391
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Dhimmis (minorities of other religions) participated as equal citizens in this renaissance and Muslim scholars made more scientific discoveries during this time than in the whole of previously recorded history (Goldschmidt & Davidson, 2007). The break between the hiis (those who considered Ali to be legitimate ruler of the nation) and the unnis (those who revered Muhammad and all four rashidun) occurred during this period. Mystic Islam (best known as ufism), or esoteric groups were born during this period as well as Muslim philosophy.

Today, approximately 80-90% of Moslems are unnis whilst 10-20% are hiites. The key difference between unnis and hiites is that unnis believe that the first four caliphs were rightful successors to Mohamed and that caliphs should be chosen by the whole community. The alafi sect (otherwise notoriously known as Wahabbissm) is an extreme Islamic movement derived from unnism. hiites, on the other hand, believe in the…


Armstrong, K. (2000). Islam: A Short History The Modern Library: UK.

Brown, D. (1999). Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought Cambridge: Cambridge Univ,. Press

Goldschmidt, A. & Davidson, L. (2010) A concise history of the Middle East Boulder, CO: Westview Press

Hourani, A. (1991) A History of the Arab People London: Penguin

Islam Worksheet Rel 134 Version When Studying Islam
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Islam Worksheet

REL/134 Version

When studying Islam, it is important to understand the essential elements of the faith, how they are practiced, and the distinctions among the three branches: Shiite Islam, Sunni Islam, and Sufism.

Tawhid -- strict monotheism of God. There is only one, unsurpassable, omniscient God that cannot be visualized or reified in any which manner (although Sunnis do believe that God has some form of body). There are no intermediaries between God and creations. Mohamed might have come the closest to that. Mohammed, God's Prophet, is the closest to perfection that any human can be. Angels are a central part to Islam thought to intercede in all matters of a human's existence. The Quran was divinely revealed to Mohammed, via the archangel Gabriel, and is God's final revelation. Mohammed as one (presumably the most perfect) of God's messengers, all of whom -- human (Shiites believe they are…

Religion Sikhism Was a Protest
Words: 1377 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22497246
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By concentrating on God's Name (or many titles), one conquers the ego and unites with God" (Islam in Sikhism, n.d.).

The compilation of the Sikh scriptures began in 1604 by the Fifth Guru. The last of the ten Gurus, Guru Gobind Singh, announced that he would be the last personal Guru and that after that Sikhs were to regard the Adi Granth as their teacher. This sacred book is thought to be the living embodiment of all ten Gurus and is therefore the focus of worship in all Sikh temples. The Adi Granth, though never claiming to be a revealed scripture, is made up of three main parts. A long poem by Nanak, that sums up the elements of Sikhism. A collection of Ragas, or songs that were written by the first five Gurus and a mixed collection of commentaries that elaborated on the Ragas together with hymns of many…

Works Cited

"7. Dalits -- on the Margins of Development" n.d. 4 October 2009,

Ali Nadwi, Syed Abul Hasan. 2008. "Islam and Civilization." 4 October 2009, <>

Mystical Movement in the Medieval
Words: 388 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68323521
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In Hasidism, even the non-educated and unlettered could become conscious of God on a higher level. This knowledge in applied to the interpretation of the Bible in the context of the Kaballah and leads to daat, the ultimate knowledge of God and the elevation of the soul. The Hasidic approach differed from traditional mysticism and Jewish asceticism in that it emphasized joy and optimism. This came about through the intercession of the rebbe who mediates between his followers and the divine as an intercessor.

In the case of Al-Farabi, although he represented philosophical logic, he was under major influence by Sufi mysticism which transcended purely physical knowledge. Sufism is simply an umbrella term for the ascetic and the mystical movements within Islam. Further, Sufism is supposed to have incorporated separate elements of Christian gnosticism, monasticism and Indian mysticism. Two central Sufi concepts are the complete and total reliance upon God.…

Sufis and Especially Ibn Arabi Rumi and
Words: 615 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79756797
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Sufis and especially Ibn Arabi, Rumi and Attar believed in the unity of all religions a in many ways, The Conference of the Birds is indicative of typical Sufi thought in that it unswervingly adheres to many of the principles and beliefs that are fundamental to this particular perspective. Essentially, the poem chronicles the coming together and discourse of the "birds of the quest" that must succeed through seven valleys, which are largely representative of the varying states of Sufism that may be undertaken to achieve union with God. These valleys are known as Search, Love, mystic Apprehension, Detachment/Independence, Unity, Bewilderment, and Fulfillment in Annihilation. In the Search stage, the birds (which symbolize differing people and facets of mankind) are seen as being dissatisfied with the mundane, material world and seek a more fundamental understanding of the Divine and the presence which it brings. The Love stage or valley is…

Islamic Philosophers
Words: 2231 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42268250
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Ibn Sina (or Abu Ali al-Husain ibn Abadllah and also known as Avicenna) of Hamadan, Persia (now Iran) believed himself to be a master of all the sciences, i.e., logic, the natural sciences and mathematics, and that all the gates of knowledge were opened to him (p 1 par 4). He is said to have mastered the Qu'ran at 10 and all the sciences at 18. His one all-consuming life obsession was learning and mastering knowledge: "I ... warned my father that I should not engage in any other occupation but learning." (p 1 par 2). The most important things in his life were, consequently, learning and reading on which it depended.

A precocious learner at an early age, it naturally disturbed him badly when he could not comprehend the Greek philosopher Aristotle's "Metaphysics." When he finally did after reading Abu Nasr al-Farabi's "On the Objects of Metaphysics" (which he…

Terrorism Has a Long and Violent History
Words: 3383 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12639816
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Terrorism has a long and violent history and incidents of terrorism have been recorded from at least 2,000 years ago. Acts of terrorism have included political assassinations, violent political revolutions, hijackings, skyjackings, and bombings intended to attract attention, shock, intimidate and instill fear. Before the 911 terror attacks the threat of terrorism, though always a potential danger, was of an episodic nature, and seemed to be under control. The devastating attacks on the orld Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, however, have brought terrorism to the center stage of world politics and exposed the vulnerability of soft civilian targets to a small but determined group of terrorists. The issue of terrorism and home security now dominates the foreign policy of most countries including the United States. The focus on terrorism has also forced people to think deeply about its root causes, which may have historical, cultural, political,…

Works Cited

Ali, Abdullah Yusuf. "The Holy Qur'an." Translation in English. Wordsworth Classic of World Literature. UK: Wordsworth Edition Limited: 2000

Chomsky, Noam. "Who are the Global Terrorists?" Z-Net. May 19, 2002. April 22, 2005.

Cohn, Marjorie. "Understanding, Responding to and Preventing Terrorism." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) (2002): 25+.

Hoffman, Bruce. "Terrorism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. 2005. April 22, 2005.

Arabic Poetry Arabic Is Among the Youngest
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Arabic Poetry

Arabic is among the youngest of the Semitic languages, emerging around the fourth century C.E. And rising to prominence only after the death of Muhammad. The spread of Islam enabled the growth of the Arabic language, giving rise to its first literary manifestations. The earliest forms of Arabic language poetry were oral, "memorized and handed down from one generation to another," only written towards the end of the seventh century including the pre-Islamic poems of the nomadic peoples ("Arabic Literature: Introduction," n.d.). Some pre-Islamic poets like Imru' al-Qays have reached "legendary" status (Farrin, 2011, p.2). The pre-Islamic stage of Arabic language poetry is roughly classified as lasting between 500 and 622 CE and the rise of Islam. Although pre-Islamic poetry is the poetry of the nomadic, tribal Semitic peoples, it is neither narrative nor epic in nature (Badawi, 1975). Instead, themes like death, honor, and heroism are explored…


"Arabic Literature," (n.d.). Retrieved online: 

Badawi, M.M. (1975). A Critical Introduction to Modern Arabic Poetry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

DeYoung, Terri. (1999). Arabic language and Middle East/North African cultural studies. Retrieved online: 

Farrin, Raymond. (2011). Abundance from the Desert. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.

History of Construction Technology of
Words: 9139 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54599726
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Staircase ramps which are comprised of steep and narrow steps that lead up one face of the pyramid were more in use at that time with evidence found at the Sinki, Meidum, Giza, Abu Ghurob, and Lisht pyramids respectively (Heizer).

A third ramp variation was the spiral ramp, found in use during the nineteenth dynasty and was, as its name suggests, comprised of a ramp covering all faces of the pyramids leading towards the top. Reversing ramps zigzag up one face of a pyramid at a time and would not be used in the construction of step pyramids, while lastly interior ramps that have been found within the pyramids of Sahura, Nyuserra, Neferifijata, Abusir, and Pepi II (Heizer, Shaw).

Ancient Greece

Ancient Greek architecture exists mainly in surviving temples that survive in large numbers even today and is tied into Roman and Hellenistic periods which borrowed heavily from the Greeks.…


Ackerman, J.S. "Architectural Practice in the Italian Renaissance." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (1954): 3-11.

Alchermes, Joseph. "Spolia in Roman Cities of the Late Empire: Legislative Rationales and Architectural Reuse." Dumbarton Oaks Paper (1994): 167-178.

Allen, Rob. "Variations of the Arch: Post -- and lintel, Corbelled Arch, Arch, Vault, Cross-Vault Module." 11 August 2009. Civilization Collection. 5 April 2010 .

Anderson, James. "Anachronism in the Roman Architecture of Gaul: The Date of the Maison Carree at Nimes." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (2001): 68-79.

Descartes and Skepticism Is the
Words: 1239 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95726407
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Al-Ghazali, through his investigations, showed that both certainty of sense-perceptions (e.g. though the shadow of a stick that seems to imply that the stick is moving when it is not) and certainty of alleged intellectual truths (i.e. The possibility of judging an alleged fact in opposing and diverse manners) could be questioned.

Turning to dreams, al-Ghazaali illustrates that wakefulness is simply a higher consciousness of the dream state. Might there not be, therefore, (he questions), a state beyond that of habitual living that denotes a higher consciousness to that of life itself, hence, nullifying whatever beliefs we might cherish in this mundane world of ours? A hadith supports his supposition: "The people are dreaming, (but) when they die, they become awake." The ufis call this a special mystic state of ecstasy when we have withdrawn into ourselves and are distinct from our senses.

imilarities and Differences between Al-Ghazali and Descartes…


Descartes, R. Meditations on first philosophy: with selections from the Objections and Replies. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996

Samsudin, M.Z. Al-Ghazali: Skepticism and Denial of All Knowledge. Psychology, Religion, & Politics. 2008. Available at:

Art Forms of Islam Include
Words: 2967 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 28284715
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178). For example, Sakkal reports that, "The measuring system of Ibn Muqlah is based on a circle with a diameter that equals the height of the letter Alef. It controls the correct proportions of the letters by comparing them to the circle, and by diagonal dots written with the calligraphy pen" (1993:9). In his analysis of Ibn Muqla's role in the standardization of the geometrical basis of Arabic writing, Ernst, citing an early treatise, illustrates the religious significance of the circle as being an integral part of these revisions to calligraphic script: "God (glory be to the Most High) created the world in a circular form. The master Abu Ali Muhammad ibn Ali ibn al- Husayn ibn Muqla the scribe (may God have mercy on him) realized that writing could be made circular. He transmitted that method of [round] Kufic in this fashion that is now current, so that it…

Works Cited

Brown, Keith, Anne H. Anderson, Laurie Bauer, Margie Berns, Graeme Hirst and Jim Miller.

Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Boston: Elsevier, 2006.

Blair, Sheila S. And Jonathan M. Bloom. 2003. "The Mirage of Islamic Art: Reflections on the Study of an Unwieldy Field." The Art Bulletin 85(1): 152-154.

Eaton, Gai. Islam and the Destiny of Man. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press,

Thomas Merton 1915 -- 1968
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Whether the notion of the futility of war played any role in his joining the Trappists is debatable but may have had an impact on his sensitive mind. (Graham); (King, 121); (oyal, 36)

The study of Thomas Merton's conversion to Catholicism is undoubtedly one of the most captivating ones in modern Christian history and has fascinated many people not only in the Christian world but even amongst other communities worldwide. The fact that Merton has been appreciated by many religious leaders including the Dalai Lama speaks volumes about his spiritual insight.


Cooper, David D. Thomas Merton's Art of Denial: The Evolution of a adical

Humanist. University of Georgia Press. 2008.

Cunningham, Lawrence. Thomas Merton and the monastic vision.

B. Eerdmans Publishing. 1999.

Detweiler, obert; Jasper, David. eligion and literature: A reader.

Westminster John Knox Press. 2000.

Graham, Terry. 'The Strange Subject' - Thomas Merton's Views on Sufism, The



Cooper, David D. Thomas Merton's Art of Denial: The Evolution of a Radical

Humanist. University of Georgia Press. 2008.

Cunningham, Lawrence. Thomas Merton and the monastic vision.

B. Eerdmans Publishing. 1999.

Religions Judaism Began According to
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The main holy book of Islam is the Quran, which is the word of God as communicated directly to Mohammed. It is the core book of the religion, and concerns both spiritual issues, and more practical, moral ones. Islamic law comes from interpretation of the Quran, and of Mohammed's life, rather than from the book itself.

From Mohammed, Islam spread rapidly throughout the world. The religion's main split occurred as a result of an early difference of opinion concerning leadership of the religion, resulting in two main sects, the Sunnis and the Shia. Other sects have emerged, such as Sufism, Ibadism, and the Ismailis. These groups have all formed as the result of various minor schisms.

The Amish religion began in Switzerland, and are considered an Anabaptist Christian denomination. The offset left Europe and resettled in North America during the 18th century. Today, there are 231,000 Amish, and their population…

Works Cited

No author. (2008). Judaism. Religion Facts. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at 

Pfeffer, Anshel. (2008). Percent of world Jewry living in Israel climbed to 41% in 2007. Haaretz. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at 

No author. (2008). Islam. Religion Facts. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at 

No author. (2008). Amish population surges. United Press International. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at

Sacred Art Ritual the 1992
Words: 1191 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81978995
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Communion with nature can come in the form of visual art and craft; in the form of storytelling; or in the form of dance. Each of these modes of creative expression invokes the unknown, powerful forces that underlie creation. Even though science can measure, explain, and manipulate nature it cannot answer the ultimate questions of why and how nature -- or human beings -- exist in the first place. Religious rituals offer human beings a way to seek answers to life's biggest questions through direct experience.

Different cultures have approached nature differently but traditional cultures share in common a reverence for the natural world that is all but absent in modern, industrialized societies. The religions that have sprouted up in modern nations parallel the worldview that human beings should triumph over nature rather than work with nature. In Baraka, devastating footage of death and destruction show what human beings are…

Problems and Challenges of Catholicism Confucianism and Islam Between 1450-1750
Words: 1442 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10519683
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Confucianism, Catholicism and Islam between 1450 and 1750.

Three major religions, located at diverse axes of the world, Catholicism, Confucianism, and Islam, were faced with similar problems and challenges in the years between 1450 and 1750. Catholicism encountered a militant Protestant Reformation in the shape of Martin Luther King that espoused religion whilst criticizing the Pope. Confucianism, in the shape of the renowned philosopher and politician Wang Vangming, grappled with a future that threatened to challenge its traditional learning and way of life whilst Wahhabism introduced fundamentalist religion into an Islam that had gradually become more secular and detached from the Koran-simulated way of life. The following essay elaborates on their individual problems and challenges.


Luther's Protestantism effectively ended the many years of sole religious monopoly that the Catholic Church had on Europe. At the same time, Catholicism was also threatened by the new Humanism that tentatively insisted, first…

Sources. (vol. 2) Bedford; New York, *.

1 Strayer, p.751

2 Strayer. p.755

3 ibid.

4 ibid

U S Iran Diplomatic Pre- and
Words: 3532 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54307642
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S. foreign policy. Under this new approach, Carter would directly meet with only government officials that had favorable human rights records. The problem was that the United States' relationship with the Shah was the key for maintaining control in the region. This meant that he had to make official trips to the country, even though he did not support this policy.

As a result, Carter was indirectly endorsing activities of the Shah and the underlying amounts of brutality he was using to maintain power. Evidence of this can be seen by looking at the below table, which is illustrating the total amounts of abuse and torture that were conducted by the SAVAK

The Total Amounts of rutality of the SAVAK


Total Amounts



Death Related to SAVAK activities



These different elements are important, because they are showing how U.S. foreign policy changed when it came to…


"The 1953 Coup." 2011, U Toronto.  (accessed December 5, 2011)

"Background Iran." 2011. State Department.  (accessed December 5, 2011)

Iran." 2011. Enotes,  (accessed December 5, 2011)

"Iran." 2011. CIA.  (accessed December 5, 2011)

Hamzah Fansuri's Poems Poem I In This
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Hamzah Fansuri's Poems

Poem I

In this poem, Hamzah reiterates the fundamentals of the Islamic belief, reminding Muslims of the importance of following the main precepts of the Qur'an and the Sunnah (the Prophetic tradition). The poem is also inspired by Sufi teachings of medieval Islamic scholars. For Hamzah, Sufi teachings do not contradict the orthodox fundamentals of Islam. On the contrary, Sufism helps a person to clean his or her heart and come closer to God. Hamzah starts the poem by warning the Adamites (children of Adam) against abandoning the first and foremost principle of Islam, that is faith in God. "Do not forsake the Ruler of the universe [Shahi Alam]," Hamzah writes. Then Hamzah makes another warning, which is related to the first: "Do not get drowned in the ocean of sin." The two warnings are mutually complementary since, according to Islamic tradition, the gravest sin is disbelief…

Buddhist Psychology Compared to Western
Words: 3167 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88236416
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In this field attachment is seen, as it is in uddhism, as a continual pattern of never-ending desire for further attainment and objects. "Social psychological research on subjective well-being supports the assertion that people's desires consistently outpace their ability to satisfy their desires."

McIntosh 39) further issue that relates to Western psychology and the uddhist view of attachment is the nature of existence as impermanent.

The nature of existence is that nothing is permanent. Therefore, even when people attain the object of their attachment, it is only a temporary situation, and people's attempts to maintain the object of their attachment are ultimately doomed to fail. As people struggle to maintain possession of things to which they are attached, those things inevitably continue to slip through their fingers, so people with attachments suffer.

McIntosh 40)

There have been many psychological studies on the effects of attachment structures as a form of…


Buddhist Practice and Postmodern Psychotherapy. Accessed January 14, 2005.

Conze, Edward. Buddhism: Its Essence and Development. New York: Harper & Row, 1959.

Coward, Harold. "Response to John Dourley's "The Religious Significance of Jung's Psychology." International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 5.2 (1995): 95-100.]

Cummins R. David. Person-Centered Psychology and Taoism: The Reception of Lao-Tzu by Carl R. Rogers. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, Vol. 6, 1996.

Turkey According to the CIA World Factbook
Words: 672 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50066687
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According to the CIA orld Factbook, 99.8% of Turkey's population is Muslim, the overwhelming majority of those being Sunni. The minorities include ancient communities of Christians and Jews, some from ethnic minorities. Beneath this veneer of homogeneity, however, Turkey does face some religious conflict. Much of this conflict arises from divisions within Islam, but there is also a significant conflict between the country's secular Muslims and its religious ones.

Turkish Sunni Muslims typically belong to the Hanafi school, while Kurdish Sunnis follow the Shafil school. As many as one-third of Kurds in Turkey actually belong to the Alevi school of Shia Islam, despite statistics that indicate this group is Sunni. There are many Sufi brotherhoods that are active in Turkey as well. The Turkish city of Konya -- one of the most conservative cities in the country -- is the home of Sufism, as this is where Mevlana Rumi…

Works Cited:

CIA World Factbook. (2012). Turkey. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved March 19, 2012 from 

Garda, I. (2007). Ataturk's secularist legacy. Al-Jazeera. Retrieved March 19, 2012 from 

Jones, E. (2010). The conflicts of secularization and Islam in Turkey. Salve Regina University. Retrieved March 19, 2012 from 

No author. (2012). Shrine of Rumi, Konya. Retrieved March 19, 2012 from

Teachings and Practice of Islam the Teachings
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Teachings and Practice of Islam

The Teachings of Islam Around the World: Outline

Islam is an incredibly complex religion, where religious practices often differ depending on the cultural context of the region in which it is practices in.

Basic Teachings of Islam

History of Islam

The Quran

Five Pillars: Prayer and Practices


How it is Practiced in the United States and Great Britain

Influx in Muslims

Facing Adversity and Stereotypes

Muslims as a Minority


Spread of Islam into India

Sufi Islam

Other Asian Nations

Southeast Asia

Islam as eacting Against a Growing Western Presence

The Middle East

Prominent Denominations

Islamic Law as National Law

C. Gender Issues


A. Fundamentalism



The Teachings of Islam Around the World


No two Muslims are alike, just as any two persons of any other religion. Here in the West, we tend to lump categories of Muslims together, without understanding…


Ahmad, Ghulam. (2003). Teachings of Islam 1896. Kessinger Publishing.

Morgan, Diane. (2010). Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. ABC-CLIO.

Raatma, Lucia. (2009). World Religions: Islam. Capstone Publishing.

Shamsul, A.B. (2006). Convergence of interesting and sharing a future: Deepening the Understanding of Islam in Asia and Europe. ASIEN. 62-69. Web.

Islamic and Christian Mysticism
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mysticism in the Christian faith and the Islamic faith. The writer describes what mysticism is in religion and then presents examples of its use and existence in the faiths of Islam and Christianity.

The mystical dimensions of religion are all encompassing in that they refer to the intuitive understanding or belief in a higher power usually referred to as God. The mystical belief in a God in two prominent faiths, Christianity and Islam point to the underlying belief that having faith is enough to believe in and understand there is in fact a God who is all powerful and all creating.

Each faith has its own set of traditions and rules but both of them have the mystical quality of a belief in a God, and that belief is based on subjective and intuitive acceptance of the existence of a God. In the Christian faith followers are taught that if…

Works Cited

Denny, Frederick. Islam: and the Muslim Community, (Waveland Press,1998).

Frankeil, Sandra S. Christianity: a way of salvation (religous traditions of the world series)(Harper Collins Publisher).

Western Religion
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Western Religion

In his book, "Western Ways of eing Religious," (Kessler, 1999) the author Gary E. Kessler identifies the theological, philosophical and societal ramifications of the evolution of religion in the West. Christianity, Judaism and Islam can be traced to a single origin but their divergence has been very marked. Kessler sets his thesis very early in the book. He avers that there are two approaches to religion. One is to be immersed in it -- as a practitioner; the other is to study it as an objective observer, looking in from the outside. This work is unique. The author challenges the traditional notions with his own opinions then follows it with the views of an expert on that notion (in the form of a speech or an essay). He avers that a student of religion has to approach the topic with honesty and openness. This often involves imagining the…


Kessler, Gary E. Western Ways of Being Religious. Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield Pub., 1999.pp.

Edwards, Rem Blanchard. Reason and Religion; an Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. New York,: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972.pp. 386

Paden, William E. Religious Worlds: The Comparative Study of Religion. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988.pp. 192

Proudfoot, Wayne. Religious Experience. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.pp. 263

Theosophy New Age
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New Age

Crystals, witchcraft, ESP, tarot cards, tai chi, yoga, and the I Ching, which are seemingly disparate tools, practices, and beliefs, come under one spiritual rubric: the New Age movement. The New Age amalgamates ancient philosophies and religious practices ranging from shamanism to Sufism and including everything in between. The New Age is almost an anything-goes spiritual path, as it has no one set of beliefs, no central text, no concrete origin, and a malleable theology. In fact, technically atheists can participate in New Age religion, for the New Age also embraces straight science and often espouses an impersonal universe devoid of an overarching anthropomorphic deity. However, the New Age can be isolated and analyzed as a distinct, albeit modern religious movement that began loosely around the turn of the twentieth century when Theosophy delivered fresh ideas from Eastern religions to the Western world and as the Western world…

Amadou Hampate Ba's Cultural and
Words: 8023 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 19553480
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" (Pettersson, 2006) Oral and written verbal art languages are both used for the purpose of information communication as well as information presentation with the reader and listener receiving an invitation to consider the information.

The Narrative & the Symbolic

The work of Abiola Irele (2001) entitled: "The African Imagination: Literature in Africa & the lack Diaspora" states that Hampate a "...incorporates the essential feature of the oral narrative at significant points in his work in order to reflect their appropriateness to situations and for special effects. Their conjunction with the narrative procedures sanctioned by the Western model thus enlarges their scope and give them an unusual resonance. At the same time, although he writes with conscious reference to this Western model, he does not feel so constrained by the framework of its conventions that he is unable to go beyond its limitations. His departures from the established codes of…


Aggarwal, Kusum. Amadou Hampate Ba et l'africanisme. De la recherche anthropologique a l'exercice de la fonction auctoriale. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1999.

Dielika Diallo "Hampate Ba: the great conciliator." UNESCO Courier. 30 Sep, 2009. . UNESCO 1992. Online available at:

Roadblocks to Israeli Democratization Roadblocks
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However, the complexity of minority issues goes beyond boundary lines. The history of Israel is different from that of other nations in the region. Israel is the homeland of the ancients Jews and the only place that they can truly call home.

The nationalism of Israel in 1948 created a long-awaited Jewish Nation-state (Homami, p. 1). They wanted a place where they were the majority rather than a minority in a Muslim world. Like any other minority in the Middle East, they wanted their own place and community. The establishment of Israel gave the Jewish sector political power, but dynamics of the Middle East means that others will feel oppressed when another gains power. The formation of Israel meant that the Jewish minority had gained power, a concept that is inconceivable among the Sunni majority that rules the rest of the region.

In conclusion, those that oppose democratization do so…

Works Cited

Farques, P. "Demographic Islamization: Non-Muslims in Muslim countries." SAIS

Review, vol.21, no.2, Summer-Fall 2001.

Ibrahim, Saad.Sects, Ethnicity, and Minority Groups in the Arab World. Cairo: Ibn

Khaldoun Center, 1994.

Islam Teaches That Faith Must
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There are many examples of God's love, but much violence as well. The Bible is full of stories of warring peoples, fighting to the death for their beliefs. Persecution of the Jews, seen on a massive scale as late as the 20th century's Holocaust, was fueled by the New Testament, as Jews were blamed for the crucifixion death of Jesus Christ. Even after World War II, Jews in the U.S. faced persecution through restricted access to certain colleges, clubs and organizations. The Ku Klux Klan, known for targeting African-Americans, has also targeted Jews.

The 20th century saw considerable violence in Northern Ireland, as Protestants and Catholics murdered each other in the name of their respective branches of Christianity. Like radical Muslims, a relatively small number of people believed that violence was the answer, and the only way to demonstrate their commitment to their God.

The Westboro Baptist Church has garnered…


Jonsson, P. (2010). Why is the Westboro Baptist Church picketing Elizabeth Edwards' funeral?

Christian Science Monitor 12/11/10.

Khan, D. (2008). The five pillars of Islam. Faces 24(6), pp. 12-13.

Rid, T. (2010). Cracks in the Jihad. Wilson Quarterly 34(1).