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There are several different attributes of supply chain management. Among them, some stand out as being more important than other. Key aspects of supply chain management include technology, communication/coordination, inventory control and bargaining power (EAUC, 2014).
Bargaining power is important because it dictates the terms and conditions of the supply chain. If the buyer has more bargaining than the seller, then the terms will reflect more on the needs of the buyer, and vice versa. Thus, a company has to take this into consideration with its supply chain -- if its suppliers need it more than it needs its suppliers, this will provide opportunity for the company to leverage that to the benefit of its supply chain.
Technology is becoming increasingly important in the supply chain. Companies are using technology to get better estimates on demand, to link their point-of-sale systems with their suppliers, and to track inventory…
EAUC. (2014). The supply chain management concept. Economic Administration University of China. Retrieved November 28, 2014 from http://www.eauc.hk/show.asp?id=66
Subramani, M. (2004). How do suppliers benefit from information technology use in supply chain relationships? MIS Quarterly. Vol. 28 (1) 45-73.
This information is building off of the findings from Uthayakumar. This is illustrating how the two tier system can help to streamline operations. However, as time goes by these ideas will become obsolete. The reason why is because they are focusing on particular aspect of supply chain management (i.e. during emergencies and backlogs). Where is it is failing, is through understanding how this strategy could be used when a firm is not facing these issues. (eza, 2009)
This is problematic, as this approach has been shown to have trouble maintaining these levels consistently. Instead, it creates the necessary momentum to help a firm deal with critical issues. Then, it does not provide any kind of direction going forward. This is troubling, as these kinds of challenges will have an adverse impact on the ability of firms to streamline their supply chain management. (eza, 2009)
As a result, our…
Bello, D. (2012). Collaboration Analysis. Information Knowledge Systems, 11, 77 -- 99.
Che, Z. (2011). Using Analytic Network. Measurement and Control, 34 (6), 720 -- 735.
Garg, S. (2011). Multi-Agent Collaboration. International Journal on Computer Science, 3 (7), 2765 -- 2785.
Harris, G. (2011). An Exploration of Fishers Framework. Engineering Management Journal, 22 (4), 31 -- 43.
Supply chain management (SCM) is a method for alleviating the way one company finds the raw materials and other components that it requires to produce a product or service and provide it to its customers. The five basic components of Supply Chain Management are planning, source, making, delivering and return. If supply chain standards are applied then the supply chain management could benefit from it a great deal and it could significantly improve things (Wailgum, 2008).
Most organizations are now starting to realize the great importance of supply chain management and that it is vital in order to survive in the fast paced and competitive global economy. This association of business relationship goes beyond the usual enterprise parameters and instead focuses to organize the whole business process through a value chain of many different companies. So due to these factors, many large companies such as DELL and Hewlett Packard and…
Analysis of Standards for Lifecycle Management of Systems for U.S. Army. (n.d.). MSID Publications. Retrieved August 15, 2012, from www.mel.nist.gov/msidlibrary/doc/NISTIR_7339.pdf
Thibodeau, P. (n.d.). Supply Chain Standards Up for Federal Funding - Computerworld. Computerworld - IT news, features, blogs, tech reviews, career advice. Retrieved August 14, 2012, from http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/75092/Supply_Chain_Standards_Up_for_Fede
Wailgum, T., & Worthen, B. (n.d.). Supply Chain Management Definition and Solutions CIO.com. CIO.com. Retrieved August 14, 2012, from http://www.cio.com/article/40940/Supply_Chain_Management_Definition_
Supply Chain Management at DIMCO
The supply chain relates to the entire cycle and process through which raw materials are purchased, processed and developed in to goods and services which can be traded in the market. The management of such a process would involve creating improvements in the supply chain itself to make it more profitable and efficient for the company (Davis, 1993). Therefore the supply chain encompasses not only raw material providers or experts that provide their services during the production period but also the distribution channels the company adopts, and its internal production departments and channels.
The Durham International Manufacturing Company has the option to either improve its supply chain with its suppliers or its distributors, and considering that DIMCO has already settled in to the markets it is currently trading in; it would be more beneficial to work on the company's connection with its suppliers.
Cohendet, P. (2005). Strategie modulaire dans la conception. Une interpretation en termes de communautes. Revue Francaise de Gestion, September-October (158).
Cyert, R. And March, J. (1963). A behavioral theory of the firm. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
Davis, T. (1993). Effective Supply Chain Management. Sloan Management Review, (Summer), Retrieved from: http://firstlogic.dk/wp-content/artikler/scm/effektive_supply_chain_management.pdf.
Supply chain management in FMCG sector
Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG)
Managing supply of FMCGs
Demand and Supply
Traditional channel of FMCGs distribution
National Vs Global Presence
Products and Services
Supply chain opportunities
Usage of Supply Chain Management
Overall Business Performance
Issues in global supply chain management: FMCG sector
Multi-channel Supply Chain Management
The FMCG sector is represented as manufacturers and distributors of packaged products. They are also coupled with mega retail brands in common understanding. The business segment includes a variety of products including grocery, food, non-food, and home use items. The business segment is categorized as low margins and high volume industry. The presence of this margins and competitive environment requires innovative techniques for cost reduction and consumer satisfaction.
It is also observed that it requires time and increased amount…
Ashford, R 2005, Marketing Planning. The Official CIM Course book 05/06, Taylor & Francis, USA.
Autry, CW, Grawe, SJ, Daugherty, PJ, & Richey, RG 2010, The effects of technological turbulence and breadth on supply chain technology acceptance and adoption, Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 28, No. 6, pp. 522-536.
Bhadauriya, S 2010, Supply Chain Practices in Indian FMCG. Technical Data, pp. 921. [http://exclusivemba.com/ijemr/App_Themes/Theme1/Images/Changing%20Phases%20of%20SCM%20-%20A%20Study%20with%20reference%20to%20FMCG%20Distributors%20in%20Bangalore.pdf]
Bottani, E, Montanari, R, & Volpi, A 2010, The impact of RFID and EPC network on the bullwhip effect in the Italian FMCG supply chain, International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 124, Vol. 2, pp. 426-432.
Supply Chain Performance
Indeed, comprehensive measures of supply chain performance including total chain cost can sometimes becomes difficult to develop due to the fact that as the product gets to be known within the market, there can be a fluctuation in demand with large decrease at some points. Supply chain metrics have been associated with internal logistics measures. Failure to have widely accepted definition for supply chain management as well as the complexity in terms of overlapping supply chains make it difficult for the development of supply chain.
This development can be difficult due to the failure in applying the right metrics that can manage supply chains effectively. Generally, the major challenge is finding and implementing the right metrics in supply chain management. It may be disputes regarding the right metrics between products lines or departments in the company, supply chains, having too many metrics or too few…
Beamon, B.M. (1996), "Performance measures in supply chain management," Proceedings of the 1996 Conference on Agile and Intelligent Manufacturing Systems, Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute, Troy, New York, NY, 2-3 October.
Benita M. Beamon (2012) "Measuring supply chain Performance" http://www.log.wi.tum.de/fileadmin/w00bkn/www/GlobalSCS2012/Measuring_supply_chain_performance.pdf
Bytheway, A. (1995a), Information in the Supply Chain: Measuring Supply Chain Performance,
Supply Chain Logistics Systems
Of the many functional areas of an enterprise, supply chain logistics systems are among the most valuable to any business in differentiating their unique competitive advantages in turbulent, uncertain markets. From controlling the costs of production and service to delighting customers by having products in stock when they want to buy them, supply chain logistics systems often are the strongest differentiating element organizations in commodity-based industries have for competing with one another (Ballou, 2007). The intent of this overview of supply chain logistics systems is to explain the strategic role of competitive, product and spatial relationships play in logistics, what the relationship is between logistics systems and cost, and the techniques organizations are using today to perform logistics system analysis. This overview concluded with a summarization of approaches being used to analyze supply chain logistics systems.
Assessing the Strategic ole of Supply Chain Logistics Systems
Ballou, R.H. (2007). The evolution and future of logistics and supply chain management. European Business Review, 19(4), 332-348.
Colledani, M., & Tolio, T. (2011). Integrated analysis of quality and production logistics performance in manufacturing lines. International Journal of Production Research, 49(2), 485.
Dell Investor Relations (2013). Investor Relations. Retrieved February 17, 2013 from the Dell Investor Relations and Filings with the SEC Web site:
Supply Chain Management related to DIMCO
Supply Chain Management and other issues related to DIMCO
In this paper, we will determine whether integration efforts should start with suppliers, distributors or both for the firm DIMCO. We will also attempt to explain the rationale for our decision, after this we will recommend ways that DIMCO could benefit from leveraging B2B e-Commerce. We will then determine what steps DIMCO could take in order to improve its relationship with suppliers and finally look out for the most effective ways for our chosen firm to eliminate waste in its supply chain.
For our chosen case of DIMCO it is more appropriate to start integration efforts with the suppliers. Since DIMCO uses approximately one thousand three hundred and fifty different raw materials or components in manufacturing line which are purchased from approximately three hundred and seventy five different suppliers throughout the world, it…
Shell, R. (2003). Management of Professionals. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Howitt, R. (2001). Rethinking Resource Management. London: Routledge.
Brudney, J. (2000). Advantage Public Management. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.
Byrnes, W. (2003). Management and the Arts. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Supply chain management has become a concept without which companies could not face the increasingly complicated business environment existent nowadays, especially given the competition of companies that can operate at lower operational costs and thus increase their profit margins through cost competitive advantages.
In order to achieve lower costs, better distribution processes and better delivery times, companies have introduced supply chain management. Supply chain management can be defined as "the practice of coordinating the flow of goods, services, information and finances as they move from raw materials to parts supplier to manufacturer to wholesaler to retailer to consumer" and, as a process, includes "order generation, order taking, information feedback and the efficient and timely delivery of goods and services"
oieng is an excellent example in this sense. Operating in an industry as complex as aeronautics, with tough competition from European firms such as Airbus, oeing needs to ensure a high…
1. Kay, Russell. December 2001. Supply Chain Management. Computerworld. On the Internet at http://www.computerworld.com/softwaretopics/erp/story/0,10801,66625,00.html
2. Poirier, Charles and Quinn, Francis. September 2003. A Survey of Supply Chain Progress. Supply Chain Management. Review. On the Internet at http://www.manufacturing.net/scm/article/CA323602.html?text=boeing
3. Mayor, Tracy. August 2004. The Supple Supply Chain. CIO. On the Internet at http://www.cio.com/archive/081504/supply.html
4. Supply Chain Services. On the Internet at http://www.boeing.com/defense-space/aerospace/techdata/sustainment.html
upply Chain Management
True or False:
Coca-Cola's Experience with Inventory Forecasting
upports the Principles et Forth by CPFR
In a one-word clear stand: true.
The Collaborative Planning, Forecasting & Replenishment (CPFR®) ystem promoted by the Voluntary Interindustry Commerce olutions (VIC) Association (Voluntary Interindustry Commerce olutions Association, 2011) was piloted between Wal-Mart and Warner-Lambert in April 1996 (Purpura, 1997). Their CPFR collaboration allowed Wal-Mart and Warner-Lambert to jointly evaluate the supply chain in process, particularly regarding "Listerine," a Warner-Lambert product. That joint evaluation and inter-company feedback gave Wal-Mart more accurate selling rates and inventory of the product while giving Warner-Lambert more efficient predictions of amounts, types and times to supply the product to Wal-Mart (Purpura, 1997). Over a period of 5 months, Wal-Mart increased in-stock levels of "Listerine" "from 87% to 98%" (Purpura, 1997) while reducing inventory of Wal-Mart's "Listerine" products by approximately 20% (Purpura, 1997), reducing inventory-related costs. In sum,…
Seifert, D. (2002, March). Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment: How to Create a Supply Chain Advantage (Preprint Edition). Retrieved from Galileo Press Web Site: http://www.galileo-press.de/download/dateien/172/galileobusiness_cpfr.pdf
Slideshare, Inc. (2008). (MRP1) Presentation Slide 28: Significant Payback Achieved by Coca Cola. Retrieved from Slideshare.net: http://www.slideshare.net/hit20032003/mrp-1-prsntation-slides-presentation
Voluntary Interindustry Commerce Solutions Association. (2011). VICS.org. Retrieved from VICS.org: http://www.vics.org/committees/cpfr/
Supply Chain at Ford vs. Dell
Supply Chain Management -- SCM is fundamentally a process that entails the flow and conversion of materials and other resources into products and services, which fulfill the demands of the ultimate consumer. Supply Chains are considered as regards processes, activities and organization. The processes link the activities which carry out this transformation. Processes focus towards the end product for an end user in mind. The importance of managing a supply chain has been there ever since the days of Ford Plant at iver ouge when companies wished to own all of the activities included within the supply chain and as an alternative have recently relied increasingly on external partners. Dell follows a new approach, wherein it produces very few of its own products, depending on external suppliers, procurement and inventory management. (From Markets to Networks: The Concept of Supply Chain)
Supply Chain diagram
Altman, Jessica, et.al. 2004. Dell & Supply Chain Management: Analysis of Dell's Business Model. Retrieved 10 August, 2005 from the World Wide Web http://web.syr.edu/~jnaltman/report.doc
Cisco signs pact with auto-xchange, a Ford/Oracle joint venture; becomes equity partner. 2000. Retrieved 10 August, 2005 from the World Wide Web http://media.ford.com/newsroom/release_display.cfm?release=3909
Dell: Build-to-Order Manufacturing -- Business Challenge. Retrieved 10 August, 2005 from the World Wide Web http://www.accenture.com/xd/xd.asp?it=enweb& ; xd=industriescommunicationshigh-techcasehigh_dell.xml
Dell: Build to Order Manufacturing -- High Performance Delivered. Retrieved 10 August, 2005 from the World Wide Web
Despite the limitations around the integration of content management
systems throughout a supply chain, the setting of supply chain standards is
already having a significant impact on inventory turns and transaction
velocities between partners and buyers. Further, standards including
osettaNet that can vary the frequency of transaction updates is a major
technological advantage over the purely batched-base approach that is
inherent in EDI's approach to managing transactions.
While Askegar and Columbus discuss the role of PIPs with market makers in
the high tech manufacturing and distribution marketplace (1, 4) Swanton (2)
discusses the potential impact of osettaNet adoption on manufacturing
centers in low-wage countries and points to the efficiencies possible in
Chinese manufacturing centers. Swanton sees the enablement of Chinese
manufacturing via PIPs in osettaNet as the tipping point in their ability
to capitalize on their cost advantages and compete on time-to-market and
supply chain synchronization, much like their western…
Askegar and Columbus - High-Tech Supply Chains need best Practices To
Ground RosettaNet. Vinay Askegar, Louis Columbus. AMR Research. Tuesday,
January 1, 2002. Pgs. 1 - 4.
Swanton. Low-Cost Countries and Onboarding Bring RosettaNet to the Tipping
(PIPing?) Point. Bill Swanton. AMR Research. June 21, 2005
" (Mathes, cited in Reese, 2007)
In its supply chain risk management efforts, Dow Chemical has found opportunities to cut inventory by $160,000 reduce the cost of transporting a particular material by millions a year, improve response time to identify and resolve in-transit problems by 50%, decrease safety stock inventory by 20%, reduce the company container fleet by 20% and improve delivery time windows by 90% (Reese, 2007).
Dow has also responded to customer demand to address challenges such as climate change and to become more socially responsible in its supply chain network (Forging a green chemical supply chain involves deep scrutiny and collaboration, 2009). As this source explains, this company has been an innovator in sustainability. It has maximized equipment loading and increased the use of product exchanges and swaps to help lower mileage and reduce the company's carbon footprint. Dow is currently working on apply its RFID and…
Forging a green chemical supply chain involves deep scrutiny and collaboration (2009, March 30). http://www.icis.com/Articles/2009/03/30/9202919/sustainability-tools-strengthen-chemical-supply-chain.html
Reese, a.K., (2007, April/May). Disaster-proofing the supply chain. Supply & Demand Chain Executive. http://www.sdcexec.com/publication/article.jsp?pubId=1&id=9477&pageNum=1
ecommendations at the Divisional Level
Divisional warehouses, or as they are sometimes called, Distribution Centers (DC) act as the fulfillment centers for stores in their region and also receive and inspect products from suppliers. DCs also manage the critical tasks of breaking down large shipments and allocating specific levels of inventory to each store. From a supply chain integration perspective, this is the most critical link in the entire chain between supplier and store. In the case of re-vamping Albertson's approach to DC supply chain integration the following tasks need to be completed.
First and foremost, there needs to be real-time item and lot coordination across all DCs so each can stock balance accordingly and also respond quickly to the needs of the specific stores they serve. Albertson's needs to consider a distributed order management application that provides for this level of real-time cross-DC visibility into their supply chain processes…
Griswold, Sirkisoon. The State of Fast-Moving Consumer Goods Retailers: the 2007 Technology and Process Review. AMR Research Report. Boston, MA. April, 2007
Griswold, Suleski. Fresh Item Management Technology: Are You a Caveman or a Spaceman? AMR Research Report. Boston, MA Thursday, March 15, 2007
al-Mart drives profits through its supply chain management program. The company competes as a low cost provider, and the supply chain is critical to delivering the lowest prices to the customer. al-Mart not only leverages its considerable bargaining power to drive down the prices it pays, but it also makes extensive use of information systems to make its supply chain management system efficient. This efficiency comes from having goods in the supply chain for the shortest amount of time possible, from avoiding stockouts and from having increased knowledge of the suppliers' supply chains, which helps al-Mart in the negotiation process.
The company uses a just-in-time ordering system, and uses RFID technology to track shipments from suppliers, improving both the efficiency and transparency of its supply chain system (Millsap, 2012). This system, it should be noted, is designed to get the goods from supplier to the stores quickly, but…
Millsap, D. (2012). Wal-Mart's use of RFID in global supply chain management. MBA School Research. Retrieved May 15, 2013 from http://www.danielmillsap.com/research/rfid-in-wal-mart-global-supply-chain-management.html
Saporito, B. (2012). The trouble lurking on Walmart's empty shelves. Time Magazine. Retrieved May 15, 2013 from http://business.time.com/2013/04/09/the-trouble-lurking-on-walmarts-empty-shelves/
Traub, T. (2012). Wal-Mart used technology to become supply chain leader. Arkansas Business. Retrieved May 15, 2013 from http://www.arkansasbusiness.com/article/85508/wal-mart-used-technology-to-become-supply-chain-leader?page=all
The most challenging aspect of creating a virtual university is the coordination of content from a variety of suppliers, each of which have a unique and different approach to organizing their knowledge (Cunha, Putnik, 2007). These varying approaches to organizing content are called taxonomies, and each content provider uses a significantly different approach to defining these. This makes it very difficult to make all content management systems necessary to create a virtual university come together into a single, unified platform. In addition to these coordination and integration challenges through the supply chain of content providers, there are also the wide variations in how learning systems price access to their content. This presents unique problem fro virtual universities, as they must intermediate between many different pricing schedules and approaches for their content providers. Due to such a wide variation in these pricing approaches, any virtual university would need to have an…
Maria Manuela Cunha, Goran D. Putnik. 2007. A Changed Economy with Unchanged Universities? A Contribution to the University of the Future. International Journal of Distance Education Technologies 5, no. 4 (October 1): 5-25 (Accessed March 17, 2009).
Jeffrey H. Dyer, Kentaro Nobeoka. 2000. Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks 21, no. 3 (March 1): 345-367. (Accessed March 17, 2009).
Rhonda M. Epper, Myk Garn. 2004. VIRTUAL UNIVERSITIES: REAL POSSIBILITIES. EDUCAUSE Review 39, no. 2 (March 1): 28-39. http://www.proquest.com (Accessed March 16, 2009).
Bruce Kogut. 2000. The network as knowledge: Generative rules and the emergence of structure. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks 21, no. 3 (March 1): 405-425. (Accessed March 18, 2009).
Supply Chain Design Executive Summary and Presentation (Preparation)
The modern day young adults delay the point of marriage and having children up to a point where they feel emotionally and financially stable. And when they do settle down and start out their families, they tend to be well educated and financially sound. Also, having postponed the moment of parenthood, this becomes a priority and the newborns usually get the best the parents can provide.
This category of new parents, from the middle and upper middle socio-economic class, represents the very target market for the two new products to be introduced, namely the heated crib mattress and the diaper bag with an installed camera. The two products are both designed for the comfort and protection of the children and they are characterized by a series of features. These features are best assessed in a comparative manner, in which the advantages and…
Stone, M., Foss, B., 2001, Successful customer relationship marketing: new thinking, new strategies, new tools for getting closer to your customers, Kogan Page Publishers
1999, What is baseline data? SIL International, http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/literacy/referencematerials/glossaryofliteracyterms/whatisbaselinedata.htmlast accessed on August 2, 2012
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What is a supply chain? Small Business Advancement National Center, http://www.sbaer.uca.edu/publications/supply_chain_management/pdf/01.pdf last accessed on August 2, 2012
This is because the Web Site does not present all the simple things that an ordinary customer may need from the company's services. Links were provided on the top of the home page but there are further links and options that an ordinary user may not need and may only cause him confusion as to which to select. In general, the Web Site of FedEx is not well organized. The links meant to provide business information about the company are mixed with the links meant to provide services to the customers. Thus, as a user, I have to scan the whole page just to find what I need. http://www.ups.com/is the site of UPS. Among the 3 Web Sites, I find UPS as the best in terms of being presentable, organized, and user-friendly. The company's Web Site has a good "look and feel" combined with straightforward links and quick links that…
Retrieved on Sept. 4, 2006, from DHL Online.
Web site: http://www.dhl.com
hen information is shared in confidence, then supply chain members can make better and more informed decisions that will benefit the customer.
Strategic alliances happen in a variety of markets with different combinations of suppliers and customers; however, the most typical supplier-consumer alliance involves just a one supplier and one customer. To get a better idea, take a look at the relationship between al-Mart and Proctor & Gamble, "which have worked together to establish long-term EDI linkages, shared forecasts, and pricing agreements"
. There are alliances that can come about between two horizontal suppliers in an industry, like the relationship between Dell and Microsoft -- "organizations that collaborate to ensure that the technology road map for Dell computers (in terms of memory, speed, etc.) will be aligned with Microsoft's software requirements"
. Last of all, a vertical supplier-supplier alliance may include various party members, like trucking companies that have to…
Ackerman, K.B. & Van Bodegraven, A. "Relationships for supply chain success."
CSCMP's Supply Chain Quarterly. Quarter 4, 2007.
Ackerman, K.B. Fundamentals of Supply Chain Management: An Essential Guide for
21st Century Managers. MA: DC Velocity Books, 2007.
This issue of resistance to change is a critical one that will require significant effort to overcome. As a first step, the development of needs analysis is critical for understanding how the systems can be designed to be of more value to those using them. This is essential to increase the likelihood of acceptance of the supply chain system, both within Imperial Tobacco Canada and with its suppliers. The second major issue is the development of a platform that can be quickly deployed. The use of a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) for better unifying of the distributed order management systems is also critical for the long-term. This is a major issue for Imperial Tobacco Canada to address today as they integrate the disparate and for the most part disconnected order management systems in their company today. The concept of the SOA is one where all systems are synchronized with one another…
Nabil Alghalith 2007. Leveraging it for a Competitive Advantage. The Business Review, Cambridge 8, no. 1 (July 1): 296-304. http://www.proquest.com (Accessed June 10, 2008).
Charles Babcock 2006. Integration Wins Customers for Keeps. InformationWeek, September 11, 112,114.
Global Supply Chain Issues
The increasing focus on core competencies and efficiency has led many companies to outsource non-core operations to distant specialists, saving production costs and cutting organizational waste. The integrity of a global supply chain is absolutely crucial to keep these relationships profitable. However, the benefits of global supply chain operations extend far beyond cost-savings. They also serve to: (1) Increase Revenue; (2) Achieve Economies of Scale; (3) Reduce Direct Cost; (4) Advance Technology; (5) Reduce firm's global tax liability; (6) Reduce market access uncertainty; (7) Enhance sustainability.
1. More demanding logistics operating environments
b. Unique national standards
c. Sheer amount of documentation
d. High incidence of countertrade and duty drawback
2. Security considerations
3. More complex total cost analyses
4. Transportation considerations
5. Import constraints
Global logistics must support operations in a variety of different national, political, and economic settings while also dealing with…
Donald J. Bowersox. Supply Chain Logistics Management, 3rd Edition, Chapter 12: Global Supply Chains p. 288-301 (2009)
Omar K. Pilferich and Robert Cook, Council of Logistics Management White Paper: Securing the Supply Chain. (2002)
Omar K. Pilferich and Robert Cook, Council of Logistics Management White Paper: Securing the Supply Chain. (2002), p. 3
esults from the study by Petersen, agatz and Monczka show that effective collaborative planning depends on information quality, and the trust level firms share. The authors purport: "Collaborative planning activities between supply chain partners are expected to lead to better performing supply chains" (Petersen, agatz & Monczka, Introduction section ¶ 1). In addition, numerous other researchers have also explored the perception relating to supplier alliances, that enhanced collaborative planning produces positive effects on joint business outcomes (Mohr and Spekman; Monczka; Handfield; as cited in Petersen, agatz & Monczka). A number of other studies also note similar contentions regarding supplier integration into new product development (agatz, Handfield & Scannell, as cited in Petersen, agatz & Monczka); supplier development (Krause, as cited in Petersen, agatz & Monczka); collaborative planning, forecasting and replenishment (Barratt & Oliveira, as cited in Petersen, agatz & Monczka), as well as in a myriad of additional supply chain-related…
Black, F. And Scholes, M. (1973) the pricing of options and corporate liabilities. Journal of Political Economy, 81, 637-659.
Brach, M. (2003), Real Options in Practice, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons
Chopra, S. And Meindl, P. (2007) Supply Chain Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons
Jack S. Cook
The benefits of this strategy however is that it provides HP with quick response to local market requirements, and alleviates the need for taking between 4 and 5 weeks to ship printers from Vancouver to Europe.
What is the most realistic, prudent and viable alternative is to first attack those processes that are broken and that in turn are causing so much confusion in the company today. These include forecasting, model selection and optimization and the role of the channel in integration and localization. Underscoring these and many other problems is a lack of forecasting and synchronization of HP's manufacturing centers with both internal and external customer demands. As a result, Alternative 1, the creation of a Sales and Operations Planning framework is essential in that it first forces HP to look at what processes are most in need of repair, and then brings in a disciplined series of…
AMR Research. The Handbook of Sales and Operations Planning Technologies. Boston, MA. 2006
Manufacturers, Do you Know How Well Your Suppliers Perform? Boston, MA. 2005
Aberdeen Group (a). Global Supply Chain: What Are Innovators Doing? Boston, MA. 2006
Supply Chain in the Medical Industry
The 'customer' referred to in this case study is the professor with the stomach flu. Dr. Martin and the staff in his office are the 'company' or organization that is offering the service to the professor. The doctor's office provides the service needed. Quality of service has been studied in the area of business management for years because the market is more competitive and marketing management has transferred its focus from internal performance such as production to external interests such as satisfaction and customers' perception of service quality (Gronroos, 1984) The meanings of "Quality" change based on need. This need in turn is based on product performance or product perception. Maintaining service quality is very challenging as quality is defined from the perception of the customer. In a service situation, the customer is in direct contact with the end product. (Foster, 2003)
Foster, S. Thomas. Managing Quality: An Integrative Approach. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2003.
Gronroos, C. "A Service Quality Model and Its Marketing Implications." European Journal of Marketing 18 (1984): 36-44.
Trent, Robert J. "What Everyone Needs to Know About Scm." Supply Chain Management Review 2004.
Moreover, the U.S. military has become increasingly aware of such strategies for improvement based on these "best" practices because of their potential to help the military achieve its strategic goals and their perceived ability to help formulate relevant strategies for improving military procurement procedures (Baldwin et al., 2002).
U.S. Army Hospital Mission.
Impact. Today, U.S. Army hospitals may be situated in the middle of the homeland or in close proximity to the battle front (Hegadoren & Lasuik, 2006). While the need for timely and quality medical care is equally important in either venue, in the latter case, there are some important distinctions that affect the need and timing for procurement procedures. In this regard, the old adage, "There's a war on!," has been used time and again to justify emergency procurement techniques for the military that might appear exorbitant or inappropriate from a civilian perspective, but the military occupies a…
Baldwin, L.H., Camm, F., Cook, C.R., & Moore, N.Y. (2002). Implementing best purchasing and supply management practices: Lessons from innovative commercial firms. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Bondanella, J.R., Brauner, M.K., Pint, E.M., Relles, D.A., & Steinberg, P. (2002). Right price, fair credit: Criteria to improve financial incentives for Army logistics decisions. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Government contracting - Unique characteristics. (2002). USACCE Pamphlet 715-5. United States (U.S.) Headquarters, United States Army Contracting Command, Europe (USACCE).
Hegadoren, K.M. & Lasiuk, G.C. (2003). Posttraumatic stress disorder part I: Historical development of the concept. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 42(1), 13.
This gives suppliers the ability to manage to quantified contract management requirements and often gain significant cost advantages as well. Being able to take advantage of more financially beneficial payment terms, in addition to coordinating on pricing changes with minimal interruption to shared risk and costs can be attained when a CLM-based strategy is in place within an organization. When contracts are the most critical is when there is a high degree of variably present in a supply chain as is the case with mass customization and Build-To-Order (BTO) (Smirnov, Shilov, Kashevnik, 2009).
Contracts are seen by many as a necessary evil that only make companies less competitive as they get bogged down in their terms and conditions. Instead through the management of contracts to the clause level (osenberg, 2007) companies need to see contract management as a means to gain greater levels of quality assurance and financial stability…
Chao, G., Iravani, S., & Savaskan, R. (2009). Quality Improvement Incentives and Product Recall Cost Sharing Contracts. Management Science, 55(7), 1122-1138.
Coltman, T., Bru, K., Perm-Ajchariyawong, N., Devinney, T., & Benito, G.. (2009). Supply chain contract evolution. European Management Journal, 27(6), 388.
Robert Rosenberg. (2007). Know Your Clauses. Treasury & Risk,21.
Smirnov, A., Shilov, N., & Kashevnik, A.. (2009). BTO supply chain configuration via agent-based negotiation. International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management, 17(1/2), 166.
Article Review: Manufacturing Focused Supply Chain Integration
The article by Georgise, Thoben and Seifert (2014) entitled “Supply Chain Integration in the Manufacturing Firms in Developing Country: An Ethiopian Case Study” was published in 2014 in the Journal of Industrial Engineering. It shows how supply chain integration can enhance value creation and what challenges manufacturing firms in developing countries face when attempting to implement supply chain integration. This paper will summarize the article, connect lessons in the article with lessons in class, provide my perspective on the article—i.e., what I learned that was new to me, what was interesting, and whether it changed any of my preconceived ideas.
Georgise et al. (2014) point that in developing countries, the supply chain of manufacturing firms is often fragmented and difficult to integrate. Both inter- and intra-organization is needed to fully integrate the supply chain. Specifically, the authors look at the challenges…
The Department of Homeland Security (2007) proclaims itself the “the lead department” for designing and implementing a strategy for global supply chain security (i). The DHS has undertaken this responsibility in large part because of the role it plays in detecting and responding to incidents, and making sure that trade can resume as smoothly as possible after an incident has occurred. In its Strategy to Enhance International Supply Chain Security, the Department of Homeland Security outlines the mission and guiding principles of its strategy, stressing the importance of collaboration with public and private sector organizations and industry stakeholders. The following is an analysis of the main sections of the DHS’s (2007) report.
This section of the DHS report includes five main sections, including “Strategic Strategy Objectives,” “Problem Definition,” “Risk Assessment,” “Goals,” and “Strategic Objectives.” The overall purpose of the strategy is to minimize disruptions to world trade.…
Department of Homeland Security (2007). Strategy to Enhance International Supply Chain Security.
Sheu, C. Lee, L. & Niehoff, B. (2006) A voluntary logistics security program and international supply chain partnership. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal 11(4): 363-374, https://doi.org/10.1108/13598540610671815
Sheffi, Y. (2001). Supply Chain Management under the Threat of International Terrorism. The International Journal of Logistics Management 12(2): 1-11, https://doi.org/10.1108/09574090110806262
Global Supply Chain
Barngetuny, D. C., & Kimutai, G. (2015). Effects of e-procurement on supply chain management performance in Elgeyo-Marakwet County. International Academic Journal of Procurement and Supply Chain Management, 1(5), 99-120.
The article investigates E-Procurement performance on supply chain management in the county of Elgeyo Marakwet. The research objectives were to establish the impact of e-tendering on the management of supply chain, establish the impact of e-invoicing on supply chain management, and establish the effect of e-payment on the management of supply chain. The researchers studied the theoretical framework, which consists of The Institutional Theory, Socio-Economic Theory, Principal-Agent Theory, and the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. The descriptive survey design method is used for the collection of data. The authors' authority and their background were not mentioned in writing.
The study applied questionnaires and schedules of interviews for primary data collection. The questionnaire in use was a structured one, with…
Barngetuny, D. C., & Kimutai, G. (2015). Effects of e-procurement on supply chain management performance in Elgeyo-Marakwet County. International Academic Journal of Procurement and Supply Chain Management, 1(5), 99-120.
Chirchir, E. K., Ngeno, V., & Chapkwony, J. (2015). Relationship between e-procurement adoption & supply chain management practices in tea firms. International Journal of Managerial Studies & Research, 3(2), 25-36.
Ombat, K. O. (2015). The relationship between procurement systems and performance of procurement function in commercial banks in Kenya. International Journal of Economics, Commerce, and Management, 3(12), 697-723
Q1. The trends outlined in the case have several implications for the way that Globalcast does business. First, the increased transparency and demands for one global price means that Globalcast will see shrinking margins. It will not longer be able to source from cheaper locations, charge a markup and pass that on to the customer. The customers, which tend to be large companies with significant bargaining power and access to information, are now seeking that low price themselves. If Globalcast wishes to continue winning this business, it will need to be able to provide that lowest price.
Further to this trend, Globalcast has to remember that its brand is not relevant to the end user, and therefore not really relevant to its own customers. As such, Globalcast is set to face intense competition from other suppliers around the world. As the supply chain becomes more globalized, the products…
Angkiriwang, R., Pujawan, N., Santosa, B. (2014) Managing uncertainty through supply chain flexibility: Reactive vs proactive approaches. Production & Manufacturing Research. Vol. 2 (1) 50-70.
Elsbury, E. (2020) Supply chain strategy- proactive or reactive? Reveal. Retrieved July 9, 2020 from https://www.revealvalue.com/logic-supply-chain/
Inbound Logistics (2010) How to enable a proactive supply chain. Inbound Logistics. Retrieved July 9, 2020 from https://www.inboundlogistics.com/cms/article/how-to-enable-a-proactive-supply-chain/
1 Sales Promotion Strategy
Q1: The meaning and effect of consumer sales promotion?
Consumer sales promotion is a method of marketing that a company uses to obtain a specific objective—such as the growth of its share of the market or to introduce a new product to the market. Consumers are targeted by advertising to purchase a specific product over a limited course of time. An example would be Tesla introducing a new product to the market—the Model 3—an EV for middle class consumers. The effect is that it attracts more interest to the company and helps the company to grow its market share and sell its new product.
Q2: Price promotion and non price promotion difference?
Price promotion is a type of marketing that aims to attract interest by reducing the price of a product. Non price promotion is a method of marketing that aims to attract…
Week 6 Chapter Questions
7-10. What is Pick-To-Light Technology and How Can it Improve Order Picking?
Pick-to-light technology is an innovation comprising of different forms of lights arranged on racks or shelves in the order picking assembly line (Murphy & Knemeyer, 2014). The organization of the lights helps in identifying the objects required for a particular order. The technology is advantageous because employees simply follow the light from one pick to the next unlike the manual system where employees have to figure out the picking route manually (Wisner, Leong, & Tan, 2015). Moreover, pick-to-light technology leads to fewer picking errors, higher picking rates, and lower employee turnover levels.
7-18. How Do Characteristics Such as Substitutability and Product Life Cycle Stage Influence the Development of Customer Service Goals and Objectives?
The text describes substitutability as the number of items from which a company’s customer can select to satisfy his/her needs (Murphy…
Murphy, P. R., Knemeyer, A. M. (2014). Contemporary Logistics, 11th Edition. New York, NY: Pearson.
Wisner, J. D., Leong, G. K., & Tan, K.-C. (2015). Principles of supply chain management: A balanced approach. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning
The case study entails a supply chain analysis of Westminster Company, which is one of the largest world’s largest producer of health care consumer products. The pharmaceutical company established in the early 20th century currently operates across the United States, Latin America, Europe, and the Pacific Rim. The Company owns three major manufacturing subsidiaries and eight distribution centers with products spanning across drugs (20%), mass merchandise (25%) and grocery products (37%). Westminster Company faces the challenge of maintaining an efficient logistics and supply chain system in face of a competitive market. The decentralized three subsidiaries adopt a decentralized management system which arguably encourages self-ownership, responsibility which motivates entrepreneurial management.
Logistics system is a critical aspect of a business to thrive. Logistics system ensures that inventory is stocked in the retailers’ shelves whose delay yields a constrained relationship between the manufacturer and the retailer. Currently, Westminster Company adopts a…
Bowersox, D.J., Closs D. J., and Cooper M. B. (2007). Supply Chain Logistics. Management. (2nd ed.), McGraw-Hill/Irwin, NY, pp.410.
Leong, W.T. (2012). Principles of Supply chain Management. Mason. OH: South Western
Walters, D. (2010). Global Logistics – New Direction in Supply Chain Management. Philadelphia: Kogan Page Limited.
Logistical Support and Distribution Strategies
Distribution strategies refer to techniques of services/goods dissemination to end customers. Adoption of the ideal distribution technique for one’s organization forms the key when it comes to generating revenue and ensuring client loyalty. Several organizations opt for several distribution techniques to cater to diverse end-customer bases. Logistical aspects have always contributed strategically to the organizational business. Within the context of wholesalers and retailers, such organizations go beyond the areas of transportation and inventory management for including one among the most crucial components of organizational success—location relative to supply sources or end-customer markets. When it comes to producers, logistics is concerned with basic aspects like manufacturing unit location, customer service quality/standards, and raw material sourcing. Of late, business environmental evolution has coerced large as well as small corporations into focusing closely on the link between this function and others (Heskett, 1977).
Key factors in organizational strategy…
Google Inc. is one of the top companies in the world. They have excelled in how they manage their digital and non-digital supply chain.
This week Google, now re-named Alphabet, became the most valuable company on earth besting Apple for at a least one day. No matter what happens the rest of this week, Google is sending notice that its place in the world of business strategy is at the head of the table (O'Marah, 2016).
They did this by creating an internal supply chain the sources, constructs, and plans Google’s data centers. Similar to their counterparts Facebook, Amazon, and Microsoft, Google drives innovation back up for the existing value chain. The company demands the best off-the-shelf servers and network equipment to ensure reliable connectivity and speed for users. To meet such high demands and standards, Google assembles and designs the components for use to their own specifications as part…
Dubey, R., & Gunasekaran, A. (2015). Supply chain talent: the missing link in supply chain strategy. Industrial and Commercial Training, 47(5), 257-264. doi:10.1108/ict-11-2014-0073
Gonzalez-Loureiro, M., Dabic, M., & Kiessling, T. (2015). Supply chain management as the key to a firm’s strategy in the global marketplace. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 45(1/2), 159-181. doi:10.1108/ijpdlm-05-2013-0124
Kumar, V., Amorim, M., Bhattacharya, A., & Garza-Reyes, J. A. (2016). Managing reverse exchanges in service supply chains. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 21(2), 157-165. doi:10.1108/scm-12-2015-0467
O\\'Marah, K. (2016, February 5). Google and the future of supply chain. Retrieved from http://www.scmworld.com/google-and-the-future-of-supply-chain/
Spangler, T. (2017, October 27). YouTube Says Videos Flagged as Advertiser-Unfriendly Will Drop by 30%. Retrieved from http://variety.com/2017/digital/news/youtube-demonetization-advertiser-unfriendly-improvement-1202601115/
Tornjanski, V., Marinkovic, S., & Jancic, Z. (2017). Towards Sustainability: Effective Operations Strategies, Quality Management and Operational Excellence in Banking. The AMFITEATRU ECONOMIC, 19(44), 1-75.
Trang, N. T. (2016). Design an Ideal Supply Chain Strategy. Advances in Management, 9(4), 20-28.
Introduction to the Company
Fiyeli Coffee is an artisan coffee roaster in a mid-sized city. The company operates with a wholesale-only business model, which allows it to focus on the high end restaurant and hotel trade in the state, along with a mail order retail business. Fiyeli also sells to select coffee shops, but most of its market is on the restaurant and hotel side.
In the United States, the retail coffee market is worth an estimated $12.8 billion and saw a growth rate of 7.9% (Morder Intelligence, 2017). The market is highly competitive and highly stratified, but the growth provides opportunity for companies to grow, and to find specialized niche markets.
Fiyeli faces a long-term challenge to ensure a stable supply chain of high quality coffee beans. Rising consumption has increased demand, while climate change is threatening supply, the result being a spike in the…
This section includes Strategic Strategy Objectives. The core of this section is to develop, implement, and update a method to augment international cargo supply chain security. The strategy included reflects already established work from various agencies involved in the supply chain security and as describes how upcoming actions will be mandated and integrated by SAFE Port Act to achieve this goal. From here the section transitions into major improvements for international cargo supply chain security beginning with September 11, 2001. The kinds of improvements made have been: “the Maritime Transportation Security Act, the development of the National Strategy for Maritime Security and its eight supporting plans, and multiple individual agency initiatives” (DHS, p. 6).
The focus of the ‘Purpose’ section is to not replace more detailed plans that already exist. Rather, it is to seek to outline tactical and strategic plans connect with the multiple programs and initiatives already…
DHS. (2015, July 13). International Supply Chain Security. Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/publication/international-supply-chain-security
Willis, H. H. (2016). Ten Years After the Safe Port Act, Are America\\'s Ports Secure? Retrieved from https://www.rand.org/blog/2016/04/attractive-targets.html
This paper explicates a proposal for a warehouse for Electrical Appliances for distribution both within Singapore and overseas. Logistics plays a pivotal role in the integration of supply chains within industries. One of the key components within the supply chain of an enterprise is warehousing. The warehouse will be a private warehouse, which implies that it will be owned by the company. This will be important for the enterprise in regard to increased control, flexibility, and cost. Concerning warehouse location accessibility, Tangjong Pagar is considered to be the most suitable location for the warehouse. This is linked to low inbound transportation cost and also distance to the port of Singapore. In addition, there is ready and accessible manpower for the distribution operations. The appropriate racking system for storage of the finished product will be a combination of block stacking and adjustable pallet racking storage. This will facilitate flexibility within…
The Sea-Port Improvement Plan (PIP) Outline: Naha Port International Container Terminal
Naha is an old port of Okinawa. It has been in existence since the 12th C. Okinawa has seen its trade volumes increase exponentially in the recent past. The government of the Okinawa prefecture is under pressure to expand Naha port in order to cope with the fast-changing business demands. The changes are urgent and necessary if Okinawa is to tap into the ever flourishing port business. In 2004, Naha handled over 1, 360 000 tons of international cargo. The port hosted an impressive 115 cruise ships in 2015 and saw the number rise in 2016 to 187. The cargo volumes keep rising. The attraction for tourists is remarkable. Okinawa economy is growing fast and calling for proactive measures to harness all the potential that the port has; to earn foreign exchange. Already, the government has pumped resources…
Naha Port Authority, (2006). Development of International Logistics Capabilities at Naha Port. Retrieved from http://www.nahaport.jp/promotion/English/6.html on 31 August 2018
The Bank of Okinawa Inc. (2016). The Business Environment in Okinawa. Retrieved from http://www.okinawa-bank.co.jp/_files/00025720/3TheBuisinesEnvironmentinOkinawa.pdf on 31 August 2018
World Port Source, (N.D.). Port of Naha: Port Commerce. Retrieved from http://www.worldportsource.com/ports/commerce/JPN_Port_of_Naha_1397.php on 31 August 2018
Supply Chain Ann
Supply Chain Management Annotated Bibliography
Chopra, S., & Meindl, P. (2010). Supply chain management: Strategy, planning and operation (4th ed.).Upper Saddle iver, NJ: Prentice Hall
The text by Chopra & Meindl (2010) is an excellent starting point for this discussion, primarily because it serves as a rather exhaustive introductory reading on the subject. Providing academic explanation of the basic premise of supply chain management and an extensive investigation of the strategies used for maintaining and evaluating this business dimension, the Chopra & Meindl text is a highly useful primary and frequently employed reference source on the subject.
Lee, H.L. (2002). Unleashing the power of intelligence. International Commerce eview: EC Journal, 2(1), 61-73.
The above source is well-supplemented by the article from Lee (2002), which adds a discussion about technological and practical advancement to the subject. Here, Lee identifies shifts both in capability and orientation, particularly vis-a-vis the…
Schoenfeldt, T.I. (2008). A practical application of supply chain management principles. Milwaukee, WI: Quality Press.
Slone, R., Mentzer, J., & Dittmann, J. (2007). Are You the Weakest Link in Your Company's Supply Chain? Harvard Business Review, 116-127.
From this basis of trust and a
concentrated focus on streamlining processes that enable communication
between manufacturers and suppliers, technology is often introduced, albeit
selectively. It is erroneous to look at technology in the context of
supply chain management as the panacea; rather it needs to be seen as the
enabler of efficiency and inter-supply chain collaboration, quality
management, and supplier relationship management. Technology is only
applied to supply chains after the fundamental relationships and trust have
been defined, along with a culture that is unique to the collaboration
within a given supply chain. The culture that has emanated from high
quality standards that Toyota has placed on suppliers and the development
of the Toyota supplier base as a learning organization over just
transaction partners. Toyota has rigorous standards for defining their
suppliers and use technology including many forms of online collaborative
applications to further support their quality and egalitarian…
Michael Burkett. "The "Perfect" Product Launch." Supply Chain Management
Review 1 Jul 2005: 12-13. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 1 Dec. 2007
Mike Ledyard, Bill Keough. "Demand-Driven Supply Chain Meets
Offshoring" Supply Chain Management Review 1 Jul 2007: 11. ABI/INFORM
Global. ProQuest. 1 Dec. 2007
The Internet is going to continuing to act as a catalyst of innovation within supply chain management. The maturation of DDSN networks, the build-out of knowledge networks like TPS and the ability of suppliers to more accurately sense and respond to demand profitably will increase in precision. The use of real-time analytics will continue to grow rapidly in response to economic uncertainty, all leading to much greater supply chain intelligence and integration.
Michael Burkett. (2005, July). The "Perfect" Product Launch. Supply Chain Management eview, 9(5), 12-13.
Patrick Crampton-Thomas. (2006, May). Enabling Profitable Growth Through Demand Driven Supply Networks. Supply Chain Europe, 15(2), 18-21.
Jeffrey H. Dyer & Kentaro Nobeoka. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks, 21(3), 345-367.
B.S. Sahay, & Jayanthi anjan. (2008). eal time business intelligence in…
Michael Burkett. (2005, July). The "Perfect" Product Launch. Supply Chain Management Review, 9(5), 12-13.
Patrick Crampton-Thomas. (2006, May). Enabling Profitable Growth Through Demand Driven Supply Networks. Supply Chain Europe, 15(2), 18-21.
Jeffrey H. Dyer & Kentaro Nobeoka. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks, 21(3), 345-367.
B.S. Sahay, & Jayanthi Ranjan. (2008). Real time business intelligence in supply chain analytics. Information Management & Computer Security, 16(1), 28-48.
Supply Chain Management and Concentrated Clusters
Concentrated Clusters and Improvement in Supply Chain Management and firm's overall performance
Clusters are geographic concentrations which comprise of interconnected organizations or associations that manufacture products or deliver a service to a particular industry or field. Clusters are mainly a mix of companies belonging to the same industry or located in the same technological facility sharing resources like infrastructure, suppliers and distribution networks. It mainly consists of three or more companies with downstream extension to channels and customers and lateral extension complementary goods' manufacturers including companies with industries related skills, technologies and inputs (Cognizant 20-20, 2011).
Concentrated clusters have immensely wide benefits to each firm's performance, particularly performance pertaining to supply chain management efficiency. There are certain common characteristics which clusters hold and thus benefit the firms in improving their overall performance and supply chain management are; physical proximity, complementary…
Cognizant 20-20 Insights. (January 2011). Cluster Manufacturing: A Supply Chain Perspective. Retrieved September 2, 2012, from Cognizant Official site website: http://www.cognizant.com/InsightsWhitepapers/Cluster-Manuf.pdf .
Brown, R. (March 2000). Cluster Dynamics in Theory and Practice with Application to Scotland. Regional and Industrial Policy Research Paper (pp. 6-8). Glasgow G1 1QE: United Kingdom. Retrieved September 2, 2012, from e-innovation website: http://www.e-innovation.org/stratinc/files/library/34.pdf.
DeWitt, T., Giunipero, L.C., & Melton, H.L., (2006). Clusters and supply chain management: the Amish experience. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 36(4), 289 -- 308. Doi: 10.1108/09600030610672055.
In addition, outsourcing is seen as one way of freeing HR professionals within the client organization from more mundane and time-consuming tasks so as to better concentrate on core competencies and provide a more consultative and strategic role (Cooke 186). Although the growth of HR outsourcing business has been dramatically facilitated by the introduction of innovations in information and communication technologies (ICT) throughout China in recent years, many companies also report an increasing use of e-HR in-house. For example, in some large Chinese organizations, employees are encouraged and even expected to use e-HR to update their personnel records as a cost-saving initiative (Cooke 186).
Based on the available evidence from secondary sources of data, the outsourcing of HR in general remains relatively limited in China; however, there are trends of the increasing use of external providers for their services such as recruitment and training (Cooke 186). According to the atson…
Bielski, Lauren. (2006). "Outsourcing Success: It's All in the Governance Making Deals Work Daily Takes a Long-Term View." ABA Banking Journal 98(7):38.
Chow, Garland. (2007). "Outsourcing and Third-Party Logistics." Centre for Transportation Studies & Operations and Logistics Division: The University of British Columbia.
2000). "Outsourcing Logistics." Class notes: Supply Chain Management: The University of British Columbia.
Cooke, Fang Lee. HRM, Work and Employment in China. London:
CPM is critically important from a supply chain management standpoint in optimizing inventory positions by location throughout a distribution channel as well (Omar, 2009). All of these factors contribute to the automating of CPM and PET through organizations who are heavily reliant on their supply chains to gain a competitive advantage. The optimization of inventory workflows using CPM and PET contribute to that competitive advantage over time. PET and CPM also can be used to measure the financial impact of these strategies over time as well. That is the future direction of EP and Web Services in manufacturing specifically.
Services scheduling is difficult due to a variety of factors. First, services are by definition a commitment of future value delivered. Completing services may take an exceptionally longer period of time than anticipated and the act of providing a service is not a finite asset; it is rather the…
Byrne, MD, & Jackson, RJ. (1994). A study of bottlenecks in a MRP environment using simulation. International Journal of Production Economics, 35(1-3), 115.
D Aquila, Nancy Welch. (1993). Facilitating inservice programs through PERT/CPM. Nursing Management, 24(5), 92.
SCH Leung, Y Wu, & KK Lai. (2006). A stochastic programming approach for multi-site aggregate production planning. The Journal of the Operational Research Society, 57(2), 123-132.
Omar, a.. (2009). Uncertainty in Project Scheduling - Its Use in PERT/CPM Conventional Techniques. Cost Engineering, 51(7), 30-34.
Companies focus on speed to market for a couple of reasons. There are first-mover advantages, and in some markets like smartphones there are a lot of consumers who are early adopters, so the market is strong for products that come to the market quickly (Smith, 1999). Companies can position themselves as innovators if they are consistently first to market with new ideas. Speed to market is also reflected in firms that are not the innovators, but the followers. Following the leaders quickly is a method that can allow a company to remain competitive but with a lower level of innovation expense; following the leader slowly can leave a company with a noticeably inferior product.
Yet, there are disadvantages to the idea of speed to market. First, it is sometimes a more complex strategy. The company will need to develop an agile supply chain, and have its systems dialed…
Kingsely, A. (2008). The day Microsoft killed the Vista name -- January 31, 2006. ZD Net. Retrieved March 22, 2015 from http://www.zdnet.com/article/the-day-microsoft-killed-the-vista-name-january-31-2006/
Robinson, A. (2013). 6 benefits of logistics automation in a transportation management system. Cerasis. Retrieved March 22, 2015 from http://cerasis.com/2013/10/25/logistics-automation/
Bowersox, D. (1990). The strategic benefits of logistics alliances. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved March 22, 2015 from http://gkwl.nbu.edu.cn/4pl/gwxsrw/12.pdf
Harps, L. (2005). Cool stuff, blazing speed. Inbound Logistics. Retrieved March 22, 2015 from http://www.inboundlogistics.com/cms/article/cool-stuff-blazing-speed/
At the same time, it will provide the various subcontractors with specifications on how they can create the different parts. Once this occurs, it means that the overall process has been shortened from design to product implementation.
Identify slack in the activities not on the project critical path.
The different slack activities that are not on the projects critical path include: circuit, battery, display, camera and user interface designs. The slack in this part of the structure is 1. At the same time, other areas that would fall into categories that are not on the critical path include: hardware research and prototype testing. The slack for these areas are: 9 and 6. When you put these different elements together, this highlights, how there could be a possible slack that will range from 1 to 9 days. This is important, because it is underscoring possible delays and challenges that could be…
I Phone 4 Technical Specifications. (2010). Apple. Retrieved from: http://www.apple.com/iPhone/specs.html
Excel. (2010). Operations and Supply Chain Management. Retrieved from: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073525227/student_view0/chapter_10/excel_templates.html
Product Management. (n.d.). McGraw Hill. Retrieved from: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/007340330x/416102/jacobs_ch02.pdf
Rao, L. (2010). Google. Tech Crunch. Retrieved from: http://techcrunch.com/2010/04/15/google-android-market-now-serving-38000-apps-nexus-one-is-a-profitable-business/
Supply Chain Strategy
Component Manufacturing is acquiring Arrow-Hart, a highly regarded contractor manufacturer, to distribute their electrical components, cutting Replacement Components, Inc. business by cutting exclusivity in selling the electrical components and creating a high level of competition for the electrical components. This is a big blow to Replacement Components, Inc. because they helped Component Manufacturing to implement their business and purchased products with prepaid orders for them to grow their business, which has also weakened the business relationship with the acquisition. Cutting exclusivity of distributorship cuts Replacement Components, Inc. healthy margins and effects costs and credit risk. The main problem is that distribution exclusivity is disappearing where suppliers are starting to integrate and bypass distributors to sell directly to customers and gain higher profitability in their own profit margins. This creates a strategic decision making process for Replacement Components, Inc. To maintain market share, profit margins, and grow in…
The Japanese retail industry has intricate processes that keep demand management and inventory and production management efficient as a hybrid process that mixes automation and manual work. Given how many of the processes in the Japanese retail industry are comprised of manual and automated approaches to coordinating and communicating, it would take years for an outsider to understand how these specific processes interrelate to each other. Another factor that would significantly limit the potential of a non-apparel chain to replicate World's supply chain is the intensive coordination it allows production workers have, including their ability to create higher levels of process innovation vs. more traditional assembly line workers. Another factor is the intricate demand forecasting and aggregate demand practices World relies on. The specific approaches to forecasting for the Untitled line is also highly specific to Japanese retailing, and could not be easily imitated by outsiders, as this process builds…
Chang Hwan Lee, Byong-Duk Rhee. "Optimal Guaranteed Profit Margins for Both Vendors and Retailers in the Fashion Apparel Industry. " Journal of Retailing 84.3 (2008): 325-333. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 15 Sep. 2008
Donald Sull, Stefano Turconi. "Fast fashion lessons. " Business Strategy Review 19.2 (2008): 4-11. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest.
Supply Chain strategies are like a living thin. They must change and adapt in order to meet the ever evolving needs of the customer and the business. They need to be flexible enough to drive ideal operational and tactical decisions. It also must be precise and clear. This is because it allows for immediacy in decision-making.
For example, future opportunities require a supply chain strategy to evolve with time. Twenty years ago, the internet was not so heavily used as it is today. Things were done in paper instead of online and digitally. Things like fax machines were used instead of email and people paid with checks instead of PayPal or some other online money system.
Now that things have become digitized, people are more likely to involve their business with online activity including websites and chat interfaces to allow customers and merchants to communicate with them effectively (Song, 2013).…
Elmer-DeWitt, P. (2013). Map of the day: Apple Inc.'s Asian supply chain.Fortune. Retrieved 9 February 2016, from http://fortune.com/2013/02/16/map-of-the-day-apple-inc-s-asian-supply-chain/
Song, D. (2013). Optimal control and optimization of stochastic supply chain systems. London: Springer.
Supplychainbrain.com,. (2016). IBM's Integrated Supply Chain Creates Strategic Value Throughout the Enterprise. Retrieved 9 February 2016, from http://www.supplychainbrain.com/content/research-analysis/supply-chain-innovation-awards/single-article-page/article/ibms-integrated-supply-chain-creates-strategic-value-throughout-the-enterprise-1/
Supply Chain Management
Wal-Mart is a retailer with a focus on being a low cost competitor. Supply chain management is a critical component of this, and has long been the primary focus on Wal-Mart's competitive advantage. In response to a website mocking Wal-Mart customers, one executive famously noted that Wal-Mart sells to everybody, and there are 476 billion reasons to believe that Wal-Mart's target market really is everybody (MSN Moneycentral, 2014). The company knows that it if perceived to have the lowest prices on a wide range of everyday goods, it will win a considerable amount of business. But delivering the lowest prices consistently is not easy, and this is where the supply chain comes into it.
An above-the-line initiative is basically mass media, while below the line consists of other promotional methods (Manral, 2011). In either case, Wal-Mart has a consistent message about low prices, and the supply chain…
Manral, K. (2011). Difference between above the line and below the line advertising. The Advertising Club. Retrieved March 27, 2014 from http://theadvertisingclub.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3256:difference-between-above-the-line-and-below-the-line-advertising&Itemid=175
MSN Moneycentral: Wal-Mart. (2014). Retrieved March 27, 2014 from http://investing.money.msn.com/investments/stock-price?symbol=wmt&ocid=qbeb
Traub, T. (2012). Wal-Mart used technology to become supply chain leader. Arkansas Business. Retrieved March 27, 2014 from http://www.arkansasbusiness.com/article/85508/wal-mart-used-technology-to-become-supply-chain-leader?page=all
Supply Chain Management
The proposed changes will hopefully improve customer service, but will also focus on improving the integration between the different units, so as to put a common front for the customer. Moreover, the changes will begin to modernize the system for tracking inventory. The reason that the customers expect to be able to track their orders every step of the way is because that is fairly common technology. Thus, a move to RFID and other technologies that facilitate real-time tracking, along with adopting a common technology platform, will serve the company's needs in a number of ways.
First, the customers will receive the tracking information that they want, and should expect from any company in 2015. This will resolve the company's major customer service issue, and thus should help to improve its customer service scores overall, which are presently being dragged down by the technological inferiority in the…
he value inherent to freight forwarding in the modern global supply chain can be stated both in terms of finances and efficiency, which ultimately has its own effect on finances and revenues, as well. hese two value elements are largely intertwined in the supply chain itself as well -- freight forwarders are better equipped to locate available shipping space at the best possible price than are individual manufacturers or even distributors (Baluch 2005). Freight forwarders essentially offer a service to both shippers and manufacturers/those in need of shipping, creating greater value for both asset-based entities in the arrangement by creating greater efficiency in the system as a whole (Baluch 2005).
he seven economic drivers of transportation costs can be easily illustrated with the example of a standard laptop computer. Distance for many of these units is considerable, often requiring transport from parts of Asia to Europe and North…
The freight bill, or bill of lading, is given by a shipping provider to the manufacturer or shipping originator to acknowledge the receipt of specified goods for transport, usually with certain key details of the shipping agreement including payment terms, pickup and delivery locations and often dates, and a detail of the goods to be transported (MarketTrans 2010). Though not itself a full contract, it is evidence of a contract (whether verbal or written) between the shipper and the carrier, and as it lists certain terms of the carrier's part in the venture and requires the shipper's signature it is legally binding in several regards (MarketTrans 2010).
The essential goal of multi-vendor consolidation is to increase the efficiency of shipping for both
As for how one company can be part of both the internal and external supply chain networks, this is actually easier than it seems to be. The external supply chain refers to factors such as political, economic, technological and geographical. Internal refers to the departments and machines that go into getting items and supplies to where they go. An easy example of a situation where a company obviously and extensively touches both, one can speak about Fedex or UPS. If the supply chain of those companies is not working well, there will be obvious implications of both an internal and external supply chain nature as the consequences will relate to both getting the job done and to the political factors that come with not getting the job done properly. To use a less obvious example, a volcano erupting would create havoc for both methids since it is a…
Information technology in supply chain management
The supply chain capabilities within a resource-based framework
The supply chain capabilities
Exchange of information
Integration of activities
Supply chain responsiveness
In this paper, we evaluate the role played by information technology in the improvement of supply chain operations. The main aim is to evaluate how information technology can be used in the achievement of a competitive advantage in regard to the supply chain operations. This is conducted in light of factors such as exchange of information, coordination, and integration of interfirm activities as well as supply chain responsiveness.
Supply chain management (SCM) a term which refers to the management of a network of businesses that are highly interconnected but are involved in the intricate process of providing products and services that are required by the end users (customers) (Harland,1996) has been heavily influenced by the advents of the internet. The…
Akkermans, HA, Bogerd, P., Yucesan, E., and Wassenhove, LNV (1999). The impact of ERP on supply chain management: Exploratory findings from a European Delphi study
Aaker, D.A. (1989). "Managing assets and skills: The key to sustainable competitive advantage." California Manage-ment Review 31 (Winter): 91-106.
Bharadwaj, A.S. (2000). A resource-based perspective on information technology capability and firm performance: An empirical investigation. MIS Quarterly, 24(1), 169 -- 196
Barney, J., Wright, M., & Ketchen Jr., D.J. (2001). The resource-based view of the firm: Ten years after 1991. Journal of Management, 27(6), 625 -- 641.
supply chain challenges facing the company which the chosen application addresses.
4(b) Explain how the chosen application addresses these supply chain challenges
8Q2"IT should be considered as an integral part of the supply chain re-engineering process." Discuss this statement using appropriate references from the course module. Case studies or other source material.
(a) The major supply chain challenges facing the company which the chosen application addresses.
The Levi Strauss e-business and supply chain integration
Levi Strauss is a firm that was very successful and competitive in the manufacture of denim jeans. Like several other companies, it faced a lot of competition and changes in the market conditions. This subsequently led to a decline in its sales and profitability. The company's sales were at a peak value of $1.7 billion in 1996 (Leon-Pena 85). This later declined to about $4.1 in 2002 as pointed out by Girard (Girard). The corporation realized…
Barrat, Mark.Understanding the meaning of collaboration in the supply chain, Supply Chain Management, An International Journal, 9(1), (2004), pp.30-42
Croom, Simon R. "The impact of e-business on supply chain management: An empirical study of key developments," International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 25 Iss: 1, (2005) pp.55 -- 73
Frohlich, Markham T. And Westbrook, Roy, "Arcs of integration: an international study of supply chain strategies," Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 19 No. 2, (2001) pp. 185-200.
Golicic, Susan L., Davis, Donna F., McCarthy, M. And Mentzer, John T. "The impact of e-commerce on supply chain relationships." International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, Vol. 32 No. 10, (2002), pp. 851-871.
Supply Chain Management increasingly positioned a key strategic enabler helping organisations ADD VALUE push boundaries performance" ( e-business shortens supply chain) the eport yo submit largely work-based thoughts, ideas, views, opinions words.
Supply Chain Management
Supply Chain Management is increasingly been positioned as a key strategic enabler helping organisations to add value and push the boundaries of performance
The modern day buyers are more and more pretentious; the organisational staff members are more and more demanding; the competitive environment is more dynamic; the legislations change and the technology evolves. Virtually, the internal and external environments of the firms are in a continuous process of change and the organisational leaders have to devise a wide array of mechanisms by which to cope with the new challenges, to take advantage of their opportunities and to limit their threats.
One important tool used in this direction is represented by Supply Chain Management. The…
Beyer, S., 2010, Supply chain performance measurement and e-business supply chain management: including a practical excursus on the Intel case: operations strategy -- Supply Chain Management, Grin Verlag, ISBN 3640658426
Cazier, J.A., Poluha, R.G., 2007, Application of the Scor model in Supply Chain Management, Cambria Press, ISBN 1934043230
Emmett, S., Crocker, B.., 2006, The relationship driven supply chain: creating a culture of collaboration through the chain, Gower Publishing Ltd., ISBN 0566086840
Fernie, J., 2004, Logistics and retail management: insights into current practice and trends from leading experts, 2nd edition, Kogan Page Publishers
Research indicates that supply chains help organizations attain competitive advantage. In turn, the successes or letdowns of such supply chains are determined in the open market by the end consumers. Rendering the fitting product, at the fitting price, at the fitting time to the consumer is not only the fundamental aspect to competitive success but also the vital element to survival (Christopher and Towill, 2001). Owing to the fact that the intricacy of supply chains in the present day, partly as a result of globalization and out-sourcing, the manner in which supply chains are structured can make a difference between an organization generating profit or loss. Different types of structures avail the management the choice to select the one that best suits consumer expectations. However, it is imperative for such chosen pipelines to go hand in hand with the business strategy of the supply chain (Christopher and Towill, 2002). In…
I. Major Factors
The management of Dream Beauty Company, a manufacturer of consumer beauty supplies and cosmetics, is concerned with the increased costs of its supply chain management. The firm’s supply chain costs recently reached an all time high of $130,000, which could be attributable to various factors including additional sales and increased costs for order fulfillment. Currently, the Dream Beauty’s total order fulfillment is averagely three days despite the order size. Dream Beauty Company has received 3600 orders, provides excellent customer service, and has a discount policy for the channels it services.
II. Major Problem
Despite its highest standards of customer service and industry benchmark in order fulfillment, Dream Beauty Company is experiencing problems in increased supply chain costs and needs to examine the effectiveness of its three-day order fulfillment cycle.
III. Possible Solutions
Dream Beauty’s major problem can be addressed through several potential solutions because of the various…
The DEP/GARD supply chain process has various areas where there is value addition and these include the manufacturing and packaging process of the products that are supplied to GARD. There is also the inbound transportation from the compound suppliers which is counted as a value addition process. The outbound transportation to GARD is also seen in the supply chain as a value addition activity. There are however some stages that are not value adding to the entire supply chain such as the inventory sitting idle in the DEP warehouses. The other activity that does not add value is the order transmission time that is wasted through handling and receiving and handling orders manually which leads to the products staying in the warehouse for unnecessary long duration of time. There are also too many paperwork involved in the supply chain as it is in the current form. The long duration that…