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Sustainability eport for Lufthansa Airlines
Sustainability eport for Lufthansa Airlines
The purpose of this report is to analyze and discuss the sustainability practices and efforts of one of the leading airlines of the world -- Lufthansa Group. Every organization incorporates some sustainability practices that show its concern for the society it serves and the environment in which conducts its business (Bleischwitz & Hennicke 2004). Through this paper, an attempt has been made to discuss the key sustainability practices which Lufthansa Group has adopted for proving itself as a socially and environmentally sustainable organization. The paper starts with a brief introduction to the organization and then highlights its major sustainability efforts. The later sections discuss the two most important sustainability practices and give recommendations on how this organization can improve these practices in the light of business sustainability models.
Lufthansa Group is one of the…
Bleischwitz, R., & Hennicke, P. 2004, Eco-efficiency, regulation, and sustainable business: towards a governance structure for sustainable development. Northampton: Edward Elgar
Epstein, M.J. 2008, Making sustainability work: best practices in managing and measuring corporate social, environmental and economic impacts. 1st Edition. Sheffield, UK: Greenleaf Publications.
Hond, F.D., Neergaard, P., & Bakker, F.G. 2007, Managing corporate social responsibility in action: talking, doing and measuring. England: Ashgate
International Institute for Environment and Development, 2012, Business models for sustainable development. Available from [Accessed April 14th, 2012]
manufacturer, which opens it up to a number of issues regarding sustainability. This paper will review Kimberley Clark's approach to sustainability, based on information presented in the company's 2015 Sustainability Report, and understanding of the key issues surrounding sustainability in general.
Kimberley Clark produces a periodic sustainability report, and the last one was produced in 2015. The production of these reports is voluntary for business, and the content contained within them is also voluntary. In general, production of a sustainability report is an important step towards transparency and accountability in the sustainability practices of a business. The 2015 report sets out the company's strategy through 2022, and recaps the outcomes of the last strategy, which ran from 2010 to 2015.
There are several major impacts on the environment that arise from KC's business. The first is the forestry activities that produce the logs that are turned into paper. The…
Sustainability Balanced Scorecard
The balanced scorecard is a tool for management that supports the positive execution of strategies instigated by the corporation. This report makes the aim to assist Wave Master Limited Company (WML) with the further analysis of sustainability. In particular, the report comes up with a strategic map for the company's objectives and thereafter creates a scheme for the formation of a sustainable balanced score card (SBSC). These strategic objectives are categorized in accordance to the perspectives of the SBSC that is suggested. The study goes on to further offer justification as to why such strategic objectives were classified and categorized in that particular manner. In concurrence with assignment two, we make the assumption that the sustainability reports and analysis made previously are appropriate and suitable to be used for this study. In developing the sustainable balance score card, the approach used in this study is that of…
Armitage, H.M., & Scholey, C. (2006). Using Strategy Maps to Drive Performance. CMA Canada.
Butler, J.B., Henderson, S.C., & Raiborn, C. (2011). Sustainability and the balanced scorecard. Management Accounting Quarterly, 12(2), 1-10.
Esau, G., & Malone, M. (2013). CSR in natural resources: rhetoric and reality. Journal of Global Responsibility, 4(2), pp. 168-187.
Figge, F., Hahn, T., Schaltegger, S., & Wagner, M. (2002). The sustainability balanced scorecard -- linking sustainability management to business strategy. Business strategy and the Environment, 11(5), 269-284.
Phase 4 Discussion Board
The article that I will be reviewing is "Key competencies in sustainability: a reference framework for academic program development." This article was published in the journal Sustainability Science and directly covers the development of the academic discipline. The authors note that as the discipline matures into a full-fledged academic discipline, there is a need to understand the nature of sustainability science and what the key competencies are going to be to understand the discipline. The authors have studied a number of journal articles on the subject to make a determination about what competencies are required: systems thinking, anticipatory, strategic, interpersonal and normative.
The authors have a good understanding of what sustainability science is. They point out rightfully that systems thinking is critical, because sustainability science is about the systems that support human life. Strategic competencies is required because interventions are required to save us…
Coca-Cola 2011/2012 Sustainability Report. Retrieved October 29, 2014 from http://www.coca-colacompany.com/sustainabilityreport/world/water-stewardship.html
Engelman, R. & LeRoy, P. (1993). Sustaining water: Population and the future of renewable water supplies. Population Action International Retrieved October 29, 2014 from http://www.popline.org/node/331603
Saal, D. & Parker, D. (2011). Productivity and price performance in the privatized water and sewerage companies of England and Wales. Journal of Regulatory Economics. Vol. 20 (1) 61-90.
Wiek, A., Withycombe, L. & Redman, C. (2011). Key competencies in sustainability: a reference framework for academic program development. Sustainability Science. Vol. 6 (2011) 203-208.
In this regard, Green and her colleagues emphasize that, "The corporate wealth of logging giant Gunns, Ltd. (which controls over 85% of the state's logging, is the world's largest hardwood woodchip exporter, and is worth over one billion dollars) has not trickled down into the state's economy" (2007, p. 95).
Despite the enormous range of wood products, particularly its valuable hardwoods, that could be produced from Tasmania's forests, more than 90 per cent of the country's hardwood timber is simply processed into woodchips annually, representing 5,000,000 tons of Tasmanian native forest which are then marketed to paper mills in Asia, primarily in Japan but in South Korea and increasingly China as well, accounting for around 70 per cent of Tasmania's total woodchip export production (Green et al., 2007). The sustainment practices used by the forestry industry, though, have been insufficient to replenish what is being extracted.
Forestry Tasmania. The Board…
Australia. (2010). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library / publications/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html.
Brown, B. (2001). Revelations of a green senator. In H. Gee (ed.), for the forests: A history of the Tasmania Forest Campaigns. Hobart: The Wilderness Society, 2001, p. 334 in Owen
Carter, N. (2007). The Politics of the Environment. Ideas. Activism. Policy. 2nd Edn. Cambridge:
" (Traventec, Ltd., 2005) Market saturation is possible according to Traventec, Ltd., due to the constant "influx of new entrants into the low cost carrier and regional space and continued expansion of existing players. When and whether market saturation is actually reached in specific regions of the world depends on how mature regional and low cost air transport is in the first place and the size of the yet under-served demographic area." (Traventec, Ltd., 2005) There is stated to be a potentially huge regional aviation market in South East Asia yet untapped with more than half of the population of the entire world within six hours flying radiuses from "Kuala Lumpur and a five hour flying radius from angkok." (Traventec, Ltd., 2005) the airports in this area have only recently been liberalized with the "international bilateral agreements and vested in the development of airport capacity." (Traventec, Ltd., 2005) When this…
The Impact of Low Cost Carriers in Europe (2003) Online available at http://www.icao.int/icao/en/atb/ecp/CaseStudies/Europe_LowCost_En.pdf .
The Inevitable Convergence of Regional and Low Cost Carriers (2005) Traventec - the Travel Technology People. July-August 2005. Traventec Ltd. Galway Business Park, Dangan, Ireland Online available at http://www.sourceit-travel.com/directory/downloads/traventec/trav entec_publication_july2005.pdf
Sean D. Barrett (2004) the sustainability of the Ryanair model 1 Dec 2004. International Journal of Transport Management Volume 2, Issue 2, 2004, Pages 89-98. Online available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6W83-4FHJYDN-1&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=6c4406b7409fa7b9f01b15b1ae584273
Europe's Airports (2006) Mintel International Group Ltd. Published: Feb. 1, 2006 - Online available at http://www.marketresearch.com/map/prod/1224216.html
Summary of the purpose of Corporate Sustainability Reporting
Reporting corporate sustainability is one of the best ways to ensure that a company is not only doing well financially in the present but also in securing a better and more certain future. The reporting of corporate suitability ensures that the current needs of the organization are effectively met without comprising future needs of the organization. Reporting on corporate sustainability also ensure that organization are able to keep up with all changes in the industry, with ensuring that new innovations have been developed, maintained and employed in the daily operations of the organization. Corporate sustainability is developed on a grid developed to ensure that the future is secure, and that the organization will survive for a long time.
Corporate sustainability also encompasses the assessment of current and future risks that the organization is likely to endure. As such, a majority…
Chee Tahir, A., and Darton, R. C, 2010, "The process analysis method of selecting indicators to quantify the sustainability performance of a business operation." Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 18, 1598 -- 1607.
Kaufman, A. And Englander, E, 2011, "Behavioral Economics, Federalism, and the Triumph of Stakeholder Theory." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 102 No.3, 421-438.
Fassin, Y, August 2012. "Stakeholder Management, Reciprocity and Stakeholder Responsibility." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 109 No.1, 83-96.
Pryor, M, Humphreys, J, Oyler, J, Taneja, S. And Toombs, L, December 2011, "The Legitimacy and Efficacy of Current Organizational Theory: An Analysis." International Journal of Management Part 2, Vol. 28 No.4, 209-228.
Lewis Group Sustainability Model:
The Lewis Group is a retail furniture company operating in South Africa that sells its furniture to low-income customers. Notably, approximately 60% of the company's merchandise is being imported from some countries in Brazil and China. As the leading retailer of household furniture, home electronics, and electrical appliances, The Lewis Group sold its products mainly on credit through Best Home and Electric, the Lewis, and My Home Brands. The success and profitability of the Lewis Group is associated with the scope of its business and its business model. Currently, the company has more than 600 stores throughout the main metropolitan areas and has a strong presence in the rural areas in South Africa. Moreover, 56 of the firm's stores are located in the neighboring southern African nations like Namibia, Botswana, Swaziland, and Lesotho.
The Lewis Group Business Model:
The Lewis Group business model basically revolves around…
Chamberlain, T. (n.d.). Sustainable Development -- Retailing. Retrieved August 25, 2012, from http://www.enviropaedia.com/topic/default.php?topic_id=272
"Environmental Sustainability." (n.d.). Lewis Group Ltd. Retrieved August 25, 2012, from http://www.lewisgroup.co.za/pdf/2012/lewis%20SusReport.pdf
Hart, S.L. & Milstein, M.B. (2003). Creating Sustainable Value. Academy of Management
Executive, 17(2), 56-69.
As the organization attempts to sell cheap and expensive brands an exact identity may not be apparent and disillusion many customers that don't know what to expect. As mentioned before, the retail industry is squarely opposed to sustainable practices and this in itself is a blaring weakness that needs to be addressed if the company expects to be successful in the long-term.
Another step in a retail SWOT analysis is identifying key opportunities in the market.
In this case, the demand for sustainable practices are at an all time high. If Woolworths can somehow master this transition, the opportunity for domination within this industry is possible. Introducing new technologies that promote sustainable practices will surely help in exploiting many of these opportunities.
The internet and wireless shopping has provided many new threats to the retail industry. This threat is more serious because online shopping appears to be more…
Dowse, J. (2012) a view on Woolworths' corporate responsibility report, the Sustainability Report: Integrating ESG for Risk and Return at http://www.thesustainabilityreport.com.au/a-view-on-woolworths-corporate - responsibility-report/3137/: Accessed 10 May, 2013
Dwivedi, a., Merrilees, B., Miller, D. And Hemington, C. (2012) Brand Value and relationship equities and loyalty intentions in the Australian Supermarket Industry, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol.19, Iss.5, pp.526-536
Hampl, N. And Loock, M. (2013) Sustainable Development in Retailing: What is the Impact on Store Choice?, Business Strategy and Environment, Vol.22, pp.202-216
Iles, a. (2007) Seeing Sustainability in Business Operations: U.S. And British Food Retailer Experiments with Accountability, Business Strategy and the Environment, Vol.16, pp.290-301
P&G is looking to make the Supplier Environmental Sustainability Scorecard methodology a global standard (P&G, 2010). To support this effort to make the scorecard a global baseline of sustainability measurement, P&G freely distributes Microsoft Excel models of the methodology and baseline analysis tools from their website. The foundations of the methodology can be seen in Figure 2: Procter & Gamble's Supplier Environmental Sustainability Scorecard Methodology. The key metrics measured include energy, emissions, waste, water and an environmental management system performance ranking that can be used for evaluating supplier performance within and across product categories.
P&G has also differentiated this model by rewarding excellent business performance as measured by the key performance indicators (KPIs) first, while also using the methodology to evaluate areas where performance can be improved. The use of incentives and rewards for the top 400 suppliers at P&G have been announced and are actively being applied to supplier…
Jacobs, B., & Jordan, M. (2011). Green is the new color of the supply chain. Area Development Site and Facility Planning, 46(4), 29-31. Retrieved from http://www.areadevelopment.com/logisticsInfrastructure/July2011/collaboration-it-green-supply-chains-33638.shtml
Joseph, D. (2010, Score two for sustainability. Fast Company, (150), 54-54. Retrieved from http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/150/score-two-for-sustainability.html
Keyes, B.A., & Sykes, B. (2009). Sustainability's triple bottom line. Chief Executive, (243), 43-45,50. Retrieved from http://www.allbusiness.com/environment-natural-resources/pollution-monitoring/13877640-1.html
P&G launches supplier environmental sustainability scorecard. (2010a, May 12). PR Newswire, pp. n/a. Retrieved from http://news.pg.com/press-release/pg-corporate-announcements/pg-launches-supplier-environmental-sustainability-scorecard
The waste group contains 3 items:
AS1 -- Storing of Recyclable Household aste and Non-recyclable aste
AS2 -- Building Location aste Management
AS3 -- Composting
Household Recycling facilities
here the following recycling
services are given:
• 3 internal storage bins for recyclable waste with -- min total capacity of 60 ltr
-- no individual bin smaller than 15 ltr
-- all of the bins in a devoted position that is accessible to disabled people
here full recycling facilities
• 3 internal storage bins with -- min total capacity of 30 ltr
-- no individual bin smaller
than 7 ltr
-- all bins in a dedicated position that is accessible to disabled people
• a Local Authority collection scheme for recyclable materials covering at least three streams of waste with sufficient space for…
Agyeman, J., & Evans, B. (2004). 'Just sustainability': The emerging discourse of environmental justice in Britain? The Geographical Journal, 170, 155-164.
Apitz, S.E. (2010). Waste or resource? classifying and scoring dredged material management strategies in terms of the waste hierarchy. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 10(8), 1657-1668.
Babin, R., & Nicholson, B. (2011). How green is my outsourcer? Measuring sustainability in global it outsourcing. Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, 4(1), 47-66.
Ball, S., & Abou Taleb, M. (2011). Benchmarking waste disposal in the Egyptian hotel industry. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 11(1), 1-18.
Sustainability in Fashion
This study seeks to answer the question of how the concept of sustainability applies to local fashion production and to explain the connection between global fashion industries and fast fashion business to the sustainability fashion products.
The Designers Speak
Sustainable fashion is defined differently depending on who is asked to define the concept. Freda Giannini, Gucci creative director defines sustainable fashion as, "Quality items that stand the test of time -- it is the concept of sustainability, symbolized by a timeless handbag that you wear again and again, and can pass on…" (Friedman, 2010, p.1)
Oscar de la Renta, designer and brand founder stated that sustainable fashion "…implies a commitment to the traditional techniques, and not just the art, of making clothes." (Friedman, 2010, p.1) Oscar de la Renta designer stated that today, she worked in the same manner that she learned first "in the anteliers of…
Friedman, Vanessa (2010) Sustainable Fashion: What Does Green Mean? Style. Retrieved from: http://www.ft.com/international/cms/s/2/2b27447e-11e4-11df-b6e3-00144feab49a.html#axzz1vQqZoWId
Sustainable Fashion (2011) More Intelligent Life. The Economist, Retrieved from: http://moreintelligentlife.com/content/lifestyle/intelligent-life/sceptical-shopper-sustainable-fashion
Sustainable Fashion and Textiles: Design Journeys (2008) Kate Fletcher Sustainability Design Fashion. Retrieved from: http://katefletcher.com/publications/books/sustainable-fashion-and-textiles-design-journeys/
Sustainable Road Action Plan (2010) Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Feb 2010. Nobel House, London. Retrieved from: http://www.defra.gov.uk/publications/files/pb13206-clothing-action-plan-100216.pdf
Another concept that arises in the discourse on sustainability is what responsibility one generation has for the next in terms of caring for the environment and preventing problems like pollution or climate change. Thus, there are ecological, economic, and social issues as well as political problems at stake. The author also points out the legal and institutional issues involved in sustainability discourse as well as the technological implications.
Sustainability is at once a theoretical and practical concept. Both abstract and concrete, sustainability has different implications depending on the field of application. Therefore, an engineer will conceive of sustainability differently from an attorney or a consumer. The author outlines the various ideological underpinnings of sustainability discourse and presents a comprehensive model for a systems approach to sustainability science. Sustainability represents the intersection between science, philosophy, economics, ethics, and politics. Therefore, sustainability must be understood as a multi-dimensional and multi-disciplinary issue.
Hansa, a.M. (2010). Sustainability classifications in engineering: discipline and approach. International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 3:4, 258-276, First published on: 14 September 2010.
Business sustainability is about realizing the pathway to preserving and protecting profits, people, and the planet. It is expressed through a company’s focus on the triple bottom line, also defined as the management of financial, social and environmental risks, duties and opportunities. Firms that engage in sustainable practices typically have some form of corporate social responsibility (CSR) program or policy in place that allows them to support and promote initiatives that are considered to be important either to the communities in which the firm operates or else good for the overall environment as a whole. Sustainable practices that businesses focus on can include anything from “going green,” reducing one’s environmental footprint, protecting water supplies, promoting scholarships in communities where economic disadvantages are high, and so on. Engaging in sustainable practice is the essence of maintaining a commitment to culture and to one’s core values. This paper will define the term…
They want to maintain that livelihood. And for 90% of the world, being sustainable is a matter of life and death (Agnew n.d.)." To that end in 2007 they Architecture for Humanity launched the Open Architecture Network "an online, open source community dedicated to improving living conditions through innovative and sustainable design" where designers, engineers, and anyone else, professional or otherwise can share their ideas, designs and plans, collaborate, manage design projects from concept to implementation and build a more sustainable future (Open Architecture Network n.d.)
In addition to Sinclair and McDonough there are a wide range of architects and designers who are beginning to understand that their role is not simply to satisfy their own egos or curiosities but rather to help facilitate the sustainability of communities and human society at large. The New York-ased consulting firm Terrapin right Green, for example, was started by four architects who recognized…
Agnew, Singeli. "India: Design Like You Give a Damn Interview." Front Line. http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/india705/history/extended.html (accessed April 15, 2010).
Alter, Bonnie. "Sustainable Futures Exhibition Asks Can Design Make a Difference?" Treehuger.com. April 14, 2010. http://www.treehugger.com/files/2010/04/sustainable-futures-design-difference.php (accessed April 15, 2010).
-- . "Yves Behar and Puma Roll Out The Clever Little Bag." Treehugger. April 14, 2010. http://www.treehugger.com/files/2010/04/yves-behar-and-puma.php (accessed April 15, 2010).
Braungart, Michael, and William McDonough. Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things. North Point Press, 2002.
Sustainability More About Politics Than Science?
The environment is a word which refers to the natural effects around us including the atmosphere, seas and oceans, rocks and mountains, plants, ice formations, human beings, stars and several others. These effects are best left in their natural state because when they get disturbed, they could have serious consequences on the atmosphere, electricity, water, weather, fire and the earth's magnetism. Sadly, this is the situation of things now and these consequences are real. Several problems are facing the environment causing global adverse effects and putting the people in it at risk. This research studies these problems and determines if the scientific and political measures put in place are effective in mitigating them
Environmental issues facing the world
The disturbances in the environment have brought about noticeable changes in climate and high frequencies of natural disasters. Take for example; the problem of global warming…
Abraham John et al. The Importance of Science in Addressing Climate Change. Climate science. 2011. Print
Scorce Jason. The Role of Government in Environmental Protection. Grist. 2006. Online journal
Burns Steven. Environmental Policy and Political Tends in Public Debate. Natural resources and environment. Vol 23. No. 2. 2008. Print.
Rinkesh. Current Environmental Issues. Conserve energy future. 2017. Online journal.
China - United States Trade Analysis
Chinese Economic Development
China's Growing Resource Needs
China and Globalization
Protecting Intellectual Property
orking with Government Bureaucracy
International Management Considerations
Modes of Market Entry into China
Recommendations for International Expansions
China financial integration has significantly developed over the past three decades. The total of U.S.-China trade balances grew from $5 billion in 1980 to $409 billion in 2008. Both economies were significantly affected by the global financial crisis and the 2008 balance was reduced by a little over ten percent in 2009. However, the United States is still the world biggest importer of Chinese goods and the Chinese market as represent the third largest importer of U.S. exports. The total amount of trade between these two financial powerhouses is enormous. Furthermore, the Chinese population is already staggering and it is developing economically in historical rates. Thus China also represents a key strategic…
Asia Water Project. "Water supply and demand gap." The Asia Water Project. December 2009. http://www.asiawaterproject.org/water-crises/why-water/water-gap / (accessed August 29, 2011).
Gallagher, P. "CHINESE TRADE GROWTH IN HISTORICAL, REGIONAL CONTEXT." Trade & Public Policy . June 14, 2005. http://petergallagher.com.au/index.php/site/article/chinese-trade-growth-in-historical-regional-context (accessed August 30, 2011 ).
Inocencio, R. "The 'American Age' to end in 2016?" CNN Business. April 27, 2011. http://business.blogs.cnn.com/2011/04/27/the-american-age-ends-in-2016 / (accessed August 29, 2011).
Mankiw, G. "China's Trade and U.S. Manufacturing Jobs." Havard Economics. October 2003, 2003. http://www.economics.harvard.edu/files/faculty/40_testi_hcwm.pdf (accessed August 29, 2011).
Business eport on Dental Prima
The Firm's Specific Advantages for its Internal Environmental Assessment
Accessing Foreign Markets and their Buyers
Key Global Environmental Issues
Political, Economic, Social and Technological Environments
Key Challenges and Opportunities in Foreign Markets
Market Entry Modes
Structure and Control Mechanisms
Logistics & International Business Operations
Prima Dental is based in Gloucester in the United Kingdom and has a legacy of more than 150 years. It is among the oldest of dental companies in the UK (Primadental.com, 2016). The company produces a wide range of high-tech tools that are used for dental treatments the company has business all over the world. The company has been achieving double-digit sales growth in the last few years and considers itself a global leader in precision dental products. The core competencies of the company include its extensive research work that helps it to come up with new and innovative…
Amante Garcia, B. and Martinez Martinez, M. (2014). Internationalization: Changes and challenges chasing internationalization targeting. J. Technol. Sci. Educ., 4(1).
Bateman, I., Lovett, A. and Brainard, J. (2003). Applied environmental economics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Cadle, J., Eva, M., Hindle, K., Paul, D., Rollason, C., Turner, P., Yeates, D. and Cadle, J. (2014).Business Analysis. Swindon: BCS Learning & Development Limited.
Chanakira, M. (2012). Factors Affecting the Choice of Market Entry Modes in the African Telephony Industry. International Journal of Applied Behavioral Economics, 1(2), pp.1-15.
Project Management, Sustainability and Whole Lifecycle Thinking
ITT Project Management - Sustainability and Whole Lifecycle Thinking
Although the sustainability movement has been advocated predominately in response to the irresponsible expansion of inefficient infrastructure by industrialized nations, with the United States and Japan now making significant efforts to embrace "green" growth practices, a growing movement has emerged that promoting sustainability throughout developing nations presents the most productive path. Even as the most modernized nations continue to update their consumption patterns to better suit the technological age, seeking efficiency and effectiveness that is sustainable for the foreseeable future, rising powers like China, India, and Brazil are expanding their spheres of influence at the expense of the natural environment. To address the threats posed by developing nations repeating the mistakes of prior generations, mistakes which run the gamut from China's reckless damming of its nation's natural waterways to India's inability to address its…
Carroll, J. (2009). Project management for effective business change in easy steps. UK: In Easy Steps, Ltd.
Cleland, D., Bursic, K., Puerzer, R., and Vlasak, A. (Ed.). (1998). Project management casebook. Sylva, NC: Project Management Institute.
Collyer, S. (2009) Project management approaches for dynamic environments. International Journal of Project Management, 27 (4), p.355-364. Retrieved from website http://espace.uq.edu.au/eserv/UQ:175094/Project_Management.pdf
Finkbeiner, M. (2009). Carbon footprinting: Opportunities and threats. The Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 14, 91-94. Retrieved from http://www.lifecycleinitiative.org/wp - content/uploads/2012/12/Carbon-Footprinting-opportunities-ans-threats.pdf
Sustainability in Leadership
Current global occurrences have posed a great challenge to the continued existence of living things on earth. At this stage in the history of man, humanity is struggling with a lot of challenges; and these challenges are not restricted to region or race. Problems associated with climate change, increased rate of poverty, inconsistent democracy, and lack of justice and fairness in society are common to all nations. At this critical moment, there becomes a vacuum to be filled with urgency by leaders whose sole desire and purpose is to salvage the earth from total destruction. The world needs leaders who possess strategies to effectively combat these challenges and lead their followers into lifestyles that are self-sustaining. Leaders who could bring about this much needed sustainability to our environments are regarded as Sustainability Leaders.
Purpose of Sustainable Development in Modern Leadership
Leadership in the traditional setting is,…
Banuri, T. & Najam, A. (2002). Civic Entrepreneurship: A Civil Society Perspective on Sustainable Development (Vol. 1: Global Synthesis). Boston, MA: Stockholm Environment Institute -- Boston Center.
Bennis, W. & Goldsmith, J. (2003). Learning to Lead: A Workbook On Becoming a Leader. 3rd ed. New York: Basic Books.
Brown, D. (2000). What Practical Difference Would the Adoption of the Earth Charter Mean to the Resolution of Global Warming Issues? P. Miller & L. Westra (Eds.), Just Ecological Integrity: The Ethics of Maintaining Planetary Life (pp. 205-214). New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Boutros-Ghali, B. (1998). Leadership and Conflict. In Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict (Ed.), Essays on Leadership (pp. 1-6). New York: Carnegie Corporation.
Therefore, they use strict evaluation criteria to make choice among different alternatives. Keeping in view the strength of customers' bargaining power, Toyota and other automakers are expending huge amounts on advertisements and promotional campaigns to create awareness about their brands and convince these customers to prefer them over all other brands (Jenny & Scammon, 2010).
5. Internal Environmental Analysis for Toyota Motor Corporation
5.1. The esources Types:
Like other types of business corporations, Toyota also relies on four different organizational resources. These are: financial resources, human resources, informational resources, and physical resources. Financial resources are the money invested by the company's shareholders and the profits left after paying off liabilities. These resources enable the company to run its day-to-day operations, run marketing campaigns, and make strategic investments to keep it innovative and competitive in all aspects. Secondly, the human resources are the intellectual capital that plays a major role in…
Bearden, W.O., Ingram, T.N. & LaForge, R.W. (2007). Marketing: Principles and Perspectives, 5th Edition. Boston, Mass: McGraw-Hill
Blythe, J., & Megicks, P. (2010). Marketing Planning: Strategy, Environment and Context, 3rd Edition. U.K: Prentice Hall
Brassington, F. & Pettitt, S. (2006). Principles of Marketing, 4th Edition. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall
Frederic, M., Agnes, V. & John, M. (2011). Pest Analysis, 2nd Edition. U.K: Gardners Books
This information is delivered throughout the report, as there is a student or alumni that is highlighted within the description of almost every strategic goal. The first is a recent graduate, Charlotte Shannon. Shannon is used as an example of how Santa Clara's academic and social programs excel and provide great experience for students, but also a great impact on the community as well. She is used as an example to show just how many opportunities students at Santa Clara have in order to grow as an individual and to increase their capabilities for impacting the world around them. The delivery of this information is far from dry. Labeled as "Charlotte Shannon's Santa Clara Journey," there is a candid picture of her to make her more relatable to the readers. Then, a very visually stunning timeline is presented in order to track her journey and her success thanks in part…
sustainability and reviews the implications and impact of various sustainability modes, all of which appear to be positive. To begin this review requires coming to an understanding of what sustainability is. As the Interface (2008) website describes it, "Sustainability can be many different things -- a motto, an ideal, a way to do business, a way to live your life or a call to action." Because this seems an appropriate way to view the many aspects of sustainability, this paper adopts this viewpoint as well.
Raven (2002) discusses how we got to this point facing the difficult challenges of human sustainability. Over the course of 400 generations, or about 10,000 years, the human population has grown from several million to over 6 billion. Humans continue to depend on a series of ancient, genetically and socially determined habits and attitudes which seem dysfunctionally inappropriate for modern society. As a consequence then,…
United Nations. 1987. Our Common Future, Chapter 2: Towards Sustainable Development Retrieved on May 5, 2011 from http://www.un-documents.net/ocf-02.htm
What is Sustainability. 2008. Retrieved on May 5, 2011 from http://www.interfaceglobal.com/Sustainability/What-is-Sustainability-.aspx
Whiteman, G. 1999. Sustainability for the planet: a marketing perspective. Conservation Ecology 3(1): 13. Retrieved on May 5, 2011 from:: http://www.consecol.org/vol3/iss1/art13/
Global sustainability can be defined as "meetings the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." (Oskamp, 2000, p. 373) This can be interpreted to mean that the present generation must not overuse resources, or created problems which will effect future generations. Many see the problem with humans abusing the Earth's resources as a human behavior problem, and therefore psychologists, sociologists, and other social scientists have a role in altering destructive human behavior. Both George Howard and Stuart Oskamp have identified the problems and proposed several ideas on how psychologists can play an important role in designing non-destructive human behavior.
Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing the human race and it's ability to sustain itself. It is important to discuss human behavior that can contribute to climate change, as well as the psychological drivers of these behaviors. For instance,…
Oskamp, Stuart. (2000). Psychological Contributions to Achieving an Ecologically Sustainable Future for Humanity. Journal of Social Issues, 56 (3), 373-390. Retrieved from http://22.214.171.124/scholar?q=cache:fELgfd3ftmMJ:scholar.google.com/&hl=
Oskamp, Stuart. (2002) Environmentally Responsible Behavior: Teaching and Promoting It Effectively. Analysis of Social Issues and Public Policy, 2(1), 173-182. Retrieved from http://www.asap-spssi.org/pdf/asap034.pdf
Swim, Janet., Howard, George, et al. (2010) A Report by the American Psychological Association's Task Force on the Interface Between Psychology and Global Climate Change. American Psychological Association. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/science/about/publications/climate-change.pdf
These tiny particles are poison and damage the green effect. For the reason that they reflect solar energy back into space they have a preservation result on the world.
Ocean current is a problem because it has an effect on the greenhouse. Also, ocean currents are something that has been able to move vast amounts of all heat all over the planet. Also, winds are what push horizontally towards the sea surface and then also drive the ocean current patterns. There are as well interactions among the ocean and atmosphere can likewise create phenomena for instance El Nino which happens every 2 to 6 years.
Graph 4 a low greenhouse gas emissions in the UK
Earth orbital changes have an effect on the greenhouse management. The organization has been able to find out that earth makes one full orbit around the sun every year. The earth is tilted at an…
Baue, B., 2013. Threading the Needle: How BT Integrates Climate Stabilization with Economic Prosperity (Economics). [Online]
Available at: http://www.sustainablebrands.com/news_and_views/new-metrics/bt-climate-stabilization-economic-prosperity [Accessed 30 March 2014].
BT, 2014. BT Trace. Supply chains that flow. [Online]
Available at: http://www.globalservices.bt.com/uk/en/products/bttrace [Accessed 30 March 2014].
This report will provide analysis and recommendations for Patagonia’s sustainability initiatives. The analysis will examine the current state of the company’s sustainability initiatives. Best practices from the literature will be utilized to them make recommendations for how the company can improve, including what metrics it can utilize, and how it should approach sustainability from a marketing perspective.
The current approach to sustainability combines input and output measures. An input measure, for example, is the percentage of organic cotton that the company uses, based on evidence that shows organic cotton is less harmful to the environment than conventional cotton. Programs like Common Threads also reflect an input-based approach, as are the five Rs. These approaches start with program design, but they also operate largely on the assumption that these plans, if executed, will deliver results. There are fewer means by which the effectiveness of these programs are measured. Having…
Sustainability in Australian Food Exporting
Sustainability is an increasingly important consideration in both built and natural environments, as human endeavors are revealed to be increasingly fragile and enormously dependent on natural resources that could potentially be eradicated through overuse and unsustainable practices. This affects almost all areas of human activity, including many that might seem not directly related to sustainability issues such as import and export levels. When considered from a regional perspective, however, the exportation of resources -- whether purely natural resources or a combination of natural and built procedures -- becomes directly related to certain concepts in sustainability. This paper will examine current features of Australia's food exportation activities and determine their degree of sustainability.
The amount of arable -- i.e. food-producing -- land in the world is diminishing, in some regions at alarming rates, meaning that agricultural products are already becoming increasingly rare (Midmore…
Fresco, L. & Kroonenberg, S. (1992). Time and spatial scales in ecological sustainability. Land use policy July: 155-68.
Midmore, D. (1993). Agronomic modification of resource use and intercrop productivity. Field crops research 34: 357-80.
Midmore, D. (1998). Agriculture and the modern society. Acres 6(2): 33-6.
Shaw, R., Gallopin, G., Weaver, P. & Oberg, S. (1992). Sustainable development: a systems approach. International institute for applied systems analysis status report.
Attaining a sustainable global environment requires rigorous reevaluation of our energy policies and practices, transformational leadership, creative technologies, and substantial changes in human behavior."
Sustainable improvement, rather than symbolic gestures are the focus of the Plan. In 2009, the university noted a one percent measurable decrease in greenhouse gas emissions by staff, faculty, and students. The operational means used to achieve this reduction were applying "alternative technologies and alternative fuel options to decrease emissions from the central power facility;" expanding "energy conservation through retrofits in existing buildings across campus;" designing "new construction and renovations to use 50% less energy than required by current energy code to at least a LEED Silver equivalency;" and finally including experience in leading-edge sustainable design as a criterion for the selection of architects (Sustainability Plan, 2008, Princeton University). Most radically Princeton has applied an internal voluntary so-called CO2 tax on all operations -- in other…
Sustainability Plan. (2008, February 18). Princeton University. Retrieved November 21, 2009 at http://www.princeton.edu/reports/sustainability-plan-20080219/
The topic for this project is sustainability in the way food is processed and packaged. This paper will investigate the cost effectiveness of processing and packaging food in a sustainable manner over the long-term. Industries are slowly making sustainable changes in the packaging of products, but not necessarily in the processing of the foods (Pollan, 2002). Sustainability has been a major marketing factor in the way food is delivered (Author). Research has demonstrated that the current food system plays an important role in causing climate change and how better food choices could significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This makes the production of the food supply an important factor in sustainability with environmentally and social affects.
The "Our Common Future" report describes sustainability as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (owden, 2011). As the meanings…
Author, U. (2012). Connecting family, community, and health from a food system perspective. Retrieved from Iowa State University: http://www.liopold.iastate.edu/sites/default/files/grants/M2010-30.pdf
Author, U. (n.d.). Soil Association. Retrieved from Feeding the Olympics.
Bowden, C. (2011, Aug 16). Woodbury University. Retrieved from The Sustainability Reading List: Sustainability_Reading_List_2_0-1/pdf.
Davis, A.S. (2012). Increasing cropping system diversity balances, productivity, profitability and environmental health. PloS ONE, 7(10), E47, 149.
'Greed is good.' Although few people today would openly agree with this sentiment, the equally damaging idea that 'growth is good' remains. Citizens of the developing world celebrate when the economy is growing and champion a rising national birth rate, which means a growing population of new consumers. However the James Ward Sustainability lecture underlines the fact that there must be a fundamental shift in attitude in terms of the way that population growth is viewed. The world's population growth is exploding and soon the world will not be able to sustain the needs of a rapidly-expanding population.
Ward stresses that despite the current 'fad' for sustainable and green technology, this small changes are not nearly enough to cope with the population boom. The effects of the use of so-called alternative transport fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, and even the shift to electric technology will be too…
As happened with many service businesses during a recession, Jazz Event Productions experienced a drop in revenues in 2010. For a company that has grown steadily throughout its 15-year history, it was an unwelcome first. The decrease in sales occurred primarily because companies faced with tough economic choices because of the recession either cut back or eliminated entirely their budgets for special events. hereas many of our loyal customers continued to trust us to produce their special events just as in past years, others were operating with reduced budgets. As a result, Jazz experienced a period wherein sales dropped by about five percent.
ith the improved economy, sales have returned to pre-recession levels, however, because they are cautious and careful owners who want to perform their due diligence, Alex and Cindy are looking for ways to ensure that the company stays profitable. They believe that the best approach,…
Bansal, P. & Roth, K. (2000). Why companies go green: A model of ecological responsiveness. Academy of Management Journal, 43(4), 717-736. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1556363
Cronin, J.J., Smith, J.S., Gleim, M.R., Ramirez, E., & Martinez, J.D. (2011). Green marketing strategies: an examination of stakeholders and the opportunities they present. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(1), 158-174. doi: 10.1007/s11747-010-0227-0
Hartmann, P., Ibanez, V.A., & Sainz, J.F. (2005). Green branding effects on attitude: Functional vs. emotional positioning strategies. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 23(1), 9-29. doi: 10.1108/02634500510577447
Internal Revenue Service. (2011). Qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicles (IRC 30D). Retrieved November 22, 2011 from: http://www.irs.gov/businesses/article/0,,id=214841,00.html
The differences in culture with the American culture will meant the American staff that may go to help open the branches in China will have to take quite some time to learn the culture and the ways of the people there.
The other difficulty will be the language barrier that may exists between the Americans and the Chinese. It may even call for a translator in the initial days as transactions between the American sales people and the Chinese customers, or interaction between the staff themselves may be a big challenge.
On the technical side, the Wal-Mart may have it hard when it comes to acquainting themselves with the market trends and the competition from the older players who are already in operation in China. It will take a lot of research work to be able to know the finer details of the market trends and the ways through which…
Abacus CPA, (2007). Register a company in Hong Kong / Hong Kong Company Formation.
Retrieved June 24, 2011 from http://www.abacushkcpa.com/english/english_Company_Formation_Hong_Kong_Limited_Company_55.htm#55
Center for Creative Leadership, (2009). Developing a Leadership Strategy: A Critical Ingredient
for Organizational Success. Retrieved June 24, 2011 from http://www.ccl.org/leadership/pdf/research/LeadershipStrategy.pdf
The global online marketplace is one that represents a significant opportunity for M&S with the Per Una brand, yet the retailer is reticent to move away from oyal Mail and White Arrow courier services. To capitalize on the unmet needs of higher-income consumers in the Middle East and Asia, M&S must create a more aggressive shipping and logistics program to support the sales of the Per Una brand throughout these regions of the world. Global competition online for lingerie and woman's wear is forcing the urgency of this issue for M&S general management today.
A third marketing environmental factor that M&S must concentrate on with regard to the primary customer segments who purchase the Per Una brand of lingerie and women's wear are the environmental "green" initiatives and corporate social responsibility (CS) initiatives that Per Una and its supply chain partners also adhere to. The more environmentally conscious the consumer…
Manfreda Cavazza 2007. M&S blooms as Rose wins women's vote. McClatchy - Tribune Business News May 23
1. http://www.proquest.com (Accessed November 10, 2008).
Jonathan Guthrie 2008. First the credit crisis, now the fashion crisis:[LONDON 1ST EDITION]. Financial Times, February 14,
Individual eport style Case Analysis: - Ford Motor Company - IN TEXT CASE 18 Case Objectives 1. To examine external internal forces affect competitive strategy. 2. To investigate choices business corporate-level strategies a highly turbulent industry.
Ford Motor Company
The modern day society is still striving to overcome the impediments of the economic crisis that commenced in 2007 in the United States real estate sector. The crisis left people unemployed, losing their life savings, and the economic agents in hurdle. Still, in these difficult times, the leading American manufacturer of automobiles reemerges as a strong and stable organization.
Ford Motor Company has not used federal funds to overcome the crisis, but has focused on reconsolidating itself in order to restore its balance and financial stability. Today, the organization is revealing the first signs of this stability, yet challenges still remain.
General information about Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company was…
Mehta, S., 2011, Oligopoly characteristics, Buzzle, http://www.buzzle.com/articles/oligopoly-characteristics.html last accessed on March 27, 2012
Ford Motor Company 2010 Annual Report, http://corporate.ford.com/doc/ir_2010_annual_report.pdf last accessed on March 27, 2012
2011 Form 10K, Ford Motor Company, http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/37996/000003799612000007/f12312011-10k.htm#sDD440BBF35C4A708914089ECB28A45F8 last accessed on March 27, 2012
2012, Industry handbook, Investopedia, http://www.investopedia.com/features/industryhandbook/automobile.asp#axzz1qJiZoOSR last accessed on March 27, 2012
Tesco UK -- Strategic Report
Tesco's Strategic Position (UK Market)
Tesco's Competitive Strategy - Diversification
Domestic U.K. Market
Non-food Goods and Services
Evaluation of Tesco's UK Strategy
Tesco's growth curve over the last quarter century has involved a revolution in its strategy and image. The company's initial success was grounded on the "Piles it high, sells it cheap" approach (Liptrot, 2005). The company realized that this strategy caused serious disadvantages among certain profitable market segments such as with middle-class customers. In the late 1970s, Tesco's brand image had become perceived as a low quality brand and consultants actually advised the company to change the name at the time. Although Tesco decided not to change its name to change brand perception it was still able to become the largest retailer in the United Kingdom, with close to a thirty percent market share. The next two largest competitors…
Baker, R., 2011. Asda sales up despite fall in shoppers. [Online]
Available at: http://www.marketingweek.co.uk/asda-sales-up-despite-fall-in-shoppers/3029355.article
BBC News, 2006. Tesco accused of 'near monopoly'. [Online]
Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/4618972.stm [Accessed 18 March 2012].
hile this investment has flourished to this point despite strained cross-strait relations, deterioration in the China-Taiwan relationship would threaten Taiwanese investment in China. Taiwan's firms have already been warned by their Ministry of Economic Affairs to increase their level of risk assessment on account of increased risk that China's government poses to Taiwanese investments (Central News Agency, 2007). More important, however, are the damaging effects on total FDI that deterioration in China-Taiwan relations would have. hile Hong Kong is the largest source of FDI, much of that is estern and Taiwanese money that is merely funneled through Hong Kong intermediaries, rather than bona fide HK-sourced capital (Ibid). Some of this money may even be China-sourced (Hou, 2001). If China loses substantial amounts of foreign investment as a consequence of turmoil with regards to Taiwan, its economic growth could stall. However, this remains a lower concern than some of the other…
Xiong, Tong. (2009). Beijing Reports 80% Blue Sky Days in First Quarter. China View. Retrieved August 2, 2009 from http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/31/content_11108454.htm
No author. (2003). China's Resource Shortage May be Beneficial in Long Run. Voice of America. Retrieved August 2, 2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2003-01/a-2003-01-14-18-China-s.cfm?moddate=2003-01-14
Kejun, Jiang. (2005). Management of Energy Resources in China. Energy Research Institute/World Bank. Retrieved August 2, 2009 from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTDECABCTOK2006/Resources/Kejun_Energy_China.pdf
No author. (2009). International Energy Outlook 2009. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved August 2, 2009 from http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/coal.html
Sustainment Management and Readiness Team (SMART)
To begin the first benefit of the support system is its structure. Structure is particularly important within a military context. Structure provides a standardized process by which all personnel can properly understand and abide by. Structure also provides consistency in regards to issues throughout the support system. Having a consistent means of remediation allows for an efficient response that reduces the need for explanation. Within the military, this is critical because the need for explanation can potentially reduce the need for higher ranking officials to spend their time on aspects that are not warranted. In addition, each unit member knows each point of contact within the value chain. Having a structured process that allows all members within the system to clearly delineate the overall process has another benefit as well. The process allows for fault information to be easily captured in the event…
Allouche, J. (2010). The sustainability and resilience of global water and food systems: Political analysis of the interplay between security, resource scarcity, political systems and global trade. Journal of Food Policy.
This article investigates current and potential strain on water and food production systems and aims at ensuring their sustainability and security. These strains are subjects of factors such as war/con-ict, economic crisis and climate change.
The paper looks at the long-term dynamics of global water and food systems in terms of sustainability and resilience and lays emphasis on possible conflict between global securities, allocation, resource scarcity and international trade as well as local coping strategies, power, social and gender relations and right-based social movements on the other.
This paper is significant in asserting the inconclusiveness of the fact that resource scarcity is a motivator of conflict, and that water and food insecurities are a product of socio-political issues. It…
Allouche, J. (2010). The sustainability and resilience of global water and food systems: Political analysis of the interplay between security, resource scarcity, political systems and global trade. Journal of Food Policy.
Center for Sustainable Systems. (2011). U.S. Food System: Fact Sheets. Retrieved November 19, 2012, from
Contributions to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation set up by Gates and his wife top $20 billion." (Hillis, 1)
As indicated though, Microsoft's performance in the area of sustainability is not a simple black-out-white outlook. Quite to the contrary, its political activity seems almost counterintuitive to the actions the company has taken to improve its own achievement of sustainability. Namely, Schwartz reports the software giant to have fallen short of the expectations of major environmental groups such as Greenpeace for failing to use its enormous influence to push policymakers toward more aggressive regulatory changes. hile Microsoft can afford to invest in renewable and sustainable technologies, without a major change in policy legislation and corporate culture, many smaller firms cannot afford this type of transformation.
Still, it must be said that Microsoft is a major innovator in this area, and has provided myriad examples to other firms of ways to…
Environmental Leader (EL). (2009). Microsoft Cutting CSR PR Budget. Environmental Leader.com
Hillis, S. (2007). Microsoft Moves to Polish Tarnished Public Image. Advanced Network.
Microsoft Corporation (MC). (2009). Microsoft Hohm Beta. Microsoft Environment.
Schwartz, A. (2010). Sustainability Faceoff: Microsoft vs. Apple. Fast Company.
A) According to Kates, .W., Parris, T.M., and Leiserowitz, A.A. (2005). What is sustainable development?
Sustainable development is taking into account the needs of different stakeholders in order to create practices and policies which are realistic and effective.
Brundtland eport argues that environment and development are inseparable. Explain why?
The environment and development work in conjunction with each other. This is because natural resources are finite and must be sustained in a particular area (i.e. development). When there is damage to the environment, this makes it harder to manage natural resources and destroys the ecosystem. Once this takes place, is the point irreversible damage is inevitable and it devastates any kind of development that is occurring. (Kates, Parris, & Leiserowitz, 2005)
What is the standard definition of sustainable development defined by the Brundtland's report? This is the first full definition, but the definition is ambiguous. Why?
Background. (2015). UN. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/bkgd.shtml
Doppelt, B. (2010). Leading change toward sustainability. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing Limited.
Kates, R.W., Parris, T.M., and Leiserowitz, A.A. (2005). What is sustainable development?. Environment, 47 (3), 8-21
Innovations in strategic planning
Organizational analysis of Chinese industrial firm, Zhongqing Zongshen Automobile Industry Manufacturing Co., Ltd., offers much in terms of understanding the global powerhouse as an industrial economy of scale. If China's macro-economic position is one of increased export growth, then micro-analyses enable us to uncover the ingenuity and strategies behind the giant. Zongshen Motorcycle brand is one of the core subsidiaries of Zongshen Industrial Group, with consumer recognition in the capital market. The mission of the company is to improve the quality of life of human beings through innovation of clean, convenient and safe transportation tools (Zongshen, 2010).
In 2008, expansion of the two-wheeled motorcycle concern in its multi-scale strategic plan encouraged growth through: domestic sales, import and export agreements, and key & important component distribution. The integrated strategy resulted in substantial returns, with export sales at $100 million alone. The Company reports cumulative assets…
Dispute Settlement: Dispute DS340 China -- Measures Affecting Imports of Automobile Parts (2008). World Trade Organization. Retrieved from: http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/cases_e/ds340_e.htm
DOHA Declaration on Anti-dumping GATT Article VI, Section 7. WTO (2009). Retrieved from: http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dda_e/implem_explained_e.htm#antidumping
Flannery, R., & Huang, P. (2003). No HOGs here. Forbes Global, 6(17), 26.
PESTLE (2010). RapidBi.
(the Disaster Center's Motor Vehicle Accident Death and Injury data Index, par. 1)
Accidents due to motor vehicles were the second major reasons of police deaths by the end of the century, accounting for more than 2,000 deaths or 15% of all deaths. About, 1,000 more officers comprising of 7% of all loss of lives were hit and met death by passing motor vehicles while they were not in their vehicle, rendering this group the fourth main reason for law enforcement deaths during the last century. Drunken driving was responsible for 315 cases of these vehicle-linked deaths. During the initial part of the last century, the second most important cause of police deaths were accidents due to police deaths. Practically from 1910-1939, 485 officers lost their lives in motor cycle accidents, as opposed to 323 officers who met death in other automobile accidents. With legal enforcement starting to more and…
Alcohol and Motorcycle Accidents. http://www.texasmotorcycleaccident.com/article.asp?artid=52
Automobile & Motorcycle Accidents Information. 2007. http://www.injuryboard.com/view.cfm/Topic=31
Based on the U.S. Annual death rate of 8.7 per 1000. http://www.democraticunderground.com/discuss/duboard.php?az=view_all&address=203x347144
Blanchard, E. B; Hickling, E. J; Taylor, a. E; Loos, W. R; Forneris, C. a; Jaccard. J. Who develops PTSD from motor vehicle accidents? Behavior Research Therapy. vol. 34, no. 1, January, 1996. pp: 1-10.
Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and he can feed himself for life. How could you put this principle into practice through the development of a social entrepreneurship venture?
Development of Social Entrepreneurialism
Corporate Social Responsibility
Social Entrepreneurship and Food
Social entrepreneurship was introduced in the 1970s to address the issue of social sustainably and the term "social entrepreneur." This analysis will begin by providing a brief history as well as a working definition for the concept of social entrepreneurialism. It will also discuss some of the related movements that have been working towards some of the same goals, albeit, from different directions to address various challenges in society and the environment. Furthermore, a more detailed overview of the exact challenges that are present in society that social entrepreneurialism can work to address will…
Abu-Saifan, S., 2012. Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries. [Online]
Available at: http://timreview.ca/article/523
[Accessed 28 April 2016].
Ashoka, N.d.. Vision and Mission. [Online]
Progress and Impact Assessment Report
The MEDINA project seeks to assist the people of Shibam and Zabid in acquiring new skills that will improve living conditions in a number of areas. Ideally, these skills would initially assist individuals with producing useful services and household items for personal use. However, once these skills have been perfected, they can be used to supply goods and services to the worker's community, and, eventually, a broader market.
The key candidates for such training are women; particularly, women who reside in poor households. They cannot work outside the home, have limited marketable skills, and often live far from markets. Women living in rural areas cannot easily travel to city markets, and thus must rely on their husbands for information and necessary purchases. Illiteracy also restricts them in their dealings with the outside world which can include possible business dealings. Women are also not allowed to…
As the article on SPC (sustainable packaging Coalition) describes, packaging itself contributes to as much as a third of the waste in developed countries. The two articles are closely related in that SPC is all about effective biomimicry in the packaging industry. The new approach to producing sustainable industrial designs is based on life cycle analysis where eliminating waste and conserving energy are key components. The sustainable packaging coalition, a new environmental group is working towards creating new standards for industrial packaging that ensure that products are 'sourced responsibly', designed to be 'safe and effective', 'cost effective' and most importantly, recyclable.
The SPC formed by leading companies is promoting and sharing innovative packaging design solutions that are inspired by nature and therefore environmentally friendly and sustainable. In other words the SPC is working towards innovations in package designs that are modeled on natural systems. The SPC also studies and reports…
1) Tim McGee & Dr. Dayna Baumeister, 'Biomimicry',
Sustainability and CSR Questions
Question 1; Green Rubber
Failures of firms adopting green marketing approaches are numerous. Perceptions that the target market are more interested in other factors, such as cost or quality, rather than the green credentials will mean firms are likely to prioritize the factors they feel are most likely to attract that market, and making a will lead to a competitive advantage. For example, in the GRG case it is apparent that there could be a cost benefit to using the DeLink technology to recycle rubber. The ability to develop green messages for a product that is associated with environment damage can also be a challenge, as it may be difficult to make the message credible, especially if it is to be a source of differentiation (Kotler and Keller, 2011). In addition, issues may include the target market assumption that recycled goods may be an inferior…
Project Management, Sustainability and Whole Lifecycle Thinking
Architectural Analysis of Famous Building
With the completion of construction on the Civic Center in 1996, the San Francisco Main Public Library's ambitious design project transformed its previously staid building into an architectural representation of the city itself. By fusing a modern sense of sustainable building with his own take on the traditional Beaux-Arts style, lead designer James Ingo Freed, of the renowned firm Pei Cobb Freed & Partners, along with associate designer Cathy Simon of the firm Simon Martin-Vegue Winkelstein Moris, managed to erect a fitting contribution to one of America's most historic yet progressive metropolitan centers. The New Main Library was designed on a fittingly massive scale, with its 375,000 square feet providing twice the amount of usable space as the previous library building. The building's expansive scale was also intended to assure proportionality with the library's monumental neighbors throughout the…
Muschamp, H. (1996, May 12). Architecture view: Room for imagination in a temple of reason. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/1996/05/12/arts/architecture-view-room-for-imagination-in-a - temple-of-reason.html
Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. (2001, April 17). San francisco main public library. Retrieved from http://www.pcf-p.com/a/p/8908/s.html
San Francisco Public Library. (2013, January 11).Architecture of the main library. Retrieved from http://sfpl.org/index.php?pg=2000023201
Wildermuth, J. (2000, January 05). Cost of redoing s.f. main library put at $28 million / report notes lacks of shelf space read more: http://www.sfgate.com/education/article/cost-of - redoing-s-f-main-library-put-at-28-2785880.php
Business Expansion and Sustainability
Taking in consideration the hiring process situation at the firm, certain concerns should be addressed for attaining business growth as well as successfully running the firm.
Job equirements and its impact on organization
Certain number of things should be considered before determining the job description and its effect on the hiring process in an organization in this situation. First and foremost, the employer must decide the job description at hand. What does the individual's job consists of? What's the skills and qualification required? Then the most effective recruitment process to appeal to the competent candidates. Should it be in a newspaper ad? Ad's on the internet? Hiring from schools? It's imperative to look for competent candidates in multitude of places and from number of sources as well (ecruitment Strategies, n.d.).
Before taking the consequent step, the tasks at hand must be scrutinized and information pertaining the…
Acas (2010).Recruitment and induction. Retrieved from http://www.acas.org.uk / media / pdf/l/e / Recruitment _and_ induction_(October -2012)-accessible -version -may- 2012. pdf
Breaugh, J.A. (2008). Employee recruitment: Current knowledge and important areas for future research, Human Resource Management Review, 18, 103-118. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2008.07.003
Flinders University (n.d.) Adressing Selection Criteria. Retrieved from http://www.flinders.edu.au/careers-files / CELC/Publications/Careers %20Advice%20&%20Guides/Addressing%20Selection%20Criteria.pdf
Louw, G.J. (2013). Exploring recruitment and selection trends in the Eastern Cape, SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 11,1-10.
Phase 3 Discussion Board
The article that I have selected is "A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science," by Turner et al. (2003). The authors advocate for a system that allows scientists to fully understand "the consequences of changes taking place in the structure and function of the biosphere." The authors argue that current vulnerability assessments are insufficient, and move the discussion towards an enhanced framework.
Sustainability science is defined as "an emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems" so this paper fits in with key elements of that definition. First, the paper reflects the need to understand the planet's life support systems in a complex way. The interactions between elements of these…
Eagly, A. & Johnson, B. (1990). Gender and leadership style: A meta-analysis. Digital Commons @ UConn. Retrieved October 23, 2014 from http://digitalcommons.uconn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1010&context=chip_docs
Gardiner, M. & Tiggemann, M. (1999). Gender differences in leadership style, job stress, mental health in male- and female-dominated industries. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. Vol. 72 (3) 301-315.
Kruse, K. (2013). What is authentic leadership? Forbes. Retrieved October 23, 2014 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/kevinkruse/2013/05/12/what-is-authentic-leadership/
Kushell, E. & Newton, R. (1986). Gender, leadership style, and subordinate satisfaction: An experiment. Sex Roles. Vol. 14 (3-4) 203-209.
company with a fairly strong sustainability policy is Wal-Mart. The company publishes a fairly extensive report about its sustainability practices. One of the interesting things about Wal-Mart's sustainability practices is that they seem very focused on efficiency, with efforts dedicated to waste reduction. This is important to the company in that by reducing waste they are lowering their costs.
The concept of sustainability, however, is the measure here. Wal-Mart's stakeholders with respect to sustainability are mostly internal, with external stakeholders being suppliers and then the world in general. The suppliers are active partners in Wal-Mart's sustainability efforts, as they must work closely with the company to ensure that sustainability initiatives are met.
Other stakeholders are more generic in nature, and do not appear to have been consulted. Environmental advocacy groups do not appear to have contributed to this effort. In general, Wal-Mart's overall business practices are not especially sustainable, given…
Delshad, A.B. (2012). Revisiting "Who influences whom?" agenda setting on biofuels. Congress & the Presidency, 39(2), 177 -- 198.
Huston, A., Zillmann, D. & Bryant, J. (1994). Media, children and the family: Scientific, psychodynamic and clinical perspectives. Lawrence Erlbaum: Mahwah, NJ.
Levy, G. & Razin, R. (2012). Dynamic legislative decision making when interest groups control the agenda. London School of Economics. Retrieved July 15, 2014 from http://personal.lse.ac.uk/levyg1/jet1.pdf
Steel, B., List, P. Lach, D., & Shindler, B. (2004) The role of scientists in the environmental policy process: A case study from the American West. Environmental Science & Policy, 7, 1 -- 13.
As employees have expertise in manufacturing products, they should be paid for that expertise. Low labor figures for manufacturing can question the quality of the products the company is selling to consumers. Not to mention that if Nike has recalls of products, consumers may view this as bad management practices that produce low quality products for high prices.
here marketing takes a big portion of expense dollars, manufacturing labor expense should be balanced with the marketing expense. Unbalancing in these areas can bring questions of integrity and quality of products. It could also place a bad taste with investors in determining the ethics of the company's management team. Nike should spend less on marketing and more on manufacturing labor costs to show a higher quality of products manufactured. Nike should also evaluate the marketing expenses and ensure that waste is eliminated in the process. These changes in the business processes…
Boggan, Steve. Nike Admits to Mistakes Over Child Labor. 20 Oct 2001. Article. 13 June 2013.
Brown, Carolyn M. How to Successfully Rebrand Your Business. 2013. Article. 13 June 2013.
Goldberg, Eleanor. On World Day Against child Labor 2013, Activists fight to Keep Kids in School and Out of Factories (What You Can Do). 12 June 2013. Article. 13 June 2013.
McKenna, Luke. Child Labor Is Making Disturbing Resurgence Around the World. 6 Jan 2012. Article. 13 June 2013.
pag). Some business will continue as usual, of course: Abbott's nutrition division, based in Columbus, Ohio and employing approximately 2,000 people, announced that the nutrition unit will "fall under the umbrella of a new medical products company that will retain the Abbott name in a split announced ednesday" (Rouan n.pag). In addition, the announcement has apparently met with international investor approval: "At the news, Abbott's shares went up 7.3% in premarket trading on ednesday" (M2 Pharma n.pag).
The split is expected to occur in 2012 and will result in the currently-unnamed pharmaceutical company and the diversified medical products company, retaining the name "Abbott" (Abbott Laboratories n.pag).
(a). Pharmaceutical Company:
The pharmaceutical company is projected to have annual sales of approximately $18 Billion, a portfolio including Abbott's high-profile drugs such as Humira and Lupron, and a pipeline of "promising new specialty medicines and formulations" (Abbott Laboratories n.pag). According to Abbott's press…
Abbott Laboratories. A Tradition of Innovation. n.d. Web. 22 October 2011.
-- . Abbott Reports Strong Ongoing Third Quarter Results; Confirms Double-Digit Ongoing Earnings Growth Outlook for 2011. 19 October 2011. Web. 21 October 2011.
-- . Abbott to Separate into Two Leading Companies in Diversified Medical Products and Research-Based Pharmaceuticals. 19 October 2011. Web. 21 October 2011.
-- . Abbott Worldwide. n.d. 2011. Web. 21 October 2011.
Part 3: On the Subway.com website, Subway highlights some of its sustainability initiatives. The company works with Energy Star to reduce the energy usage of its stores by using more efficient light bulbs. The company does this in partnership with Philips, the manufacturer of the light bulbs.
Subway has a new store concept known as the eco-store. The first Subway eco-store opened in Kissimmee, Florida in 2007 and two more are open in Oregon. The eco-store is built according to standards set by the U.S. Green Building Council, including Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification. Such features of these stores include high efficiency HVAC systems, remote condensing units for refrigeration and ice-making, high efficiency lighting, low flow water fixtures and decor made from sustainable resources, including recycled materials. hile there are only three eco-stores in existence, the company is developing more. At some point, Subway could take the…
Fields, K. (2009). A new order. Eco-Structure. Retrieved May 3, 2011 from http://www.eco-structure.com/retail-projects/a-new-order.aspx
Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved May3, 2011 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
Greenopia. (2010). Fast food. Greenopia. Retrieved May 3, 2011 from http://www.greenopia.com/usa/fastfood_search.aspx?category=Fastfood&Listpage=0&input=Name%25or%25product&subcategory=None&sort=ratingdesc
Kamp, J. (2008). Can fast food be sustainable? Ode Magazine. Retrieved May 3, 2011 from http://www.odemagazine.com/doc/52/can-fast-food-be-sustainable/
Oceana Group Limited is a company listed in Johannesburg and Namibia stock exchanger. The company is in the food and beverage industry with core business being fishing as well as allied services sector. The company is engaged in the catching, processing as well as the procurement of various marine species such as pilchard, redeye, sardine anchovy, lobster, herring, tune, horse mackerel as well as hake. Other deep-see species also form their specialty. Their products are prepared and then sold via local and international marketing channels. Additionally, the company provides fruit handling as well as cold storage facilities at an extensive level (Oceana,2011). The company operates via various divisions, subsidiary stakeholders as well as companies.
The South African-based firm engages in the catching, preparing for sale and procuring different fish products in South Africa.It also deals in canned fish products. The company's market capitalization was valued at ZA 3113 million or…
Glamis Research Institute (2010). Oceans Group Limited
Glamis Research Institute (2010b).Food and Beverage Industry
Serbia EPS sustainability report is an annual report regarding the social responsibility of Serbia's electric power industry. The report is released in attempts to make this industry to become a competitive player in the regional market to inspire and drive others industries in the country. Generally, strong and successful companies in this industry that operate based on social principles and market rules contribute to the community's prosperity. The main goal of the corporate social responsibility report is to examine the company's measures toward achieving sustainability. The sustainability efforts of Serbia EPS Company are geared towards ensuring the firm is a major player in the country's electric power industry in order to stimulate and drive the growth of other industries as well as contributing to the enhancement of the entire community. This report provides significant insights that contribute to the development of various recommendations for improvement in relation to corporate social…
Report on Corporate Social Responsibility. Rep. no. COBISS.SR-ID 186415116. Belgrade: PE Electric Power Industry of Serbia, 2011. Print.
Company's Head of Corporate Communications
Siemens is a company which is extremely noble in its place in the world and in business. Siemens is a company which really is making the world, a greener, safer and more sustainable place to live and to do business. Siemens is a company which can be of an enormous asset when it comes to empowering other firms to engage in business activities with a higher level of stability and aplomb. Facebook is a powerful tool for Siemens to strengthen relationships with existing partners, meet new partners, and to extend its presence on the web in the exact manner that Siemens chooses.
One of the ideal aspects of Siemens' usage of its Facebook page is that it is able to consistently post a few times a day. Many other companies can't even seem to manage that. Establishing a consistent presence on Facebook is…
Siemens.com. (2012). Driving Sustainability. Retrieved from Siemens.com:
In regard to the organizational structure, al-Mart Stores can be said to be organized by divisions. In this regard, we have al-Mart supercentres, Sam's Clubs etc. Currently, the company's president is Mr. Mike Duke. Other key management positions in the firm include the position of chief financial officer, vice chairman, chief executive officer-international operations, and chief executive officer- al-Mart U.S.. These key positions are currently held by Mr. Charles M. Holley Jr., Mr. Eduardo Castro-right, Mr. Doug McMillon and Mr. illiam S. Simon respectively.
"Stagnant ages, High Unemployment Slam al-Mart U.S. Sales: Domestic Sales at orld's Largest Retailer Post Two-Year Slump." (5/17/2011). (MSN n.p.)
Impact and Reason
In my own opinion, the news item above will bring about a decrease in the price of al-Mart's Store Stock. My reasoning in this case is that based on a decline in sales, investors will not be…
LaRocco. L. "Wal-Mart's Quiet Tax Haven." CNBC. N.p. Sept 23rd 2011. Web. 18th Oct 2011. http://www.cnbc.com/id/44627207
MSN. "Stagnant Wages, High Unemployment Slam Wal-Mart U.S. Sales: Domestic Sales at World's Largest Retailer Post Two-Year Slump (5/17/2011)." MSN. N.p. May 17th 2011. Web. 18th Oct 2011.
Rappeport, A. "Wal-Mart has First U.S. sales Rise in Two Years." Financial Times. N.p. Oct 12th 2011 Web. 18th Oct 2011.
P&G also is leading the industry in patents specifically designed to increase the biodegradable nature of their products, more efficient production processes that generate less waste, and the continual improvement of sustainable business practice and process analysis (Keyes, Sykes, 43, 44). Using a portfolio-based approach to managing the specific aspects of their sustainability strategies, P&G has created a portfolio modeling framework used for evaluating the time to value or advantage of a given initiative by the integrated long-term benefit. Figure 2, P&G Portfolio-based Sustainable Business Practice Analysis shows the framework used for this analysis.
Figure 2: P&G Portfolio-based Sustainable Business Practice Analysis
Based on an analysis on the following sources: (P&G Annual Reports; filings with the SEC; 2006 -- 2012) (Keyes, Sykes, et.al); (Damian, 54) (Cullen, Victor, Stephens, 50) (Riccaboni, Leone, et.al.) and from the Gartner Report Achieving Competitive Advantage Through the Pursuit of Sustainable Business. (December, 2012) Stephen Stokes,…
Busco, Cristiano, et al. "Cleaning Up." Strategic Finance 92.1 (2010): 29-37.
Cornelius, Nelarine, et al. "Corporate Social Responsibility and the Social Enterprise." Journal of Business Ethics 81.2 (2008): 355-70.
Cullen, John B., Bart Victor, and Carroll Stephens. "An Ethical Weather Report: Assessing the Organization's Ethical Climate." Organizational dynamics 18.2 (1989): 50-.
Joseph, Damian. "Score Two for Sustainability." Fast Company 2010: 54-.
All employees of XYZ Corporation
From: Joe Smith, CEO
Re: Sustainability Marketing Strategy
Sustainability has always been a core value of XYZ Corporation. To support this value, we will soon be making sustainability a key component of our marketing campaign. The concepts of ethics, sustainability and public relations are complex, but while our marketing messages may be simple and digestible, internally our programs will reflect this complexity. We have long had an ethical code, and this will form the foundation of our ethical and sustainability policies.
The specific details of the sustainability marketing program will be outlined at a later date, but the critical takeaway right now is that the company needs to back up this marketing talk with actions -- we need to walk the talk. We cannot market sustainability by doing it, but when we do it, we lend credibility to the marketing talk in which…
Cox Communications Telecommunications Innovation
Status of the Sustainability Movement
The telecommunications industry, supported by the United Nations and the International Telecommunications Union, launched a formal cooperative effort to promote sustainable business practices and technology in June 2001. The Global e-Sustainability Initiative (GeSI) was officially launched on World Environment Day with the vision "to help improve the global environment and to enhance human and economic development, and thereby make a key contribution to a global sustainable future" (Thomsen, 2001).
This industry-wide initiative was significant in that its founders included some of the biggest global players: AT&T, British Telecommunications, Cable and Wireless, Deutsche Telekom, Ericsson, Lucent Technologies, Marconi, Telcordia Technologies, Telenor as, and the European Telecommunications Network Operators Association. Members implemented various programs to achieve environment-friendly business practices. For example, British Telecommunications calculated that employee use of audio and video conferencing contributed to saving over one million tons of CO2 emissions the…
AT&T investments in sustainability yield results in 2010. (2011) Fierce Telecom. Retrieved June 9, 2011 from http://www.fiercetelecom.com/press_releases/att-investments-sustainability-yield-results-2010
Adelman, T. (2010). For telecom industry, energy efficiency is only half the equation. . Retrieved June 7, 2011 from http://www.environmentalleader.com/2010/11/08/for-telecom-industry-energy-efficiency-is-only-half-of-the-equation/
Bakrie Telecom is the pioneer of green business. 2011. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved June 7, 2011 from http://bataviase.co.id/node/648347
Bardelline, J. (2011). ULE creates sustainability standard for cell phones. Greenbiz.com Web site. Retrieved June 7, 2011 from http://www.greenbiz.com/news/2011/01/06/ule-creates-sustainability-standard-mobile-phones