158 results for “Sweatshop”.
Sweatshops in Third orld Countries
Not so long ago when the word sweatshop was mentioned, images of Charles Dickens would surface, for the notion of sweatshops seemed to be a thing of the past. However, in recent years, sweatshops have been at the forefront of media attention. They are back, actually they never truly went away at all, and they are back in full swing around the world, mostly in third world countries. Cheap labor has always been appealing to corporations, and as the business world has become globalized, outsourcing work to countries such as Mexico, China, Korea, the Philippines, India, Africa, and Taiwan have become common practice among companies from industrialized nations.
Until the last few decades, perhaps the last mention of sweatshops by the media occurred in 1911 when a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company claimed the lives of 146 people, mostly women (Sweatshops Pp). This incident…
Ivins, Molly; Smith, Fred. Symposium: Opposing Views on Sweatshops.
Insight on the News. Nov 29, 1999; Pp. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1571/44_15/57893725/p1/article.jhtml
Thus it can improve the fates of the sweatshop workers' children, by infusing income into the poorer nation. The argument in favor of the employment of illegal workers in the United States is that the workers chose their lot by illegally immigrating and often work under better conditions than they would on their home soil. Also, the children of the illegal workers will improve if the children are allowed to remain in the United States.
Thus, we cannot always assume that it is automatically wrong for sweatshops to exist, simply because workers do not feel the optimum satisfaction with their lot in life at this present moment in historical time. However, there are still powerful arguments against sweatshops besides immediate worker unhappiness or desire for higher wages and better employment. Having low wage employees legally drives down the cost of labor in the nation as a whole, and thus having…
Are weatshops a Necessarily Evil?
Within the last few years, Americans have become aware that sometimes when American corporations send manufacturing tasks to foreign countries, those tasks end up being performed by people we would view as not yet adults -- young teenagers, and sometimes even workers younger than that. The companies argue that they do not always have either control or knowledge that such practices are going on, thus excusing them, in their eyes, from any moral responsibility. However, others argue that the managers of companies are responsible for all the actions their company takes, and that if they don't know about the use of children in sweatshops, they should.
While some companies have taken responsibility for the use of sweat shops and taken action to prevent it, the pressure on companies is significant, and those who ultimately act as middlemen, farming the work out to those sweatshops,…
MacLeod, Calum and MacLeod, Lijia. 2000. "Chinese court case puts focus on child labor; Dangerous jobs include low pay and long hours." The Washington Times. July 28.
Staff writers. 2000. "Paper: McDonald's Uses Sweatshop." AP Online, August 27.
A utilitarian would argue that to ensure the greatest happiness, for the greatest number, perhaps some suffering in the interim must be endured by the current generation of factory laborers in the developing world, so that industrialization can develop and so capitalism can take hold there. Moreover, the ethical quandaries we experience are not merely relegated to clothing -- what of how we profit off of the labor illegal immigrants, who enable restaurants to produce cheap food by working as dishwashers, for example, for no benefits and sub-minimum wages? Where can we draw the line, it is not practical to live in an entirely 'just' society. Of course, a Kantian would respond that what is wrong, and no rationalization can be right -- would we want others to turn a blind eye to our own exploitation as workers?
And would it really cost companies so much more to pay workers…
Sweatshop Girl: Sadie Frowne
In "The Story of a Sweatshop Girl," Sadie Frowne describes her life journey from peasant farmer's daughter to factory worker. Her description includes details of her daily life, and the difficulties she faces as a sweatshop girl in the early 20th century. Her narrative also illustrates prevalent social values of the time, as well as her individual values. Her focus on the specific details of her situation show that she is writing this account so that people will understand what life is like for a factory girl, and to gain sympathy from readers for the difficulties facing factory workers.
Frowne's piece begins by recalling her family history and how she came to the United States. Many readers of her time can probably relate to her experience, having come from traditional Eurpoean cultures themselves, or having relatives who were immigrants. When Frowne praises her mother's strength and…
The organization explains that consumers can take the initiative to speak out against companies that use sweatshops. (Ten Ways to end Sweatshops)
They can also join campaigns such as OXFAM which attempt to ensure that special events such as the Olympics are not utilizing products created in sweatshops.
Ten Ways to end Sweatshops)
The purpose of this paper was to discuss sweatshops, the impact that they have on the world and what can be done to end the proliferation of sweatshops. We began this discussion with a definition of sweatshop. We found that sweatshops are places of employment where people are exposed to horrendous conditions for very little pay. We also found that many American companies use products that are produced in sweatshops. We akso found that there are many things that Americans can do to place pressure on companies that choose to utilize sweatshop labor.
Ten Ways to end Sweatshops. http://sweatshops.org/tenways.html
United States Against Sweatshops. http://www.studentsagainstsweatshops.org/
O'Rourke, D. 2003. Outsourcing Regulation: Analyzing Nongovernmental Systems of Labor Standards and Monitoring. Policy Studies Journal.. Volume: 31. (1). Pg. 1+.
Foo, L.J. 1994. The Vulnerable and Exploitable Immigrant Workforce and the Need for Strengthening Worker Protective Legislation. Yale Law Journal. Volume: 103. (8.). Pg: 2179-2212.
Others say that sweatshops are but part of the natural course of economic development of any country that seeks to progress. But it is by no means a reason turn a blind eye to the lamentable conditions of women and children in these factories. Social movements working towards establishing a world that is just have gained inroads in influencing government policies to put an end to the abuse of women and children in the workplace. Initiatives such as the Clean Clothes Campaign, Ethical Trading Initiative, Fair Trade campaigns in Europe and the U.S. have gained ground to introduce alternative means of doing business to usher in a society where prosperity is shared and enjoyed not at the expense more vulnerable sectors. These initiatives are characterized by their campaigns not only to instigate changes in policy but more importantly in bringing in a new perspective and changes in attitudes of consumers.…
Canadian Labour Congress. (n.d.). About Sweatshops. Retrieved January 28, 2009, from Stop Sweatshop Abuses: http://sweatshop.clc-ctc.ca/en/about.html
Co-op America. (2004). Guide to Ending Sweatshops: Celebrating 21 Years of Building Economic Alternatives. Washington, D.C.: Co-op America.
Green America. (n.d.). Green America's Ending Sweatshops Program: What to Know/Sweatshops. Retrieved January 28, 2009, from Green America: Economic Action for a Just Planet: www.coopamerica.org/programs/sweatshops/whattoknow.cfm
Kristof, N.D. (2009, January 15). Opinion. Retrieved January 28, 2009, from International Herald Tribune: www.iht.com/articles/2009/01/15/opinion/edkristof.1-408134.php
The article also speculates that Apple could go through public relations problems about their practices, and that it could even create shortages of some Apple items if the sweatshop merchandise is removed from the Chinese company and built elsewhere. Finally, the article suggests that Apple should build their own plant in China, where they can regulate the workers themselves and make sure they do not live and work in such harsh conditions.
It seems hard to believe that these conditions still exist around the world today. It also is hard to understand how companies can take advantage of human beings that way, and that they justify it by making profits. Americans should take more of an interest in understanding just what goes into manufacturing the products they use every day. Perhaps if more people actually took an interest in these global issues, and refused to buy products from companies who…
Hesseldahl, A. (2006). Fixing Apple's "sweatshop" woes. Retrieved from the Globalexchange.org Website: http://www.globalexchange.org/campaigns/sweatshops/4010.html6 Jan. 2007.
Cross-Cultural Perspectives - Apple's Sweatshop Plants in China
The world that the Apple technology company enjoys "…could not be rosier and its future shiner," according to researcher Ajinkya Khedekar, writing in the Carnegie Council's publication -- Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs. The author goes on to assert that Apple has "reached the pinnacle of success in 15 short years" and its market capitalization ($500 billion) makes it one of the most "valuable and highly profitable companies in the world" (Khedekar, 2012, p. 1). But that rosy financial and technological future has been clouded somewhat by the fact that its "value culture" (what it charges for its products) is different than its "cost culture" (the working conditions and wages it pays are less than appropriate for a company that is profiting so mightily). This paper delves into the cultural issues that result from the poor treatment of Chinese workers…
Duhigg, Charles, and Barboza, David. (2012). In China, Human Costs Are Built Into an iPad.
The New York Times. Retrieved January 9 from http://www.nytimes.com .
Greene, Jay. (2012). Riots, suicides, and other issues in Foxconn's iPhone factories. CNET
News. Retrieved January 9, 2013, from http://news.cnet.com .
Nike: From Sweatshops to Leadership in Employment Practices
Discern how a more effective ethics programs and a more viable code of conduct could have mitigated the ethical issues faced by Nike.
Ethics programs are expressions of the increasingly common point-of-view that corporations, as legal persons, have an ethical responsibility to society as well as to shareholders. Early on in its corporate history, Nike branded itself as a youth-friendly brand, and many of its customers were idealistic and cared about ethics. Its philosophy of being the best one can be seemed to cohere with a particular ethical worldview that stressed personal empowerment. Thus, it was a great shock to the world when it was revealed that Nike products were manufactured under ethically questionable circumstances (Ferrell, Fraedrich, & Ferrell 2011: 217).
Nike stated that workers in its factories were paid above the minimum wage in the nations where it based. Its…
Ethical issues have a particular resonance in American society at the present time, given the perceived failure of many of our public institutions to live up to the ethical standards they espouse and considering the consequences diminishing of public confidence in political leaders, religious leaders, the business community, and so on. A problem the fashion industry must face is the degree to which the goods they sell have been produced under sweatshop conditions. By definition, sweatshops are manufacturing sites, in this case for clothing, where ill-paid workers labor under difficult and even dangerous conditions, with too many workers cramped into too small a workspace, with unreasonable expectations as to the amount of goods produced, and without accepted safety features and government inspections. Sweatshop conditions were once more prevalent late in the nineteenth and early in the twentieth centuries in American cities. With more and more clothing goods made outside the…
American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences (2002). AAFCS: Professional Code of Ethics. http://www.aafcs.org/who/ethics.html .
Good grief" (1995, April 8). The Economist 335, 57.
Miller, C. (1997). "Marketers weigh effects of sweatshop crackdown." Marketing News 31(10), 1, 19.
Paine, L.S. (1994, March 1). "Managing for organizational integrity." Harvard Business Review, 106.
Nike Sweatshops: Behind the Swoosh
Should We Inflict Western Values On This Society? Concepts of Social esponsibility, Integrity, and Other Business Ethics Practices
Forcing Western values onto the society in question might not be required, but as corporate social responsibility (CS) and ethical principles become increasingly recognized, businesses can govern behavior through their respective organizational cultures and ethical codes, thus doing away with the need to have additional laws, while also avoiding the issues of unfettered choice. CS and ethics demand that Nike assume their responsibility of helping resolve social issues created by them or prevent potential social issues they might be responsible for, through imposed work ethics. Firms have special ethical obligations to all of their stakeholders. Also, stakeholders possess certain rights of making particular claims on a company. For instance, workers can expect fair pay and safe workplace conditions for their hard work and customers can demand safe,…
Nisen, M. (2013, May 9). How Nike Solved Its Sweatshop Problem. Retrieved from Business Insider: http://www.businessinsider.com/how-nike-solved-its-sweatshop-problem-2013-5
Paharia, N. (2013, June 28). Consumers Think Sweatshops Ok If 'Shoes Are Cute,'
Research Reveals. Retrieved from Georgetown University: https://www.georgetown.edu/news/paharia-sweathshop-products-study.html
While cases such as that of Kukdong graphically illustrate the importance of CS and codes of conduct, anti-sweatshop activists continue to display considerable hesitation and equivocation as they wrestle with implementing CS in China. In the words of the late activist Trim Bissell of the Campaign for Labor ights, China has become a "planetary black hole" attracting global production with its cheap labor, but "the anti-sweatshop movement has been without a China strategy."9For example, in January 2000, the University of California (UC) announced that it would not allow any university-licensed products to be produced in countries that do no tallow freedom of association and collective bargaining, in effect banning products made in China (China and the American Anti-Sweatshop Movement (http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:MfmUl9ll5pwJ:laborcenter.berkeley.edu/globaleconomy/china_american.pdf+china+sweatshops+unions&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=9&ie=UTF-8)."
Efforts are underway to accomplish several things when it comes to China's sweatshops. The first thing that the union and labor leaders are demanding is that the world pay closer…
Frequently Asked Questions About Sweatshops and Women Workers
http://www.feminist.org/other/sweatshops/sweatfaq.html (Accessed 5-25-06)
US union to tour China factories (Accessed 5-25-06)
589). This may sound harsh, but it has been shown in many countries that this is the best practice for the employment and the economy.
While conditions in some sweatshops are unimaginable, in many countries sweatshop workers actually have better working conditions than many other workers have, and make more money as well. For example, a worker manufacturing shoes for Nike in a Chinese plant actually makes more money than a professor teaching at Beijing University (Maitland, DATE, p. 585). In fact, workers in many sweatshops make much more money than other workers in their areas, so they consider themselves well paid, even if their wages seem miniscule to westerners.
In conclusion, international sweatshops need standards and guidelines, and their workers should receive fair, decent wages for their work. As former Labor Secretary obert eich notes, "Low-wage workers should become better off, not worse off, as trade and investment boost…
Arnold, D.G. And Bowie, N.E. Sweatshops and respect for persons. Ethical issues in international business. 591-604.
Maintland, J. The great non-debate over international sweatshops. Ethical issues in international business. 579-589.
Rivoli, P. (2001). Labor standards in the global economy: Issues for investors. The ethics of globalization. 535-545.
This is circular logic that appears to dehumanize our freedom and minimalize our existence. The atomization of the responsible self is unimaginative and restrictive, I'll choose something else to listen to if I have a choice.
Work itself is exploitative in nature. Only when a person can work for himself or herself can exploitation be limited to being self-imposed. Labor and work do not belong to anyone, they are mere expressions of idea, to claim them as a tangible thing is confusing and appears to have a disingenuous motive.
Perfection is in the eye of the beholder and even though there are characeristics of a perfect market such as large amounts of buyers and sellers and a shared responsibility, there is undoubtedly some flaw within the system. Perfect markets would require no exchange of money, only ideas as money itself is a market within itself causing…
I would look into notification techniques as well. For example, passing a law requiring goods that are created by foreign workers to contain a statement that they may have been created in a sweatshop environment, or some kind of statement on goods that are knowingly created in this type of environment. I think consumers have a right to know where the products they buy are created, and that more knowledge would create a backlash against the companies that use this form of exploited labor. If more Americans knew about the working conditions, perhaps they would think twice about purchasing many of the items they purchase.
I would use Internet research to find sweatshop information, including companies that support this kind of labor. One site with much information on corporations who use this type of labor is http://www.coopamerica.org/programs/sweatshops/,which I would use as a background research source. I would also do library…
To create a study for this topic, I would begin by reading about companies who use these types of exploited workers, such as Apple, (in a previous article review), and I would try to understand how the practice got started and why it still exists today. My study would include analysis of companies who use the practice, and how much money it saves them each year. It would also look at how to end the practice through regulation or cooperation with foreign governments. I would look into notification techniques as well. For example, passing a law requiring goods that are created by foreign workers to contain a statement that they may have been created in a sweatshop environment, or some kind of statement on goods that are knowingly created in this type of environment. I think consumers have a right to know where the products they buy are created, and that more knowledge would create a backlash against the companies that use this form of exploited labor. If more Americans knew about the working conditions, perhaps they would think twice about purchasing many of the items they purchase.
I would use Internet research to find sweatshop information, including companies that support this kind of labor. One site with much information on corporations who use this type of labor is http://www.coopamerica.org/programs/sweatshops/,which I would use as a background research source. I would also do library research to find information in books and journals on the history of sweatshops and where they are most prevalent today. I would also try to research the numbers of sweatshops that still exist in the world, and how many each country has, to make a point of knowing what countries have the largest numbers and how to reduce them.
Three lessons I would apply to this study include the sweatshop information included in a previous assignment, the issues of global change and culture included in the textbook, and the practice of change in international contexts. I believe that the only way to change this labor practice is to change how Americans view it, and the products that are created by it, and that change has to begin here, and travel around the globe. These lessons help bring awareness to the issue, and offer meaningful ways to change it for the better.
Ethics Leadership Analysis
One of the biggest advantages of globalization is that many different companies are able to receive cheap labor to produce a wide variety of products that are sold at numerous retail stores in the United States. However, an ugly facet to what has been happening, is that there are a number of different sweat shops in a host of regions around the world and in some cases within the U.S. itself. Evidence of this can be seen with an investigation that was conducted by the Department of Labor. They found that over half of the companies they were looking at, were breaking numerous labor laws by operating 10,000 of these kinds of facilities illegally inside the nation. At the same time, they discovered that a variety of governments around the world were encouraging these kinds of factories. (Elliot, 2009)
In the case of Kathie Lee Gifford, her…
Youth and Labor. (2011). Department of Labor. Retrieved from: http://www.dol.gov/dol/topic/youthlabor/
Elliot, J. (2009). Santa's Little Sweat Shop. Albimonitor. Retrieved from: http://www.albionmonitor.com/sweatshop/ss-intro.html
Farrell, O. (2009). Business Ethics. Mason, OH: South Western.
National Labor Committee. (2000). Children Found Sewing Clothes for Wal Mart. Harvard Law School. Retrieved from: http://www.law.harvard.edu/programs/lwp/NLC_childlabor.html
Chapter 7 in Dickson, Loker and Eckman's Social Responsibility in the Global Apparel Industry is entitled "How Manufacturers and Retailers Organize for Social Responsibility: Internally, Collaboratively, and Strategically." The chapter is about how businesses define and practice labor compliance, and how they turn social responsibility into a core business strategy. The authors suggest that public reporting and transparency about corporate social responsibility is one of the ways that businesses strategize social responsibility in general. Businesses also incorporate labor compliance models into their sourcing decisions.
The information in Chapter 7 builds on previous chapters related to organizational learning and change as it applies to shifting towards corporate social responsibility. Therefore, the theories and models discussed and used include those related to organizational learning and change. The five stages of learning that were addressed immediately prior to the Chapter 7 overview include defensive, compliance, managerial, strategic, and civil stages of…
Bell, Beverly and Erkert, Alexis. "Sweatshop Development in Haiti." Socialist Worker. Retrieved online: http://socialistworker.org/2013/05/01/sweatshop-development-in-haiti
Dickson, S., Loker, S., & Eckman, M. (2009). Social Responsibility in the Global Apparel Industry, NY: Fairchild Books
Ruf, Cory. "Canadian consumers 'can do a lot' to prevent sweatshop tragedies: McMaster business prof." CBC Hamilton. Retrieved online: http://www.cbc.ca/hamilton/news/story/2013/05/02/hamilton-bangladesh-fire-mcmaster-prof.html
"Sweatshops exist in Montreal, says local not-for-profit director." CBC News. April 28, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/story/2013/04/28/montreal-sweatshop-bangladesh-garment-factory-collapse.html
Plus, SweatX's proponents supposed it would make accessible a model that would provide anti-sweatshop campaigner confirmation to push most important brands like Gap plus Nike whose goods are made chiefly in Asian also in Latin American sweatshops to elevate their workplace values. It should be noted that the majority of SweatX's thirty-five fabrication workers have started other jobs, characteristically with harsher conditions and inferior pay. Although the company's for the most part recent executive team wishes to keep the brand name alive under a very new trend. Somehow, SweatX may well also bond with human rights along with labor crowd like United Students adjacent to Sweatshops as well as the National Labor Committee. Which have splurge the precedent decade exposing sweatshop exploitation and underneath workers' move violently to unionize about the world. Auxiliary, SweatX may possibly help building a U.S. marketplace for union commodities made in underprivileged countries by selling…
Thomas L. Friedman. "30 Little Turtles." New York Times, February 29, 2004.
Richard Appelbaum & Peter Dreier. "SweatX Closes Up Shop." The Nation, July 19/26
Charles Fishman. "The Wal-Mart You Don't Know." Fast Company, Issue 77 December 2003.
The arrival of Jake's wife and son some three years after him, rather than being a happy occasion, represents to Jake the diminishing of the exciting, new life he has tried to build for himself in New York. After the arrival of his wife, Jake "thought himself a martyr, an innocent exile from a world to which he belonged by right and he frequently felt the sobs of self-pity mounting to his throat" (Cahan 93-94). Like Maggie, Jake works in a sweatshop making clothes, and like Maggie, he uses his time working to day dream about other things. However, where Maggie thinks of Pete while he is working as a means of escape from the drudgery of her factory job, Jake actually enjoys his job, because it represents such a stark contrast to his life on a farm in Russia.
Thus, Jake's thoughts while working are not of escape from…
Cahan, Ambraham. Yekl. New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1896.
Crane, Stephen. Maggie: A Girl of the Streets. New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1896.
Huntsperger, David. "Populist Crane: A Reconsideration of Melodrama in Maggie." Texas
Studies in Literature and Language 53.3 (2011): 294-319.
In particular, it states that Joffe-Walt's proposal of having developed countries take responsibility for their own waste to solve China's e-waste problems won't necessarily work.
Liu explains that China banned the import of e-waste way back in 2000. Thus, the continued import of e-waste is from black market trade fueled by China's abundant, cheap, and skilled labor force. The e-waste is shipped to Hong Kong that then smuggled into China where local authorities are willing to look the other way because it is such a hugely profitable business.
According to Liu, the efforts of developed countries to discontinue the export of e-waste will only serve to make the problem worse. For example, the European Union created the European Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in 2005. This Directive "holds producers responsible for financing the collection, treatment, recovery, and environmentally sound disposal of waste electronics. However, the author contends that,…
Joffe-Walt, Benjamin. (2005) "China's Computer Wasteland." In De Palma, Paul (Ed.), Computers in Society 06/07 (pp. 169-171). Dubuque: McGraw Hill: Contemporary Learning Series.
Liu, Yingling (2006, May 4). "China's E-Waste Problem: Facing Up to the Challenge." Retrieved from http://www.worldwatch.org/node/3921
However, at the same time, the globalization of this same area has been a contributing factor to the rise of Islamic extremism in the area, which has helped restrict women's rights in many of the villages in the area. As a result, it is difficult to describe the overall impact of globalization on traditional non-Western communities, because there is no standard response.
In addition, it is difficult to describe the standard impact of globalization on traditional Western societies. On the one hand, Western societies have experienced an artificially inflated standard of living because of the exporting of labor to less developed countries. On the other hand, Western societies have experienced a widening gap between the lower and upper classes and a dwindling middle class as their corporations have moved much of manufacturing outside of the United States. Furthermore, as these less developed nations have developed, Western societies have seen outsourcing…
An Internal Analysis of the al-Mart Corporation
The al-Mart Corporation is among the most successful, recognizable and notorious brand names. The chain of retail stores is associated with low prices, convenient one-stop shopping and geographically permeating accessibility. However, the retail chain is also frequently associated with a poor record on labor rights, negative performance in environmental categories, destructive community orientation, abuse of human rights in its developing sphere production operations, distribution of low-grade products and a general strategy of stifling local business enterprises and devastating local economies. The result is a relative mixed outlook for al-Mart, which will certainly continue to enjoy some level of dominance in the U.S. And global retail markets but which must also work to make internal organizational changes that can improve its reputation and its compliance with expectations regarding the environment, human rights, labor and community citizenship. The internal analysis conducted here below…
Banker, S. (2010). The Walmart Sustainability Value Chain. Logistics Viewpoints.
Blanchard, C. (2008). Adding Value to Service Providers: Benchmarking Wal-Mart. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 15(2), 166-177.
Chandran, P.M. (2003). Wal-Mart's Supply Chain Management Practices. ICFAI Center for Management Research.
Gogoi, P. (2008). Wal-Mart Supplier Accused of Sweatshop Conditions. BusinessWeek.
Enfant is a children's clothing boutique in Park Slope, Brooklyn. The business model is to bring in unique lines of children's clothing, sourced from around the world if need be. Unique items, coupled with a focus on customer relationship management and social media promotion form the differentiation strategy. The target market is fairly wealthy, educated and stylish. They are willing to spend on their children's clothing as they see their children as reflections of their own style.
The shop will lose some money in the first year, but will be profitable in subsequent years, and be able to pay the proprietor a salary. The proprietor is 30% owner, with the uncle as a silent partner who contributes all of the capital in exchange for a 70% cut.
The clothing will be high end, not made in sweatshops, stylish in design and unique to the store in most cases.…
NetMBA (2010). Pricing strategy. NetMBA.com. Retrieved November 13, 2015 from http://www.netmba.com/marketing/pricing/
Statista (2015). Leading U.S. retail stores by segment in 2012, based on highest sales per square foot. Statista. Retrieved November 13, 2015 from http://www.statista.com/statistics/247319/us-retail-stores-by-segment-based-on-highest-sales-per-square-foot/
Property Shark.com (2010). Retail space on Flatbush Avenue in Brooklyn. PropertyShark.com. Retrieved November 13, 2015 from http://www.propertyshark.com/mason/text/infopages/Retail-Space-Flatbush-Avenue-Brooklyn.html
Investopedia (2015). Restrictive covenant. Investopedia. Retrieved November 13, 2015 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/r/restrictive-covenant.asp
Personally, the practice of offshoring is abhorrent and to be avoided. It takes jobs away from qualified American workers simply for a company to save money. Many companies pay their offshore employees extremely low wages that lead to sweatshop like working conditions for many in the manufacturing industry. Companies are entitled to make a profit, but when it is at the expense of the workers who create their products, then massive profits are simply wrong. In addition, the globalization of many major companies has the potential to affect worldwide economies if something goes wrong, and that could have disastrous results in the U.S. And around the world. The practice of offshoring may be cost effective, but in the end, it seems that it could be very detrimental to the United States and the world.
In conclusion, offshoring may have some benefits, as in keeping the prices of some manufactured items…
Bivens, L.J. (2006). Offshoring issue guide. Retrieved from the Economic policy institute Web site: http://www.epi.org/content.cfm/issueguide_offshoring21 May 2007.
Brown, S.P., & Siegel, L.B. (2005). Mass layoff data indicate outsourcing and offshoring work. Monthly Labor Review, 128(8), 3+.
Jones, G. (2005). Multinationals and global capitalism: From the nineteenth to the twenty-first century. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ramstack, T. (2004, June 10). Union shielding sought from 'offshoring'; Ranks of organized labor swell as workers struggle to keep their jobs. The Washington Times, p. C10.
Half the Sky from a Feminist Perspective
In the last sixty years, women in estern countries and to a lesser extent the rest of the world have become outspoken about women's rights, demanding equal rights in political, economic, cultural, social, and domestic spheres. Their struggles and activism, generally known as feminist movements, helped to elevate the status of women in many countries. Yet, as Nicholas D. Kristoff and Sheryl udunn document in their book Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity for omen orldwide, the struggle for gender equality is far from over. Kristoff and udunn demonstrate the deeply troubling picture of gender relations around the world where women and girls are systematically subjected to brutality, mistreatment, and discrimination. In their attempt to expose gender inequality in the world, Kristoff and udunn are largely successful, but their analysis is not well-grounded in feminist scholarship, which weakens their argumentation.
Einstein, Zillah. Global Obscenities: Patriarchy, Capitalism, and the Lure of Cyberfantasy. New York: New York University Press, 1998.
Harvey, David. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. Print.
Healing, Raven. "White Stockings and Black Widows: Women in Chechnya -- Myths and Realities." Off Our Backs 35.3/4 (2005): 44-47. Web. 22 Oct. 2011. JSTOR.
Kristoff, D. Nicholas, and Sheryl Wudunn. Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity for Women Worldwide. New York: Knopf, 2009. Print.
These include the following:
Standardized human resource practices prevent the company from adapting to the local features
Standardized human resource practices do not take into consideration the institutional differences of the various agencies of the multinational corporation
Standardized human resource practices do not take into consideration different labor market regulations, which would have to be followed and which could also impact organizational outcomes
Last, standardized human resource practices "may lead to a lack of fit between the characteristics of the focal subsidiary's operations and its HM system. Hence, it may be more difficult to achieve a high degree of strategic HM fit in the subsidiary" (Budhwar, 2004, p.254).
The Nike Inc. international organizations are primarily faced with the tasks of manufacturing, whereas the marketing, managerial and design operations are completed within the United States of America. In light of the similar functions they have to complete, it would be argued…
Armstrong, M., 2008, Strategic human resource management: a guide to action, 4th edition, Kogan Page Publishers, ISBN 0749453753
Armstrong, M., Baron, A., 2002, Strategic HRM: the key to improved business performance, CIPD Publishing, ISBN 0852929234
Beach, E., Facts about Nike sweatshops, eHow, http://www.ehow.com/about_5485125_nike-sweatshops.html last accessed on November 1, 2011
Budhawar, P.S., 2004, Managing human resources in Asia-Pacific, Routledge, ISBN 0415300053
Taylor had faith that the best man for the job is to be chosen. He is required to possess the physical and intellectual qualities to attain the required output. However, it was up to the management to make it sure that the right people were chosen and trained. This forms the foundation for the quality circles.
Operatives congregate to deliberate on work related difficulties, prove into the reasons and solutions and take appropriate action. However, for this to work effectively, the involved operatives must be trained. Third one is to bring together the science of work and scientifically chosen and skilled personnel. The students are to visualize an anticipation of MacGregor here. What Taylor was actually, anxious to eliminate was the managerial mental block. Management, he discovered opposed his philosophy due to the fact that they visualize higher hourly rates of pay. What they did not visualize was the potential…
An overview of Management Theory. http://www.kernsanalysis.com/sjsu/ise250/history.htm
Amsden, Robert. T; Feratt, Thomas. W; Amsden, Davida. M. 1996. TQM: Core Paradigm Changes - Total Quality Management. Business Horizons. November-December. Vol: 11; No: 1; pp: 41-45
Boje, David. 2000. Modern Leadership Theory and Sweatshops: In and Out of the Box. December 21. http://cbae.nmsu.edu/~dboje/teaching/338/modern_leadership_theory.htm
Fayol (1841-1925) Functions and Principles of Management. http://www.brunel.ac.uk/~bustcfj/bola/competence/fayol.html
Therefore, he is very much painted as the victim of this love story.
David on the other hand lends himself to the kind of character that reacts to save Beile. He is characterized as a shy and constant jokester, and in his humor he is at the same time evidenced as a very passionate individual. This is established by the narrator through his daydreams where David feels an impulse to "through himself" on Beile's lips. The author paints David as an underdog, an individual who had hitherto never made his love clear to Beile, but clearly cares for her. In this way, his actions are even more passionate when he stands up to defend her.
The author again uses careful juxtaposition to establish the reader's sympathy and support for David. He is described at the outset as a "shy" individual who rarely speaks but to make jokes. His heroism in…
California Labor Laws
The state of California possesses some of the strictest labor laws and enforcement tactics in the United States - a factor that largely affects the business climate of the state. County health departments, such as the California Department of Industrial Relations - Occupational Safety & Health Administration (CAL-OSHA), enforce and protect California labor laws, acting against all businesses who violate the laws (West Group, 1999).
This essay will discuss some of California's most important and current labor laws, outlining how each law affects California's business climate. It will also determine whether these labor laws are beneficial or detrimental to the apparel industry.
California's Labor Laws
The following section outlines some of California's labor laws, which are considered some of the most stringent in the nation.
California's overtime laws hold that any employee who works more than eight hours per day must be paid at 1.5 times his…
Aspen Publishers Staff. 2002. California Employer's Guide: A Handbook of Employment Laws and Regulations. Aspen Publishers.
Bonacich, Edna. 2000. Behind the Label: Inequality in the Los Angeles Apparel Industry. University of California Press.
Eaton, Adrienne, Keefe, J. 2000. Employment Dispute Resolution and Worker Rights in the Changing WorkPlace. Industrial Relations Research Association.
Sessions, Don. 1998. Employee Rights in California. Pentium Press.
Ethics and Corporate esponsibility in the Workplace
PharmaCAE's motto is "We CAE about YOU health" -- and this assertion should be born out in the firm's actions and not just in its words. To understand the actual impact of the organization's actions, it is necessary to acknowledge its stakeholders and see how each is affected. By doing so, a better system of corporate social responsibility (CS) can be implemented that will address the issues that face PharmaCAE in Colberia. By examining how other firms and multinationals have addressed CS issues and comparing them to the situation that PharmaCAE faces, a detailed proposition based on the appropriate philosophical/ethical perspective can be generated. This paper will provide an overview of the stakeholders in the firm, how they are impacted by the organization's actions, how the firm can better itself ethically and responsibly regarding stakeholders, and how PharmaCAE compares to another company of…
AnyangoOoko, G. (2014). The environmental factors that influence implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in an organization. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(12): 95-102.
Castka, P., Bamber, C., Sharp, J. (2005). Implementing Effective Corporate Social
Responsibility and Corporate Governance: A Framework. UK: British Standards Institution.
Cooper, R. (2013). Inside Apple's Chinese 'sweatshop' factory where workers are paid just 1.12 per hour to produce iPhones and iPads for the West. Daily Mail. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk /news/article-2103798/Revealed-Inside-Apples-Chinese-sweatshop-factory-workers-paid-just-1-12-hour.html
The CBA is good for a set period of time, and the union watches the employer to make sure the employer carries out the contract. If a union thinks an employer has violated the CBA, the union can file a complaint, which may be in the end resolved through a process known as arbitration. Union members pay dues that are used to cover the union's costs. Most union's employee full-time staff that is responsible for running its operations. Even though the staff is paid by union dues, members occasionally volunteer within the union. Some unions also form strikes funds that are used to support workers in the event of a strike. A union works rather like a democracy. Unions hold elections in order to determine officers who will then make decisions and represent the members of the union (Silverman, 2010).
The United Auto Workers has recently organized several auto parts…
Reynolds, Morgan O. (2008). Labor Unions. Retrieved May 13, 2010, from Library of Economics and Liberty, Web site: http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/LaborUnions.html
Silverman, Jacob. (2010). How Labor Unions Work. Retrieved May 14, 2010, from How Stuff
Works Web site: http://money.howstuffworks.com/labor-union5.htm
Splintered, but Unbowed, Are Unions Still Relevant? (2005). Retrieved May 13, 2010, from NY
All these issues point out to the indubitable fact that the human resource in Taiwan is coming closer to the labor force in the highly developed western economies and that additional efforts will have to be made in order to succeed in the island.
Another human resource issue that is important to be mentioned is given by the different cultural values of Taiwan and the American multinational. Divided by language, religion and customs barriers, Taiwan is closer to the Japanese culture than the American one. This will unavoidably mean that our organization has to hire several human resource specialists to make a transition from the Japanese H issues to the U.S. implementation of human resource policies. Some other issues that have to be understood by our company refer to the decision making process, which is generally done in groups; a decision once made is supported by all individuals, regardless of…
Boje, D., Academic Studying Adidas, Reebok and Nike -- Taiwan, New Mexico State University, College of Business, http://cbae.nmsu.edu/~dboje/nike/taiwan.html last accessed on May 11, 2009
Gross, A., 1996, Human Resource Issues in Taiwan, Pacific Bridge, http://www.pacificbridge.com/publication.asp?id=6 last accessed on May 11, 2009
2009, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2001rank.html last accessed on May 11, 2009
By developing and instituting a strict code of ethics for its suppliers, Nike would solve this problem. Furthermore, such a code would not necessarily increase costs. Nike could force their suppliers to institute the code and absorb the costs. Although Nike has been a valuable flashpoint for sweatshop critics, a strong code of ethics would remove much of the criticism. The critics could still target Nike, but they would lose credibility in the process; there are other companies they could target at lower risk.
Step 1: Identify Desired Outcomes (CEO, VP-CSR, legal team, PR team)
Step 2: Draw up Code of Ethics (VP-CSR)
Step 3: Transmit Code to production sites (CSR team, HR team, Production team)
Step 4: Code enforcement (Production team, CSR team)
Step 5: Code communication, internal & external (CSR team, PR team)
The second best choice is to ignore the issue. Ultimately, the…
At which point, workers are either fired or arrested by the police. The subcontractor will then, hire other people to work in the place of employees that are creating problems. Over the course of time, this can cause feelings of animosity inside the community. Moreover, there are no social responsibility practices for these regions. This means that no one is focusing on understanding the social, economic and environmental impact of the company's activities on different areas. Once this occurs, is when there is the possibility that there will be some kind of backlash from these issues. This information is showing how Apple and its third party suppliers are walking a thin line when it comes to their practices in regions such as China. Therefore, this source is supporting the hypothesis that was presented earlier. (Stonebreaker, 2009, pp. 161 -- 177)
The different sources that were examined are showing how…
New, S. (2011). Harvard Business Review on Managing Supply Chains. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.
Stonebreaker, P. (2009). Weak Links in the Supply Chain. Journal of Manufacturing Technology, 20 (2), 161 -- 177.
Yuan, Y. (2012). Risk Transmission Mechanism. Technology for Education and Learning 136, 95 -- 102.
Jane Addams should be based on her position as a leading light of her times. She was born in 1860 at Cedarville, in Illinois on 6th of September. She became a graduate from ockford Female Seminary in 1881 and became a graduate only the year after when the institution was recognized as a College. Her father passed away in 1881, and she was not successful at Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania left her depressed and aimless for some years. She went to Europe for the period from 1883 to 1885 but did not choose a suitable vocation. This also happened due her stay in Baltimore from 1885 to 1887. (Addams, Jane (1860-1935), Social eformer) Yet she was aware of the needs of helping persons who were in a worse situation than she was as she had enough experiences of meeting the vagaries of nature. Her mother passed away when she…
"Addams, Jane (1860-1935), Social Reformer." Retrieved from http://search.eb.com/women/articles/Addams_Jane.html Accessed on 1 June, 2005
"A View of Jane Addams' Hull House as a Feminist Initiative." Retrieved from http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~jboland/addams_h.html Accessed on 1 June, 2005
Goldberg, Peter. "Building a Culture of Advocacy in Nonprofit Organizations" Jane Addams Public Policy Lecture - September 23, 2004. Retrieved from http://www.alliance1.org/Home/nonprofit_advocacy_goldberg.htm Accessed on 31 May, 2005
"Historical Perspectives of Human Services" Retrieved from http://www.fvcc.edu/academics/dept_pages/human.services/chapter2.htm Accessed on 31 May, 2005
Human esources: Fair Labor Standards Act
An Examination of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 and Its Implications for American Workers Today
Although most Americans take for granted the wide range of social programs that are in place for their protection, many of these initiatives are fairly recent in origin, but one that has been around for quite some time is the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. The legislation established a minimum standard wage and a maximum work week of 40 hours in industries that were engaged in interstate commerce. The implications of the Act were profound, and today, in what has become a classic pattern over the years, calls for increases to the federal minimum wage are followed by impassioned cries from industry leaders that such an initiative will do more to harm business than it will to help minimum-wage workers. ather than routinely bankrupt America's businesses,…
An overview of the Fair Labor Standards Act. (2005). U.S. Office of Personnel Management.
Retrieved May 12, 2005 from http://www.opm.gov/flsa/overview.asp .
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Cocheo, S. (2004). Banks Must Labor to Comply with New Overtime Rules; Fair Labor
strong sense of external community correlate with exceptional company performance?
Large multinationals are well-known for their involvement in supporting the community they work in and also for their support for sports, humanitarian and social causes. The profitability and high visibility of these companies in external community activities certainly makes one believe that external community involvement and exceptional company performance go hand in hand.
A closer analysis of the community relation exercise shows that in many cases such involvement is an extension of business activities. The multi-billion dollar profits, of course give the exceptional performers the ability to buy the goodwill of political parties, news media, and the community in general to look after their present and future interests.
Whatever the motives, external community involvement shows that the company is performing well and has greater ambitions. External community involvement is also a result of increased social awareness and there are cases…
1. 'Corruption and Bribery', a Business for Social Responsibility Report, retrieved from Internet on 26 May 2005, http://www.bsr.org/CSRResources/IssueBriefDetail.cfm?DocumentID=49621
2. CEO Forum, Retrieved from Internet on 18 October 2005, http://www.ceoforum.com.au/CEO Dialogue.htm
3. China: The Ancient Road to Communism, Retrieved from Internet on 18 October 2005, http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/sgabriel/prcancient.htm
4. Donnelly, S., Gamble, A., Jackson, G., Parkinson, J. (2000). The public interest and the company in Britain and Germany. London, England: Anglo-German Foundation for the Study of Industrial Society. Retrieved September 17, 2005, http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=The+Community+Interest+Company& ; ie=UTF-8& oe
Fixtures are considered part of personal property, but in cases where they become a part of real property and cannot be removed, they are considered part of real property. uilding on a plot of land is a fixture that is considered part of real property, similarly things that are fixed with the real property and can not be removed without damage can be considered part of real property. In case of sale of real property, it is appropriate to define the items of personal property that will be included with the real property and which will not be included.
The law does not recognize ownership achieved by deceitful means such as theft, fraud or force. Property may be acquired through:
Exchange: In exchange for money or other property
Possession: eing the first owner of previously un-owned property
Confusion: When ones property is mixed with someone else's property by mistake or…
Business Litigation - An Overview, Retrieved from Internet on 27 May 2006. http://www.stolar-law.com/cm/fsdp/practicecenter/business/business-litigation.asp?focus=overview
Criminal Law, Wikipedia Encyclopedia, Retrieved from Internet on 27 May 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criminal_law
Muhi, C.J., The Employment-at-Will Doctrine: Three Major Exceptions, Monthly Labor Review, January 2001
Reed, O.L., Shedd, P.J., Morehead, J.W., Robert N. And Corley, R.N., The Legal and Regulatory Environment of Business, ISBN: 0072881119, 2005, McGraw-Hill
Bargaining power of customers: Our main question here is whether al-Mart customers can walk away from buying a product at al-Mart and find it cheaper elsewhere. For the most part, the answer is no. al-Mart has built its reputation by providing products at a considerably lower price than its competitors (Is al-Mart good, 2005). Certainly, customers can try to find lower prices at other retailers; and the proliferation of the Internet also allows customers to visit several e-commerce retailers. However, al-Mart's ability to keep prices at rock-bottom, coupled with the fact that it has such dominant market share in America, means that the bargaining power of customers has been trending downward.
Bargaining power of suppliers: By most accounts, the bargaining power of suppliers is poor - al-Mart holds all the cards. If a supplier wants to sell to the U.S. retail market, it has to sell through al-Mart, given the…
Bhatnagar, Parija (2004). "The K-Mart-Sears deal." Nov. 17, 2004. Retrieved Oct. 19, 2006 from the CNN Web site at http://money.cnn.com/2004/11/17/news/fortune500/sears_kmart/ .
Fishman, Charles (2003). "The Wal-Mart you don't know." Retrieved Oct. 19, 2006 from the Web site for Fast Company at http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/77/walmart.html .
Gallagher, Scott (2004). "Business level strategies." Retrieved Oct. 20, 2006 from the Web site for James Madison University at http://220.127.116.11/search/cache?p=business-level+strategies&fr=yfp-t-501&toggle=1&ei=UTF-8&u=falcon.jmu.edu/%7Egallagsr/WDFPD%2520-%2520Business.pdf&w=business+level+strategies&d=LlNaGpIFNgHG&icp=1&.international=us
Global Ethics Office (2006). Retrieved Oct. 19, 2006 from the Web site for Wal-Mart at http://walmartstores.com/GlobalWMStoresWeb/navigate.do?catg=8 .
In a report on recent research in this area, Hickman (2008) states that, "Although the public recycle newspapers and bottles, only one eighth of clothes are recycled through charity shops
About 70 per cent goes straight to landfill or incineration" (Hickman). This is telling example, of the way that Fast Fashion can affect the environment.
The fact that these fashions are relatively cheap means that they are more easily discarded that would be the case with more expensive garments. Furthermore, the finding that almost all discarded Fast Fashion is not ecologically processed in an environmentally friendly way is a central factor that will be explored in detail.
The same study by Hickman referred to above contributes to the overall picture of the potentially negative outcomes of Fast Fashion in countries like the United Kingdom. " aste volumes from the sector are high and growing in the UK with the advent…
ANALYSIS: Do consumer concerns threaten fast fashion? 2007. 9 Feb. 2008 http://www.just-style.com/article.aspx?ID=98337
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Cheap Fashion, Fast Fashion. 9 Feb. 2008. http://www.bbc.co.uk/blast/art/articles/cheap_fashion_fast_fashion.shtml
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive global landscape of business today, firms must stay at the cutting edge of their respective fields in order to sustain profitability in the long-term. With the current exponential growth and advancement of technology and the computerization of business and learning, consumers and investors have become much more connected to the businesses they patronize (Kurzweil, 2001). Accordingly, companies are faced with the continuous task of finding new ways to understand and subsequently accommodate the needs of those customers and shareholders, while simultaneously securing lucrative business models and job environments. Due to the variety in the effects of the globalized market realized by different nations and regions, some areas of the world have targeted specific business sectors and have subsequently gained a competitive advantage . The manufacturing industry provides a superb example of an industry that has grown, been geographically compartmentalized, and transformed…
Busch, J. (2010, April 7). The New Apple iPad: High-Tech Supply Chain Transparency. Retrieved September 27, 2011, from http://www.enterpriseirregulars.com/16057/the-new-apple-iPad-high-tech-supply-chain-transparency-part-1/
Clark, D. (2010, April 5). iPad Taps Familiar Apple Suppliers. The Wall Street Journal .
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Employment Discrimination at Wal-Mart
Foundation of the Study
This study examines the legislative and judicial climate that enables corporations like Wal-Mart to engage in practices that violate workers' rights. The popular consensus is that Wal-Mart, the largest retail store in the United States, displays an inordinate disregard for the human dignity and morale of its employees and, despite continual litigation, continues to blatantly violate the legal rights of its employees. Wal-Mart faces charges of violating The Federal Fair Labor Standards Act (2011) by asking management to adjust time sheets so that overtime will not need to be paid, and so that all employees will work under the hourly limit required by the union in order to obtain membership. Employees were insured, without their knowledge, against their death by Wal-Mart. The company was named beneficiary; following death of an employee, the entire benefit amount was retained by the corporation. Not a…
Business Day, Companies. (2011) The New York Times. Retrieved http://www.nytimes.com /
Byrne, T.P. (2009). False profits: Reviving the corporation's public purpose. Discourse, 57 UCLA L. Rev. Disc. 25, UCLA School of Law, UC Berkeley, (Associate, Chadbourne & Parke, LLP). Retrieved http://uclalawreview.org/?p=1056
Clifford, S. (2011, March 29). Where Wal-Mart failed, Aldi succeeds. The New York Times. Retrieved
Business Society and Corporate Values
There has indeed been a great deal of discussion regarding CEO compensation, which is rightly viewed as being completely out of line. The core problem and cause of inflated CEO salaries cannot be attributed to a single reason, but is rather the result of a range of inter-connected factors. What is definitive is the fact that these salaries have inflated over time; this is in part due to the fact that greed is a progressive, boundless factor. "According to the Economic Policy Institute, in the late 1970s, total compensation of chief executives in large American corporations was 35 times that of the average American worker. In 2007, it was 275 times that" (Borger, 2007). These facts alone demonstrate that there is good reason to be in a state of alarm. The reasons for such severely inflated and remarkably unjust salaries are a result of the…
Ball, P. (2012, July 4). GlaxoSmithKline's bribes are evidence that Big Pharma isn't working. Retrieved from Guardian.co.uk: http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/jul/04/glaxosmithkline-big-pharma-not-working
Borger, J. (2008, September 5). Why do CEOs make so much? Retrieved from Minnpost.com: http://www.minnpost.com/politics-policy/2008/09/why-do-ceos-make-so-much
Boselovic, L. (2011, May 15). Rajaratnam case puts big chill on insider trading. Retrieved from post-gazaette.com: http://www.post-gazette.com/stories/business/news/rajaratnam-case-puts-big-chill-on-insider-trading-297777/
Choudhury, U. (2011, October 14). Rajaratnam becomes a 'whipping boy' for Wall Street misdeeds. Retrieved from firstpost.com: http://www.firstpost.com/business/rajaratnam-becomes-a-%E2%80%98whipping-boy%E2%80%99-for-wall-street-misdeeds-107346.html
Status of the Labor Movement
While labor movements are not as conspicuous today as they were in previous years, they still assume an essential part in representing and protecting the American workforce. Sweatshop conditions that were eradicated at some point are back to the U.S. workplace. Poor workers from foreign countries have been continuous victims of sweatshops. As a result, unions, social activists, and labor groups have reacted by mobilizing campaigns on awareness and lobbying political leaders for action about employee contracts.
Labor movements are essential in the current labor market through the reporting and monitoring of exploitative working conditions. This is because they permit representatives to viably bargain for their wages and provide an emotionally supportive network for workers. Unions provide a check against employers who attempt to infringe the privileges of laborers. The destiny of the labor movement is premised on the destiny of American democracy. Lack of…
Dubofsky, M. (2009). The state & labor in modern America. Chapel Hill u.a: Univ. Of North Carolina Press.
Sloane, A.A. & Witney, F. (2010). Labor relations (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Wheeler, H.N. (2012). The future of the American labor movement. Cambridge [u.a.: Cambridge Univ. Press.
This study analyzes outsourcing trends in the next decade. The study assesses this by focusing on the past and current trends, problems and issues in outsourcing via semi-structured interviews. Major trends and processes will be revealed and assessed for their relevancy, depth and breadth.
Companies belonging to most industries are very much considered to be the units that are vertically integrated, or so-called usual industrial firms (Stigler, 1951), where activities in all links in value chain have been internally conducted. For example, gasoline of its own is delivered by 7-Eleven and it is also used to make ice and candy, also it had cows for producing milk which it previously used to sell (Gottfredson et al., 2005). At present, it is not delivering gasoline and ice or candy is not being made by it neither does it posses any cows. Contrarily, IBM used to make the computers containing their…
Adams, R.J., 2002. Retail pro-tability and sweatshops: a global dilemma. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 9, 147-153.
Alexander, C., 1964. Notes on the Synthesis of Form. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
Alexander, M., Young, D., 1996b. Outsourcing: where is the value? Long-Range Planning 29 (5), 728-730.
Ashkenas, R., Ulrich, D., Jick, T., Kerr, S., 1995. The Boundaryless Organization. Breaking the Chains of Organizational Structure. Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco.
Management Action and Productivity
usinesses in developed countries tend to think of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a characteristic that is centered in their own businesses or, failing that, situated in the industries of wealthier nations. The CSR movement is substantively skewed in the direction of the developed world where the motivation for adopting a CSR initiative is driven more by altruism -- or "enlightened self-interest" (Vogel 2006: 18) -- than profit margins. It is unusual to find a perspective that considers CSR from the perspective of a sourcing company. In the centrically-oriented corporate arena of the developed world, CSR is seen as originating with the company that establishes a supply chain with a multinational company -- not the other way around. In order to manage and control ethical issues arising from doing business with overseas markets, many corporations rely on a social compliance model (PricewaterhouseCoopers 2007).
The social compliance…
Buying your way into trouble? The challenge of responsible supply chain management. 2004. Insight Investment, HBOS. London, UK: Acona Investment Consulting. Retrieved http://www.acona.co.uk/reports/Buying+your+way+into+trouble.pdf
Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. 2008. Business Research Methods, 10th Ed. Edition, McGraw-Hill.
Environics International 3rd Annual CSR Monitor. 2002. (In November of 2003, Environics became GlobeScan Incorporated. [Press release] Retrieved http://www.globescan.com/news_archives/csr02_press_release.html
Eslenshade, J. 2004. Monitoring Sweatshops: Workers, Consumers, & the Global Apparel Industry. Temple University Press.
Globalization is in high gear right now and it takes on many forms. Whether it be culture, trade, transportation and technology, the world is made much smaller given the modern methods, preferences and ease of communication of today's society. Even repressive countries like North Korea and Iran are having a hard time insulating themselves from the effects of globalization and this is becoming more and more obvious by the day. While concerns about culture and uniqueness of each country and its parts is a noble thing to consider, the people of societies should be able to absorb the culture, products and media that they wish because freedom should be a common thread of all countries and globalization is just one way in which that can manifest.
Drivers of Globalization
As noted in the introduction, globalization is in full effect and modern technologies are major reason…
Hill, C.W. (2013). International business: Competing in the global marketplace (9th ed.).
New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Lawton, M. (2013, April 17). Social media use evolving in Egypt. DW.DE. Retrieved
November 13, 2013, from http://www.dw.de/social-media-use-evolving-in-egypt/a-16930251
economically impressive history, ike has proven both the potential enormity of the athletic apparel industry and the effectiveness of a good logo. That, and an empire of merchandise, celebrity endorsement and university and sports organization contracts have made CEO Phil Knight's shoe manufacturing conglomerate the top producer and retailer of athletic wear. And while the increasingly disseminated effects of economic globalization have made ike a consumer entity in some one-hundred and fifty countries, the prickliness of the issues inherent therein have been a considerable nettle in ike's insole these most recent years. Allegations of ike's illicit labor and production processes abroad have been a considerable help to the shoe company's closest competitors, and ike continues to take a public beating over the issue even now.
In 1998, as human rights activists and anti-globalization protestors took hold of the ike issue, Knight's perennial industry frontrunner became the leading target in efforts…
Nike has since recaptured its competitive edge and continues to be the leader in the industry, amid consistent runner-ups Reebok, Adidas and New Balance. But a most recent decision by a California court that has deemed Nike's business practices as unfair competition threatens that title. The legal move represents a new phase in the activist attack on Nike, which continues to bear the brunt of the most publicly hurled epithets toward consumer industry globalization. Nike's response to most of the previous allegations were embodied in its drive to spare its public image. Advertisements for the corporation abroad spoke of good factory conditions and ethical business practices. This has been deemed by a recent California Supreme Court decision as misleading use of ad space by a margin of 4-3.
This action, which imperils Nike's far lower production costs abroad, has the capacity to serve as a great boost to number's two and tree, in Reebok and Adidas respectively. However, it bears noting, Reebok has been guilty of very similar practices, as annual Reebok Human Rights award ceremonies, featuring activists and celebrities alike, have been employed extensively to obscure violent suppression of worker rebellions and sustenance of sweatshop conditions in Chinese factories. Adidas and New Balance as well, have relocated labor and production facilities from American and European bases to far-more cost-effective Chinese establishments, where production funds are as comparatively low as worker rights.
Nike suffers the indignity as a lone sacrificial lamb because it is the top seed in the industry and, likely, will continue that reign as its celebrity endorser stable remains the largest and most impressive in its field. However, if it is to stay ahead of further allegations, actions and injunctions against its business and competition practices, than it must be at the front of the race for delineation of global employment standards. Admittedly, a wide variant of living standards, national economies and cultural tendencies make this a complex and thorny endeavor, but the obviously unquenchable quest for globalization leaves little doubt that these methods of international production will continue. The dissention that surfaced in 1998 indicated that, in spite of Reebok and other peers, Nike's image is its own greatest competitor and its best vehicle to salvation.
Globalization and Management
All people are global citizens now. But what does this mean? What is this process of globalization that has quite literally swept over our globe? And what will be the effects of globalization during our lifetime on the ways in which business will be done and especially in how information will be managed? Not only does each person have to consider the implications of such questions on an individual bases (as workers, and consumers as well as citizens) but each business must determine for itself how best to incorporate itself into this global environment while considering the needs and potential of its own company as well as the values that it wishes to project. This dissertation examines some of the current and potential future effects of globalizations, exploring in particular the ways in which businesses are now more integrated with each other than before as they take…
Baron, R. (1989). Personality and organizational conflict: effects of the Type A behavior pattern and self-monitoring. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 44, 281-296.
Beckmann, G. (1998, June 8). You Can Lead a Team to a Goal, but You Can't Make It Succeed: Work groups have become a vital tool in maintaining corporate agility. But without communication, they can end up being just talk. The Los Angeles Times, p. D2,20.
Caudron, S. (1994). "Skills that Managers of Creatives Must Have." Personnel Journal, 73(12), 104-113).
Caudron, S. (1995). "HR Checklist: Do You Have an Empowered Environment?" Personnel Journal, 74(9), 28-36.
The Nike ethical dilemma
The Nike Company is undoubtedly ne of the most established companies with a strong brand across the globe. It has a big name a wide coverage across the globe hence by 2007 it was estimated to have employed 30,000 people across the globe and had $16 billion in terms of revenues. They have most of their factories located in the Asian countries like Malaysia, Pakistan, India, Indonesia, China, Taiwan, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. Though it was predominantly a shoe manufacturer and seller, Nike diversified their dealings into other merchandise like the wears in tennis, badminton, baseball, golf, cricket among other sports (Nike Inc. 2010).
Nike has had several accusations over the decades of having their products being made in "sweatshop." This means they have employees who are underage working in deplorable conditions with meagre pay that can only be referred to as below subsistence. It…
Nike Inc. (2010). Annual report pursuant to section 13 and 15(d) Filed on 7/20/2010. Retrieved October 28, 2014 from http://investors.nikeinc.com/files/doc_financials/AnnualReports/2010/docs/NIKE_2010_10-K.pdf
TED Case Studies, (2014). NIKE: Nike Shoes and Child Labor in Pakistan. Retrieved October 28, 2014 from http://www1.american.edu/ted/nike.htm
global issues is something that I do a lot of, so I would not say that my thinking has changed, though perhaps my ideas have been reinforced. There are some interesting paradoxes involved. Consider Hans osling's (2010) talk about population growth, which is occurring at a tremendous pace. We are part of the world's greatest-ever population explosion. Now juxtapose that with Molinari's (2012) discussion about the digital divide. We are seeking to improve the standard of living -- and not just in terms of the digital divide but a wide range of public issues -- clean water, plumbing, electricity, access to health care -- and we are trying to do it in a world characterized by rapidly growing populations. The countries where these issues are the most pronounced are often the countries with the most rapidly-growing populations. So my thinking has basically been reinforced here -- there are two trends…
Campbell, P., MacKinnon, A. & Stevens, C. (2010). An Introduction to Global Studies. Wiley-Blackwell. Chichester, West Sussex.
Lee, R., Smith, D. & Dicken, P. (2004). Globalization, production and the (im)morality of uneven development. Geographies and Moralities. Blackwell Publishing: Malden, MA.
Molinari, A. (2012). Bridging the digital divide. TEDSanMiguelAllende. Retrieved May 10, 2016 from http://www.ted.com/talks/aleph_molinari_let_s_bridge_the_digital_divide
Rosling, H. (2010). Global population growth, box by box. [email protected] Retrieved May 10, 2016 from http://www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_on_global_population_growth#t-17252
law should be used as a tool for shaping a shared moral climate? Why or why not? Should moral values be written into the law and enforced? Can you think of any examples where a change in the law seemed to improve the moral climate of society?
In general, I would say that the government should stay away from enforcing a moral climate in the sense that there has to be the question asked whether someone is harmed or not. However, "harm" is a very loaded term when it comes to some topics and this includes some things that are entirely legal. For example, adultery is assailed as a wrong thing to do. It can obviously break up relationships/marriages and any kids in the mix can be greatly impacted. However, while such tawdry details may (or may not) matter when a divorce or child custody hearing is done, it is…
Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=elD1IBevvWM
Does the Nick Naylor character utilize the same forms of arguments he previously advocated? What about the Senate Committee? What strategies are they using to gain their points? Do you think there are any problems with the way the Senate Committee conducts the public discourse?
He does shift quite a bit in that he turns the attention to different things. For example, as a way to deflect about cigarettes being bad, he points to the fact that cheese can clog arteries and fatten people. He is also asked whether he would let his son smoke. Again, he deflects and says that it would be illegal. When the question shifts to what would happen if his son was 18, he admits he would buy him one. The questioning of the committee was a little unseemly because the questions were made personally. It is a textbook case of a Senator or other person in government using strident or even incendiary questions. Going after someone's family or the feelings for the same is below the belt and should never happen. The Senator should have stuck to the facts, the studies and so forth and not been such a crass person. Their strategy is to use "gotcha" questions and/or to get the person to say something controversial so as to discredit them. The admission by Naylor that he would give his son a cigarette would surely be used against them both in that committee and outside of it.
Jacob iis emigrated from Denmark to the United States in 1870 and after realizing the extent of the squalor evident in some of New York City's neighborhoods, started to chronicle the lives of America's poor through the medium of photography. iis wanted to show that while America did offer immigrants some potential for economic advancement, a vast number of immigrants fall through the cracks. Income disparity had become visibly disturbing to iis, who produced How the Other Half Lives in order to raise awareness about the issue.
Most immigrants came to the United States with the hope of achieving goals and dreams, and while many did achieve their goals, urbanization and industrialization also presented problems such as overcrowding and unsafe work conditions. The vast numbers of immigrants that arrived to New York City at the start of the twentieth century were from various parts of Europe, with an increasing number…
Riis, J. How the Other Half Lives.
The purpose of this essay is to introduce the specific topic of Human ights in the study of ethics.Human rights are an integral element within the business environment. For one, globalization has created a much more interconnected society that requires a common set of standards among businesses. These minimum standards as they first even the playing field for businesses to operate. More importantly, these standards help to life the overall prosperity of those in the labor class. The benefits of shared prosperity will matriculate throughout society, improving the lives of all involved. Without human rights however, it is easy for businesses to exploit inefficiencies in the market overall. We have seen this with various international organizations, the profitability pressures have caused them to exploit the prevailing market conditions within a given jurisdiction. Through this effort to improve profitability and shareholder returns, these companies have essentially disregarding their domestic humans rights…
References 1. Alston, Philip, and Frederic Megret, eds. The United Nations and Human Rights: A Critical Appraisal. Second Edition. Oxford University Press, 2014
3) Information Technology
4.3 Data collection method
I will distribute the following surveys to the employees and employers in my sample population. I will give them two weeks to complete the surveys, after which I will collect them and analyze them.
4.4 Sample size and sampling method
The sample size will be between 40-50 people. The sampling method include surveys as well as direct conversations. The employee surveys will gauge satisfaction with salary, job security, work environment, feedback, training, and other factors relating to job satisfaction. The employer surveys will ask employers to rate Saudi employees in areas such as work ethic, ability, attitude, and skills, especially as compared to workers of other nationalities.
4.5 Method of Data Analysis
The surveys should yield a set of simple, definite answers which be compared on the same criteria. The open-ended interviews should yield a deeper, more diverse set…
Maslow, Abraham. 1962. Towards a Psychology of Being, Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand
Maslow, Abraham. 1970. Motivation and Personality, 3rd ed. (1954) Chapter 6: Unmotivated Behavior. New York: Longman.
Cziksentmihalyi, Mihaly. 1990. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper.
There are several standpoints to justify this position:
First of all, as mentioned in the Life and Debt documentary, and as stipulated in the legislation, the free zones are not regulated by the Jamaican government
Secondly, this condition leads to the inability of workers to become organized in unions and ask for their rights to be respected
This means that the American contractors, who in effect play the role of employers, minimize all costs, including those with work safety and security, personnel wages and so on; as a parenthesis, the salary of a Jamaican employee in the free zones if of $120 a month
The employees put in extra, unpaid hours and ever work six day weeks. When some of them rebel to ask for more money or the protection of their rights, they are fired.
All the above findings lead to the unfortunate conclusion that the United States of…
Chen, W., 2009, High interest rates -- the road to ruin, The Gleaner, http://www.jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20090222/focus/focus1.html last accessed on April 16, 2010
2010, The World Factbook -- Jamaica, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/jm.html last accessed on April 15, 2010
Jamaica: October 1998, World Trade Organization, http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tpr_e/tp85_e.htm last accessed on April 16, 2010
The first issues to address are the core issues with respect to offshoring that apply to all companies. The company must identify the strategic objective that it hopes to meet through offshoring. At this point, that has taken place. The decision to look at offshoring has been undertaken on the basis of a television show. This is not a good way to decide corporate strategy. The decision to pursue offshoring should be made on the basis of fulfilling a broader corporate strategy. In the case of this company, there is little reason to believe that there is another benefit to the company to offshoring other than cost reduction. Therefore, cost cutting must be congruent with the company's broader strategy.
In terms of difficulties, one difficulty is that of finding the right cultural fit. Most company do not adequately address this as they tend towards the lowest bidder, a function of…
Malos, S. (2010). Regulatory effects and strategic global staffing profiles: Beyond cost concerns in evaluating offshore location attractiveness. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal. Vol. 22 (2) 113-131.
Hahn, E. & Bunyaratavej, K. (2010). Services cultural alignment in offshoring: The impact of cultural dimensions on offshoring location choices. Journal of Operations Management. Vol. 28 (3) 186-193.
Maertz, C. (2010). Downsizing effects on survivors: Layoffs, offshoring and outsourcing. Industrial Relations. Vol. 49 (2) 285-285.
Tafti, M., Sledgianowski, D., Kierstead, J. (2008). Lessons learned from outsourcing practice in an SME. Proceedings for the Northeast Region Decision Sciences Institute (NEDSI). p445-450.
Mexico's Trade Strategy
Mexico has pursued a three-dimensional trade strategy perhaps more diligently than even the United States according to Schott (Studer & Wise, 2007). Mexico has been an active participant in multilateral talks since its GATT accession in 1986 and was the host country for the special Summit of the Americas in Monterrey and for the hemispheric trade talks in Puebla. Mexico is perhaps most famous as the instigator of NAFTA as well as many other FTAs with countries around the world including key industrial markets such as the European Union (EU, The European Free Trade Association (EFTA), and Japan. In addition, Mexico entered in FTAs with olivia, Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, The G3 (Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela), Honduras, Israel and Nicaragua during the period January 1995 to June 2001 (Schott in Studer & Wise, 2007). It is important to emphasize that Mexico has many more FTAs…
Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, 1988. Basel Convention. Retrieved from: http://www.basel.int/
Bown, C.P. (2009). U.S. -- China Trade Conflicts and the Future of the WTO. The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, 33 (1), winter/spring 2009, pp. 27-48.
Bown, C.P & McCulloch (2005). U.S. Trade Policy Toward China: Discrimination and its Implications.
China and Mercosur: Perpectives for Bilateral Trade (2007). China Programme 11 (7). International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development. Retrieved from: http://ictsd.org/i/news/bridges/3164/
" (p. 4) This is to make the argument that it should be seen as a practical reality of this new business atmosphere that responsibility to the social realities and standards of an operational setting will be directly predictive of long-term survival, stability, functionality and survival.
That stated, it should also be seen as incumbent upon the global alliances created by the process of free trade to impose standards of corporate social responsibility vis a vis labor standards, wage equality and environmental protections. By taking this step, the world community can help to ease the financial burden placed upon those companies which aspire to engage in the global economy without eschewing positive corporate values.
Kahler, M & Lake, DA 2001, 'Globalization and governance,' IGCC. ead online Aug. 9, 2010 < http://igcc.ucsd.edu/research/intl_political_economy/gandg.html>.
Lockwood, N 2004, 'Corporate Social esponsibility,' Society for Human
Smith, H 2004, 'Who calls the shots…
Kahler, M & Lake, DA 2001, 'Globalization and governance,' IGCC. Read online Aug. 9, 2010 < http://igcc.ucsd.edu/research/intl_political_economy/gandg.html >.
Lockwood, NR 2004, 'Corporate Social Responsibility,' Society for Human
Smith, H 2004, 'Who calls the shots in the global economy?,' PBS.org.
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Sports - Women
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Sports - Women
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Business - Management
Change This study analyzes outsourcing trends in the next decade. The study assesses this by focusing on the past and current trends, problems and issues in outsourcing via semi-structured…Read Full Paper ❯
Management Action and Productivity usinesses in developed countries tend to think of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a characteristic that is centered in their own businesses or, failing that,…Read Full Paper ❯
Globalization International Trade Globalization is in high gear right now and it takes on many forms. Whether it be culture, trade, transportation and technology, the world is made much…Read Full Paper ❯
economically impressive history, ike has proven both the potential enormity of the athletic apparel industry and the effectiveness of a good logo. That, and an empire of merchandise, celebrity…Read Full Paper ❯
Globalization and Management All people are global citizens now. But what does this mean? What is this process of globalization that has quite literally swept over our globe? And…Read Full Paper ❯
Ethics The Nike ethical dilemma The Nike Company is undoubtedly ne of the most established companies with a strong brand across the globe. It has a big name a…Read Full Paper ❯
global issues is something that I do a lot of, so I would not say that my thinking has changed, though perhaps my ideas have been reinforced. There are…Read Full Paper ❯
law should be used as a tool for shaping a shared moral climate? Why or why not? Should moral values be written into the law and enforced? Can you…Read Full Paper ❯
Jacob iis emigrated from Denmark to the United States in 1870 and after realizing the extent of the squalor evident in some of New York City's neighborhoods, started to…Read Full Paper ❯
Ethics / Morality
The purpose of this essay is to introduce the specific topic of Human ights in the study of ethics.Human rights are an integral element within the business environment. For…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
1) Education 2) Construction 3) Information Technology 4.3 Data collection method I will distribute the following surveys to the employees and employers in my sample population. I will give…Read Full Paper ❯
There are several standpoints to justify this position: First of all, as mentioned in the Life and Debt documentary, and as stipulated in the legislation, the free zones are…Read Full Paper ❯
The first issues to address are the core issues with respect to offshoring that apply to all companies. The company must identify the strategic objective that it hopes to…Read Full Paper ❯
Mexico's Trade Strategy Mexico has pursued a three-dimensional trade strategy perhaps more diligently than even the United States according to Schott (Studer & Wise, 2007). Mexico has been an…Read Full Paper ❯
" (p. 4) This is to make the argument that it should be seen as a practical reality of this new business atmosphere that responsibility to the social realities…Read Full Paper ❯