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Swine Influenza -- commonly known as Swine Flu is a type of infectious disease caused by the Swine Influenza Virus (SIV). Swine Influenza Virus (SIV) or Swine-Origin Influenza Virus (S-OIV) is very common in pigs all over the orld (Siegel, 2). The major two types of Swine influenza are influenza C. And Influenza A. Influenza A is further classified into four major classes; H1N1, H1N2, H3N1, H3N2, and H2N3 (Stephenson, 7). Swine flu is mostly caused by Influenza A. This influenza is more contagious and dangerous for pigs because a considerable percentage of pigs die from swine flu disease every year. Swine Flu is transmitted from one pig to another in many ways; by aerosols, through direct or indirect interaction, or contact with already infected pigs (Tasian, 8). The sub-types of Influenza A are not as dangerous as H1N1. However, a pig can get infected by more than…… [Read More]
You emembe the geat swine flu epidemic of 2009, ight? Really, you don't emembe the school's being closed acoss the county afte the fist wave of fatalities? And how people stopped eating pok to such an extent that fames simply slaughteed most of thei pigs and then buned the meat? You don't emembe that? Well, of couse not. No-one does, because it didn't happen. It also tue that no one knows why it didn't happen.
The inteesting question at this point, as one looks back to the way in which decisions wee made to stop an epidemic befoe it got stated. In the aftemath of the flu season, when thee had been no outbeak, many people citicized public health officials fo having ove-eacted. Those officials in tun agued two points. Fist, it was bette to ove-eact than to unde-eact because the consequences of the fome wee fa moe…… [Read More]
China, for example, reports fewer cases than Hong Kong, despite the massive population difference and the high amount of trade between the two. Moreover, China reports only one death from swine flu for its nearly 16,000 cases, which would give it a success rate in treatment better than all other countries in the world save for Germany. China's one reported death is equivalent to the number of reported deaths in the Solomon Islands, St. Kitts and the Cook Islands, among other tiny countries with few cases (Flucount.org, 2009).
It is difficult for citizens and authorities to truly understand the nature of the swine flu epidemic, due to the fact that each different jurisdiction reports its own numbers. This leads to different criteria for measuring and different underlying motivations for reporting. As a result, contentious data and missing data compromise our ability to understand the nature and depth of the swine…… [Read More]
Certainly, the public was informed in early 2009 that there was a new flu occurring in Mexico with far different epidemiologic characteristics and clinical profiles than traditional flu strains. Yet, our healthcare officials seem to be caught off guard by H1N1 spiking months earlier than other flu strains. Given a new flu strain, it seems reasonable that there should have been expectations that it could have different seasonal patterns.
The fact that there are only five manufacturers is another issue that needs to be understood. Why so few, given the many warnings of the potential for a wide-spread pandemic? One has to wonder if our government should have done more to encourage additional manufacturers, perhaps even subsidizing or offering other financial incentives for production. The article doesn't discuss the percentages of the H1N1 vaccine that the manufacturers are producing and which ones are experiencing glitches. Perhaps a larger number of…… [Read More]
H1N1 flu and its impact on the students of a school in Lincoln, Nebraska. On a particular Wednesday, this school had 221 sick students who reported flu-like symptoms and this rate dropped to 191 on Thursday. The author clearly conveys how this threat can spread quickly among students and the options available to the school Principal to tackle this situation. The article is well-written and it is mostly centered around the happening of Pius X Catholic High School. The author has given a lot of importance to the actions taken by the Principal and his opinion on how the situation should be handled.
The implicit message of the article is clearly about how the school is completely unprepared to face this health threat. The school did not even have a sick room and out of necessity, an administration room had to be converted to a sick room for the students…… [Read More]
Communicable Disease: Influenza
Description of the Disease
Influenza or "the flu" is a common illness in the winter months, all throughout the United States and many other countries. Both birds and all mammals can contract influenza (Brankston, et al., 2007). In recent years there have been scares regarding "bird flu" and "swine flu," both of which are simply different strains of influenza. The cause of the flu is an NA virus in the family Orthomyxoviridae (Eccles, 2005). Once people contract the flu, they present with common symptoms such as chills, fever, a runny nose, muscle pains, a sore throat, and a headache. The headache is quite often severe, and flu sufferers may also have weakness, fatigue, severe bouts of coughing, and a general feeling of overall discomfort. People with the flu can also become nauseated and vomit, although that is more typical in children and not nearly as common in…… [Read More]
Like much of the other material under review, the only way to control a flu pandemic is to develop more technologically savvy prediction models, more complex warning and communication systems, and globally coordinated response preparation.
Schmidt, C. (2009). Swine CAFOs & Novel H1N1 Flu: Separating Facts from Fears. Environmental Health erspectives. 117 (9): A394-401.
Schmidt writes in a popular science mode and hopes to help the public understand how flu viruses regularly mutate through avian and swine farming sources. The article chronicles the conditions that most swine are subjected, and explains the nature of an antigenic shift in birds and hogs, then to humans. Overall, the situation is complex and multidimensional. The flu pandemic cannot be won on a medical basis only; but requires global economic, political, and even organizational cooperation.
Yang, Y., et.al. (2009). The Transmissibility and Control of andemic Influenza a (H1N1) Virus. Science. 326 (4): 729-33.
andemic…… [Read More]
, 2001). These two simple measures can drastically increase the subsequent spread of infectious disease throughout the country.
In Outbreak, the military institutes martial law to quarantine the infected populace in the town of Cedar Creek. Eventually, the military begins plans to bomb Cedar Creek in an attempt to eradicate the virus, which had thus far proven untenable. hile the concept of the United States government destroying a small town and murdering its populace is likely superlative Hollywood movie-making, the institution of martial law is a realistic and effective approach toward preventing further spread (Yassi et al., 2001).
In addition to the non-medical measures which can be taken to deal with the spread of an infectious agent, there are several medical actions which could be utilized to treat infected invididuals, including antivirals, antibiotics, or vaccines (Yassi et al., 2001). For example, antivirals and vaccines are both being utilized in an…… [Read More]
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…… [Read More]
U.S. Military Institute Quarantine?
Law and Policy:
Can the U.S. Military Institute Quarantine Without Legal Issues?
Instituting a quarantine of large numbers of people within the United States would be complicated and difficult, but is it legal? More clearly, is it legal for the military to do such a thing without any kind of legislative or legal issue. If it is legal for the military to do this, there must be various requirements that have to be met in order to ensure that issues are handled properly. If it is not legal for the military to undertake such action, why not? And is there legislation being considered that would make this type of action legal? The question comes about in light of recent issues with the H1N1 "swine flu" scare, where many people thought the U.S. was going to be overtaken by this new strain of flu that would kill…… [Read More]
Prevention and Control of the Flu
The flu is a serious illness but one of its great advantages is that a vaccine does exist to contain its spread and prevent or at least mitigate its symptoms. The flu is a virus and available antiviral medications like Tamiflu are not as effective as treating, for example, a bacterial infection with an antibiotic. The most effective method of treating the flu is to not get it at all -- which is why vaccination is so essential. However, even flu vaccinations are not particularly effective on a seasonal basis: "A flu virus mutates at an exceptionally high rate as it reproduces, and some mutations will change the tips of the surface proteins. The antibodies cannot grab tightly to the altered tips, so the virus is able to proceed with its invasion. From one flu season to the next, the evolution of the flu…… [Read More]
As of May 2, 2009, CNN has reported there are 160 confirmed cases of swine flu across the United States of America and about 108 cases throughout the rest of the world.
Although the swine flu (H1N1) strain's discovery in the 1930s has shown not so much an aggressive spread of the disease through the years worldwide, a flaccid approach to the prevention and eradication of any communicable pathogen could result into a catastrophe worldwide, as transmission methods are numerous and casual like mere sneezing, coughing, and usual human activities, like handshakes, kissing and talking with an infected or healthy pathogen carrier.
Preventive measures include keeping one's self healthy by having a well-balanced diet, taking in ample or optimal amounts of water (8 glasses of water for normal individuals) to keep one normally hydrated, getting enough quality sleep and rest (normally 8 hours of sleep) with some stress relieving naps,…… [Read More]
I chose this topic because the H1N1 virus and the swine flu have taken over the news. The Ohio Department of Health is heavily committed in getting the word out. "During the week of October 18-24, 2009, influenza activity continued to increase in the United States as reported in FluView. Flu activity is now widespread in 48 states. Nationally, visits to doctors for influenza-like-illness continue to increase steeply and are now higher than what is seen at the peak of many regular flu seasons. In addition, flu-related hospitalizations and deaths continue to go up nation-wide and are above what is expected for this time of year." (ODH).
The story is both a local and national headline. The television news report '60 Minutes' lead off this week's show with a serious discussion about all aspects of the new viral spread of the H1N1 virus and issues regarding the production process…… [Read More]
Democracy and Public Administration
This report is a theoretical essay on the inevitable conflicts that consistently occur between public agencies that are managed by unelected civil servants and the political environment in which these individuals and organizations operate in. Public agencies in the healthcare environment are prime examples of successful interdepartmental cooperation in most cases, but, there are also examples where they can demonstrate both internal and external in-fighting. "The health sector workforce, which usually comprises a significant element within the total public sector workforce, may be either directly employed by the public sector health system, or work in public-funded agencies or organizations (e.g., social insurance funded). In many countries healthcare will also be delivered by organizations in the private sector and by voluntary organizations." (World Bank Group) As concerns like the nation's aging population, a rapidly depleting Medicare Trust or the many potential pandemics such as SAs, Swine…… [Read More]
The Miami International Airport terminal is stated to present "notable life safety challenges because of large occupant loads, presence of significant combustible loads, complex security restrictions, and less than ideal egress provisions from interior spaces." (Miami International Airport, 1998) The Life Safety Master Plan (LSMP) is stated to provide a summary of the fire safety surveys and studies conducted. The first line of defense is stated to be that of prevention of fire however, the facility's size and complexity makes a requirement that there is complete coverage "by automatic fire protection systems...in place in case prevention fails." (Miami International Airport, 1998 ) Also required in combination with highly reliable automatic protection systems are manual fire fighting capabilities of an enhanced nature.
Drug Trafficking Threats
The South Florida HIDTA reports that the Miami International Airport (MIA) is not only the busiest airport in the United States for international cargo but it…… [Read More]
The result is that the flu pandemic created a greater respect from citizens to medical professionals and also increased the role of government in preventing and anticipating the spread of infectious diseases.
Overall Crosby's work makes very valid arguments; his intent throughout the book is to provide an analysis of the impact of the influenza pandemic. He wanted the reader to understand precisely why this pandemic, though so large in scope and so damaging to the youth of merica during that era has escaped the national consciousness. He argues that this is the result of apt responses by government and the emergence of a new confidence in the medical profession. On all of these counts Crosby has succeeded admirably, he demonstrates through his narrative how even though individuals became more hysterical over the threat of the flu, they were at the same time persuaded and assuaged by local, state and…… [Read More]
If it is understated, however, lives may be lost due to lack of preparation.
One of the difficulties of changing childhood eating habits is the uncertain degree to which environment, genetics, and culture are contributing to the adult and childhood obesity epidemic. One primary intervention would be to study the degree to which influences such as junk food advertising, school lunches, and the proximity of fast food restaurants to schools affect students' BMI. By assessing the degree to which exposure to unhealthy food advertising, meals in schools, and availability of snacks outside of school affect a student's weight, this could provide guidance as to what strategies should be used to prevent childhood obesity. On a secondary level, treating children who are overweight or at risk for obesity with specific intervention programs that could be compared against the weight and health records of control groups would give further guidance…… [Read More]
hat might cause this are wary expectations, a sense that new things are coming and a fear of the unknown. Of course, a fear of the unknown has been a part of many societies since the beginning of time. It was because of this that explorers were often afraid to go into uncharted waters and legends surrounding what lay at the end of the map were prominent. But Glassner argues that the fear of the wrong things can't be explained by the calendar alone. Instead, he argues that another explanation is the news media, which tends to fixate on disasters. He gives examples of news networks creating fear about incidents that actually happen very infrequently, such as Barbara alters' creating a panic over fires on operating tables -- a rare incidence.
One of Glassner's theories can be evaluated quite easily, as the new millennium has already come to pass. Despite…… [Read More]
26 Yet public health continued to mean, even more than in the Clinton administration, a technological approach to national defense. In the Bush administration, pharmaceutical protection became the centerpiece of biodefense policy. On December 13, 2002, convinced of the Dark Winter-type threat of smallpox, President Bush announced his nationwide smallpox inoculation program. Publicity about Iraq's potential biological arsenal, especially in the lead-up to the 2003 invasion, and the threat of bioterrorism had convinced many in the public to participate. The states and the CDC were ready to handle the logistics. In addition, civilian participation was voluntary, which reduced legal liability for those who administered the vaccine and for the government.
As might have been predicted, this smallpox vaccination campaign found it difficult to circumvent the well-known fears of vaccination as a source of bodily pollution and the mistrust engendered when vaccines appear a worse health risk than the forecast epidemic.…… [Read More]
" Prescription drugs invade the markets today only to mask the symptoms of disease instead of preventing disease from happening. In this back-end approach to fighting disease instead of preventing it from occurring in the first place, pharmaceutical companies have profited at the expense of society." (Karel M.)
There is therefore also the feelings and the growing suspicion that prescription drugs are controlled by large pharmaceutical corporations and these influence practitioners and the health care industry. Modern medical practitioners are also "... subject to persuasion from drug manufacturers and rely on them for their information, despite their obvious bias to use their drugs." (Karel M.) This is an area that has been severely critiqued in allotropic health care; namely the fact that modern medicine is dominated by large drug companies which to a large extent are more concerned with their profit margins than with the quality and the ultimate effectives…… [Read More]
He denies taking these meds for any other reason but to be able to stay awake at work. He also admits that he is not in the position he thought he would be in at this age in his life. Approximately five years ago, he was laid off as the manager of a local distributing company. Since that time (which is also the time of his son's birth), he feels that he has become increasingly stressed as well as disappointed in himself. He used to go to church, but he has not been since his mother died. He believes that going to church helps him feel more grounded and at ease. It is recommended that Mr. Sinatra learn to release his stress in positive manners such as exercising in the pool, walking, and stretching, attending counseling, and going to church.
Values and Beliefs
Mr. Sinatra and his family are members…… [Read More]
He or she is also entitled to proper medication to deal with the disease.
It's not just the responsibility of medics to offer health care but the family members of the sick too play a very important role in caring about health. y accompanying the sick person to hospital and administering the prescribed medicine at home. As well, family members offer support by praying and giving the sick member company. Did you know that even loneliness is a health hazard.
Quality health care is individual responsibility. Every individual is supposed to make sure they have the best health always. Contagious diseases should be avoided at all costs, however, should we contact them then we should care for ourselves. A sick person should maintain bodily cleanliness and eat the right foods. Ones health should not also cause harm to neighbors at home and in public. Global concerns are also rising quickly…… [Read More]
Unless the physicians can succinctly argue their case for care and services, the managed care entity will, for reasons of medical necessity, deny access to care and services.
What Cost-Added atio Based on Illegal Immigrant Population?
The argument by opponents that loopholes exist that would allow illegal immigrants to access Obama's proposed legislation on healthcare services is rendered moot in lieu of the fact that those illegal immigrants are currently receiving healthcare services Medicaid and through Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS). The Federal eimbursement of Emergency Health Services Furnished to Undocumented Aliens states:
"Section 1011 of the (Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (MMA) (P.L. 108-173)) MMA appropriated $250 million dollars in FY 2005 through 2008 for payments to eligible providers for emergency health services provided to undocumented aliens and other non-specified citizens who are not eligible for Medicaid (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2009, found online, p.…… [Read More]
Venture capitalists willing to take a risk on a dicey venture like developing a new drug and angel investors with a personal stake in developing a new, potentially life-saving product could provide better financial resources.
The choice of 'C' reflects the high-level scientific knowledge required to create a new drug and the equally profound need to solicit and wisely use financial resources during the development process. Management should also know how to navigate the potential bureaucratic red tape a new drug is likely to encounter before government approval. Academically-driven scientists may not understand how to 'pitch' the drug to investors, or even to explain the drug's utility to laypersons in Congress, when soliciting funding or regulatory approval. However, the most potentially damaging management team would be that of young MBAs with little knowledge of the lengthy nature of the drug development process. They might show frustration with the…… [Read More]
national public health resources in the United States. We will be describing the history of the public health department as well as other significant things regarding this subject. Our main focus besides at the national level will be at the Santa Clara County which is in the state of California. Finally, we will attempt to differentiate between public and community health which is related to our chosen agency of Santa Clara.
History of Department of Health in U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services started in 1798, at that time it had few finances as well as resources in terms of employed personals, medical equipments and so on. It later on became more effective with the aid of different acts such as Quarantine act of the year 1887. The department introduced children's services early in the twentieth century. The overall Public Health Service in the United States was restructured during…… [Read More]
responsibilities of the federal, state, and local public health systems?
On a federal level, the USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) and the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) regulate food and drug safety, to ensure that American consumers are protected against tainted or unsafe products. The Surgeon General has often been the spearhead of public health campaigns, such as to encourage Americans to quit smoking or to be aware of the gravity of the AIDS epidemic. The White House has likewise championed many public health service campaigns, such as the current 'Let's Move' campaign of Michelle Obama. The Department of Health and Human Services oversees the majority of health-related initiatives on the part of the federal government, including Medicare, the health insurance program provided for all seniors (HHS, 2011, Official Website).
However, state and local public agencies also have substantial responsibilities in safeguarding public safety. "State health agencies must be able…… [Read More]
Opposition a edf Authinity Www, rotten Tomatoes
Impossible to review?
The challenges of reviewing Breaking Dawn, Part II
otten Tomatoes' collective reviews of the final installment of the Twilight series Breaking Dawn, Part II are some of the most 'mixed' of any recently released film. While most films on otten Tomatoes are fairly consistently rated as bad, good, or mediocre, the reviews are squarely split between anti-Twilight and pro-Twilight camps. The review of Peter Travers, critic for olling Stone, echoes the sentiments of many anti-Twilight reviews, forced to watch the film as part of their job: "It's Dead! It's Dead! By which I mean, It's Finished! It's Finished! Five movies have been squeezed out of four Stephenie Meyer Twilight books. All of them redefining cinematic tedium for a new century. And now, It's Over! It's Over! No more Twilight movies EVE!" (Travers 2012). This illustrates the problem with reviewing components…… [Read More]
Obesity in Los Angeles County
The United States, while being one of the most technologically developed countries in the world, is not a healthy nation. Typically, when we think of disease pandemics we think of things like Swine Flu, Ebola, Lyme disease, etc. However, in the 21st century, we have a new pandemic that affects our children, adults, and eventually the whole population. Because of a more sedentary lifestyle, a proclivity for fast food, a high-fat diet, and hundreds of sugary drinks, obesity is now statistically so rampant that it is having a serious effect on American's health. Almost every researcher, whether medical or academic, as well as the public health sector, agree that there are statistical links between what we ingest and the consequences to our overall health profile. Certainly, all we need to is walk down any grocery store aisle, open up most magazines and newspapers, or watch…… [Read More]
Tourism in Thailand
Economic, Social, Cultural and Environmental Impacts of Tourism in Thailand
Urban and rural tourism in Thailand accounts for around 7% of the total GDP. There are various factors, social, economic, environmental and cultural factors which affect the tourism industry in Thailand. Also, the rural tourism in Thailand needs more work. This report has some strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of Thailand's tourism industry. In the end, recommendations are given on how to improve the tourism industry in Thailand.
Tourism in Thailand
Impact of Environmental, Economical, Social and Cultural Factors on Tourism in Thailand
Tourism is one of the world's fastest growing industries, and this industry has been identified as a means of generating national income (Pender, & Sharpley, 2005). Thailand, a beautiful country at the heart…… [Read More]
AIDS to prevent infection: a bargain?" And is written by Julie Steenhuysen for Reuters and published April 17, 2012. The article begins by describing why AIDS is still a very much-discussed topic within the medical community, despite many breakthroughs, after so many years of being in the news, and so many advances in the technology that treats it. According to the article, one of the most successful treatments in preventing AIDS for healthy individuals is called Truvada, which is a combination of Emtriva, and Viread. (Truvada, 2012) This treatment was created in an effort to create a "pre-exposure prophylaxis" or PrEP. (Steenhuysen, 2012). This treatment would require men who are at high risk of contracting HIV to take a daily pill in order to provide a better defense from this disease.
This treatment may greatly reduce the number of men who contract HIV each year, already at a very high…… [Read More]