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Epp and There Construction in
Words: 4504 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16859114
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Lasnik (2001) examined the subject of object shift and concluded that if the verb does not raise in front of the object that was shifted, the resulting sentence is grammatically incorrect. When the object shift is applied to the sentence, "Carol read a book," it becomes, "Carol a book read," or "Carol a book did read." Neither of the latter is acceptable or understandable to the recipient as written. This case casts considerable doubt on Chomsky's EPP theory to be applied in every case.

osengren (2002) argues that the EPP is not feature driven and that it does not result in the erasure of features. It is further argued that it is not directly related to the condition of being a subject. Therefore, in the case of expletives, there is no association between the subject and the expletive. osengren further argues that languages can be divided into EPP and non-EPP…


Chomsky, N. (1995). The Minimalist Program.Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Chomsky (2000). Minimalist Inquiries: The Framework. Step-by-Step: Essays on Minimalist

Syntax in honor of Howard Lasnik. Martin, r., D. Michaels and J. Uriagereka (eds).

Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Active Side of Infinity by Carlos Castaneda
Words: 336 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 87587806
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Active Side of Infinity by Carlos Castaneda

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As we open the book, we are confronted with two poems, "Syntax" and "The Other Syntax" What is the significance of syntax? It is defined as the linguistic study of how words are put together to form sentences and ultimately, to mean something. The first of these poems describes the Western view of the beginning of the universe, the Big Ban Theory. It is a linear explanation backed by equations that demands a linear progression, one in which we have constructed our world: beginnings, middles and ends. The speaker "mirrors the syntax of his "mother tongue."

"The Other Syntax," questions the first and states that there are other syntaxes. One for instance that speaks of the intensity of the experience. There are no clear-cut signposts. Thus the universe is the chariot…

ELL Writing Sample Analysis Instruction
Words: 2999 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 2564198
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The student jumps from one tense to another in the space of two sentences, revealing a discussion which is largely uncertain of its own chronology. Naturally, this makes the work a very unclear experience for the reader such as in the pair of sentences in the second paragraph, which declare that "A few days later 'This alarms the Crows.' Father Crows discussed the matter with the other animals that live in the banyan tree." Again, only with respect to tense changes, the pattern of error in this sentence jumps from present tense (alarms), to past tense (discussed) and then back to present (live). These examples all come from the first few sentences of the essay, and are consistently observable throughout, indicating that verb conjugation is an area of particular need for this student where written expression in concerned.

Other issues that are often encountered by ELL students will concern the…


Christensen, L. (2003). The Politics of Correction: How We Can Nurture Students In Their Writing. The Quarterly, 25(4).

Manley, J. (1988). Telling lies efficiently: terminology and the microstructure in the bilingual dictionary. in: Jensen Hyldgaard (ed.), 281-302.

Local Color in the Short Story the Viscountess and the Short Haired Girl
Words: 4580 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10574529
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obert Graves lived from 1895 to 1985, and was a novelist, poet as well as a translator of the English Language. obert Graves has been a vivacious author, and has won acclaim as an author of the accounts of the First World War, in his book called 'Good bye to all that' republished in 1957. His poetry about the First World War he was recognized as being one of the sixteen Great War poets in 1985. These poets were honoured on the slate stone that was unveiled in Westminster Abbey's Poet's Corner as an edifice respecting their contribution to the narration of the war.

Through his life span, obert Graves has worked on various aspects in literature, ranging from autobiographical accounts, to historical novels. His works also include translations of Greek mythology as well as historical novels such as King Jesus, I and the Golden Fleece. obert Graves's memoirs particularly…


Brown, Keith and Jim Miller. Concise Encyclopedia of Syntactic Theories. . New York: Elsevier Science, 1996.

Campbell, Donna M. Regionalism and Local Color Fiction, 1865-1895. . Washington: Literary Movements. Dept. Of English, Washington State University., n.d.

Carnie, Andrew. Syntax: A Generative Introduction. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2006.

Freidin, Robert and Howard Lasnik. Syntax. Critical Concepts in Linguistics. . New York: Routledge, 2006.

Lesson Plan for Gustav Klimt Art Class
Words: 6407 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67881416
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Gustav Klimt Lesson Plan

Central Focus

"Describe the central focus and purpose for the content you will teach in the learning segment".

Students will learn the art of Gustav Klimt, which will assist in creating the work of art that will resemble Klimt's style. Moreover, students will be introduced to the Gustav Klimt's artwork focusing on his love for cats. (Weidinger, 2007).Students will also learn their artistic style and utilize their patterns and shapes to fill up their works. Moreover, students will continue to build and develop the basic skill sets utilizing art tools such as paint, glue, scissors, and oil pastels. Students will also learn how to utilize the line variation, stylized form, symbol, color, and media variety with the ability to create their "Tree of Life". Moreover, the lesson plan will assist students to learn about cool and warm colors incorporating them into the artistic styles of Gustav…

Metaphysical Poetry Journal Exercise 3 1A
Words: 3452 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 67044569
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The Lord will lead one to safety always. One can simply believe in something higher to get the meaning of this; it doesn't have to be Jesus. Psalm 127, contrarily is confusing because it states that unless the Lord builds the house, it is built in vain. This seems to be more literal, but I do get the idea. Unless the people building the house are doing it with the love of the Lord in their hearts, or building it for him, then what is the point?

Didactic poetry can be quite comforting as seen in Psalm 23 or it can be much too literal and seen as both confusing and condescending. Psalm 127 isn't very instructive spiritually speaking, unlike Psalm 23.

Updated Proverb: A broken toe can hurt, but a broken heart can kill.

Metaphors: Obscure or Illuminate? Didactic literature with its use of metaphors can sometimes obscure the…

Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1
Words: 695 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: Array
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Database Developer (based on job I worked on).

Syntax and Semantic Analysis

-- The Syntax errors involved misuse of keywords.

The Semantic errors involved misuse of columns and tables - there were incompatible data types.

To elaborate, the syntax refers to the structure of the program and syntactic analysis checks for errors in aspects like spelling or whether ibraces are missing in which case the program would fail syntactically.

Semantic errors, on the other hand refer to the essential meaning of the content -- whether it all makes sense and whether it is accurate (for instance writing "the sun rises in the west") is a semantic error for this is incorrect. I would have to ascertain that all data placed in tables and columns was accurate in both context and form.

b. Query Transformation

I transformed the query into simplified and standardized format based on relational algebra. Some query transformations…

Translation Linguistic the Challenges of
Words: 1211 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Seminar Paper Paper #: 5719407
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The result is a translation that fails either to satisfy the impulse for Arab audiences to appreciate the nuance of one of Shakespeare's great tragedies or to create a work that resonates with Arab-speaking audiences.

In many ways, the challenges of translating this type of work are far greater than standard translations between the two distinct linguistic traditions. This is because of core structural differences that lead to common syntax errors. According to Nakhallah (2010), "English-Arabic translation difficulties also result from differences in word order between the syntax of the two languages." (Nakhallah, p. 2)

Such is to say that the reverse order of subject and verb between the two languages leads to a bevy of translation errors and produces works that are often garbled and inferior. The consequence may simply be a low quality reading experience for the Arabic reader attempting to take in a piece of English-written work…

Works Cited:

Academic Supervisor. (2011). Grammatical Problems in Translation.

Enani, M. (2006). On translating Shakespeare into Arabic. Al-Ahram Weekly Online.

Kehal, M. & Atamna, E. (2010). Problems in English Arabic Translation of Reference Pragmatic Aspects. People's Democratic Republic of Algeria: Ministry of Higher Education and Science Research.

Nakhallah, a.M. (2010). Difficulties and Problems Facing English Students at QOU in theTranslation Process from English to Arabic and Their solutions. Al-Quds Open University.

Anne Sexton's Her Kind the
Words: 330 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6494502
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Throughout the poem, the use of past tense active verbs places the poem in a strange sort of disconnected yet impassioned context, reinforcing the idea that the poem is a chant of sorts. This is most apparent, of course, in the repeated "I have been her kind."

There is perhaps no element in the poem that contributes to the tone more than the imagery. This changes significantly from stanza to stanza, and so is also the main organizational criteria of the poem. The imagery moves from spooky and evil in the first stanza to a more benign and warm but still secretive magic in the second, with pictures of "worms and elves," and resolves in the open light of a cart ride in the third stanza, revealing woman finally in her…

Cassandra in Agamemnon Cassandra Prophecies
Words: 806 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57280100
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The imagery she uses also reflects the pain that she experiences as she envisions the murder about to take place and the fact that she too will killed: she speaks of Clytemnestra as a lion: "Vengeance broodeth still, a lion's rage, which goes not forth to kill / But lurketh in his lair, watching the high hall…" Then she speaks of her as a wolf and as a serpent. The imagery is repeatedly of deadly animals, culminating in this terrible prophecy: "Some Skylla, deep / Housed in the rock, where sailors shriek and die, / Mother of Hell blood-raging, which doth cry / On her own flesh war, war without alloy…" Cassandra equates the revenge that Clytemnestra seeks with the revenge that the Greeks sought against Paris at Troy. War follows war -- even when peace is supposed and expected.

The narrative voice of Agamemnon is undisturbed by Cassandra's prophecy…

Loss Read P 305 Leaving
Words: 7913 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75963209
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" The differences in these two lines seem to be only a matter of syntax but in actuality, it also differs in the meaning. The King James Bible version makes it seem like the Lord is making the individual do something, as if by force or obligation, while the Puritan version states that the Lord causes the individual to do something, as if out of their own will. This alone relays the message that faith itself is driving the action, not a perceived obligation.

Another distinction between the two translations can be found with the lines "Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: / and I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever" (King James Bible) and "Goodness and mercy surely shall / all my days follow me. / and in the Lord's house I shall / dwell so long as days…

Hollow Men According to C K
Words: 747 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60252235
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We see the stone images raised again to indicate soulless worshipping. It is used to highlight the impurity and insincerity of worshippers:

At the hour when we are Trembling with tenderness

Lips that would kiss

Form prayers to broken stone.

The fourth section is actually that twilight zone that hollow men dreaded. The fear of meeting the eyes had already been overcome. It is their absence which is disturbing now:

As the perpetual star

Multifoliate rose

Of death's twilight kingdom

The absence of eyes in the 'twilight kingdom' suggests that this part if yet another version of the world. Here reappearance of eyes would mean rekindling of spirit and rebirth of soul and conscience. The return of eyes is now a hope- 'the hope only'. The syntax is deliberately ambiguous- 'This broken jaw of our lost kingdoms' evokes a powerful and mysterious image of things in the twilight kingdom. The…


C.K. Stead, The New Poetic: Yeats to Eliot (Penguin, 1967 edn), 167-70

Educational Situations
Words: 6837 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97521471
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Educational Situations

Name four practices that commonly require written administrative procedures.

Memorandums that include school policy changes or important information for the staff are commonly distributed in writing so that the information is accurately conveyed and properly received and documented. Many staff communications to the administration, such as requests for new classroom supplies or for personal leaves of absence, are also communicated in writing. If disciplinary action of any kind is taken against a student, it is commonly recorded in writing in the student's permanent file, and a copy of this information may be sent home to parents. Finally, the recording of daily vital information, such as student attendance and test scores, are done in writing.

How would you know if you are complying with EQ policies and procedures?

A a) If I were not complying with EQ policies, I would receive notification or a warning of some kind from…


Graves, Bonnie & Michael. "Scaffolding Reading Experiences to Promote Success: A Flexible Approach to Fostering Comprehension." University of Minnesota. 

Education Queensland. Queensland Government.

English Grammar Letter From Birmingham
Words: 4733 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60817463
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The first independent clause begins in a strong active voice, with a strong decisive verb, (Graff, 2006).

This represents his shift from true passiveness to a form of non-violent action. Then, the dependent clause "realizing that except for Christmas," begins with a gerund. The verb to realize is transformed into a noun with the adding of a "-ing." This is aimed at showing the general modality of the speaker. The speaker and all involved had a previous knowledge of the realization involved in the process. Then King Jr. refers back to the object Easter with the subject and verb of "this is." This is a form of a relative clause which is therefore a form of adjective clause, (Lewis, 1986).

The next sentence continues the modality of the gerund verb. This sentence is a dependent attached to an independent clause first beginning with a gerund, "Knowing that a strong economic…


King, Martin Luther Jr. (1963). Letter from Birmingham jail. University of Pennsylvania. African Studies. 12 June. 2008. 

Lewis, Michaels. (1986). The English verb: an exploration of structure and meaning.

Language Teaching Publications.

Strunk, William & White, E.B. (1999). The elements of style. Longman Publishers.

Doomed to Remember a Boy
Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 89247172
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"THERE WAS NO DATE," Owen said. I wanted to cry -- not because I believed a single thing about his stupid "vision," but because it was the first time he had lied to me" (397). In this quotation, Owen's point-of-view about his death and the nature of his relationship with John is revealed. He does not want to tell John the date on the tombstone he envisioned, because he wants to protect John and keep him from worrying about his impending death. This quote shows how selfless Owen's point-of-view regarding his friendship with John is.

"IF KENNEDY CAN RATIONALIZE ADULTERY, WHATELSE CAN HE RATIONALIZE?" Owen asked me…! IF CATHOLICS CAN CONFESS ANYTHING, THEY CAN FORGIVE THEMSELVES ANYTHING, TOO!" (301). This quotation is highly demonstrative of Meany's point-of-view regarding Catholicism, which is contrasted with the Christianity which he inspires within the narrator. Meany continually disparages Catholic practices within the novel, particularly…

Afrikaners Are the Descendants of
Words: 4136 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11391645
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Having been prosecuted in Europe, they were inclined to severe all ties with the continent and considered Africa their homeland. Since most other immigrants in Cape were also Calvinists -- members of the Dutch Reformed Church, the French Haguenots were readily accepted as part of a common community and were soon integrated into settler society by intermarriage. Their emphasis on a 'pure' form of Calvinism and self-sufficiency, however, influenced the development of the Afrikaner culture and way of life.

The Afrikaans Language

Afrikaans is the language of the white South Africans that was largely derived from the 17th century Dutch language. It is estimated that about seven million people in South Africa and Namibia speak some form of Afrikaans, although 'standard' Afrikaans is spoken mainly by the whites. Until the end of the "apartheid" in 1994, Afrikaans was the official language of government and education. It is now one of…

Works Cited 

Beck, Roger B. The History of South Africa. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.


Grundlingh, Albert. "The Bitter Legacy of the Boer War." History Today Nov. 1999: 21.

10-Year-Old Boy Alec The Child Has Had
Words: 2646 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 86185381
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10-year-old boy, Alec. The child has had pervasive relocations in his life, beginning at age 2 and endured a challenging separation between his parents. Since the separation he first experienced 50% split parenting, living with his mother one week then his father and stepmother the next, until such time as he was school age. He then began to live full time with his mother during the school week and visit his father and stepmother every other weekend, until age 7 when his mother relocated to an area which is a seven hour drive from his father at this point the mother also remarried. From that point to the present he has stayed with his mother and stepfather the majority of the time and traveled to visit his father and stepmother on the Christmas holiday, spring break and through the summer, which usually works out to be about 2 months. Prior…


Gardner, H. (2000) Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York, NY, USA: Basic Books.

Janssen, A., Diekema, E., van Dolder, R., Kollee, L., Oostendorp, R., & Nijhuis-van der Sanden, M. (2012). Development of a movement quality measurement tool for children. Physical Therapy, 92(4), 574-594.

Light, P. & Littleton, K. (2000) Social processes in children's learning. Port Chester, NY, USA: Cambridge University.

Meadows, S. (1986) Understanding child development. Florence, KY, USA: Routledge.

Language Is Arbitrary as You Are Reading
Words: 667 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94896095
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Language Is Arbitrary

As you are reading these words, you are taking part in one of the wonders of the natural world," begins Steven Pinker's The Language Instinct. (Pinker, 3) In other words, it is a wonder that the human mind is able to create, from need and cognitive structure and instinct, a morphological structure of communication that can change over time from context to context, yet still be understood.

It is a wonder that is both natural yet arbitrary in its construction. For the syntax, or appearance and sound of a particular kind of piece of language is arbitrary, even though the semantics, or relational meaning of the language is not. Should you, the reader, doubt this proposition, consider that one solitary letter can mean the difference between an object being understood, in an English context, as a bat, a cat, or a hat respectively. One letter can be…

Works Cited

Frompkin, Victoria. (2002) Introduction to Language. Heinle: Seventh edition.

Pinker, Steven. (2000) The Language Instinct. New York: HarperCollins.

Assessing Expressive Language Samples of ECE Students
Words: 1325 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 87858703
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A sample of 25 intelligible utterances obtained during an observation in the clinic, in which Jay played and interacted with his mother, provided the basis for the language analysis. The following assessments were conducted: MLU, DSS, Correct/Incorrect Form Analysis, and Type Token atio.

Mean Length of Utterance (MLU). Although oger Brown's five stages of language development differ from the scoring used in the MLU interpretation in this paper, Jay is scores within normal limits in this second version, also. Brown describes a MLU score of 3.0 to 3.75 as Stage IV of language development, which corresponds with an approximate age of 35 to 40 months. Jay has reached 41 months of age at the time of this evaluation, which puts him in Stage V of language development, with corresponding ages of 41 to 46 months. Jay's MLU score is 3.5, which may be interpreted to indicate that Jay is moderately…


Rice, M.L., Smolik, F., Perpich, D., Thompson, T., Rytting, N., and Blossom, M. (2010, April). Mean length of utterance levels in 6-month intervals for children 3 to 9 years with and without language impairments. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 53(2), 333 -- 349. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0183) PMCID: PMC2849178 NIHMSID: NIHMS120034

Minds Possible Worlds Introduces the Concept of
Words: 1405 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80520195
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Minds, Possible Worlds introduces the concept of "transactional self," or the self that is continually engaged in and developed from active relationships. These relationships "are premised on a mutual sharing of assumptions and beliefs about how the world is, how mind works, what we are up to, and how communication should proceed," (Bruner, 1986, p. 57). Almost a form of mind reading, transactional consciousness permits psychologists to make generalizations about typical human transactions and also pathological interactions with the world. Thus, a person intuits how others feel or think. Much of what we attribute to intuition, empathy, or even psychic powers can be conceptualized as an underlying intelligence about the transactional self.

Research, although burdened by methodological hindrances, reveals the nature of the transactional self. People tend to gravitate towards those who are perceived to like them. Questioning the underlying thought process, Bruner posits that the tendency to befriend those…

Human Language Series Part 1
Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77779143
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In real time, the elements occur all at once, thus the rules of language are independent of meaning. A sentence can be grammatical but meaningless, or meaningless but grammatical. Syntax, although it varies from language to language, is what makes language uniquely 'human,' no other animal species uses syntax in its communication system. No matter how different our language systems may seem to one another, all human language systems are more similar to one another than to animal systems of communication. Animals do not communicate on a conceptual level, and their language exists only in time. Human language can convey absence, like the fact there is 'no giraffe next to me,' and people who know a language can figure out the meaning of new words by the place of the word and the meaning of other words in a sentence. Language also changes and grows over time, and within the…

Non-Pronominal Coding of Active Referents in Message Structure of Sentences
Words: 5498 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33546694
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Non-Pronominal Coding of Active Referents

The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of English sentence structures with regard to non-pronominal coding of active referents. In order to do this, it is important to have a baseline definition of non-pronominal (NP) coding and active referents. e look to recent literature and case study of not only English but other languages examined to understand sentence structure. Upon reviewing the literature, it was found that definitions for the pronominal approach were plentiful and easy to understand. As a means of comparison an understanding the NP application, we are also exploring the pronominal approach that acts as a framework for literature. Once these definitions are established, we will look at active referents and their role in sentence structure. Available literature suggests non-pronominal coding is used for active referents. As part of this analysis, it is important to look at other languages…

Works Cited List

Andersen, Han Christian. The Princess and the Pea. Philadelphia: Courage Books, 2002.

Barwise, J. And Perry, J. Situations and Attitudes. Cambridge, Mass: Bradford Books 1982.

Baumann, Stefan. And Grice, Martine. Accenting Accessible Information. Cologne, Germany: Saarland University.

Chafe, Wallace. "Givenness, contrasitiveness, definiteness, subjects, topics and point-of-view." In: Li, Charles) (ed.) Subject and Topic. New York: Academic Press, 1976, 25-56.

Language & Cognition the Relationship Between Language
Words: 1294 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40028872
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Language & Cognition

The relationship between language and cognition continues to be an area of science that is heavily studied and for which research builds in exciting ways (Aitchison, 2007). New learnings about cognition and language are intimately tied to technological advances as neuropsychologists and others probe the human brain ever more deeply and meaningfully (Aitchison, 2007).

Language and lexicon. Language is understood to be the symbolic representation of human thought (Yule, 2005). Language is the most complex method of human communication, whether written or spoken, in that it uses words in a structured manner and in conventional ways that are understood by those who speak, read, and write a particular language (Yule, 2005). Language can also take the form of nonverbal communication through facial and gestural expressions (Yule, 2005). The concept of lexicon takes two general forms: A dictionary of a particular language, and the vocabulary associated with an…


Aitchison, J. (2007) The Articulate Mammal: An Introduction to Psycholinguistics (5 rev edn) London: Routledge.

Bock, J.K. (1982, January). Toward a cognitive psychology of syntax: Information processing contributions to sentence formulation. Psychological Review, 89 (1), 1-47.

Williamson, G. (2009, October 13). Key properties of language. Speech Therapy Information and Services (STIR). Retrieved 

Yule, G. (2005) The Study of Language (3 rev edn) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Uml-Based Comparison of Model Transformational
Words: 8021 Length: 29 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3350276
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Generally, the classification of model transformation tools is based on whether it is declarative or operational, directionality or multiplicity.

The study further discusses the sub-categories of model transformation that include:

hybrid transformation tools, graph transformation, relational, template based, operational based, structure driven and direct manipulation.

All the sub-categories of model transformation have the following features:

Hybrid transformation combines two or more transformation approaches;

Graph transformation focuses on graph rewriting over variation and extensions of labeled graphs.

Relational approach uses declarative approach-based mathematical relations; template approach uses model template specifications.

ATL Transformation Tool

The project reveals that ATL is one of the effective transformation tools used to semantic or syntactic translation and it is built on transformation Virtual Machine model. The ATL was developed from the ATLAS framework, which enabled the specification of one or more target models. The project further reveals that ATL is hybrid language providing the mix of…

Works Cited

Braun, P. & Marschall, F. BOTL The Bidirectional Object Oriented Transformation

Language. Institut fur Informatik Technische Universitat Munchen. 2003.

Cremers, A.B. Alda, S. & Rho, T. Chapter 13, Mapping Models to Code Object-Oriented Software .Construction. University of Bonn. German. 2009.

Einarsson, H.P. Refactoring UML Diagram and Models with Model-to-Model Transformation . Master of Science in Software Engineering, University of Iceland. 2011.

Diagramming Tool for SIOP Lesson Plan
Words: 612 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76809647
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Linguistics-Based Intervention Plan

English Language Learner Information: Native Spanish speaker, male

Age/Grade: 7th grade

Overall English Proficiency Level: Moderate

English eading Level (if doing a reading intervention): 7th

English Writing Level (if doing a writing intervention): 5th

Targeted Area of Weakness in eading or Writing

(e.g., grammatical structures, use of reading skills and strategies, writing structure or organization, vocabulary acquisition, etc.)

Grammatical structures -- syntax

Evidence from Linguistics in egards to that area of weakness (Summarize here in bullet point form.)

• Student shows limited ability to identify parts of speech

• Student does not link words appropriately in writing

• Student does not use phrases properly

• The goal is for the student to acquire understanding of syntax

Plan Using Evidence from Linguistics to Address Weakness (indicate in parentheses where procedures match up with the evidence from linguistics delineated above)

The procedure to teach syntactical skills to the ELL…


Freeman, D. E. and Freeman, Y. S. (2014). Essential Linguistics: What You Need to Know to Teach Reading, ESL, Spelling, Phonics, Grammar. Chapter 6., Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Krashen, S. D. (2003). Explorations in Language Acquisition and Use. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Architecture 2a Brief History of
Words: 2876 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 15233263
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These markets need the categorization of information assets and also the plan of interaction interfaces that conventionally were built up within the organizations. Nevertheless, as the diversities of the access to information and also functionality of these applications are increasing, the difficulties of the organization of information and also the user interfaces that are possible will also increase. Due to this, the architects of information are becoming increasingly concerned with the vertical application development to design and also to put into practice precise architectures to maintain users and also to develop and increase organically with functionality. In a number of instances, vertical IAs might principally be cautiously organized, task-based boundaries to customary end-user applications and databases accessed through a Web browser and customized to every purpose, activity and industry. A common example is the applications of e-commerce which are within commercial Web sites like shopping carts and exact term creation…


Beckett, D., & McBride, B., (2004).RDF=XML Syntax Specification (Revised): W3C

Recommendation 10 February 2004. World Wide Web Consortium, Cambridge, MA.,  / (accessed Mar 27-2011).

Dillon & Turnbull (2005). Dillon, a. & Turnbull, D. ( 2005). Information Architecture. (Pp. 1-9).

In: Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. New York: Marcel Dekker. Pp. 1-14. Online:

Extant Literature Has Been Dedicated
Words: 4269 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 70770203
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The authors pointed out the fact that the integration of semantic Web with the existing remote sensing processes can help in solving the problem. The ability of the remote sensing of information to provide certain functions in an online environment is superb. This results in dynamic transfer of information across the web. The authors further points out the fact that semantic information processing gives rise to semantic-based service reasoning and descriptions. This leads to an automatic web. The building of an environment fuelled by the semantic web leads to the combining of various advantages of various aspects and respects while conducting a service-oriented study. This result in a deeper appreciation of semantic services in providing richer and improved services for various users. Li et al. (2008) provide a discussion of the various classifications of remote sensing and information processing services as well as an ontology-based service that makes use of…


Astels, D.(2002): Refactoring with UML, In Proceedings of 3rd International Conferenceon

eXtreme Programming and Flexible processes in Software Engineering (XP2002), (2002) 67-70

Banko et al. (2006).Open Information Extraction from the Web

Chiu, PH.,Lo, CC.Chao, KM (2009)Integrating Semantic Web and Object-Oriented

Cobol Overview of a Third
Words: 4692 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81579343
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This is unlikely to change short of an amazing new technological innovation that takes "natural" language capability and programming to a new level. Let us now compare how COOL meets the needs of organizations working in various industries. The next section will help clarify why COOL is in such demand among commercial enterprises worldwide.

Chapter 3 - COOL and Organizational Goals

This section analyses how COOL supports organizational goals. COOL supports organizational goals in many ways. It is an adept and multi-faceted programming language that provides organizations the ability to manage data in many departments. It is useful for financial analysis, for shipping and inventory maintenance, for the creation of reports and data management systems and for linking various units within the organization. Each of these key features is described in more detail below.

Decision support systems such as that COOL can help facilitate are critical for supporting all levels…


ANSI. (2007). COBOL, Standards. American National Standards Institute. Accessed 29, 

Columbia Encyclopedia. (2004). "Programming Language." The Columbia

Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, Columbia University Press.

Consciousness in the Annual Review of Neuroscience
Words: 1909 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91212682
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Consciousness" in the Annual eview of Neuroscience, John Searle questions the philosophical and epistemological accuracy of the paradigm that has defined the language and study of consciousness for centuries. His contention is that the study of consciousness must be guided by the idea that consciousness is not the "airy-fairy and touch-feely" phenomenon that many assume it to be (558), but rather is a concrete result of certain biological processes in the brain known as neurological correlates of conscious state (NCCs). While his argument is soundly presented and consistent with itself, I believe that Searle avoids certain questions and considerations of consciousness in order to maintain the assumption at the center of his argument.

Critical to his theory is the concept of subjectivity. Consciousness, Searles argues, only exists subjectively in that it relies on the existence of a subject as part of its definition. This is somewhat related to the famous…


Levy, D., Bayley, P., Squire, L. (2004) The anatomy of semantic knowledge: medial vs. lateral temporal lobe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Retrieved Jan. 26, 2012 from 

Searle, J. (2000) Consciousness. The Annual Review of Neuroscience, Vol. 23, p. 557-578.

Stock, O. And Strapparava, C. (2008) Ironic expressions and moving words. International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 22, No. 5, 1045-1057.

Developing VBScript Program and Networking
Words: 974 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47663673
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VBScript and Networking Systems

VBScript is the scripting language developed by Microsoft to assist web developers to create a dynamic website. Typically, VBScript has unlocked different tools that include web server, assessing web server, ability to print date and time. More importantly, the VBScript assists web ASP (Active Server Pages) developers to understand the sophisticated ASP programming language. On the other hand, computer network is a data telecommunication network that allows data exchange across the network systems.

Objective of this paper is to discuss the VBScript and networking.

VBScript Decision-Making Process and Loop Structures

VBScript decision-making assists VBScript programmer to edit the execution flow with the assistance of scripts. If statement assists the VBScript to carry out Decision-Making process and the If statements, include:




If statement is a Boolean expression that is followed by one or two or more statements. For example, if a condition is true,…

Eleven Key Areas of Effective Reading
Words: 1442 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72100345
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Education: Language Abilities and Literacy Development

Language ability is vitally linked to literacy development. In fact, an effective approach to literacy development is its treatment as a "processing of written language." As the eleven key areas for effective reading show, the varying language abilities of children must be analyzed and addressed to fashion a literacy program enhancing their abilities in those areas.

Literacy development is linked to a number of human abilities and external forces. The influence of these factors is most often determined through their negative impacts on literacy. Some of those factors include: physical impairments such as hearing deficiencies, vision deficiencies or other impairments; external causes such as minimal or no exposure to written sources, oral stories or language beyond television, the child's lack of attention to accessible language or written sources (Fountas & Pinnell, hen Readers Struggle: Teaching That orks, 2009, p. 32), inadequate preschool opportunities or…

Works Cited

Conrad, N.J., Harris, N., & Williams, J. (2013). Individual differences in children's literacy development: the contribution of orthographic knowledge. Reading and Writing, 26(8), 1223-1239.

Fountas, I., & Pinnell, G.S. (2009). When Readers Struggle: Teaching That Works. Portsmouth: Heinemann.

Netten, A., Droop, M., & Verhoeven, L. (2011). Predictors of reading literacy for first and second language learners. Reading and Writing, 24(4), 413-425.

Etymological Demand and Word Origins
Words: 708 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 75620030
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Linguistics Application and eflection: Challenges of English Syntax

Passive voice: 1) "We are governed by men we have never heard of." 2) "We are given a set of tools to work with." 3) "The audience is driven by the images on the screen."

Comparatives: 1) "The more it appears on signs, the more it is accepted as normal." 2) "No one believes things are so good that they could not be better."

Logical Connectors: 1) "Therefore, there is only one way forward." 2) "Neither effective argument nor impassioned speeches will dissuade the viewer from the idea embedded in him by the image."

Modal Auxiliary Verbs: 1) "They will keep coming, one after another." 2) "One would do well to consider the ramifications of such a line of thought."

Verbal Phrases: 1) "Giving in is just the beginning of this process." 2) "The viewer does not have time to think over…


Freeman, D. E. and Freeman, Y. S. (2014). Essential Linguistics: What You

Need to Know to Teach Reading, ESL, Spelling, Phonics, Grammar. Chapter 6., Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Krashen, S. D. (2003). Explorations in Language Acquisition and Use. Portsmouth, NH:


Differentiation and Engagement in Secondary School Classrooms
Words: 3918 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 95706065
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0. Literature review on Differentiation and engagement in computer science classrooms
Computer science offers educators aiming towards differentiated teaching within the secondary schoolroom setting a distinctive series of challenges. In particular, coding may prove to be a rigorous, exacting field that calls for a demonstration of organization and precision on the part of students before they can effectively create even the simplest programs. Computer science classes will probably witness learners utterly unfamiliar with coding and fluent pupils, in addition to those who cannot even type or need other personalized academic plans (Gregory and Chapman 2012; Shah et al. 2014). Thus, how will an educator teach a particular topic in computer science to such a diversity of learners, providing additional help to certain learners and more challenging activities to others while ensuring all learners’ engagement and motivation for smooth movement together in one single class?
This discussion assumes differentiation forms the basis…

Baumgartner, T., Lipowski, M.B. and Rush, C., 2003. Increasing Reading Achievement of Primary and Middle School Students through Differentiated Instruction.
Benjamin, A. (2002). Differentiated instruction: a guide for middle and high school teachers. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.
Capel, S. and Blair, R., 2013. Why do physical education teachers adopt a particular way of teaching. Debates in physical education, pp.120-139.
Delisle, J.R., 2015. Differentiation doesn’t work. Education Week, 34(15), pp.28-36.
Gregory, G.H. and Chapman, C., 2012. Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn?t Fit All. Corwin Press.
Gustiani, S., 2019. Challenges and Strategies in Teaching English to Heterogeneous Classes: A Case Study. Edukasi: Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pengajaran, 6(2), pp.301-310.
Heacox, D. 2002. Differentiating instruction in the regular classroom: how to reach and teach all learners. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing.
Hess, K., 2006. Exploring cognitive demand in instruction and assessment. National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment, Dover NH. Retrieved from .

Formulaic Language the Use of
Words: 1351 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60284712
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Though formulaic language expressions have been in regular use, in popular media forms, for at least the majority of the twentieth century if not indeed for centuries longer, their recognition and study is recent development (Van Lancker-Sidtis & allon 2004). Some texts have even been found to be comprised of a quarter or of formulaic expressions, demonstrating at once a reliance on collective cultural interpretations and a marked lack of originality in popular media language use (Van Lancker-Sidtis & allon 2004). These phrases make for interpretations that are both more colloquially colored and less symbolically imbued for their necessarily repetitive nature (thus their emergence as formulaic expressions) and their needed consistency in order to remain meaningful (Van Lancker-Sidtis & allon 2004).

Music and Language

The relationship between music and language is the subject of a great deal of debate, and ever researchers that support comparisons between the two uniquely human…


Ballard, M.; Dodson, a. & Bazzini, D. (1999). Genre of music and lyrical content: Expectation effects. Journal of Genetic Psychology 160(4), 476-87.

Jackendoff, R. (2009). Parallels and nonparallels between language and music. Music Perception 26(3), 195-204.

Lancker-Sidtis, D. & Rallon, G. (2004). Tracking the incidence of formulaic expressions in everyday speech: methods for classification and verification. Language and communication 24, 207-40.

Powers, H. (1980). Language models and musical analysis. Ethnomusicology 24(1), 1-60.

Organizing My Thoughts Sometimes I
Words: 732 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55418799
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Sometimes, it is also diffiult to follow written ommuniations that ontain areless typos and sentenes that have obviously not been proofread arefully.

3. What types of errors and weaknesses do you often find in your olleagues' writing?

Typially, I find basi grammatial errors, syntax problems, and onfusion about the orret meaning of words.

4. Even though you're a strong writer, what would you like to learn to improve your writing?

While I am a strong writer, sometimes, I have diffiulty omposing my thoughts in the draft stage. I would most like to improve my ability to organize my thoughts in a manner that will help me redue the amount of time it normally takes me to go through all of the preliminary draft stages before reahing the final opy stage.


Mary Tate


Writing Improvement Classes

January 7, 2011

Fatual Bakground

The feedbak we soliited from our employees, it…

cited in our employee survey, I would respectfully recommend a writing training programs that:

Emphasizes clarity of expression and precision;

Provides grammatical, syntax, word-usage, and proofreading support; and that

Assists more accomplished writers work on specific writing problems that they have recognized, such as organizational efficiency.

Ape Speech Research Has Been
Words: 5500 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66875718
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Another theorist with a different view is Chomsky (1988). Chomsky sees the acquisition of language as a process of input-output, what he calls a Cartesian view of language acquisition and language structure. He states: "We have an organism of which we know nothing. We know, or we can discover, what kind of data is available to it, and the first question we must try to answer is: what kind of mental structure does the organism develop when that evidence is presented to it?" (Chomsky, 1988, p. 102). Once we find an answer to this question, we can ask what sorts of processes have intervened leading form the data available to the knowledge that resulted. Chomsky explains:

The input-output situation is this: a child who initially does not have knowledge of a language constructs for himself knowledge of a language on the basis of a certain amount of data; the input…


Aitchison, J. (1998). The articulate mammal: An introduction to psycholinguistics. London:Routledge.

Appel, A. (2005) 'Dinner conversation' proof of ape speech? National Geographic News.

Brown, G. (1958). Words and things. New York: The Free Press.

Brain circuitry involved in language reveals differences in man, non-human primates (2001, September 5). Science Daily. Retrieved December 12, 2006 at .

Codeswitching Code Switching -- How
Words: 3716 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 45990159
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The most proficient language users, namely bilinguals, favor inter- and intrasentential CS which "require most knowledge of both languages" (Poplack 1980:606) whereas tag-switched sentences are preferred by less proficient and non-bilingual speakers who, in comparison to their first language, are less competent in their second language.

3. Grammar of Intrasentential Code Switching

As already mentioned in chapter 2.2.1 the switching of languages within a single sentence is no random occurrence. As many researchers observed that "bilinguals tend to switch intra-sententially at certain (morpho) syntactic boundaries and not at others" (Poplack 2004:1). According to Poplack (2004:1) the government of grammatical constraints on CS has become a largely accepted fact. "Though, there is little consensus on what they are or how they should be represented" (Poplack 2004:1). The question arises in which way two separate grammars merge to one grammatically correct sentence and which grammar governs the switching. The following chapter gives…

Works Cited

Cantone, Katja Francesca (2005). Evidence against a Third Grammar: Code-switching in Italian-German Bilingual Children. ISB4: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism edited by James Cohen, Kara T. McAlister, Kellie Rolstad, and Jeff MacSwan. Cascadilla Press, Somerville, MA.

MacSwan, Jeff (2000). The Architecture of the Bilingual Language Faculty: Evidence from Intrasentential Code Switching. Bilingualism Language and Cognition 3(1), 37-54.

Myers-Scotton, Carol (2006). Codeswitching as a Social and Grammatical Phenomenon. An Encyclopedia of the Arts. 4:8 (800-805). Web 16 May 2011.

Bcu Local Crime Community Action Q1 How
Words: 1057 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11013543
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BCU Local Crime Community Action

Q1 ow long have you lived in this neighborhood and do you know all your neighbors by face and name and if not can you see reasons for this, please explain?

Rationale 1 This question is designed to attempt to understand how well the neighborhood knows one another and if there is at least facial recognition between long time residents and student tenants. This question also attempts to create a written rather than anecdotal record of the residential beliefs regarding the variant student population and the increase in crime and is open ended for this purpose.

Q2 When did you first notice that crime began to increase and can you describe the events and experiences that you have been witness to or been victim of in relation to crime?

Rationale 2 Again this question is a way of discerning the current crime conditions and to…

Hope T. 2007. The Distribution of Household Property Crime Victimisation: Insights from the British Crime Survey. In Surveying Crime in the 21st Century. Crime Prevention Studies Vol. 22, edited by M.G. Maxfield and M. Hough. Uffculme, Devon: Willan / New York: Criminal Justice Press.

Shu SC-F. 1999. Housing layout and crime vulnerability. In Space Syntax - Second International Symposium Proceedings 1: 25

Shu, S. And J. Huang. 2003. Spatial Configuration and Vulnerability of residential Burglary: A Case study of a city in Taiwan. In Proceedings, 4th International Space Syntax Symposium, edited by J. Hanson. London: The Bartlett, UCL.

Programming & Language Prototyping Extreme
Words: 4993 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42434441
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The Extreme Programming is also tailored towards a single project to be developed and maintained by a single team, however, in real life many organizations prefer to keep the crucial aspects of software development like data management and release management concerns outside the purview of regulations of a single project manager. The Extreme Programming technique is quite susceptible to adversely affect the 'bad apple' developers that do not have necessary inclination to work well with others and knowing it all, and/or are not inclined to share their 'superior' code with others. Even though these developers are an obstacle to any project and sometime prove detrimental to the organization in the long run, the dependence of Extreme Programming on communication and teamwork simply bars them from the group activity. (Adopting Extreme Programming: Successful integration of XP into your organization requires the support and buy-in of senior management - Technology Information)



Ambler, Scott W. Adopting Extreme Programming: Successful integration of XP into your organization requires the support and buy-in of senior management - Technology Information

Computing Canada. 14 April, 2000.

Retrieved at  on 5 December, 2004

Ann LeBlanc, Dee. When eXtreme Programming Makes Sense. Dev Source. June, 2004.

Music on Vocabulary Competence Writing Reading Comprehension
Words: 7250 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 1305508
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Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School


The Effectiveness of Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School

Most English language learners in high schools show poor vocabulary competence. The main reason for this is the limited level of exposure to the language. It is generally understood and practically acknowledged that words form the basic unit of language structure. Therefore lack of sufficient vocabulary constrains students from effectively communicating and freely expressing their ideas.

Vocabulary competence is critical to developing reading comprehension skills. Lack of vocabulary development is detrimental to the development of metacognitive skill that is important in comprehending advanced texts. omprehension is a major component of development of vocabulary, reading to learn. Therefore, reading comprehension it is quite challenging for students lacking adequate knowledge of meaning of words.…

Chapter IV: Results and Evaluation

The main purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of using music on vocabulary competence, writing, reading comprehension and motivation in English Language Learning in High school students as a part of the learning process in the classroom. Many teachers of English as a second language as well as the learners consider vocabulary as a critical factor in learning the language. Therefore it is important to develop creative and interesting ways of teaching vocabulary in English class. A qualitative study was appropriate for the research for the reason that the objective was exploratory (Creswell, 1998). The significance that was recognized to the singularities of teaching was examined with hermeneutic methods (Creswell, 2002).

In order to give a reply to the answer of the three research questions, mean scores and standard deviations were computed for each of the two groups on each of the three dependent measures at the ending of study. All three of the dependent measures are considered to be the evaluation of the sight-reading, the evaluation of the playing abilit, and the

Finite and Nonfinite Verbs and How They Are Used in the English Language
Words: 1563 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73776595
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Finite and Non-Finite English Verbs

Verbs do much of the semantic labor in a language -- their use allows us to mean things that cannot be conveyed by mere nouns and adjectives. In our study of syntax, we can identify several important classes of verbs by their behavior and use, and the way in which they interact with negation: finite and non-finite verbs. These verb classes allow us to do a variety of things: distinguish perfect (i.e. finished) and imperfect (not yet complete) actions without the cumbersome use of case markers, use verbs as the core of an independent sentence (finite verbs only), and form the base for clauses that employ auxiliary verbs (nonfinite verb-based clauses). The acquisition of finite and non-finite verbs in English is interesting to many scholars (Theakston, Lieven, & Tomasello, 2003). These forms also respond to negation in distinctive ways compared to other verbs. Below, I…

Powerful Connection Between Visuals and Words in
Words: 964 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34260010
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powerful connection between visuals and words in storytelling. Before doing the research to write this essay, it never occurred to me place words in a hierarchy above images, so I confess to some surprise at the debate over which should be considered more important. I began my research with the premise that the two are equal; different yes, but equal certainly. And nothing that I discovered in my survey of literature on the subject has changed my mind.

The saying "A picture is worth a thousand words" sums up the debate over the relative importance of images vs. words. This statement was clearly made by someone who believes in the primacy of images. Based on my research, however, it would seem that proponents of the position that images are more important to communication than words appear to be in the minority.

There is no question that Sandra Martin believes that…

Works Cited

"A Bridge Falls: I-35W Bridge Collapse." Star Tribune Feb. 2008.

Lester, Paul Martin. "Syntactic Theory of Visual Communication." California State University, Fullerton. 5 August 2011

Moriarty, Sandra. "Visual Communication as a Primary System." Journal of Visual Literacy 14:2 (1994): 11-21. 5 August 2011 < >

Journey Into the Deaf-World This Book Looks
Words: 1792 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43431718
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Journey into the Deaf-World

his book looks at the Deaf-World culture in depth. In the process, the authors consider many practical, legal, educational, medical and social issues facing those in the Deaf-World. While the book covers many technical issues in detail, the underpinning for all of it is that the Deaf-World is its own unique culture with its own unique language, and is every bit as much of a subculture as it is to be African-American or some branch of Hispanic.

he authors work hard to establish the Deaf-World as a legitimate subculture. hey point out that although most minority groups can point to a geographic location they're from, the Deaf-World is bound by language and experience but not geography. So while Mexican-Americans can point to Mexico on the map, those of the Deaf-World cannot do that.

hroughout the course of the book, the authors demonstrate that often the beliefs…

The people of the Deaf-World recognize that their own culture is rich and vibrant with meaning. They recognize sign language, specifically ASL, as the fabric binding them together. They also know, both from personal experience and from looking at the research, that sign language from an early age will give their children their best chance to learn well and to be successful educationally. Rather than having the educational system try to force their deaf children to function as if they were not deaf, the great majority of the Deaf-World want to be accepted as they are. They don't want their deafness viewed as something requiring medical intervention, and they want to see educational and other institutions work with them to help them be the best they can be as they are, instead of trying to change them to conform to the standards set by non-deaf society.

Harlan, Hoffmeister, and Bahan have written a detailed report of the philosophy, society and needs of the Deaf-World, including pertinent research to support important points. While their book presents a specific view and doesn't pretend to present a balanced view of both sides of important issues, they do explain the other side as perceived by the Deaf-World, and put forth persuasive arguments for their opinions. Every professional and specialist who works with the Deaf-World population in any way should read this eye-opening book.

Lane, Harlan, Hoffmeister, Robert, and Bahan, Ben. A Journey into the Deaf-World. San Diego: DawnSignPress. 1996.

Machine Translation and the Future Computers Are
Words: 7864 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 19197387
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Machine Translation, And the Future

Computers are being used in many areas to speed and automate tasks that are tedious or strenuous on human beings. Computers aid us in making our daily lives better in many ways. Computers are being used for a variety of tasks. As the world moves toward a global economy, communication has become a major issue of the agendas of almost any industrialized nation. Machine translation is the growing wave of the future; these machines can translate passages into another language almost instantaneously.

There are some that fear the professional translators will become obsolete in the near future. However, an exploration of the current state of the art and future trends indicated that these fears are unfounded and that the field of Professional translation will enjoy man years of stability and prosperity, reaping the benefits of an expanding global economy.




Literature Review


Works Cited

Austermuhl, F. (2002) The Dysfunctional Family - Remarks on Communication (or a Lack Thereof) within the Translation Community. Presentation. International Feder.Cen.Tr.I. Conference. October 12, 2002. sala Michelangelo,. Accessed February, 2003.

Brace, C., Vasconcellos, M. And Miller, L. (1995). MT Users and Usage: Europe and Americas. Paper presented at the Fifth Machine Translation Summit in Luxembourg. July 1995.

Champollion, Y.(2001). Machine translation (MT), and the future of the translation industry. Translation Journal. January 2001 5 (1).

Demos, K. And Fraunfelder, M.(2003) Machine Translation's Past and Future. 2003 Issue 8.05, May, 2000.

Nas' Song I
Words: 1309 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53061178
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Language and Nas Song "I Can"

Language forms the building blocks of all communication. In fact, language is so fundamental to human life that our internal dialogues, the way we think about ourselves and the world around us, are verbally constructed. Language pervades everything from marketing to music, and often it only takes a few strong words to pack a punch. For example, Nas' song "I Can" shows how language can convey a specific emotional intent. In "I Can," the songwriter expresses a message of hope and inspiration, encouraging the listener to rise above the traps of negativity that young people too often fall into. The songwriter uses first and second person to relay the message, thus engaging the listener in a personal conversation. The song becomes almost like a pop sermon, as it takes on an instructional yet lighthearted tone. Moreover, "I Can" makes powerful social commentary on issues…

Barbara Howes' Looking Up at Leaves Barbara
Words: 813 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 1281911
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Barbara Howes' "Looking Up at Leaves"

Barbara Howes, who died in 1996, is too little read at present, yet she remains an exquisite lyric poet. One understands why Louise Bogan once judged Howes "the most accomplished woman poet of the younger generation - one who has found her own voice, chosen her own material, and worked out her own form" (qtd. from Louise Bogan Quotes -- The Quotation Page 2003).

Howes wrote in one of the oddest but most important traditions of American poetry. Howes stands with Marianne Moore, Elizabeth Bishop, and ultimately Emily Dickinson in a lineage of women writers passionately committed to the independence and singularity of the poetic imagination. (To this group one might also add Louise Bogan, Julia Randall, May Swenson, and Josephine Miles). They form an eccentric but eminent sorority.

In most ways they are modest, even self-deprecating writers, but, in matters they deem important,…

Works Cited

Bogan, L. Louise Bogan Quotes -- The Quotation Page. (2003). 10 February 2004.

Howes, B. "Looking Up at Leaves."

- -- . Collected Poems: 1945-1990. 1995.

Metadata Has Become One of the Hottest
Words: 1833 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57125924
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metadata has become one of the hottest topics surrounding the orld ide eb. Metadata forms the basis for the development of the new Semantic eb, a technology touted as a revolutionary advance in how people use the Internet. The Semantic eb will be built on a technologically-driven understanding of the meaning (or semantics) of information, and an accompanying understanding of the relationships between these meanings. It is thought that the Semantic eb will bring incredible advances in how the web is used, including improving scheduling and the marketplace.

Despite the touted advantages of using metadata in the new Semantic web, there are some serious potential issues that must be worked out before the Semantic web is a viable and successful reality. Some of these issues are purely technical problems with creating meaning (semantics) out of the syntax of metadata. Other issues, that are potentially even more problematic, include privacy issues.…

Works Cited

Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J. And Lassila, O. The Semantic Web, Scientific American (50), May, 2001. 

Gilliland-Swetland, Anne J. Introduction to Metadata. 22 march 2004. 

Ford, Paul. How Google Beat Amazon and EBay to the Semantic Web. Brooklyn, NY: Ftrain, 2002.

History of the WWW HTML and the
Words: 2242 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 78138917
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history of the WWW, HTL and the architecture used to develop the World Wide Web. The study traces the history of the WWW to Berners-Lee who develops the first web page in 1990. However, before 1993, the WWW was only being used by the government and top research organizations; it was in 1993 that the Web was allowed for a public use. The study also identifies the HTL, XL Standards URI, and Protocols as the basic architecture to design the Web technology. The HTL consists of the structural open and close tags used to display information over the Web. The paper provides the annotated bibliography of three research articles that reveal the history of World Wide Web and basic architectures to design the WWW.


The WWW (World Wide Web) was designed to share information interactively through which organizations and individuals can communicate with one another using machine. Since the…

Maged, N. Kamel Boulos & Steve, Wheeler (2007). The emerging Web 2.0 social software: an enabling suite of sociable technologies in health and health care education, Health Information and Libraries Journal,: 2-23.

Robert, C. & James, G. (2012). How the World Wide Web was Won. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. The OECD Observer 293: 32-33.

Vissers. M.C. & Hasman, A. (1999). Building a Flexible protocol Information System with 'ready for use' Web-technology. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 53 (2): 163-174.

Wonders of Education
Words: 2608 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72815165
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teaching is a fourth grade Language Arts class. It will take place in a private school with relatively small class sizes -- ideally no more than 20 students, with a minimum of at least 15. The private school setting for this class is crucial to its implementation since it will provide a setting in which students who are in the upper grades in elementary school (fourth and fifth graders) prepare for middle school by actually walking to different classes for their various subjects. This practice is routine in middle school and secondary school, and the fairly expensive private school that this class will take place at (with a tuition of approximately $20,000 per year) is definitely a college preparatory school. Its grades span from kindergarten to 12th grade. Students are taught early on to think for themselves via a combination of conventional and less conventional methods which will allow them…


Curran, C and the Iris Center. (2003). Encouraging appropriate behavior. The Iris Center. 

Kenner, C., Weinerman, J. (2011). "Adult learning theory: applications to non-traditional college students." Journal of College Reading and Learning. 41(2) 87-96.

Sayeski, K.L., Brown, M.R. (2014). Developing a classroom management plan using a tiered approach. Teaching Exceptional Children. 47(2), 119-127.

Slavin, R.E. (2015). Educational psychology: Theory and practice (11th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Comparing the Works of Kaiser and Goldsworthy
Words: 3334 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 24479585
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Kaiser's Toward An Exegetical Theology And Goldsworthy's Preaching The Whole ible As Christian Scripture

oth Walter Kaiser and Graeme Goldsworthy take very different approaches to the ible in their respective works Toward an Exegetical Theology and Preaching the Whole ible as Christian Scripture. The former examines Scripture using more of a syntactical-theological method, providing a framework for everything from contextual analysis to syntactical, verbal, theological, and homiletical analysis. Kaiser also covers the use of prophecy, narrative and poetry in expository preaching. His approach, in short, is more academic than that of Goldsworthy's, who comes at the subject of Scripture from the perspective of the evangelical preacher, and thus delivers a more practical approach. For this reason Preaching the Whole ible as Christian Scripture consists of two basic parts: the first, which addresses essential questions regarding preaching and Scripture; and the second, which addresses practical issues related to applying biblical theology…


Kaiser, Walter C. Toward and Exegetical Theology. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books,


Goldsworthy, Graeme. Preaching the Whole Bible as Christian Scripture. Grand Rapids,

MI: William B. Eerdman's Publishing Company, 2000.

Chomsky Pinker vs Whorf's model
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The Pinker vs. Sapir-Whorf debate is central to the study of linguistics and related areas like psycholinguistics and cognitive science. Most linguists can at least agree that humans have a “unique language capacity,” (Levinson 25). Yet the innate capacity to learn language is where the similarities between Pinker and Whorf end. Whereas Whorf radically transformed both cognitive science and linguistics by using empirical evidence to show how language shapes thought, Pinker has also been influential with a nativist, modular, and nativist understanding of human language development. Both theories have their strengths and weaknesses, but ultimately the Whorf-Sapir hypothesis remains far more compelling, more substantiated by empirical evidence, and also more able to explain some of the complexities of language and culture.
Even though children are not born speaking in full sentences, all children have the capacity for language development, the potential to learn verbal and written means of communication as…

Language as Mirror and Prism
Words: 3716 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81997091
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Apparently this view has much in its favor.

When we compare modern English with some of those Indian languages which are most concrete in their formative expression, the contrast is striking. When we say "The eye is the organ of sight, the Indian may not be able to form the expression the eye, but may have to define that the eye of a person or of an animal is meant. Neither may the Indian be able to generalize readily the abstract idea of an eye as the representative of the whole class of objects... (p. 64).

It does not seem to occur to Boas anywhere in the Handbook that such a way of talking about the world might not arise because the mind of the American Indians that he is writing about is "primitive" but rather because he or she is seeing the world in a very different way.



Boas, F. (1911). The handbook of American Indian languages. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institute.

Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Boston: MIT Press.

Lewis, H. (2001). Boas, Darwin, Science and Anthropology. Current Anthropology 42(3): 381-406

Whorf, B.L. (1941). The relation of habitual thought and behavior to language in Language, culture, and personality, essays in memory of Edward Sapir. (L. Spier, ed.) Menasha, Wis.: Sapir Memorial Publication Fund.

Replication Today There Are a
Words: 2955 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90019595
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Each of the databases exports a view of its tables or objects that conforms to the shared data model, so that queries can be expressed using a common set of names for properties and relationships regardless of the database. The queries are then translated so that they are actually run against the local data using local names in the local query language; in the reverse direction results may be scaled, if needed, to take account of a change of measurement units or character codes (Applehans, et al. 2004). The technological test of these systems is to create programs with the intelligence necessary to divide queries into sub-queries to be interpreted and sent to local databases, and after that to merge all the results that come back. Great progress has been made in methods for setting up efficient dispersed query execution and the constituent that does this is frequently called an…


Angoss Software. (2006) KnowledgeSEEKER in Action: Case Studies. Toronto: Angoss Software International Limited.

Applehans, W., a. Globe, and G. Laugero. (2004) Managing Knowledge: A Practical Web-Based Approach. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Aubrey, a., and P.M. Cohen. (1996) Working Wisdom: Timeless Skills and Vanguard Strategies for Learning Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Gray, J. Helland, P. O'Neil, P. And D. Shasha, (2005) the dangers of replication and a solution, Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conference, pages 173-182.

Arranged in a Pleasing and
Words: 1370 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78164195
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I think Dickinson's poem is a work that is quite special because of the way she has taken the topic of death and she has made death into human form that is not at all like we would imagine him to be.

It is the sensibility that poets and others writers have, how they come to universal issues and human topics, that make a piece of writing literature. Some may argue that literature is only the classics, however, even popular books (e.g., the Harry Potter series or Twilight series) can be categorized as literature if they fulfill the purpose of the journey. Literature is literature if it speaks to people in a universal way and a lot of popular works can do that.

Within literature there are definite styles and movements. Henry David Thoreau was a writer who focused on what it meant to be human by comparing the human…

Theory a Critical Discussion of
Words: 4698 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25858207
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English for academic purposes approach focuses on the reader, too, not as a specific individual but as the representative of a discourse community, for example, a specific discipline or academia in general. The reader is an initiated expert who represents a faculty audience. This reader, particularly omniscient and all-powerful, is likely to be an abstract representation, a generalized construct, one reified from an examination of academic assignments and texts (aimes, 1991).

Partnership Teaching is not just an extension of co-operative teaching. Co-operative teaching consists of a language support teacher and class teacher jointly planning a curriculum and teaching strategies which will take into account the learning needs of all pupils. The point is to adjust the learning situation in order to fit the pupils. Partnership Teaching is more than that. It builds on the notion of co-operative teaching by linking the work of two teachers with plans for curriculum improvement…


Davison, Chris. (2006). Collaboration Between ESL and Content Teachers: How Do We Know

When We Are Doing It Right? International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 9(4), 454-475.

Grover, Sam. (2009). Methods for Teaching TESOL. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from e-How

Web site:

Cultural Intonation Cultural Differences in
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2009). Othe studies had peviously concluded that English infants developed a pefeence fo tochaic wods, the dominant stess constuct of English wods, ove iambic stess pattens within the fist yea of life (Hohle et al. 2009). A compaison of Geman and Fecnh infants in fou distinct expeiments confims and even naows down the timefame in which this diffeentiation of pefeence occus, and also shows (though the Fench language expeiments) that the ability to distinguish the two opposing stess pattens does not necessaily esult in the development of pefeence, if the taget language itself lacks a dominant stess stuctue (Hohle et al. 2009). Even at six months, a specific language begins to mediate peception.

An ealie study suggests that the timing of stess and intonation pefeence development is even soone than six months. While citing evidence suggesting that language-independent phonetic contasts and melodic vaiations ae ecognized within the fist fou months…

references during the first half year of life: Evidence from German and French infants." Infant behavior and development 32(3), pp. 262-74.

Laroche, M.; Pons, F. & Richard, M. (2009). "The role of language in ethnic identity measurement: A multitrait-multimethod approach to construct validation." Journal of social psychology 149(4), pp. 513-40.

Nguyen, T.; Ingrahm, C. & Pensalfini, J. (2008). "Prosodic transfer in Vietnamese acquisition of English contrastive stress patterns." Journal of phonetics 36(1), pp. 158.

Turk, a. & Shattuck-Hufnagel, S. (2007). "Multiple targets of phrase-final lengthening in American English words." Journal of phonetics 35(4), pp. 445-72.

Wyatt, J. (2007). "Skinner 1, Chomsky 0." Behavior analysis digest 19(4), pp. 13-4.