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I believe that the United States should not get involved militarily in Syria. There are too many risks involved, and no real reward for the U.S. Involvement in that country's civil war would endanger U.S. interests in the region significantly, put U.S. lives on the line and would accomplish nothing with respect to the country's strategic objectives in the region.
For the past several years, Syria has been embroiled in a civil war that pits the established government of Bashar al-Assad against an inchoate group of rebels, each with its own interests in the conflict. It is with this opposition that much of the decision to avoid intervention lies. What started as a conflict similar to many other Arab Spring uprisings against the country's brutal totalitarian regime has become a flashpoint for sectarian conflict. Today's rebels are not revolutionaries so much as they are mercenaries. If the U.S. were…
Dziadosz, A. (2013). Poll finds Westerners opposed to military intervention in Syria. Reuters. Retrieved November 28, 2013 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/10/09/us-syria-crisis-poll-idUSBRE9980I220131009
George, M. (2013). Iran Revolutionary Guard commander killed in Syria. Reuters. Retrieved November 28, 2013 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/11/04/us-syria-crisis-iran-idUSBRE9A30H620131104
Sinjab, L. (2013). Al-Qaeda's brutal tactics in Syria force out moderates. BBC. Retrieved November 28, 2013 from
As this paper has already implied, U.S. policy concerning Syria is only the tip of an iceberg -- as Syrian leader ashar al-Assad has intimated, and as the PNAC papers and President G.W. ush himself have blatantly revealed. Yet, the ush Administration continually relied on scare tactics, bogus intelligence, and empty nationalistic slogans to offer to the American public a justification for its opposition to Syria.
Conflict Theory is also the most logical perspective from which to perform this analysis, since one of the founders of modern Conflict Theory, C. Wright Mills was himself a critic of the military-industrial complex, which is certainly a dominant player in today's geo-politics: as Peter Hazard Knapp observes, "Mills had argued that power was becoming concentrated in the hands of the giant corporations and the Pentagon."
Again, Conflict Theory allows this paper to posit the hypothesis that the ush Administration's conflict with Syria is…
Associated Press, "Russia sees 2 problems of 'crucial importance' with Syria resolution,"
FoxNews.com 4 Feb 2012, http://www.foxnews.com/world/2012/02/04/russia-sees-2-problems-crucial-importance-with-syria-resolution / (accessed July 15, 2012).
Bhadrakumar, M.K., "The Importance of Syria," Asia Times 7 Feb 2012,
http://www.israpundit.com/archives/43371 (accessed July 15, 2012).
I am Osmane Arslanian, Ambassador of the Syrian Arab epublic to the United Nations Organization, and I am deeply privileged to speak about my country and its people.
Syria first referred to the land of Aram East of the Mediterranean Sea between Egypt and Arabia to the south and Cilicia to the north, crossing inland, including Mesopotamia (Wikipedia 2004) and from west to east Commagene, Sophene and Adiabene, or what was known as Assyria. This was the larger Syria, which consisted of smaller regions, such as Palestine in the southwest, Phoenicia along the coast, Coele-Syria north of the Eleutheris iver, and Mesopotamia. Palestine, later known as Israel, is now composed of the states of Israel and Jordan
My country, Syria, is considered the center of one of the most ancient civilizations in the world, rooted in particular on the origin of the language of Ebla in Northern Syria, credited…
Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs. Profile: Syria. U.S. Department of State, Aug 2004. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3500.htm
Central Intelligence Agency. Syria. The World Fact Book, 2004. http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geas/sy.html
Council on Foreign Relations. Syria. Terrorism Answers, 2004. http://www.terrorismanswers.org/sponsors/syria.html
Federation of American Scientists. Syria - Special Weapons. WMD Around the World, 2000. http://fas.org/nuke/guide/syria
In Chapter 1 of this report, the authors pose several important questions -- first, "How much have MENA countries invested in human capital through education?" within the past forty years, and second, "What has been the impact of this investment on the level, quality and distribution of human capital?" (the Road Not Traveled, 9). In order to answer these questions, we must consult a number of tables in the MENA report which sheds much light on Syria's past and current educational system and how it is linked to the country's economy.
First of all, in Table 1.1., the Average of Public Expenditure in Education as a Percentage of GDP, between 1965 and 1974, the percentage stood at 3.3; between 1975 and 1984, 5.4; between 1985 and 1994, 4.3, and between 1995 and 2003, 3.2 which indicates that Syria's expenditures on education rose between 1975 and 1984 and then dropped to…
Landis, Joshua M. "Islamic Education in Syria: Undoing Secularism." 2008. Internet.
Retrieved October 22, 2008 at http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Islamic%20Education%20in%20Syria.htm .
Raphaeli, Nimrod. "Syria's Fragile Economy." MERIA -- Middle Eastern Review of International Affairs. Vol. 11 no. 2 (June 2007): 245-50. Available online at http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2007/issue2/jv11no2a4.html .
Syrian Education." Country Studies. 2008. Library of Congress. Internet. Retrieved October 22, 2008 at http://countrystudies.us/syria/37.htm .
Syria vs. Egypt -- Compare & Contrast
hile Egypt and Syria are both very prominent and on the front page of the news all the time around the world, the countries are quite different overall and this includes the path they took when it comes to their history and developments over the years. This paper will compare and contrast how they countries are different right now and how they have changed over time. The important factors and facets that will be focused on will include their geography, religion, ethnicity, governmental structures and how all of these have changed over time. The majority and minority populations in both countries will be covered as well. hile Egypt and Syria have both been melting pots of change and evolution in recent years, they have done so in very different ways.
The author of this report will cover Egypt first. About ninety-five percent…
Cleveland, William L and Martin P Bunton. A History Of The Modern Middle East. 5th ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2012. Print.
Dooley, Brian. "Ending Sectarianism In Syria." Foreign Affairs. N.p., 2016. Web. 1 July 2016.
Gellar, R. "Syria/Egypt." 2016. Presentation.
Soliman, Mohamed. "Renewing The Alliance." Foreign Affairs. N.p., 2016. Web. 1 July 2016.
These events have been repeated time and again across the country where ordinary Syrian citizens have been forced to take to the streets to make their demands known, while Assad remained cloistered away. For instance, Corbin (2011) reports that, "The recent wave of domestic revolts moving east from the Maghreb to engulf the Levant and the Arab peninsula in the past few months is sparing few Arab states. The long-standing Ba'thist regime of the al-Assad family in Syria is no exception. As the initially isolated protests in the southern town of Dara'a spread throughout the country within weeks, the al-Assad regime faces the most significant challenge to its rule since the 1980s."
In the past, though, the Assads have historically proven up to the task of meeting such significant challenges to their rule and this latest round of challenges is certainly no exception.
During the past two years or…
Alvarez-Ossorio, I. (2012, Spring). "Syria's Struggling Civil Society." Middle East Quarterly,
"Chronology - Syria." (2012, Spring). The Middle East Journal, 66(2), 347-352.
Clawson, P. (2012, February 15). "Post-Asad Syria: Opportunity or Quagmire?" Strategic Forum,
On the other hand, competition brings about order, whereby the consequences of a particular behavior determine its selection and the most successful becomes the leader of the group (Dunne, 2007, p.49).
5. What does it mean to say that a theory is useful? How should one approach the question of determining the relevance and value of a theory (theory-testing), according to Waltz?
Waltz emphasizes that a useful theory must have the capacity to be disproved. According to Waltz, a theory must be based on observable facts. The best theory must be close to reality and must be proved through measurements. Waltz believed that measurements were to be tested and predicted (Dunne, 2007, p.12). Waltz advances that the relevance and value of a theory is determined by the distinction between the measurement and the predictions. This implies that, if the distinction between the prediction and the measurement are too far apart,…
Dunne, T. (2007). International relations theories: Discipline and diversity. Oxford: Oxford
Univ. Press Keohane, R.O. (2001). Neorealism and Its Critics. Coulmbia: Columbia University Press.
In early 2007, UN esolution 1701 called for a cease-fire after 34 days of fighting. This resolution called for several actions from Syria, one of which was to stop arms shipments from Hezbollah guerrillas. It called for the unconditional release of two Israeli soldiers captured by militants, which was the key event that triggered this round of fighting. Information that Syria was not in compliance with the terms of the resolution came in the form of Lebanese photos of arms being smuggled by Syria.
Syria's track record for compliance with the UN resolutions has not been reliable. They have continually violated the resolutions in secret. Lebanon's evidence that Syria has not complied with the terms of the resolution is compelling and tends to cast the blame for continuing disquiet in the area on Syria. The latest in the actions between Lebanon and Syria came on December 12, 2007 when a…
Aita, J. (2005). Security Council Demand Syria Cooperate in Hariri Investigation. October 31, 2005. Global Security.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/syria/2005/syria-051031-usia01.htm . Internet: Accessed December 22, 2007.
Associated Press. "U.N. Chief Warns Arms Smugglers From Syrian Could Threaten Lebanon Cease-Fire." Saturday, March 31, 2007. Fox News. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,263031,00.html . Internet: Accessed December 22, 2007.
Brown, D. 2007. "Bush warns Syria after Lebanon officer's death." Dec. 13, 2007. MSNBC>
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/22210645/Internet : Accessed December 22, 2007.
Civil War in Syria
Syria is an example of a failed state because the regime of Bashar al-Assad has failed to uphold the fundamental duty of every government: to protect its citizens from harm. The loss of basic services, including electricity, internet, and other necessities, has become prevalent throughout Syria's most populated regions. The Syrian army has resorted to shelling its own cities, inflicting massive casualties on its civilian population. With Syria now wholly divided along ideological lines, with the rebel forces of the Syrian Free Army waging a guerilla revolution against the Assad regime, the civil war currently raging means Syria has devolved into a failed state. Only when the tyrannical government is overthrown and normalcy returns to Syria will the nation regain its status as a functioning member of the global community.***
The ongoing humanitarian crisis in Syria, caused by the merciless drive towards civil war by dictator…
Goldstein, Joshua S., and Jon C. Pevehouse. International Relations. Brief 6th. New York, NY: Pearson Higher Education, 2011. Print.
Kurth, James. "Humanitarian Intervention After Iraq: Legal Ideals vs. Military Realities." Orbis. Winter. (2005): 87-101. Print.
Obama, Barack. United States. The White House Office of the Press Secretary. Remarks by the President in Address to the Nation on Libya. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2011. Web. .
Worth, Robert F., and Helene Cooper. "Mideast Unrest Intensifies Debate on U.S. Intervention in Syria." New York Times 16 Sep 2012, A8. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. .
UN resolution Syria effective. Please fully supported argument address consequences position, provide a counter argument. Instruction: Please provide outline paper.
United Nations Security Council proposed esolution on Syria
Situation on the ground
Proposed course of action
Chapter 7 action
Supporters 3. Proposed resolution on Syria
Situation on the ground
The Syrian humanitarian crisis in particular has kept the headlines in the last years in terms of the massive casualties that the Syrian civilians have registered since 2011 since the civil war brought out in the country. eports from international organizations and in particular the United Nations that has monitored the situation put the number of victims among children to 6,000 and a total of around 100,000 victims (Black, 2013). The civil war that has broken out in 2011, as part of the Arab Spring Movement, against…
Black, Ian. "Syria deaths near 100,000, says UN -- and 6,000 are children," The Guardian online edition, 2013, Available at http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jun/13/death-toll-syrian-conflict-93000
Reuters. "France expects U.N. Security Council to agree Syria resolution," 23rd Sept, 2013. Available at http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/09/23/us-un-assembly-syria-resolution-idUSBRE98M13G20130923
United Nations Security Council. "Resolution 2042 (2012), Available online at http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/Syria%20SRES%202043.pdf
United Nations. "Charter of the United Nations," 2013, available online at http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter7.shtml
action has President Obama proposed to undertake and why?
In 2012, U.S. President Barack Obama drew a "red line" when he stated that the use of chemical weapons by Syria would not be tolerated by the international community in response to an announcement by Syrian officials that acknowledged that they possessed chemical weapons and would use them in the event of "foreign intervention" in Syria's civil war (Grier, 2013). According to Grier (2013), Syria has not ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention that outlaws the production, storage, and use of poison gas [and] is believed to have hundreds of tons of mustard gas, blister agents, and nerve agents, which could include sarin and the agent VX" (p. 37).
In response to a report that chemical weapons had killed 2,000 Syrian civilians, President Obama sought approval from the U.S. Congress to pursue "a limited military action against Syrian President Bashar al-Assad [but]…
ussia Is Outplaying the United States
Countries in the West including the United States have numerous difficulties when dealing with ussia because of confusion regarding ussia's intention. An example of a situation that demonstrates difficulties in dealing with ussia is the Syrian conflict. ussia's intervention in Syria generated a new and multifaceted period in the Syrian civil war given the difficulties in determining its intentions. Since its first intervention measure in the Syrian civil war, ussia has been strategically and chronically lying through public statements, talks, and negotiations. ussia's president, Vladimir Putin, has utilized these strategies in order to hide his country's intentions in the crisis when dealing with West, particularly the United States. Therefore, ussia has utilized the Syrian civil war to outplay and outsmart the United States and other countries in the West.
Causes of ussia's Intervention
The situation in Syrian has generated considerable attention across the world,…
Cohen, J. (2016, March 15). Why -- and how -- Russia Won in Syria. Reuters. Retrieved April, 19, 2016, from http://blogs.reuters.com/great-debate/2016/03/15/why-and-how-russia-won-in-syria/
Gobry, P. (2015, October 5). How Russia Outplayed America in the Middle East's Great Game. The Week. Retrieved April 19, 2016, from http://theweek.com/articles/580927/how-russia-outplayed-america-middle-easts-great-game
Shapiro, J. & Daniels, L. (2015, November 17). The U.S. Plan to Counter Russia in Syria. Retrieved from The Brookings Institution website: http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/order-from-chaos/posts/2015/11/17-us-plan-to-counter-russia-shapiro-daniels
The Syrian Civil ar has produced a profound effect on the world at large, especially on the countries that immediately surround this nation. This martial encounter began in earnest in the early part of the present decade, and currently shows no signs of coming to an end. As such, there are a number of refugees and Syrian citizens who have attempted to flee the ravages of war by migrating to other countries. Such a mass exodus -- which continues to this day -- has not only produced a profound effect on Syria itself, but also on the countries in which refugees have attempted to procure shelter in. There are various aspects of this migration that inherently affects the refugees but also the countries in which they have moved to -- and which produce a ripple effect on the various warring parties within Syria as well. On the whole…
EuroMed. "Syria: EU Biggest Donor, Leading International Aid Response and Reaching 7 Million People in Need." www.enpi-info.eu. 2013. Web. http://www.enpi-info.eu/medportal/news/latest/34557/Syria:-EU-biggest-donor,-leading-international-aid-response-and-reaching-7-million-people-in-need
Jacobs, Harrison. "This Enormous Syrian Refugee Camp is Now Jordan's Fifth Largest." Business Insider. 2013. Web. http://www.businessinsider.com/syrian-refugee-camp-photos-2013-9
The Local. "Sweden Offers Residency to All Syrian Refugees." www.thelocal.se. 2013. Web. http://www.thelocal.se/20130903/50030
UNHCR. "UN Refugee Agency Welcomes Brazil Announcement of Humanitarian Visas for Syrians." www.unhcr.org. Web. 2013. http://www.unhcr.org/524555689.html
Syria has often been called the Cradle of Civilization and the Gateway to History (History pp). Archaeological finds proves that Syria was inhabited deep into the Stone Age (Syrian pp). The remains of Ebla discovered a few years ago on Tel Mardikh, south of Aleppo, confirm the fact that a prosperous Kingdom existed in the second half of the third millennium B.C. (Syria pp). The finds at Tel Hariri Marie on the Euphrates River have provided valuable information concerning the ancient history of Syria and her relations with the kingdoms of Mesopotamia (Syria pp). Ancient Syria was the target of more powerful neighboring kingdoms of the time. For example, after defeating the kingdom of Ebla in 2250 B.C., the Akkadians controlled Syria as well as the Egyptians who sought to rule the entire of Syria in the second millennium B.C. (Syria pp). Then during the 12th century B.C.,…
History of Syria
Terrorism and acts of terror have grown in frequency in the last few decades. The Middle East and the Western world have all suffered from the senseless acts of radicals and those wishing to take over government. With terrorism becoming a major concern internationally, some of the aftermath of terrorist groups like ISIS have led to some of the biggest problems currently happening throughout the world. The biggest of such problems is the Syrian refugee crisis that has displaced millions of Syrians and forced them to seek asylum and refuge in other countries. Such a move has sparked global controversy as people in Europe have shared horror stories of violence and rape with perpetrators being refugee "children" (Petersen, 2015, p. 83).
These "children" look much older than their perceived ages and are frequently male. As one article mentioned, Police in Germany, Sweden, and Norway have investigated hundreds of cases with…
Bertrand, N. (2015). The intense backlash to Syrian refugees 'plays right into' ISIS' hand. Business Insider. Retrieved 21 February 2016, from http://www.businessinsider.com/syrian-refugee-backlash-isis-2015-11
Marshall, J. (2012). The Lebanese connection. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
Nassar, N. (2013). What caused Syria's civil war?. World Watch Monitor. Retrieved 21 February 2016, from https://www.worldwatchmonitor.org/2013/08/2648161/
Petersen, M. (2015). The Syrian Refugee Crisis. Kobenhavn.
The Role of a Photojournalist in Shaping the Syrian Narrative
This paper discusses the role of the photojournalist in shaping the Syrian narrative. The images that photojournalists create are used by a variety of media outlets, both mainstream like CNN and alternative like social media uploaders, to develop a narrative that promotes a perspective on events and advocates for a reaction from the public—either support for intervention or condemnation of the use of force by governments that are not directly involved in the conflict. The paper examines the gassing incident at Khan Shaykhun in Syria to see how photojournalism played a part in shaping the responses of the American president. It also examines how spectacle, soft power, embedded reporting, interventionism and the CNN effect all play a part in shaping the narrative built on the work of photojournalists.
The paper also discusses the impact of photojournalism in the Digital…
The issue of Third Culture Kids (TCK) is one that can no longer be wished away. It is a phenomenon that has been in existence for decades now and generations are embroiled in the TCK issue as their preceding generation. The TCK are often referred to as people who have been raised in a culture other than that of their parents or the culture of the country mentioned in their passports.
The growing number of TCKs is occasioned by a myriad of reasons in the different parts of the world where these individuals live. The most common cause of TCK is the occupational commitment, where the type of jobs that most people do keep them away from their own homes and culture and situate them for years in different cultures. Some could be having business abroad, be in long term government appointments and other jobs that keep them away from…
interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…
'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.
Available from . [24 Aug 2013].
Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.
Thus, weak institutions, frequent military takeovers, and corruption in government ranks, both civilian and military has resulted in present state of affairs of Pakistan. Syria: Syria's history has been one that was dominated by family rule, foreign interventions, and inability to successfully run the affairs of the country by the ruling elite. The Assad family has held the power in Syrian since last four decades and this has caused significant deterioration in institutional and other forms of governance (Zisser 2003, 15-19).With independence from the French forces in 1946, Syria remained internally polarized and externally vulnerable to the tensions of Middle East. Her confrontation with Israel and support for Hezbollah has considerable historical background. Thus, the issues today being faced by Syria are a continuation of its acts of historical omissions and commission by ruling elites.
Influence of leadership: Influence of leadership on both Syria and Pakistan has been largely negative…
Berger, Mark T. 2004. "After the Third World? History, destiny and the fate of Third Worldism." Third World Quarterly 25: 9-39. Accessed July 11, 2013. doi: 10.1080/0143659042000185318
Judah, Ben. Assessing stability in Syria. International Relations and Security Network ISN. Aug, 2008. Retrieved from: [ http://www.isn.ethz.ch/DigitalLibrary/Articles/Detail/?lng=en&id=88666 ]
Nasrallah, Jana. 2011. "The impact of external intervention on power sharing agreements. (c2011)." Masters Diss., Lebanese American University. Accessed July 11. [https://ecommons.lau.edu.lb:8443/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10725/337/Jana_Nasrallah_Thesis.pdf?sequence=1]
Rosenlund, Stephen. 2013. "A Bright Light on Syria's Horizons." Center for International Private Enterprise. CIPE Development Blog, March 4. [ http://www.cipe.org/blog/2013/03/04/a-bright-light-on-syrias-horizons/#.Ud5fcztHK_p ]
3.2.3 Portfolio Diversification of Investment in Global Property Markets
ecause the global property markets are affected by globalization and specific country / regional factors, means that the overall amounts of risks will vary, the most notable include: transparency and efficiency. Where, each country / region has different on laws and regulations pertaining to the real estate markets. This means that the risks in a number of different markets will depend upon specific market conditions themselves, reflecting these two factors. To protect themselves against these kinds of risks, many investors will often seek to diversify their portfolio. Diversification is: when you are investing a number of different asset classes in real estate, across a variety of countries / regions. The idea is that if a risk occurs in a specific country or region, the other areas that you are diversified in will protect you against the severity of the declines. For…
2009 A Year of Revival for Property Sector, 2010, Visit Kuwait. Available from: . [30 March 2010].
Barwa Real Estate, 2010, Arabian Business. Available from: . [30 March 2010].
Business Risk, 2010, Invest Words. Available from: [29 March 2010].
Dubai Property Companies Called Merger Off, 2009, Property Wire. Available from: [30 March 2010].
Based on the assessment of the sample features in terms of capital size and value of the property portfolio, an observation is made in the fact that a proportion is kept between the two. In other words, the property companies in Jordan, Egypt and Syria seem to be prudential and correlate their capital sizes with the values of their portfolios.
3. esults and analysis of the Jordanian property companies
The results of the implemented questionnaire are revealed throughout the table below:
c d e f g
x x x
x x x
x x x
Shortage of commercial properties
Availability and choice
The Art of Negotiation
The Syrian conflict has lasted for several years now and peace talks have gotten underway just as many times, with numerous players adopting different sides of table. The problem with the negotiation process when it comes to Syria is that it is still somewhat unclear as to who is in charge, who stands to lose what, which party has the most leverage, and who will be the major players to settle the conflict and negotiate a lasting peace. This paper will examine the issues and contrast them with the interests of the various parties who have a stake in the negotiation of peace in the region and how this difference has affected the negotiation process thus far. It will also analyze the ethical behavior and tactics that have been used throughout the negotiation process, as some of these tactics have raised many questions about how…
For instance, the U.S. can use drones with the purpose of filming exact instances involving Assad's men violating human rights.
Considering that "the Syrian government isn't just fighting rebels, as it claims; it is shooting unarmed protesters, and has been doing so for months" (Sniderman & Hanis), it is only safe to assume that immediate action needs to be taken in order for conditions to change. Children are dying at the moment and the world appears to express lack of interest in their suffering. In spite of the fact that rebels are determined to bring Assad now, the Syrian president has successfully used the armed forces with the purpose of destroying rebel efforts up until this moment.
Assad continues to dominate Syria as outside forces sit and watch as innocent revolutionaries are being murdered. There is no limit to what Syrian armed forces are willing to do with the purpose…
Barnard, Anne, "Syrian Insurgents Accused of Rights Abuses," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/21/world/middleeast/syrian-insurgents-accused-of-rights-abuses.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all
Koettl, Cristoph, "How Many More Syrians Have to Die Before the UN Acts?," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the Human Rights Now Website: http://blog.amnestyusa.org/justice/how-many-more-syrians-have-to-die-before-the-un-acts/
Neville-Morgan, Allyson, "Pressure on Syrian Regime Increases as Violence against Civilians Continues," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the United to End Genocide Website: http://blog.endgenocide.org/blog/2011/11/28/pressure-on-syrian-regime-increases-as-violence-against-civilians-continues/
Stobo Sniderman, Andrew and Hanis, Mark, "Drones for Human Rights," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/31/opinion/drones-for-human-rights.html
ar in the Middle East: A Classification Issue
A lot of people don't understand the wars in the Middle East or what they are all about (Collum). Since 9/11, the Middle East has been a prime focus of countries in the est, but today Russia is also involved and Putin is painted in estern media as an aggressor and an enemy even though he is actually leading the fight against ISIS in Syria. The reality is that the est and its allies are conducting a war against Assad in Syria rather than a war against the terrorist group ISIS. Thus, the classification of this war in the est as a war against Terror is incorrect. It should be classified as a war in support of Terror, as the est continues to send arms and munitions to aid the "rebels" (aka terrorists) who are fighting Assad, the Russians and the Iranians…
Collum, David. "2015-Year in Review." Peak Prosperity, 2015. Web. 8 Mar 2016.
Durden, Tyler. "ISIS: The 'Enemy' the U.S. created, Armed and Funded." Zero Hedge,
2015. Web. 8 Mar 2016.
Escobar, Pepe. "Syria: Ultimate Pipelineistan War." Strategic Culture Foundation,
Water Crisis in the Middle East
What is the Six Day War, and what are the various events that led to the War? What is the background of the War, and what were its consequences? The Six Day War took place in the month of June 1967. The crisis had actually begun in the early months of 1965, when the PLO, through Fatah, led a campaign of attacks on the borders along Jordan and Lebanon. This campaign was severely criticized and opposed by not only the people of the country but also by the Arab Government, and this led to the Fatah attempting to adopt a totally new strategy that came to be known as the 'entanglement theory'. According to this strategy, Israel would be forced to adopt an 'offensive' position with the technique of 'sabotage', and this meant that the Arabs would become more wary and would in turn…
Anita Roddick, Dame. Troubled Water - Saints, Sinners, truth & Lies about the Global Water Crisis. 1 October, 2004. Retrieved From
http://www.ecademy.com/node.php?id=31940 Accessed on 21 February, 2005
Grunfeld, Lilac. Jordan River Dispute. ICE Case Studies, Case number 6. Spring 1997. Retrieved From http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/jordan.htm Accessed on 21 February, 2005
Israel 1948 to 1967, the Six-Day War Background. Retrieved From
In other words, up until the middle of the 19th century, there were no cases of note or significance that indicated that the executive branch of the UNITED STATES government had the authority to render suspects or criminals to foreign locations outside of the explicit authority granted through a signed treaty with a foreign government.
It was during the Civil War that the first major break with this established legal tradition was made. The incident involved the capture of a foreign citizen in New York City during wartime and performed by presidential authority alone. The man captured was Jose Augustin Arguelles, a Spanish subject, who captured illegal slave traders, claimed a reward, then sold the slaves to plantation owners. Under Spanish law he was a criminal, but the United States had no extradition treaty with Spain. Despite having no legal authority to do so, Lincoln authorized the capture of the…
Elsea, J.K. And Kim, J. (2007, January 23). Undisclosed UNITED STATES detention sites overseas: background and legal issues. CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved November 29, 2007, at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33643.pdf
Grey, S. (2005, December 19). Torture's tipping point. New Statesman, pp. 24-25.
Grey, S. (2006, November 20). Missing presumed tortured. New Statesman, pp. 12-15.
Gutierrez, D. (2006, January-February). The extraordinary cruelty of "extraordinary rendition." The Humanist, pp. 11-15.
Ethics of ar: Justified and Unjustified ar
hen countries launch hostile military actions against other nations to the point where war occurs, the belligerents will inevitably have fundamentally opposing views concerning the legitimacy of the conflict and each opposing side will offer its poignant justification for its respective moral, legal and political positions regarding the conflict. In many cases, all belligerents in a war may have equally compelling just causes, and these causes can change from just to unjust even as the war is being fought. Indeed, scarcity of resources is frequently at the heart of many wars, but virtually all wars throughout history have also been justified on the basis of both sound and spurious rationales, the veracity of which depends on who is asking and who is being asked, questions that quickly become heated when religious reasons are included in the mix. To get at the heart of…
Alexandrov, Stanimir A. (1997, January 1). "Self-Defense against the Use of Force in International Law." The George Washington Journal of International Law and Economics 30(2/3): 605-610.
Dagi, Ihsan. (2013, Winter). "Editor's Note." Insight Turkey 15(1): 4-5.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke. (2005, October). "Against the New Utopianism: Response to 'Against the New Internationalism.' Ethics & International Affairs 19(2): 91-93.
Nardin, Terry. (2002, April). "The Moral Basis of Humanitarian Intervention." Ethics & International Affairs 16(1): 57-63.
Surge Is Unlikely for Prices of U.S. Gas," by Clifford Krauss (Krass, 2013). There were four main points of distinction embedded within the article. The first and arguable most important element within the article was in reference to the growing conflict in Syria. The article was written in late August when unrest in the Middle East was near its height. During this period, Americans were concerned with the subsequent rising oil prices that might occur due in part to the civil unrest occurring in Syria. The article first explains how gas prices are unlikely to increase due to a litany of factors. First, Syria is a very small oil exporter. It exports roughly 1% of the world's oil. As such, even if the entire country were to be engaged in war, the resulting damage in regards to oil exports would be minimal. Many pundits believe that the rippling effect of…
1) Kay, Jane Holtz, Asphalt nation: how the automobile took over America, an how we can take it back, New York, Crown, 1997. ISBN 0-517-58702-5
2) Krass, Clifford. "Major Surge Is Unlikely for Prices of U.S. Gas." New York Times. N.p., 30 Aug. 2013. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.
3) Seale, Patrick (1987). The Struggle for Syria. ISBN 978-0-300-03944-3
4) "New Billions In Oil" Popular Mechanics, March 1933. article on invention of water injection and detergents for oil recovery
U.S. ole as 'Policemen of the World'
Thesis and Outline Draft
Introduction and Thesis
currently holds the most important and influential role in international politics and represents a decisive player in all recent international conflicts. This role takes the form of political and military interventions, international and bilateral engagements as well as multilateral brokerage of peace talks. The basic principles of such an approach are the fostering of peaceful, democratic, and secure international environment. At the same time though, it must be pointed out that the entire international community does not always support such actions and often it has been said that the United States acts as the "policeman of the world" (Kissinger, 1995). It must be stressed that the current approach the United States have on foreign policy has not changed since the end of the Civil War and has guided the U.S. In military and political interventions in…
Calvocoressi, P. (1987) World politics since 1945. New York: Longman.
Federal News Service (2013) "America is not the world's policeman: Text of Barack Obama's speech on Syria," Associated Press, available online at http://www.ndtv.com/article/world/america-is-not-the-world-s-policeman-text-of-barack-obama-s-speech-on-syria-417077
Kissinger, H. (1995) Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster.
Shahshahani, A. And Corina Mullin (2012) "The legacy of U.S. intervention and the Tunisian revolution: promises and challenges one year on," Interface: a journal for and about social movements, Volume 4 (1): 67 -- 101, available online at http://www.interfacejournal.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Interface-4-1-Shahshahani-and-Mullin.pdf
The Kurds were seen as either "proper Turkish citizens" by the way they conducted themselves with dignity, or they were seen as "outlaws characterized by tribalism, religious reactionism, or banditry" (Yegen, p. 599). In other words, the Turkish government tried to take away the Kurds' ethnic identities; the Turks attempted to "assimilate" the Kurds into the nation of Turkey by referring to them as Turkish citizens -- and many Kurds have simply agreed to become Turks over the last 80 years or so. Meanwhile in the 1950s Kurds in Turkey "…were no longer in a position to produce major trouble for the state," and Kurds began moving into big cities in the western sections of Turkey (Yegen, p. 604). The "assimilation" strategies of the Turkish government towards the Kurds lightened up from the 1950s regarding forcible settlement practices, but then when the Kurds began to resist Turkish authority in the…
Giraldi, Philip. "Turkey and the Threat of Kurdish Nationalism." Mediterranean Quarterly
19.1 (2008): 33-40.
Gorvett, Jon. "Turkish Prime Minister Says War Against Kurds Has Entered 'Very Critical
Stage'." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. 27.1, (2008): 38-39.
Moreover, it is highly unlikely that such a clause would apply in the case of a tort dispute, because the likely plaintiffs in a tort lawsuit would be people who were injured by a misuse of the Technology, rather than any party involved in the contract negotiations. When there is no choice of law provision, the courts look at several different factors to determine which law to apply and whether a court has jurisdiction. In contract disputes, the courts look at the place of contracting, the place where the negotiating took place, where the contract will be performed, the location of the subject matter, and the citizenship and place of business of the parties. In tort cases, the courts look at where the injury occurred, where the conduct causing the injury occurred, citizenship and place of business of the parties, and the place where the relationship between the parties occurred.…
Counsel Journal 71 (Oct. 2004): 402.
Office of Domestic Fianance. "Overview." Terrorism Risk Insurance Program. 2008. Department of the Treasury. 18 Aug. 2008 http://www.ustreas.gov/offices/domestic-finance/financial-institution/terrorism-insurance/ .
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C.S. 2000e.
South America's very old, biggest, most competent, and well- equipped rebellion having Marxist origin is the evolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - FAC. The uproar and clashing in the 1950s involving liberal and conservative militias lead to the civil war that demolished Columbia and from here FAC came into existence. The murder of liberal party leader Jorge Eliecer by the representatives of the conservative government ignited the battle between the Liberal and Conservative political parties. The consequent civil wars lead to the loss of over 200,000 Columbians and generated a glut of guerrilla groups. One of those groups, lead by Manuel Marulanda, split from the Liberals in 1966 and developed into the Marxist-oriented FAC. (FAC History)
Identify the group by name and country in which based. If there is no one country, state the countries in which the group is operative, or the region.
a. Stated goals and…
Resources) Some medical care and advice is offered by Cuba. A court case is presently happening in Bogota to check whether three members of the Irish Republican Army, detained in Colombia in 2001 upon quitting the FARC-controlled demilitarized zone, supplies sophisticated explosives education to the FARC. The FARC and the Colombian National Liberation Army (ELN) frequently use the border area for cross border invasions and makes use of the Venezuelan territory near the border as a refuge. (Terrorist Group Profiles, 2003)
d. Spiritual or religious support.
Could not find any information.
e. Umbrella or cover organization, if any.
As per Colombian intelligence agencies, the FARC was implementing the techniques studied from a yet another terrorist cluster, namely, the Irish Republican Army. (One year after Sept. 11, U.S. And Colombia face parallel challenges)
Pat Proctor of Kansas State University was published in the peer-Reviewed Journal of Strategic Security in 2012.
The point of this article is not so much posing a question but presenting a proposal. The proposal is directed at the United States, suggesting in strong terms how the United States (and presumably its allies) could and should engage in "…mass politics" which Proctor calls "war without violence" (Proctor, 2012, 47). The theme of the article is the remarkable transformation that has taken place in Arab countries (called the "Arab Spring") such as Egypt, Tunisia, Syria, Libya and elsewhere in the Middle East.
The hypothesis / thesis and central argument is very clearly stated in this piece. The thesis is that the United States needs a new strategy for persuading the Muslim world "…to reject the salafist jihadism idea" without further exacerbating the tensions that already exist between the est and the…
Cook, David. 2009. Islamism and Jihadism: The Transformation of Classical Notions into an Ideology of Terrorism. Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, 10.2, 177-187.
Moghadam, Assaf. 2008. Defining and confronting the Salafi Jihad. Middle East Strategy at Harvard. Retrieved August 22, 2012, from https://blogs.law.harvard.edu .
Proctor, Pat. 2012. War Without Violence: Leveraging the Arab Spring to Win the War on Terrorism. Journal of Strategic Security, 5.2, 47-64.
Abraham Path Initiative
The Abraham Path: The evolution of the enterprise over time
One of the most divisive regions of the world is the Middle East. The Middle East is fraught with conflict not simply because of the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian territorial dispute but also because of a host regional and sectarian struggles that are tearing this area of the world apart. With this in mind: "in the face of daunting barriers, the Abraham Path Initiative envisions uncovering and revitalizing a route of cultural tourism that follows the path of Abraham and his family some 4000 years ago across the Middle East…As it takes fuller shape, the Path variously serves as a catalyst for sustainable tourism and economic development, a platform for the energy and idealism of young people, a beacon for pilgrims and peacebuilders, as well as a focus for seemingly endless media inquiries from reporters, producers" (Leary, Sebenius, &…
Leary, K., Sebenius, J. & Weiss, J. (2009). Negotiating the Path of Abraham. Harvard Business
School Working Paper. 10-049.
My Attitude and Perspectives towards War
My attitudes on dealing with the upcoming worldly events and war change especially with the reports and research conducted on the issue of democracy. The antecedents towards war attitudes may include national identification and authoritarian ideological beliefs, and the consequences of war would include the intention to engage in pro-war behaviors. The different approaches to the major issues have given rise to arguments that incline people into believing that war is not the ultimate solution. Attitudes to war would be positively related to nonegalitarian ideologies and beliefs but less of personal distress. I support Kant’s notion of ‘Perpetual Peace’ where democratic peace comes into play. Countries that have democratic constitutions have shown the importance of getting the consent of their citizens when waging war with their enemies. Therefore, this makes citizens a determinant factor, and if they decide to engage in war, then they…
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
Not long after the car bombing that claimed the life of Hariri and nine others, U.S. Secretary of State, Condaleeza Rice, issued a statement saying that the U.S. Ambassador to Syria had been recalled for consultations as a result of the assassination (the ashington Times, February 16, 2005, p. A01). Short of making a specific statement of accusation that Syria had been behind the murder, Rice called for an investigation of the murder (2005, A01). It is here, at this point, that question should follow: ho had the greatest interest in seeing Rafik Hariri eliminated from Lebanon and the Middle East scene? e must ask that question before we go any further, or perform review any additional information in order to keep an open mind as we process the reports that arose from the U.N. commissioned investigation of the events. At this it would serve anyone attempting to sort through…
After Mehlis; Charting a Better Future for Syrians." The Washington Times 31 Oct. 2005: A21. Questia. 20 Oct. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011586082 .
Baroudi, Sami E. "Sectarianism and Business Associations in Postwar Lebanon." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 22.4 (2000): 81. Questia. 20 Oct. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001194754 .
Car Bombing Kills Anti-Syrian Legislator; 9 Others Die in Latest Hit on Hariri Backers." The Washington Times 14 June 2007: A13. Questia. 20 Oct. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021237096 .
The U.S. role in the current Lebanese crisis is beset with blatant double standards. For example, the Bush administration has accused Syria of being in violation of the UN Resolutions and, therefore, liable for international sanctions, while completely ignoring Israel's disregard of several UN resolutions that called for its withdrawal from Gaza and the est Bank. (Zunes) hile calling for immediate withdrawal of occupation forces from Lebanon, it conveniently forgets the fact that Syria has only 14,000 troops in Lebanon while the U.S. has a 150,000 strong occupation force in Iraq. Israel's invasion of Lebanon in 1982 and its occupation of Southern Lebanon until 2000 with U.S.'s tacit approval are not even mentioned in passing. Moreover, the U.S. democratization rhetoric vis a vis its policy in Lebanon and Syria does not carry much credibility as a number of authoritarian regimes in the Middle East continue to be supported…
Auken, Bill Van. "The assassination of Rafiq Hariri: who benefited?" World Socialist Web Site. 17 February 2005. March 13, 2005. http://www.wsws.org/articles/2005/feb2005/hari-f17.shtml
Cole, Juan. "Lebanon Realignment and Syria." Informed Comment
March 01, 2005. March 13, 2005
http://www.juancole.com/2005/03/lebanon-realignment-and-syria-it-is.html / 'Lebanese Civil War." From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2005. March 13, 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lebanese_Civil_War
Turkey to address the needs of the Syrian refugees, thereby facilitating the safety of the refugees while ensuring the health of the local Turkish communities.
United Nations leader Ban Ki-moon has described the Syrian Civil War as having reached "appalling heights of brutality," ("UN predicts huge surge in Syrian refugee numbers: AFP"). According to official United Nations counts, more than 460,000 Syrians have fled Syria to find safety, and those numbers are expected to surge to 700,000 by the beginning of 2013. Most of the refugees have crossed over the border to Turkey and also to Jordan, but many others have gone farther -- to North Africa and Europe. With the crisis having already reached epic proportions, and growing bigger, the time for providing a Christian plan of aid is nigh.
There are many options for assisting the refugees. The most pressing is to help Turkey build enough well stocked…
Krajeski, Jenna. "Taking Refuge: The Syrian Revolution in Turkey." World Policy Institute. 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.worldpolicy.org/journal/summer2012/taking-refuge-syrian-revolution-in-turkey
Ozey, Ramazan. "Turkey's Land Borders and Border Disputes." Retrieved online: http://www.ramazanozey.net/rozey/icerik/detay.asp?id=4&dil=en
Reynolds, James. "Syrian Refugees Slipping into Turkey." BBC News. Retrieved online:
The UAE and IsraelIntroductionIsrael has been, for most of its existence, involved in some form of conflict with the Arab world. However, the Arab world itself is largely conflicted between the Sunni and Shia states. Israels recent pivot toward forming greater relations with the Sunni states has indicated an improvement in relations between Israel and at least part of the Arab world. Yet, making matters more complicated is the fact that Palestine remains largely Sunni, and Palestine has viewed the Sunni states relations with Israel as a betrayal of the Palestinian peoples fight for independence and autonomy. For that reason, Palestine has disapproved the new relations between Israel and the UAE. As a Sunni majority state, the UAE has long sided with the rest of the Sunni Arab world in support of Palestine (Soriano, 2014). But now that has changed to some extent. This paper will discuss why the UAE…
ReferencesAlshuwaiter, M. (2020). President Hadi and the future of legitimacy in Yemen. Retrieved from https://www.mei.edu/publications/president-hadi-and-future-legitimacy-yemen Alterman, J. (2020). The Significance of the Israel-UAE Deal. Retrieved from https://www.csis.org/analysis/significance-israel-uae-deal Arnone, M & Padoan, P. (2007). Anti-Money Laundering by International Institutions: A Preliminary Assessment. CIDEI Working paper No. 74Bahi, R. (2018). Qatar Crisis: A Genuine struggle for power. Retrieved from shorturl.at/xBT89Baker, P., Kershner, I., Kirkpatrick, D. & Bergman, R. (2020). Israel and United Arab Emirates Strike Major Diplomatic Agreement. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/13/us/politics/trump-israel-united-arab-emirates-uae.html BBC. (2017). Qatar crisis: What you need to know. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-40173757 Belenkaya, M. (2019). Why did UAE foreign minister go to Russia following his meeting with Pompeo? Retrieved from https://www.al-monitor.com/originals/2019/06/russia-uae-us-iran-egypt-peace-plan.html Bowen, J. (2020). Five reasons why Israel\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s peace deals with the UAE and Bahrain matter. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-54151712 Khakhar, P., & Rammal, H. G. (2013). Culture and business networks: International business negotiations with Arab managers.International Business Review,22(3), 578-590.Neuman, S. (2021). Intelligence Chiefs Say China, Russia Are Biggest Threats To U.S. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2021/04/14/987132385/intelligence-chiefs-say-china-russia-are-biggest-threats-to-u-s Ramani, S. (2020). Russian and Chinese views on the Israel-UAE normalization deal. Retrieved from https://www.mei.edu/publications/russian-and-chinese-views-israel-uae-normalization-deal Reuters Staff. (2020). Israel, U.S. near deal to exclude China from Israeli 5G networks: U.S. official. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-israel-usa-5g-china/israel-u-s-near-deal-to-exclude-china-from-israeli-5g-networks-u-s-official-idUSKCN25A2CF Scollon, M. (2015). Who has a stake in Yemen fight? Retrieved from https://www.rferl.org/a/who-has-a-stake-in-yemen-fight/26925287.html Sly, L. (2018). Princely feuds in the Persian Gulf thwart Trumps efforts to resolve the Qatar dispute. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/princely-feuds-in-the-persian-gulf-thwart-trumps-efforts-to-resolve-the-qatar-dispute/2018/05/13/7853cc88-39cf-11e8-af3c-2123715f78df_story.html?utm_term=.ebe5fd3adafa Soriano, M. A. (2014). United Arab Emirates & Mexico: Do\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s and dont\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s in negotiation strategies,\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" A Mexican perspective\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\".The Business & Management Review,5(1), 378.Tasmin News. (2020). Envoy: Iran-Russia Military Cooperation to Enter New Level. Retrieved from https://www.tasnimnews.com/en/news/2020/08/22/2333123/envoy-iran-russia-military-cooperation-to-enter-new-level Weir, D. T. H. (2003). Management development and leadership in the Middle East: An alternative paradigm. Leadership in the Management Theory at Work Series Conference, JuneWilson Center. (2020). Russia in the Middle East: National Security Challenges for the United States and Israel in the Biden Era. Retrieved from https://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/report-russia-middle-east-national-security-challenges-united-states-and-israel-biden Zhenqing, H. (2019). Turkey or generals aid Libya, the dispute over the delimitation of the Eastern Mediterranean has become a regional hot spot. Retrieved from https://www.thepaper.cn/newsDetail_forward_5252577 Zhongming, L. (2020). Professor Liu Zhongmin was interviewed by Shangguan News on the normalization of relations between Israel and the UAE. Retrieved from http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/06/8e/c3991a132750/page.htm
Fear of oil shortages in the West drove oil prices to unprecedented levels, about three times the pre-war price. Gasoline shortages in the United States resulting from the Arab embargo, combined with the rise in oil prices, began a spiral of world-wide inflation and a recession in 1974-75.
Attempts began to resume the peace process when Security Council esolution 338 was passed and a ceasefire was ordered on October 22, 1973. The resolution was meant to immediately terminate of all military activity, implementation of esolution 242 and the start of negotiations "aimed at establishing a just and durable peace in the Middle East." esolution 338 subsequently became a companion piece to 242 as the basis of future proposals for a peace settlement. In December a Middle East Peace Conference convened in Geneva under the cochairmanship of the Soviet and American foreign ministers and the U.N. secretary-general. Egypt, Jordan and Israel…
Interview with Moshe Dayan by Rami Tal on November 22, 1976, Yediot Aharanot, April 27, 1997.
Anwar Sadat, in Search of Identity: An Autobiography (New York: Harper and Row, 1977), P- 259;
Haim Herzog, the War of Atonement, October 1973: The Fateful Implications of the Arab-Israeli Conflict (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1975), p. 51
Abba Eban, Personal Witness: Israel Through My Eyes (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1992), p. 523.
Turkey Security Threats
Turkey faces several economic, social and political threats in both the near (5-year) and long (10-20-year) term. Its geopolitical situation in the Middle East makes it particularly sensitive not to only local contexts but to global contexts as well. Bordering Georgia to the north, Armenia and Iran to the east, and Syria and Iraq to the south, it has been neighbor to some of the most controversial courses of action in recent history. It is only natural that its own security should be affected by that of its neighbors as well as by superpower interests in the region. This paper will analyze the security threats as they apply to Turkey in both the near-term and the long-term.
The latest and nearest term security threat is the rise of IS, the Islamic State, whose self-appointed caliphate has declared a religious war against Shia Muslims in the Iraq and…
Catholic Online. (2014). ISIS begins killing Christians in Mosul. Retrieved from http://www.catholic.org/news/international/middle_east/story.php?id=56481
Dawson, R. (2012). Syrian Super Thread. Anti-Neocons. Retrieved from http://www.rys2sense.com/anti-neocons/viewtopic.php?f=11&t=29233&start=7
Escobar, P. (2011). Playing Chess in Eurasia. Asia Times Online. Retrieved from http://www.afgazad.com/Zabanhaye-Eropaei/122211-Playing-Chess-in-Eurasia.pdf
Frizell, S. (2014). President Obama Explains Why the U.S. is Bombing ISIS. Time.
Israel and the Arab WorldIntroductionThe history of modern Israel and the Arab world is a history of tension and violence that has gone on for decades. It is a history characterized by numerous wars, accusations of genocide, threats of annihilation, and bitter hostilities punctuated intermittently by peace agreements like the Camp David Accords, signed during the Carter Administration to ease tensions between Israel and Egypt. This paper will describe the history of Israel, the nature of the hostilities between Israel and the Arab World, and relations between the UAE and Israel.History of IsraelFollowing World War 1, England took control of Palestine, known then as the British Mandate. Prior to the war, the Ottoman Empire had controlled the realm. The Zionist Movement, seeking a home for the Jewish people, had sought protection from the Ottoman Empire, which promised nothing of the sort. The English Lord Balfour, in the famous Balfour Declaration…
ReferencesBaker, P., Kershner, I., Kirkpatrick, D. & Bergman, R. (2020). Israel and United Arab Emirates Strike Major Diplomatic Agreement. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/13/us/politics/trump-israel-united-arab-emirates-uae.html Balfour Declaration. (1917). Retrieved from https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/text-of-the-balfour-declaration Baroud, R. (2009). My Father Was a Freedom Fighter : Gaza\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Untold Story. Pluto Press.Congressional Research Service. (2019). US foreign aid to Israel. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20200115021105/https://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33222.pdf Gazit, M. (2000). The Genesis of the USIsraeli Military-Strategic Relationship and the Dimona Issue.Journal of Contemporary History,35(3), 413-422.Hoffman, B. (2011). The rationality of terrorism and other forms of political violence: lessons from the Jewish campaign in Palestine, 19391947.Small Wars & Insurgencies,22(02), 258-272.Hoffman, B. (2020). The bombing of The King David Hotel, July 1946.Small Wars & Insurgencies,31(3), 594-611.Hughes, G. A. (2014). Syria and the perils of proxy warfare.Small Wars & Insurgencies,25(3), 522-538.Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2013). 1947: The international community says YES to the establishment of the State of Israel. Retrieved from https://mfa.gov.il/Jubilee-years/Pages/1947-UN-General-Assembly-Resolution-181-The-international-community-says-Yes-to-the-establishment-of-the-State-of-Israel.aspx#:~:text=Neither%20saw%20fit%20to%20establish,from%20its%20inception%20until%20today .Khalidi, R. (2007). The Iron Cage the Story of the Palestinian Struggle for Statehood / Rashid Khalidi. 1st ed. Boston: Beacon Press.Kurtulus, E. N. (2007). The Notion of a pre-emptive War: the Six Day War Revisited.The Middle East Journal,61(2), 220-238.Neubauer, S. (2017). Israel: A Strategic Partner for the UAE?.IndraStra Global, (11), 3.Popp, R. (2006). Stumbling decidedly into the six-day war.The Middle East Journal,60(2), 281-309.Salisbury, P. (2015). Yemen and the SaudiIranian Cold War.Research Paper, Middle East and North Africa Programme, Chatham House, the Royal Institute of International Affairs, 11.Ulrichsen, K. C. (2016). Israel and the Arab Gulf States: Drivers and Directions of Change. Retrieved from https://www.bakerinstitute.org/media/files/research_document/13eaaa71/CME-pub-GCCIsrael-090716.pdf Weinbaum, M. G. (1985). Egypt\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Infitah and the politics of US economic assistance.Middle Eastern Studies,21(2), 206-222.Yisraeli, D. (1971). The Third Reich and the Transfer Agreement.Journal of Contemporary History,6(2), 129-148.
Turkey: The Kurdish Problem
Although Turkey has gained greater prominence in the news due to the influx of Serbian refugees into its borders, it is also struggling with another problem, namely the ethnic tensions pertaining to Kurdish separatists besieging critical areas. Like many Middle Eastern nations, despite its relative close proximity to Europe, Turkey is home to a wide variety of different ethnic groups with various religious affiliations, including the Kurds. The southeast of Turkey is home to a majority population of Kurds, which has sown the seeds of a longstanding civil war. Kurdish separatists have long been engaging in violent resistance against the government of Turkey, demanding their own separate state. Although the violence has existed for many decades, recent skirmishes have been characterized as "the worst seen in the past two decades" (Tharoor 2016). This is due in no small part to the recently emboldened Turkish separatist groups…
Basburg, I. (2016). What has strained U.S.-Turkey relations and what needs to be done?
The Daily Caller. Retrieved from: http://dailycaller.com/2016/11/29/what-has-strained-u-s-turkey-relations-and-what-needs-to-be-done/#ixzz4U5rmgCRN
Tharoor, I. (2016). As Syria burns, Turkey's Kurdish problem is getting worse. The Washington
Post. Retrieved from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2016/02/03/as-syria-burns-turkeys-kurdish-problem-is-getting-worse/?utm_term=.2db0309c8ba9
This paper looks at the public policy of R2P and humanitarian intervention abroad, which serves as a major drain on American resources and benefits a foreign country more than it does the U.S. The money spent on these wars waged under the banner of R2P could be better spent on projects at home. The solution to this flawed policy is to address the elephant in the room, which is the Israeli lobby, to end the wars in the Middle East and put that money into healthcare, education or infrastructure back home, and to deny the persons in the State Department who serve under one administration from serving under the next so that they cannot force their continuity of government onto the incoming administration.
Much has been made of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) doctrine that has become the de facto, go-to reason for intervening in other parts of…
Economy of the Euphrates iver From 1805 to Present
The Euphrates iver is considered one of the most important water resources both economically and therefore politically for many Middle Eastern countries, particularly Turkey, Syria and Iraq. Since the dawn of time the Euphrates along with the Tigris iver have provided a substantial portion of the water that was used to support development of both ancient and modern cultures (Holt, et. al, 2000).
The Euphrates iver is currently the primary source of hydroelectric power for the countries bordering it, and is also used for irrigation and promotion of agriculture, critical to the economy of the countries surrounding it. Much tension has been created as each country over the years has vied for access and control of the waters passing through the Euphrates and Tigris iver basin (Holt, et. al, 2000). From the early 1800s Turkey, Syria and Iraq have been vying…
Blanche, Ed. "Mid East Water Crisis: Time is Running Out." The Middle East (April
Holt, Zach; Clark, Marggie; Duckworth, Pam; Howes, Grant. "Euphrates River
History." Bryant College, (2000). Retrieved February 15, 2005:
Paul's First Missionary Journey
The conversion of Paul from Saul on his way to Damascus marked the beginning of his evangelical work.
Paul and arnabas were believers in the newly established church in Antioch of Syria.
They received the calling from God while in church praying alongside leaders of the church.
Paul was dogmatic, without proper strategy and planning for his missionary journey.
The first missionary journey of Paul
Paul's first missionary journey began at Antioch of Syria
He sailed with arnabas, and john Mark as their helper.
John Mark made his decision and left them as they arrived at Pisidia
Paul travelled through the following places, preaching the Good News and making disciples; the island of Cyprus, Antioch of Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra and Derbie
Through his missionary work, he received mixed reception, some places acceptance and others wild rejection, to the point of being stoned.
Paul's strategy in his…
1. Cox, Raymond L. "Journey to Pisidia." Bible and Spade 7:4 (Autumn 1978): 123 -- 28.
2. Culpepper, R. Alan. "Paul's Mission to the Gentile World: Acts 13-19." Review & Expositor 71, no. 4 (Fall 1974): 487 -- 497.
3. Detwiler, David F. "Paul's Approach to the Great Commission in Acts 14:21 -- 23." Bibliotheca Sacra 152:605 (Jan 1995): 34 -- 41.
4. Fleming, Kenneth C. "Missionary Service in the Life of Paul." Emmaus Journal 1:3 (Winter 1992): 263 -- 78.
Shi'ism in the World & the Shiite Islamic Sect in Nigeria
Shi'ism in the World
History, Objectives & General Outlook
Shiite Muslims make up the second biggest denomination of Islam, with the biggest numbers being represented by the Sunnis. The Shiite Muslims form about fifteen percent of Muslims. However, they are dominant in the nations of Iran, Azerbaijan, Iraq and Bahrain. In addition, Muslims have a plurality in Yemen and Lebanon too (Cave, 2006). These two distinct groups within the Islam community first differed and deviated from each other following the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632. The divide arose from the fact that the followers were not able to come to an agreement as to whether it was right to select bloodline successors or able leaders most capable of following and propagating the tenets of the Muslim faith (Fuller and Francke, 2000).
The Shiite community commenced during the 650s,…
Akhavi, S. (1983). The ideology and praxis of Shi'ism in the Iranian revolution. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 25(02), 195-221.
Campbell, J. (2015). "Massacre" of Shia in Northern Nigeria an Opening for Iran. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 5 January 2016 from: http://blogs.cfr.org/campbell/2015/12/16/massacre-of-shia-in-northern-nigeria-an-opening-for-iran/
Cave, D. (2006). Telling Sunni from Shiite. The New York Times. Retrieved 5 January 2016 from:shttp://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/s/shiite_muslims/index.html
Center for Security Policy. (2014). Will Sunni-Shia tensions spread to Nigeria? Retrieved 5 January 2016 from: https://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/2014/11/03/will-sunni-shia-tensions-spread-to-nigeria/
This unity generally took the form of diplomatic and military opposition to the state of Israel. Egypt's leading role in the acceleration of Arab political unification would have a long-term effect of philosophically influencing such movements as the liberation front of Yasser Arafat in the Palestinean territory, and the host of other terror organizations which have waged guerilla campaigns in search of political recognition.
These examples will be relevant in discussion hereafter on the long-term effects of the conflict. In the immediate aftermath of the attack, it would become clear that these political implications were not accidental. Quite to the contrary, the Arabs understood quite well that they could not anticipate a military victory. Still, "in October 1973, Arab nations led by Egypt and Syria chose war as their instrument of policy -- their primary policy objective in waging war: to recover Arab lands occupied by Israel since the 1967…
Anti-Defamation League (ADL). (2005). The 1973 Yom Kippur War. ADL.org.
Ehrenfeld, R. (2002). IRA + PLO = Terror. National Review Online. Online at http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/commentehrenfeld082102.asp
Horovitz, D. (2005). The Iran-Hezbollah Nexus. Chicago Jewish Community Online. Online at http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:6aPKBoRz9Q0J:www.juf.org/pdf/horovitz.pdf+iran+hezbollah&hl=en
Israel 1967-1991. (2004). Israel-Egypt Peace. Palestine Facts.
Social evolution to rapid revolutionary change and contemporary globalization dynamics: Emphasizing the contributions of economic, and political process to societal change
Should the U.S. trade with ussia?
The Cold War ended long ago but trade restrictions still exist between the U.S. And the former communist superpower of ussia. In an effort to liberalize trade, the U.S. has been easing some of these restrictions. ecently, the Senate Finance Committee passed a trade bill that could double U.S. exports to ussia at a time when the U.S. economy is particularly strapped and in need of rectifying the trade imbalance that exists between itself and the rest of the world overall. Declining U.S. exports have been linked to sluggish job growth. U.S. exports to ussia currently hover around $9 billion dollars, a figure which some analysts estimate could double if the trade bill passes ("U.S. okays trade with ussia," The Korea Herald, 2012).…
Pukhov, Rusan. "Why Russia supports Syria." The New York Times. 7 Jul 2012.
[27 Jul 2012] http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/07/opinion/why-russia-supports-syria.html?_r=2&%20scp=1&sq=russia%20syria&st=Search
"U.S. okays trade with Russia." The Korea Herald. 19 July 2012. [19 July 2012]
military, as exemplified in the two (2) real-Life international incidents that you have researched. Justify your response.
America is more than just the leading superpower in the world; it is also widely regarded as the 'world's policeman' on account of its numerous interventions in solving global problems. Every now and again, it has been expected to mediate and negotiate when problems arise in any corner of the globe. When the U.S. is hesitant or doesn't act in accordance with general expectations, a cloud of helplessness engulfs the world. Two global scenarios wherein the U.S. resorted to a surprising course of action, while concurrently attempting to steer clear of usual military tactics are the ongoing civil war in Syria and the 2011 Libyan Civil War. Other countries' reaction in case of the latter event and the continuance of USA's position in the NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) merely validate that it…
Barna II., W. U.S. Military Intervention for Humanitarian Purposes: Exception to Policy or an Emerging Norm? Retrieved from http://www.hofstra.edu/pdf/library/ulra_military_intervention.pdf
Blanchard, C. N., Humud, C. E., & Nikitin, M. B. D (2015). Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response. Retrieved from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33487.pdf
Gulf War. Retrieved from http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Gulf-War.pdf
Lindstrom, M. & Zetterlund, K. (2012).Setting the Stage for the Military Intervention in Libya: Decisions Made and Their Implications for the EU and NATO. Retrieved from www.foi.se/.../foir3498.pdf
Disarray in Iraq
The United States-led war in Iraq that started in 2003 has led to a rather huge outgrowth of results and effects in the twelve years since. Indeed, Saddam Hussein was toppled, tried, convicted and eventually executed. Further, there have since been democratic elections in Iraq. Once the oppressed minority, the Shia that were dominated and controlled by Saddam Hussein now have a much larger and proportional amount of control over the Iraqi government in comparison to the rival Sunnis (of which Saddam was one) who now have a much smaller share of power. The Kurds are also in the equation. However, there have been other effects and outcomes that have been extremely dire. Whether it be all of the civilian casualties that have occurred in the years since 2013, the rise of ISIS in Iraq and Syria (among other places) and the insurgency that rocked Iraq for…
Berman, E., Callen, M., Felter, J. H., & Shapiro, J. N. (2011). Do Working Men Rebel?
Insurgency and Unemployment in Afghanistan, Iraq, and the Philippines. Journal Of Conflict Resolution, 55(4), 496-528. doi:10.1177/0022002710393920
Chehab, Z. (2007). Iraq: no end to the suffering. New Statesman, 136(4874), 34-36.
Engels, F. (2000). The peasant war in Germany. New York: International Publishers.
United States' task of setting policy with other countries is not always a difficult task. We have enjoyed productive and positive relations with Canada for nearly all of our country's history. While we started out our relationship with Mexico on hostile terms, both countries have worked hard to establish a positive relationship based on mutual interests and concerns. It isn't always as easy to identify the important issues when countries are farther away and when they are located in areas with long histories of turbulence and conflicting needs. Such is the situation we face with the Middle East, an area made up of several different countries, some of whom often war among themselves and where shifting allegiances have historically taken place. The Middle East has a particularly troubled past, and it is not possible for any one country to set policies that will be warmly accepted by all the Middle…
Barry, Tom, and Honey, Martha. 1999. "Turkey: Arms and Human Rights." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 4:16. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.fpif.org/briefs/vol5/v5n03isr.html
Le Gail, Michael, Ph.D. St. Olaf College, with Le Gail, Dina. 2000. Middle East. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.puhsd.k12.ca.us/chana/staffpages/eichman/Adult_School/us/spring/foreign_policy/3/middle_east.htm
Mark, Clyde R. 2002. U.S. Congressional Research Service, Clyde R. Mark Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division, Updated Nov. 14, 2002. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.uspolicy.be/Issues/MiddleEast/middleeast.htm
Zunes, 2000. Stephen. "The U.S. And the Israeli-Syrian Peace Process." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 5:3. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02.
Policemen of the World:
By the beginning of the 20th Century, the United States has become the principal force in international relations. As a result of the growth of the country, some people argue that the American military operates as the world's police. In addition, the United States' elevated status has resulted in the occurrence of shifts and consequences that have not only changed the country but also had a significant impact on the rest of the world. The consideration of the United States military as the world's police is evident in its continual use to resolve several crises in different places across the globe. In the past few decades, the United States Army has been used in international incidents that are geared towards the fight against global terrorism. Moreover, successive American governments have used the military in international incidents to promote the security of its citizens across the borders.…
Armstrong, B. (2010, June 18). Differences in American Foreign Policy After World War I and World War II. Retrieved November 22, 2013, from http://voices.yahoo.com/differences-american-foreign-policy-after-world-6233710.html?cat=37
Lantier, A. (2013, April 19). U.S. Deploys Troops to Jordan, Prepares to Invade Syria. Retrieved November 22, 2013, from http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2013/04/19/syri-a19.html
"U.S. Military Involvement in Nigeria." (2009, September). African Security Research Project.
Retrieved November 22, 2013, from http://concernedafricascholars.org/african-security-research-project/?p=83
Global Efforts to educe Terrorism and Political Violence Been Effective in the Past Decade?
Conceptualizing Political Violence and Terrorism
Terrorism does not have an assigned definition. As a matter of fact, "few terms or concepts in contemporary political discourse have proved as hard to define as terrorism" (Weinberg, Pedahzur, and Hirsch-Hoefler, 2004). The authors further point out that from as early as the 1960s and 1970s, when terrorism as a subject first appeared (or made a reappearance), various professional commentators have fund it quite challenging to come up with an articulate definition of the term that could gain acceptance across the board. Essentially, terrorism is a contemporary form of political violence. Indeed, terrorism as Gurr (as cited in Ortlung and Makarychev, 2006) points out, it is a subset of political violence. For purposes of this discussion, the definition (and interpretation) AND assigns to terrorism will be adopted. This definition will…
Apaza, C.R., 2011. Integrity and Accountability in Government: Homeland Security and the Inspector General. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing.
Gartenstein-Ross, D., 2012. Bin Laden's Legacy Why We're Still Losing the War on Terror. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons
Hoffman, B., (2010). A Counterterrorism Strategy for the Obama Administration. Terrorism and Political Violence, 21(4), pp. 359-377
Inbar, E. ed., 2013. The Arab Spring, Democracy and Security: Domestic and International Ramifications. New York, NY: Routledge.
The New Cold War: Sunni vs. Shia Muslims and the Proxy War Between Saudi Arabia and IranIntroductionDebates over the rightful succession to Muhammad have spawned centuries of ideological and physical battles between Sunni and Shia Muslims. Although not the only source of conflict in the Middle East and Western Asia, the Sunni/Shia divide has undergirded political turmoil throughout the region. Cleavages between Sunni and Shia parallel other geopolitical problems, both within the same nation-states and between nation-states.A current manifestation of the centuries old clash between Sunni and Shia is the proxy war taking place between Sunni Saudi Arabia and Shia Iran. eferred to as a new Cold War, the proxy wars have tremendous geopolitical implications beyond the immediately affected regions (Saxena & Dews, 2014). As Saxena & Dews (2014) point out, there is a lot more to the proxy wars than just the Sunni-Shia ideological divide. For certain, religious fervor…
ReferencesAbdo, Geneive. The New Sectarianism: The Arab Uprisings and the Rebirth of the Shi\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'a-Sunni Divide. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017. Print.Cotter, Michael W., et al. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"The Geopolitics of the Sunni-Shi\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'a Divide in the Middle East.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" American Diplomacy, 2014. Academic OneFile. Accessed 24 March, 2017.Dubowitz, Mark, and Ray Takeyh. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Labeling Iran\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Revolutionary Guard.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" Foreign Affairs. 24 June 2017. Web. 24 June 2017.Fraihat, Ibrahim. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Keeping Iran and Saudi Arabia From War.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" Foreign Affairs. 16 May 2017. Web. 16 May 2017.Miller, Aaron David, and Jason Brodsky. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Saudi Arabia and Iran\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Forever Fight.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" Foreign Affairs. 15 May 2017. Web. 15 May 2017.Nasr, V. R. (2007, January 17). Prepared Testimony before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Retrieved May 19, 2017, from https://www.cfr.org/report/prepared-testimony-senate-committee-foreign- relations-0Ostovar, Afshon. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Soldiers of the Revolution.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" Foreign Affairs. 24 June 2017. Web. 24 June 2017.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"The New Sectarianism: The Arab Uprisings and the Rebirth of the Shi\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'a-Sunni Divide.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" Publishers Weekly, 12 Sept. 2016, p. 49. Literature Resource Center. Accessed 24 March, 2017.What is the difference between Sunni and Shia Muslims? The Economist. 29 May 2013. Web. 24 Apr. 2017.Carpenter, A. C. (2014). Community Resilience to Sectarian Violence in Baghdad. New York, NY: Springer New York.Cotter, Michael W., et al. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"The Geopolitics of the Sunni-Shi\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'a Divide in the Middle East.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" American Diplomacy, 2014. Academic OneFile. Accessed 24 March, 2017.Fraihat, Ibrahim. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Keeping Iran and Saudi Arabia From War.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" Foreign Affairs. 16 May 2017. Web. 16 May 2017.Khurshid, Tooba. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Tracing Shia-Sunni Conflict Divide in Iraq.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" The Diplomatic Insight, 31 Mar. 2013. Academic OneFile. Accessed 24 March, 2017.Mabon, Simon. The Battle for Bahrain: Iranian-Saudi Rivalry. Middle East Policy. 19.2 (Sept. 2012): 84-97. Wiley Online. Web. 18 May, 2017.Malley, R. (2016). The Middle East is nearing an explosion. The Atlantic. Retrieved online: https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2017/11/lebanon-saudi-iran-hezbollah/545306/ Mar chal, Brigitte, and Sami Zemni. The dynamics of Sunni-Shia relationships: doctrine, transnationalism, intellectuals and the media. London: Hurst, 2013. Print.Mason, Robert. Back to Realism for An Enduring U.S.-Saudi Relationship. Middle East Policy. 21.4 (Winter 2014): 32-44. Wiley Online. Web. 17 May, 2017.Miller, Aaron David, and Jason Brodsky. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Saudi Arabia and Iran\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Forever Fight.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" Foreign Affairs. 15 May 2017. Web. 15 May 2017.Nasr, V. R. (2007, January 17). Prepared Testimony before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Retrieved May 19, 2017, fromhttps://www.cfr.org/report/prepared-testimony-senate-committee-foreign- relations-0Saxena, E. & Dews, F. (2012). New Middle East cold war cant be explained by Sunni-Shia divide. Brookings. Retrieved online: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brookings-now/2014/07/24/new-middle-east-cold-war-cant-be-explained-by-sunni-shia-divide/ \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"The New Sectarianism: The Arab Uprisings and the Rebirth of the Shi\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'a-Sunni Divide.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" Publishers Weekly, 12 Sept. 2016, p. 49. Literature Resource Center. Accessed 24 March, 2017.Waterbury, John. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"The New Sectarianism: The Arab Uprisings and the Rebirth of the Shi\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'a- Sunni Divide.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" Foreign Affairs 95.6 (2016): 189. ProQuest. Web. 24 Apr. 2017.Wehrey, Frederic. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Shia Days of Rage.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" Foreign Affairs. 11 Dec. 2012. Web. 24 Apr. 2017.What is the difference between Sunni and Shia Muslims? The Economist. 29 May 2013. Web. 24 Apr. 2017.
Sinuhe the Egyptian
The story is about Sinuhe, an individual who loses his status after fleeing from his country, Egypt and later gains his rightful place in the Egyptian society by restoring himself. The story first draws Sinuhe as a coward who deserts his king for fearing for his own life. Sinuhe then challenges an opponent in a combat and comes out successfully (Gardiner and Alan 8). This win is crucial because it makes him decide to return to his homeland.
The story was composed after Pharaoh Amenemhat I's death who founded the 12th dynasty of Egypt in the 12th BC. The story is believed to be fictional as there is no evidence to claim that the story is based on a true story. In the tale, Sinuhe, an official and accompanies Senwosret who is a prince to the neighboring Libya when war was waged against Libyans. hile on the…
Bullock, Ronald. The Story of Sinuhe. London: Probsthain, 1978. Print.
Gardiner, Alan H. Notes on the Story of Sinuhe. Paris: Librairie Honore? Champion, 1916. Print.
Matthews, Roy T, FD.W. Platt, and Thomas F.X. Noble. The Western Humanities. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Print.
"I finally got into the habit of study, which I never really had before. I revived what little I had carried out of college…but it was hardest work I ever did in my life…I learned how to learn.
General George C. Marshall
The School of Advanced Military Studies (SAMS), based out of Fort Leavenworth, has as one of its main tasks the updating, administration and perfection of the Advanced Military Studies rogram (AMS). The current program guide for the SAMS curriculum has the quote at the top of this page as its first content beyond its cover page. The quote makes clear that just about anything learnable or taught in a traditional college setting pales in comparison to the rigors and demands brought on by learning and serving in the United States military. 1 The recent budgetary and war fatigue status of the current United States Armed Forces…
Pellerin, Cheryl. "Defense.gov News Article: Hale: Sequestration Devastates U.S. Military Readiness." United States Department of Defense (defense.gov). http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=119998 (accessed September 12, 2013).
Hampson, Rick. "Drawn-out Afghanistan War drains post-9/11 fervor." USA TODAY: Latest World and U.S. News - USATODAY.com. http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/09/05/911-anniversary-afghanistan-war-syria/2771437 / (accessed September 12, 2013).
Hess, G. - Vietnam: Explaining America's Lost War. Reviews in History. ISBN 978-1405125284
Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality
The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the Second World War, and again in the new circumstances confronting the world in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. Novel establishments have been formed, old ones have withered away and an equally enormous quantity of intellectual writing has studied this, which is debatably the most significant sphere of international law. Any discussion on the lawful use of armed force ought to start with the United Nations Charter. The Charter redefined understanding of the legitimacy of the application of force by outlining situations under which it is allowed.1
The guiding theory of the Charter is affirmed in its Preamble that armed forces should not be used except in the general interest. Article 2(4) of the Charter preserves this…
Bailey, Sydney D. Four Arab-Israeli Wars and the Peace Process. Palgrave: Macmillan, 1990
Barber, Benjamin. Fear's Empire: War, Terrorism and Democracy. W.W. Norton and Company, 2003
Barton, F.D; Crocker, B. Winning the Peace in Iraq. Washington Quarterly Volume: 26, Number: 2. Spring 2003, pp. 7-22.
Bijl, Nick van der. Nine Battles to Stanley. Pen and Sword Books, 1999
Flight operations by Egyptian pilots using these aircraft have begun; approximately 16 Hawker Hunter jet fighters also arrived in Egypt from Iraq with Iraqi pilots. About 10 Lightning jet fighters were expected from Saudi Arabia;
(3) Movement of TU-16 bombers from Aswan to the Cairo area in the latter part of March which are equipped to carry air-to-surface missiles;
(4) A high state of alert imposed on the Egyptian air force since April 20 had been noted with some air force reservists being recalled on the third of May;
(5) Relocation and reactivation of various Egyptian air squadrons with shuffling to accommodate aircraft from Libya and Iraq;
(6) The evidence suggested that additional commando units may have moved closer to the Suez Canal since the middle of March; and (7) A report that the Egyptian staff had been ordered to prepare a detailed plan for an attack across the Canal…
Burr, William (2003) The October War and U.S. Policy. National Security Archives. 7 Oct 2003. Online available at: www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/
Indications of Arab Intentions to Initiate Hostilities (2001) National Security Council Archives. Declassified. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-01.pdf
Intelligence Memorandum for Secretary Kissinger (1973) National Security Council. From William Quandt and Donald Stukel. WSAG Meeting, Middle East, Saturday October 6, 1973, 3:00 P.M. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-15.pdf
Memorandum of Conversation: Simcha Dinitz, Ambassador of Israel; Mordechai Shalev, Minister; Henry A. Kissinger, Assistant to the President; and Peter W. Rodman, NSC Staff. The White House. National Security Council Archives. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-05.pdf