Syria Essays (Examples)

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Interventionism From the Perspective of Realism vs

Words: 13409 Length: 44 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80916514

interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…… [Read More]

'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.

Available from . [24 Aug 2013].

Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.
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Political and Economic Prospects for

Words: 2558 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49816111

Thus, weak institutions, frequent military takeovers, and corruption in government ranks, both civilian and military has resulted in present state of affairs of Pakistan. Syria: Syria's history has been one that was dominated by family rule, foreign interventions, and inability to successfully run the affairs of the country by the ruling elite. The Assad family has held the power in Syrian since last four decades and this has caused significant deterioration in institutional and other forms of governance (Zisser 2003, 15-19).With independence from the French forces in 1946, Syria remained internally polarized and externally vulnerable to the tensions of Middle East. Her confrontation with Israel and support for Hezbollah has considerable historical background. Thus, the issues today being faced by Syria are a continuation of its acts of historical omissions and commission by ruling elites.

Influence of leadership: Influence of leadership on both Syria and Pakistan has been largely negative…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berger, Mark T. 2004. "After the Third World? History, destiny and the fate of Third Worldism." Third World Quarterly 25: 9-39. Accessed July 11, 2013. doi: 10.1080/0143659042000185318

Judah, Ben. Assessing stability in Syria. International Relations and Security Network ISN. Aug, 2008. Retrieved from: [http://www.isn.ethz.ch/DigitalLibrary/Articles/Detail/?lng=en&id=88666]

Nasrallah, Jana. 2011. "The impact of external intervention on power sharing agreements. (c2011)." Masters Diss., Lebanese American University. Accessed July 11. [https://ecommons.lau.edu.lb:8443/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10725/337/Jana_Nasrallah_Thesis.pdf?sequence=1]

Rosenlund, Stephen. 2013. "A Bright Light on Syria's Horizons." Center for International Private Enterprise. CIPE Development Blog, March 4. [ http://www.cipe.org/blog/2013/03/04/a-bright-light-on-syrias-horizons/#.Ud5fcztHK_p ]
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Financial System Reforms Over the

Words: 10927 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77379478



3.2.3 Portfolio Diversification of Investment in Global Property Markets

ecause the global property markets are affected by globalization and specific country / regional factors, means that the overall amounts of risks will vary, the most notable include: transparency and efficiency. Where, each country / region has different on laws and regulations pertaining to the real estate markets. This means that the risks in a number of different markets will depend upon specific market conditions themselves, reflecting these two factors. To protect themselves against these kinds of risks, many investors will often seek to diversify their portfolio. Diversification is: when you are investing a number of different asset classes in real estate, across a variety of countries / regions. The idea is that if a risk occurs in a specific country or region, the other areas that you are diversified in will protect you against the severity of the declines. For…… [Read More]

Bibliography

2009 A Year of Revival for Property Sector, 2010, Visit Kuwait. Available from: . [30 March 2010].

Barwa Real Estate, 2010, Arabian Business. Available from: . [30 March 2010].

Business Risk, 2010, Invest Words. Available from: [29 March 2010].

Dubai Property Companies Called Merger Off, 2009, Property Wire. Available from: [30 March 2010].
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Performance of the Middle East

Words: 7431 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72758625



Based on the assessment of the sample features in terms of capital size and value of the property portfolio, an observation is made in the fact that a proportion is kept between the two. In other words, the property companies in Jordan, Egypt and Syria seem to be prudential and correlate their capital sizes with the values of their portfolios.

3. esults and analysis of the Jordanian property companies

The results of the implemented questionnaire are revealed throughout the table below:

a (%)

b

c d e f g

Total (%)

Q3.

30

70

x x x

Q4.

40

60

x x x

Q5.

60

20

15

5

x x x

Q6.

Portfolio diversification

10

10

60

13

7

x x

Shortage of commercial properties

5

50

15

20

10

x x

Availability and choice

10

60

10

10

10

x x

Strong performance

70

20

5

3

2

x…… [Read More]

Reference:

2011, the world factbook, Central Intelligence Agency,  https://www.cia.gov/library/ publications/the-world-factbook / last accessed on February 21, 2011
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Negotiating Peace in the Middle East

Words: 1944 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14718589

The Art of Negotiation

Introduction

The Syrian conflict has lasted for several years now and peace talks have gotten underway just as many times, with numerous players adopting different sides of table. The problem with the negotiation process when it comes to Syria is that it is still somewhat unclear as to who is in charge, who stands to lose what, which party has the most leverage, and who will be the major players to settle the conflict and negotiate a lasting peace. This paper will examine the issues and contrast them with the interests of the various parties who have a stake in the negotiation of peace in the region and how this difference has affected the negotiation process thus far. It will also analyze the ethical behavior and tactics that have been used throughout the negotiation process, as some of these tactics have raised many questions about how…… [Read More]

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Individuals Are Unable to Comprehend

Words: 2657 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91928714

For instance, the U.S. can use drones with the purpose of filming exact instances involving Assad's men violating human rights.

Considering that "the Syrian government isn't just fighting rebels, as it claims; it is shooting unarmed protesters, and has been doing so for months" (Sniderman & Hanis), it is only safe to assume that immediate action needs to be taken in order for conditions to change. Children are dying at the moment and the world appears to express lack of interest in their suffering. In spite of the fact that rebels are determined to bring Assad now, the Syrian president has successfully used the armed forces with the purpose of destroying rebel efforts up until this moment.

Assad continues to dominate Syria as outside forces sit and watch as innocent revolutionaries are being murdered. There is no limit to what Syrian armed forces are willing to do with the purpose…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Barnard, Anne, "Syrian Insurgents Accused of Rights Abuses," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/21/world/middleeast/syrian-insurgents-accused-of-rights-abuses.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all

Koettl, Cristoph, "How Many More Syrians Have to Die Before the UN Acts?," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the Human Rights Now Website:  http://blog.amnestyusa.org/justice/how-many-more-syrians-have-to-die-before-the-un-acts/ 

Neville-Morgan, Allyson, "Pressure on Syrian Regime Increases as Violence against Civilians Continues," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the United to End Genocide Website: http://blog.endgenocide.org/blog/2011/11/28/pressure-on-syrian-regime-increases-as-violence-against-civilians-continues/

Stobo Sniderman, Andrew and Hanis, Mark, "Drones for Human Rights," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/31/opinion/drones-for-human-rights.html
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The West S War Against Assad and the Reason for it

Words: 737 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51240953

ar in the Middle East: A Classification Issue

A lot of people don't understand the wars in the Middle East or what they are all about (Collum). Since 9/11, the Middle East has been a prime focus of countries in the est, but today Russia is also involved and Putin is painted in estern media as an aggressor and an enemy even though he is actually leading the fight against ISIS in Syria. The reality is that the est and its allies are conducting a war against Assad in Syria rather than a war against the terrorist group ISIS. Thus, the classification of this war in the est as a war against Terror is incorrect. It should be classified as a war in support of Terror, as the est continues to send arms and munitions to aid the "rebels" (aka terrorists) who are fighting Assad, the Russians and the Iranians…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Collum, David. "2015-Year in Review." Peak Prosperity, 2015. Web. 8 Mar 2016.

Durden, Tyler. "ISIS: The 'Enemy' the U.S. created, Armed and Funded." Zero Hedge,

2015. Web. 8 Mar 2016.

Escobar, Pepe. "Syria: Ultimate Pipelineistan War." Strategic Culture Foundation,
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Water Crisis in the Middle East

Words: 1444 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40789894

Water Crisis in the Middle East

What is the Six Day War, and what are the various events that led to the War? What is the background of the War, and what were its consequences? The Six Day War took place in the month of June 1967. The crisis had actually begun in the early months of 1965, when the PLO, through Fatah, led a campaign of attacks on the borders along Jordan and Lebanon. This campaign was severely criticized and opposed by not only the people of the country but also by the Arab Government, and this led to the Fatah attempting to adopt a totally new strategy that came to be known as the 'entanglement theory'. According to this strategy, Israel would be forced to adopt an 'offensive' position with the technique of 'sabotage', and this meant that the Arabs would become more wary and would in turn…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anita Roddick, Dame. Troubled Water - Saints, Sinners, truth & Lies about the Global Water Crisis. 1 October, 2004. Retrieved From

http://www.ecademy.com/node.php?id=31940 Accessed on 21 February, 2005

Grunfeld, Lilac. Jordan River Dispute. ICE Case Studies, Case number 6. Spring 1997. Retrieved From http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/jordan.htm Accessed on 21 February, 2005

Israel 1948 to 1967, the Six-Day War Background. Retrieved From
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Extraordinary Rendition the Costs of

Words: 6889 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32847680

In other words, up until the middle of the 19th century, there were no cases of note or significance that indicated that the executive branch of the UNITED STATES government had the authority to render suspects or criminals to foreign locations outside of the explicit authority granted through a signed treaty with a foreign government.

It was during the Civil War that the first major break with this established legal tradition was made. The incident involved the capture of a foreign citizen in New York City during wartime and performed by presidential authority alone. The man captured was Jose Augustin Arguelles, a Spanish subject, who captured illegal slave traders, claimed a reward, then sold the slaves to plantation owners. Under Spanish law he was a criminal, but the United States had no extradition treaty with Spain. Despite having no legal authority to do so, Lincoln authorized the capture of the…… [Read More]

References

Elsea, J.K. And Kim, J. (2007, January 23). Undisclosed UNITED STATES detention sites overseas: background and legal issues. CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved November 29, 2007, at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33643.pdf

Grey, S. (2005, December 19). Torture's tipping point. New Statesman, pp. 24-25.

Grey, S. (2006, November 20). Missing presumed tortured. New Statesman, pp. 12-15.

Gutierrez, D. (2006, January-February). The extraordinary cruelty of "extraordinary rendition." The Humanist, pp. 11-15.
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Ethics of War

Words: 2010 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43083612

Ethics of ar: Justified and Unjustified ar

hen countries launch hostile military actions against other nations to the point where war occurs, the belligerents will inevitably have fundamentally opposing views concerning the legitimacy of the conflict and each opposing side will offer its poignant justification for its respective moral, legal and political positions regarding the conflict. In many cases, all belligerents in a war may have equally compelling just causes, and these causes can change from just to unjust even as the war is being fought. Indeed, scarcity of resources is frequently at the heart of many wars, but virtually all wars throughout history have also been justified on the basis of both sound and spurious rationales, the veracity of which depends on who is asking and who is being asked, questions that quickly become heated when religious reasons are included in the mix. To get at the heart of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alexandrov, Stanimir A. (1997, January 1). "Self-Defense against the Use of Force in International Law." The George Washington Journal of International Law and Economics 30(2/3): 605-610.

Dagi, Ihsan. (2013, Winter). "Editor's Note." Insight Turkey 15(1): 4-5.

Elshtain, Jean Bethke. (2005, October). "Against the New Utopianism: Response to 'Against the New Internationalism.' Ethics & International Affairs 19(2): 91-93.

Nardin, Terry. (2002, April). "The Moral Basis of Humanitarian Intervention." Ethics & International Affairs 16(1): 57-63.
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International Politics the Threat of

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91834848

In all cases there is the perception of the U.S. interfering in issues that should be dealt with locally, interfering to protect their own interest and to enforce their own values; a situation which leads to resistance. Terrorism may be argued as an action undertaken when people feel that they cannot be heard in another way.

This resistance has been seen in terrorist attacks which may be directly related to the associated with the U.S. foreign policy actions in the Middle East. In 1979 there was the Iran Hostage Crisis, when the U.S. embassy in Tehran was seized by Iranian demonstrators, demonstrating against U.S. policies. 52 U.S. staff were taken hostage; in a crisis which lasted 444 days (Houghton 74). The well-known terrorist attacks of 9/11 may also be seen as relating to the actions and perceptions of the U.S. In the Middle East, with Al Qaeda objecting to the…… [Read More]

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Surge Is Unlikely for Prices of U S

Words: 920 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41406672

Surge Is Unlikely for Prices of U.S. Gas," by Clifford Krauss (Krass, 2013). There were four main points of distinction embedded within the article. The first and arguable most important element within the article was in reference to the growing conflict in Syria. The article was written in late August when unrest in the Middle East was near its height. During this period, Americans were concerned with the subsequent rising oil prices that might occur due in part to the civil unrest occurring in Syria. The article first explains how gas prices are unlikely to increase due to a litany of factors. First, Syria is a very small oil exporter. It exports roughly 1% of the world's oil. As such, even if the entire country were to be engaged in war, the resulting damage in regards to oil exports would be minimal. Many pundits believe that the rippling effect of…… [Read More]

References:

1) Kay, Jane Holtz, Asphalt nation: how the automobile took over America, an how we can take it back, New York, Crown, 1997. ISBN 0-517-58702-5

2) Krass, Clifford. "Major Surge Is Unlikely for Prices of U.S. Gas." New York Times. N.p., 30 Aug. 2013. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.

3) Seale, Patrick (1987). The Struggle for Syria. ISBN 978-0-300-03944-3

4) "New Billions In Oil" Popular Mechanics, March 1933. article on invention of water injection and detergents for oil recovery
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US as an International Peace-Keeping Force

Words: 1328 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39908156

U.S. ole as 'Policemen of the World'

Thesis and Outline Draft

Introduction and Thesis

currently holds the most important and influential role in international politics and represents a decisive player in all recent international conflicts. This role takes the form of political and military interventions, international and bilateral engagements as well as multilateral brokerage of peace talks. The basic principles of such an approach are the fostering of peaceful, democratic, and secure international environment. At the same time though, it must be pointed out that the entire international community does not always support such actions and often it has been said that the United States acts as the "policeman of the world" (Kissinger, 1995). It must be stressed that the current approach the United States have on foreign policy has not changed since the end of the Civil War and has guided the U.S. In military and political interventions in…… [Read More]

References

Calvocoressi, P. (1987) World politics since 1945. New York: Longman.

Federal News Service (2013) "America is not the world's policeman: Text of Barack Obama's speech on Syria," Associated Press, available online at http://www.ndtv.com/article/world/america-is-not-the-world-s-policeman-text-of-barack-obama-s-speech-on-syria-417077

Kissinger, H. (1995) Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster.

Shahshahani, A. And Corina Mullin (2012) "The legacy of U.S. intervention and the Tunisian revolution: promises and challenges one year on," Interface: a journal for and about social movements, Volume 4 (1): 67 -- 101, available online at  http://www.interfacejournal.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Interface-4-1-Shahshahani-and-Mullin.pdf
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Kurdish Homeland Possible The Kurdish

Words: 2826 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30704255



The Kurds were seen as either "proper Turkish citizens" by the way they conducted themselves with dignity, or they were seen as "outlaws characterized by tribalism, religious reactionism, or banditry" (Yegen, p. 599). In other words, the Turkish government tried to take away the Kurds' ethnic identities; the Turks attempted to "assimilate" the Kurds into the nation of Turkey by referring to them as Turkish citizens -- and many Kurds have simply agreed to become Turks over the last 80 years or so. Meanwhile in the 1950s Kurds in Turkey "…were no longer in a position to produce major trouble for the state," and Kurds began moving into big cities in the western sections of Turkey (Yegen, p. 604). The "assimilation" strategies of the Turkish government towards the Kurds lightened up from the 1950s regarding forcible settlement practices, but then when the Kurds began to resist Turkish authority in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Giraldi, Philip. "Turkey and the Threat of Kurdish Nationalism." Mediterranean Quarterly

19.1 (2008): 33-40.

Gorvett, Jon. "Turkish Prime Minister Says War Against Kurds Has Entered 'Very Critical

Stage'." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. 27.1, (2008): 38-39.
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American Foreign Policy as it

Words: 4630 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27092534

Again, the press is not aware of all that goes on in the White House behind closed doors. Just because the matter was not publicly mentioned again in a direct fashion, does not mean that it was dropped. My team and I have continually discussed the best course of action for fostering trade with Tunisia and setting a much stronger precedent in the Middle East. The WSJ has actually zeroed in on the connection between this injection of fiscal support to Tunisia and our intentions to foster free trade with the entire Middle East.

The WSJ thinks that we should strike a trade deal with Tunisia and to also designate as a strategic economic nation. I and the entire White House is flattered that the Wall Street Journal would give us such obvious and prosaic advice on plans that we've already come up with ourselves. Of course the U.S. is…… [Read More]

References

Bonime-Blanc, a., 2011. The Fight Against Corruption Goes Global. Foreign Affairs, pp. 44-49.

Caldwell, W., 2009 . Learning to Leverage New Media. Military Review, May, pp. 256-260.

Carafano, J., 2011. Mastering the Art of Wiki. Joint Force Quarterly, pp. 266-271.

Clinton, H., 2010. Leading through Civilian Power. Foreign Affairs, pp. 199-209.
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International Business Law Energytech Sonatrach

Words: 1110 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43351546

Moreover, it is highly unlikely that such a clause would apply in the case of a tort dispute, because the likely plaintiffs in a tort lawsuit would be people who were injured by a misuse of the Technology, rather than any party involved in the contract negotiations. When there is no choice of law provision, the courts look at several different factors to determine which law to apply and whether a court has jurisdiction. In contract disputes, the courts look at the place of contracting, the place where the negotiating took place, where the contract will be performed, the location of the subject matter, and the citizenship and place of business of the parties. In tort cases, the courts look at where the injury occurred, where the conduct causing the injury occurred, citizenship and place of business of the parties, and the place where the relationship between the parties occurred.…… [Read More]

Counsel Journal 71 (Oct. 2004): 402.

Office of Domestic Fianance. "Overview." Terrorism Risk Insurance Program. 2008. Department of the Treasury. 18 Aug. 2008 http://www.ustreas.gov/offices/domestic-finance/financial-institution/terrorism-insurance/.

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C.S. 2000e.
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Threat Assessment

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53323341

Threat Assessment

South America's very old, biggest, most competent, and well- equipped rebellion having Marxist origin is the evolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - FAC. The uproar and clashing in the 1950s involving liberal and conservative militias lead to the civil war that demolished Columbia and from here FAC came into existence. The murder of liberal party leader Jorge Eliecer by the representatives of the conservative government ignited the battle between the Liberal and Conservative political parties. The consequent civil wars lead to the loss of over 200,000 Columbians and generated a glut of guerrilla groups. One of those groups, lead by Manuel Marulanda, split from the Liberals in 1966 and developed into the Marxist-oriented FAC. (FAC History)

Identify the group by name and country in which based. If there is no one country, state the countries in which the group is operative, or the region.

a. Stated goals and…… [Read More]

Resources) Some medical care and advice is offered by Cuba. A court case is presently happening in Bogota to check whether three members of the Irish Republican Army, detained in Colombia in 2001 upon quitting the FARC-controlled demilitarized zone, supplies sophisticated explosives education to the FARC. The FARC and the Colombian National Liberation Army (ELN) frequently use the border area for cross border invasions and makes use of the Venezuelan territory near the border as a refuge. (Terrorist Group Profiles, 2003)

d. Spiritual or religious support.

Could not find any information.

e. Umbrella or cover organization, if any.

As per Colombian intelligence agencies, the FARC was implementing the techniques studied from a yet another terrorist cluster, namely, the Irish Republican Army. (One year after Sept. 11, U.S. And Colombia face parallel challenges)
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Homeland Security

Words: 2038 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34045118

Pat Proctor of Kansas State University was published in the peer-Reviewed Journal of Strategic Security in 2012.

The point of this article is not so much posing a question but presenting a proposal. The proposal is directed at the United States, suggesting in strong terms how the United States (and presumably its allies) could and should engage in "…mass politics" which Proctor calls "war without violence" (Proctor, 2012, 47). The theme of the article is the remarkable transformation that has taken place in Arab countries (called the "Arab Spring") such as Egypt, Tunisia, Syria, Libya and elsewhere in the Middle East.

The hypothesis / thesis and central argument is very clearly stated in this piece. The thesis is that the United States needs a new strategy for persuading the Muslim world "…to reject the salafist jihadism idea" without further exacerbating the tensions that already exist between the est and the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cook, David. 2009. Islamism and Jihadism: The Transformation of Classical Notions into an Ideology of Terrorism. Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, 10.2, 177-187.

Moghadam, Assaf. 2008. Defining and confronting the Salafi Jihad. Middle East Strategy at Harvard. Retrieved August 22, 2012, from https://blogs.law.harvard.edu.

Proctor, Pat. 2012. War Without Violence: Leveraging the Arab Spring to Win the War on Terrorism. Journal of Strategic Security, 5.2, 47-64.
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Abraham Path Evolution of the Enterprise Over Time

Words: 2309 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96997021

Abraham Path Initiative

The Abraham Path: The evolution of the enterprise over time

One of the most divisive regions of the world is the Middle East. The Middle East is fraught with conflict not simply because of the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian territorial dispute but also because of a host regional and sectarian struggles that are tearing this area of the world apart. With this in mind: "in the face of daunting barriers, the Abraham Path Initiative envisions uncovering and revitalizing a route of cultural tourism that follows the path of Abraham and his family some 4000 years ago across the Middle East…As it takes fuller shape, the Path variously serves as a catalyst for sustainable tourism and economic development, a platform for the energy and idealism of young people, a beacon for pilgrims and peacebuilders, as well as a focus for seemingly endless media inquiries from reporters, producers" (Leary, Sebenius, &…… [Read More]

Reference

Leary, K., Sebenius, J. & Weiss, J. (2009). Negotiating the Path of Abraham. Harvard Business

School Working Paper. 10-049.
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Kants notion of Perpetual Peace in Managing Peace

Words: 672 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32501211

My Attitude and Perspectives towards War
My attitudes on dealing with the upcoming worldly events and war change especially with the reports and research conducted on the issue of democracy. The antecedents towards war attitudes may include national identification and authoritarian ideological beliefs, and the consequences of war would include the intention to engage in pro-war behaviors. The different approaches to the major issues have given rise to arguments that incline people into believing that war is not the ultimate solution. Attitudes to war would be positively related to nonegalitarian ideologies and beliefs but less of personal distress. I support Kant’s notion of ‘Perpetual Peace’ where democratic peace comes into play. Countries that have democratic constitutions have shown the importance of getting the consent of their citizens when waging war with their enemies. Therefore, this makes citizens a determinant factor, and if they decide to engage in war, then they…… [Read More]

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Water in the Middle East

Words: 22307 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58217118

While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).

The conflict in the Future

It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.

Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html

Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm

Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
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Assination of Rafik Hariri Extinguishing

Words: 4528 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74635393

Not long after the car bombing that claimed the life of Hariri and nine others, U.S. Secretary of State, Condaleeza Rice, issued a statement saying that the U.S. Ambassador to Syria had been recalled for consultations as a result of the assassination (the ashington Times, February 16, 2005, p. A01). Short of making a specific statement of accusation that Syria had been behind the murder, Rice called for an investigation of the murder (2005, A01). It is here, at this point, that question should follow: ho had the greatest interest in seeing Rafik Hariri eliminated from Lebanon and the Middle East scene? e must ask that question before we go any further, or perform review any additional information in order to keep an open mind as we process the reports that arose from the U.N. commissioned investigation of the events. At this it would serve anyone attempting to sort through…… [Read More]

Works Cited

After Mehlis; Charting a Better Future for Syrians." The Washington Times 31 Oct. 2005: A21. Questia. 20 Oct. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011586082.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001194754

Baroudi, Sami E. "Sectarianism and Business Associations in Postwar Lebanon." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 22.4 (2000): 81. Questia. 20 Oct. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001194754.

Car Bombing Kills Anti-Syrian Legislator; 9 Others Die in Latest Hit on Hariri Backers." The Washington Times 14 June 2007: A13. Questia. 20 Oct. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021237096.
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U S Role in the Present

Words: 2152 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46272056



Double Standards:

The U.S. role in the current Lebanese crisis is beset with blatant double standards. For example, the Bush administration has accused Syria of being in violation of the UN Resolutions and, therefore, liable for international sanctions, while completely ignoring Israel's disregard of several UN resolutions that called for its withdrawal from Gaza and the est Bank. (Zunes) hile calling for immediate withdrawal of occupation forces from Lebanon, it conveniently forgets the fact that Syria has only 14,000 troops in Lebanon while the U.S. has a 150,000 strong occupation force in Iraq. Israel's invasion of Lebanon in 1982 and its occupation of Southern Lebanon until 2000 with U.S.'s tacit approval are not even mentioned in passing. Moreover, the U.S. democratization rhetoric vis a vis its policy in Lebanon and Syria does not carry much credibility as a number of authoritarian regimes in the Middle East continue to be supported…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Auken, Bill Van. "The assassination of Rafiq Hariri: who benefited?" World Socialist Web Site. 17 February 2005. March 13, 2005. http://www.wsws.org/articles/2005/feb2005/hari-f17.shtml

Cole, Juan. "Lebanon Realignment and Syria." Informed Comment

March 01, 2005. March 13, 2005

http://www.juancole.com/2005/03/lebanon-realignment-and-syria-it-is.html / 'Lebanese Civil War." From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2005. March 13, 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lebanese_Civil_War
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Turkey to Address the Needs of the

Words: 1982 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16187352

Turkey to address the needs of the Syrian refugees, thereby facilitating the safety of the refugees while ensuring the health of the local Turkish communities.

United Nations leader Ban Ki-moon has described the Syrian Civil War as having reached "appalling heights of brutality," ("UN predicts huge surge in Syrian refugee numbers: AFP"). According to official United Nations counts, more than 460,000 Syrians have fled Syria to find safety, and those numbers are expected to surge to 700,000 by the beginning of 2013. Most of the refugees have crossed over the border to Turkey and also to Jordan, but many others have gone farther -- to North Africa and Europe. With the crisis having already reached epic proportions, and growing bigger, the time for providing a Christian plan of aid is nigh.

There are many options for assisting the refugees. The most pressing is to help Turkey build enough well stocked…… [Read More]

References

Krajeski, Jenna. "Taking Refuge: The Syrian Revolution in Turkey." World Policy Institute. 2012. Retrieved online:  http://www.worldpolicy.org/journal/summer2012/taking-refuge-syrian-revolution-in-turkey 

Ozey, Ramazan. "Turkey's Land Borders and Border Disputes." Retrieved online: http://www.ramazanozey.net/rozey/icerik/detay.asp?id=4&dil=en

Reynolds, James. "Syrian Refugees Slipping into Turkey." BBC News. Retrieved online:   http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world -middle-east-20433238 

"UN predicts huge surge in Syrian refugee numbers: AFP." Retrieved online: http://www.focus-fen.net/index.php?id=n293725
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Yom Kippur War Can Be

Words: 2581 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57956512

Fear of oil shortages in the West drove oil prices to unprecedented levels, about three times the pre-war price. Gasoline shortages in the United States resulting from the Arab embargo, combined with the rise in oil prices, began a spiral of world-wide inflation and a recession in 1974-75.

Attempts began to resume the peace process when Security Council esolution 338 was passed and a ceasefire was ordered on October 22, 1973. The resolution was meant to immediately terminate of all military activity, implementation of esolution 242 and the start of negotiations "aimed at establishing a just and durable peace in the Middle East." esolution 338 subsequently became a companion piece to 242 as the basis of future proposals for a peace settlement. In December a Middle East Peace Conference convened in Geneva under the cochairmanship of the Soviet and American foreign ministers and the U.N. secretary-general. Egypt, Jordan and Israel…… [Read More]

References

Interview with Moshe Dayan by Rami Tal on November 22, 1976, Yediot Aharanot, April 27, 1997.

Anwar Sadat, in Search of Identity: An Autobiography (New York: Harper and Row, 1977), P- 259;

Haim Herzog, the War of Atonement, October 1973: The Fateful Implications of the Arab-Israeli Conflict (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1975), p. 51

Abba Eban, Personal Witness: Israel Through My Eyes (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1992), p. 523.
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What Threatens Turkey Now and in the Future

Words: 2034 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27366124

Turkey Security Threats

Turkey faces several economic, social and political threats in both the near (5-year) and long (10-20-year) term. Its geopolitical situation in the Middle East makes it particularly sensitive not to only local contexts but to global contexts as well. Bordering Georgia to the north, Armenia and Iran to the east, and Syria and Iraq to the south, it has been neighbor to some of the most controversial courses of action in recent history. It is only natural that its own security should be affected by that of its neighbors as well as by superpower interests in the region. This paper will analyze the security threats as they apply to Turkey in both the near-term and the long-term.

The latest and nearest term security threat is the rise of IS, the Islamic State, whose self-appointed caliphate has declared a religious war against Shia Muslims in the Iraq and…… [Read More]

Reference List

Catholic Online. (2014). ISIS begins killing Christians in Mosul. Retrieved from  http://www.catholic.org/news/international/middle_east/story.php?id=56481 

Dawson, R. (2012). Syrian Super Thread. Anti-Neocons. Retrieved from http://www.rys2sense.com/anti-neocons/viewtopic.php?f=11&t=29233&start=7

Escobar, P. (2011). Playing Chess in Eurasia. Asia Times Online. Retrieved from  http://www.afgazad.com/Zabanhaye-Eropaei/122211-Playing-Chess-in-Eurasia.pdf 

Frizell, S. (2014). President Obama Explains Why the U.S. is Bombing ISIS. Time.
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Why the Kurdish Problem is Critical for Turkish Stability

Words: 1118 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69308297

Turkey: The Kurdish Problem

Although Turkey has gained greater prominence in the news due to the influx of Serbian refugees into its borders, it is also struggling with another problem, namely the ethnic tensions pertaining to Kurdish separatists besieging critical areas. Like many Middle Eastern nations, despite its relative close proximity to Europe, Turkey is home to a wide variety of different ethnic groups with various religious affiliations, including the Kurds. The southeast of Turkey is home to a majority population of Kurds, which has sown the seeds of a longstanding civil war. Kurdish separatists have long been engaging in violent resistance against the government of Turkey, demanding their own separate state. Although the violence has existed for many decades, recent skirmishes have been characterized as "the worst seen in the past two decades" (Tharoor 2016). This is due in no small part to the recently emboldened Turkish separatist groups…… [Read More]

References

Basburg, I. (2016). What has strained U.S.-Turkey relations and what needs to be done?

The Daily Caller. Retrieved from:  http://dailycaller.com/2016/11/29/what-has-strained-u-s-turkey-relations-and-what-needs-to-be-done/#ixzz4U5rmgCRN 

Tharoor, I. (2016). As Syria burns, Turkey's Kurdish problem is getting worse. The Washington

Post. Retrieved from:  https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2016/02/03/as-syria-burns-turkeys-kurdish-problem-is-getting-worse/?utm_term=.2db0309c8ba9
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Euphrates River

Words: 1507 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65276144

Economy of the Euphrates iver From 1805 to Present

The Euphrates iver is considered one of the most important water resources both economically and therefore politically for many Middle Eastern countries, particularly Turkey, Syria and Iraq. Since the dawn of time the Euphrates along with the Tigris iver have provided a substantial portion of the water that was used to support development of both ancient and modern cultures (Holt, et. al, 2000).

The Euphrates iver is currently the primary source of hydroelectric power for the countries bordering it, and is also used for irrigation and promotion of agriculture, critical to the economy of the countries surrounding it. Much tension has been created as each country over the years has vied for access and control of the waters passing through the Euphrates and Tigris iver basin (Holt, et. al, 2000). From the early 1800s Turkey, Syria and Iraq have been vying…… [Read More]

References:

Blanche, Ed. "Mid East Water Crisis: Time is Running Out." The Middle East (April

2001): 19

Holt, Zach; Clark, Marggie; Duckworth, Pam; Howes, Grant. "Euphrates River

History." Bryant College, (2000). Retrieved February 15, 2005:
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Paul's First Missionary Journey the Conversion of

Words: 3166 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66999961

Paul's First Missionary Journey

The conversion of Paul from Saul on his way to Damascus marked the beginning of his evangelical work.

Paul and arnabas were believers in the newly established church in Antioch of Syria.

They received the calling from God while in church praying alongside leaders of the church.

Paul was dogmatic, without proper strategy and planning for his missionary journey.

The first missionary journey of Paul

Paul's first missionary journey began at Antioch of Syria

He sailed with arnabas, and john Mark as their helper.

John Mark made his decision and left them as they arrived at Pisidia

Paul travelled through the following places, preaching the Good News and making disciples; the island of Cyprus, Antioch of Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra and Derbie

Through his missionary work, he received mixed reception, some places acceptance and others wild rejection, to the point of being stoned.

Paul's strategy in his…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Cox, Raymond L. "Journey to Pisidia." Bible and Spade 7:4 (Autumn 1978): 123 -- 28.

2. Culpepper, R. Alan. "Paul's Mission to the Gentile World: Acts 13-19." Review & Expositor 71, no. 4 (Fall 1974): 487 -- 497.

3. Detwiler, David F. "Paul's Approach to the Great Commission in Acts 14:21 -- 23." Bibliotheca Sacra 152:605 (Jan 1995): 34 -- 41.

4. Fleming, Kenneth C. "Missionary Service in the Life of Paul." Emmaus Journal 1:3 (Winter 1992): 263 -- 78.
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The Shiite Islamic Sect in Nigeria

Words: 6077 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90828462

Shi'ism in the World & the Shiite Islamic Sect in Nigeria

Shi'ism in the World

History, Objectives & General Outlook

Shiite Muslims make up the second biggest denomination of Islam, with the biggest numbers being represented by the Sunnis. The Shiite Muslims form about fifteen percent of Muslims. However, they are dominant in the nations of Iran, Azerbaijan, Iraq and Bahrain. In addition, Muslims have a plurality in Yemen and Lebanon too (Cave, 2006). These two distinct groups within the Islam community first differed and deviated from each other following the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632. The divide arose from the fact that the followers were not able to come to an agreement as to whether it was right to select bloodline successors or able leaders most capable of following and propagating the tenets of the Muslim faith (Fuller and Francke, 2000).

The Shiite community commenced during the 650s,…… [Read More]

References

Akhavi, S. (1983). The ideology and praxis of Shi'ism in the Iranian revolution. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 25(02), 195-221.

Campbell, J. (2015). "Massacre" of Shia in Northern Nigeria an Opening for Iran. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 5 January 2016 from: http://blogs.cfr.org/campbell/2015/12/16/massacre-of-shia-in-northern-nigeria-an-opening-for-iran/

Cave, D. (2006). Telling Sunni from Shiite. The New York Times. Retrieved 5 January 2016 from:shttp://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/s/shiite_muslims/index.html

Center for Security Policy. (2014). Will Sunni-Shia tensions spread to Nigeria? Retrieved 5 January 2016 from: https://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/2014/11/03/will-sunni-shia-tensions-spread-to-nigeria/
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Yom Kippur War the Long-Term

Words: 3961 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4051183

This unity generally took the form of diplomatic and military opposition to the state of Israel. Egypt's leading role in the acceleration of Arab political unification would have a long-term effect of philosophically influencing such movements as the liberation front of Yasser Arafat in the Palestinean territory, and the host of other terror organizations which have waged guerilla campaigns in search of political recognition.

These examples will be relevant in discussion hereafter on the long-term effects of the conflict. In the immediate aftermath of the attack, it would become clear that these political implications were not accidental. Quite to the contrary, the Arabs understood quite well that they could not anticipate a military victory. Still, "in October 1973, Arab nations led by Egypt and Syria chose war as their instrument of policy -- their primary policy objective in waging war: to recover Arab lands occupied by Israel since the 1967…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anti-Defamation League (ADL). (2005). The 1973 Yom Kippur War. ADL.org.

Ehrenfeld, R. (2002). IRA + PLO = Terror. National Review Online. Online at http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/commentehrenfeld082102.asp

Horovitz, D. (2005). The Iran-Hezbollah Nexus. Chicago Jewish Community Online. Online at http://66.102.7.104/search?q=cache:6aPKBoRz9Q0J:www.juf.org/pdf/horovitz.pdf+iran+hezbollah&hl=en

Israel 1967-1991. (2004). Israel-Egypt Peace. Palestine Facts.
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Social Evolution to Rapid Revolutionary Change and

Words: 990 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94465231

Social evolution to rapid revolutionary change and contemporary globalization dynamics: Emphasizing the contributions of economic, and political process to societal change

Should the U.S. trade with ussia?

The Cold War ended long ago but trade restrictions still exist between the U.S. And the former communist superpower of ussia. In an effort to liberalize trade, the U.S. has been easing some of these restrictions. ecently, the Senate Finance Committee passed a trade bill that could double U.S. exports to ussia at a time when the U.S. economy is particularly strapped and in need of rectifying the trade imbalance that exists between itself and the rest of the world overall. Declining U.S. exports have been linked to sluggish job growth. U.S. exports to ussia currently hover around $9 billion dollars, a figure which some analysts estimate could double if the trade bill passes ("U.S. okays trade with ussia," The Korea Herald, 2012).…… [Read More]

Reference

Pukhov, Rusan. "Why Russia supports Syria." The New York Times. 7 Jul 2012.

[27 Jul 2012] http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/07/opinion/why-russia-supports-syria.html?_r=2&%20scp=1&sq=russia%20syria&st=Search

"U.S. okays trade with Russia." The Korea Herald. 19 July 2012. [19 July 2012]

http://view.koreaherald.com/kh/view.php?ud=20120719000668&cpv=0
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Policemen of the World Thesis

Words: 1940 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90609492

military, as exemplified in the two (2) real-Life international incidents that you have researched. Justify your response.

America is more than just the leading superpower in the world; it is also widely regarded as the 'world's policeman' on account of its numerous interventions in solving global problems. Every now and again, it has been expected to mediate and negotiate when problems arise in any corner of the globe. When the U.S. is hesitant or doesn't act in accordance with general expectations, a cloud of helplessness engulfs the world. Two global scenarios wherein the U.S. resorted to a surprising course of action, while concurrently attempting to steer clear of usual military tactics are the ongoing civil war in Syria and the 2011 Libyan Civil War. Other countries' reaction in case of the latter event and the continuance of USA's position in the NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) merely validate that it…… [Read More]

References

Barna II., W. U.S. Military Intervention for Humanitarian Purposes: Exception to Policy or an Emerging Norm? Retrieved from http://www.hofstra.edu/pdf/library/ulra_military_intervention.pdf

Blanchard, C. N., Humud, C. E., & Nikitin, M. B. D (2015). Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response. Retrieved from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33487.pdf

Gulf War. Retrieved from http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Gulf-War.pdf

Lindstrom, M. & Zetterlund, K. (2012).Setting the Stage for the Military Intervention in Libya: Decisions Made and Their Implications for the EU and NATO. Retrieved from www.foi.se/.../foir3498.pdf
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The Power Vacuum in Iraq

Words: 4434 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61030368

Disarray in Iraq

The United States-led war in Iraq that started in 2003 has led to a rather huge outgrowth of results and effects in the twelve years since. Indeed, Saddam Hussein was toppled, tried, convicted and eventually executed. Further, there have since been democratic elections in Iraq. Once the oppressed minority, the Shia that were dominated and controlled by Saddam Hussein now have a much larger and proportional amount of control over the Iraqi government in comparison to the rival Sunnis (of which Saddam was one) who now have a much smaller share of power. The Kurds are also in the equation. However, there have been other effects and outcomes that have been extremely dire. Whether it be all of the civilian casualties that have occurred in the years since 2013, the rise of ISIS in Iraq and Syria (among other places) and the insurgency that rocked Iraq for…… [Read More]

References

Berman, E., Callen, M., Felter, J. H., & Shapiro, J. N. (2011). Do Working Men Rebel?

Insurgency and Unemployment in Afghanistan, Iraq, and the Philippines. Journal Of Conflict Resolution, 55(4), 496-528. doi:10.1177/0022002710393920

Chehab, Z. (2007). Iraq: no end to the suffering. New Statesman, 136(4874), 34-36.

Engels, F. (2000). The peasant war in Germany. New York: International Publishers.
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United States' Task of Setting Policy With

Words: 2510 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38461137

United States' task of setting policy with other countries is not always a difficult task. We have enjoyed productive and positive relations with Canada for nearly all of our country's history. While we started out our relationship with Mexico on hostile terms, both countries have worked hard to establish a positive relationship based on mutual interests and concerns. It isn't always as easy to identify the important issues when countries are farther away and when they are located in areas with long histories of turbulence and conflicting needs. Such is the situation we face with the Middle East, an area made up of several different countries, some of whom often war among themselves and where shifting allegiances have historically taken place. The Middle East has a particularly troubled past, and it is not possible for any one country to set policies that will be warmly accepted by all the Middle…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barry, Tom, and Honey, Martha. 1999. "Turkey: Arms and Human Rights." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 4:16. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.fpif.org/briefs/vol5/v5n03isr.html

Le Gail, Michael, Ph.D. St. Olaf College, with Le Gail, Dina. 2000. Middle East. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.puhsd.k12.ca.us/chana/staffpages/eichman/Adult_School/us/spring/foreign_policy/3/middle_east.htm

Mark, Clyde R. 2002. U.S. Congressional Research Service, Clyde R. Mark Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division, Updated Nov. 14, 2002. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.uspolicy.be/Issues/MiddleEast/middleeast.htm

Zunes, 2000. Stephen. "The U.S. And the Israeli-Syrian Peace Process." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 5:3. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.fpif.org/briefs/vol5/v5n03isr.html
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Policemen of the World

Words: 1462 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24376631

Policemen of the World:

By the beginning of the 20th Century, the United States has become the principal force in international relations. As a result of the growth of the country, some people argue that the American military operates as the world's police. In addition, the United States' elevated status has resulted in the occurrence of shifts and consequences that have not only changed the country but also had a significant impact on the rest of the world. The consideration of the United States military as the world's police is evident in its continual use to resolve several crises in different places across the globe. In the past few decades, the United States Army has been used in international incidents that are geared towards the fight against global terrorism. Moreover, successive American governments have used the military in international incidents to promote the security of its citizens across the borders.…… [Read More]

References:

Armstrong, B. (2010, June 18). Differences in American Foreign Policy After World War I and World War II. Retrieved November 22, 2013, from http://voices.yahoo.com/differences-american-foreign-policy-after-world-6233710.html?cat=37

Lantier, A. (2013, April 19). U.S. Deploys Troops to Jordan, Prepares to Invade Syria. Retrieved November 22, 2013, from  http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2013/04/19/syri-a19.html 

"U.S. Military Involvement in Nigeria." (2009, September). African Security Research Project.

Retrieved November 22, 2013, from  http://concernedafricascholars.org/african-security-research-project/?p=83
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How Effective Have Global Efforts to Reduce Terrorism Been

Words: 3530 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34194078

Global Efforts to educe Terrorism and Political Violence Been Effective in the Past Decade?

Conceptualizing Political Violence and Terrorism

Terrorism does not have an assigned definition. As a matter of fact, "few terms or concepts in contemporary political discourse have proved as hard to define as terrorism" (Weinberg, Pedahzur, and Hirsch-Hoefler, 2004). The authors further point out that from as early as the 1960s and 1970s, when terrorism as a subject first appeared (or made a reappearance), various professional commentators have fund it quite challenging to come up with an articulate definition of the term that could gain acceptance across the board. Essentially, terrorism is a contemporary form of political violence. Indeed, terrorism as Gurr (as cited in Ortlung and Makarychev, 2006) points out, it is a subset of political violence. For purposes of this discussion, the definition (and interpretation) AND assigns to terrorism will be adopted. This definition will…… [Read More]

References

Apaza, C.R., 2011. Integrity and Accountability in Government: Homeland Security and the Inspector General. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing.

Gartenstein-Ross, D., 2012. Bin Laden's Legacy Why We're Still Losing the War on Terror. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons

Hoffman, B., (2010). A Counterterrorism Strategy for the Obama Administration. Terrorism and Political Violence, 21(4), pp. 359-377

Inbar, E. ed., 2013. The Arab Spring, Democracy and Security: Domestic and International Ramifications. New York, NY: Routledge.
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Story of Sinuhe the Egyptian

Words: 1830 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79093608

Sinuhe the Egyptian

The story is about Sinuhe, an individual who loses his status after fleeing from his country, Egypt and later gains his rightful place in the Egyptian society by restoring himself. The story first draws Sinuhe as a coward who deserts his king for fearing for his own life. Sinuhe then challenges an opponent in a combat and comes out successfully (Gardiner and Alan 8). This win is crucial because it makes him decide to return to his homeland.

The story was composed after Pharaoh Amenemhat I's death who founded the 12th dynasty of Egypt in the 12th BC. The story is believed to be fictional as there is no evidence to claim that the story is based on a true story. In the tale, Sinuhe, an official and accompanies Senwosret who is a prince to the neighboring Libya when war was waged against Libyans. hile on the…… [Read More]

Works cited.

Bullock, Ronald. The Story of Sinuhe. London: Probsthain, 1978. Print.

Gardiner, Alan H. Notes on the Story of Sinuhe. Paris: Librairie Honore? Champion, 1916. Print.

Matthews, Roy T, FD.W. Platt, and Thomas F.X. Noble. The Western Humanities. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Print.
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Monograph Introduction I Finally Got Into the

Words: 1772 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37149996

Monograph Introduction

"I finally got into the habit of study, which I never really had before. I revived what little I had carried out of college…but it was hardest work I ever did in my life…I learned how to learn.

General George C. Marshall

The School of Advanced Military Studies (SAMS), based out of Fort Leavenworth, has as one of its main tasks the updating, administration and perfection of the Advanced Military Studies rogram (AMS). The current program guide for the SAMS curriculum has the quote at the top of this page as its first content beyond its cover page. The quote makes clear that just about anything learnable or taught in a traditional college setting pales in comparison to the rigors and demands brought on by learning and serving in the United States military. 1 The recent budgetary and war fatigue status of the current United States Armed Forces…… [Read More]

Pellerin, Cheryl. "Defense.gov News Article: Hale: Sequestration Devastates U.S. Military Readiness." United States Department of Defense (defense.gov). http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=119998 (accessed September 12, 2013).

Hampson, Rick. "Drawn-out Afghanistan War drains post-9/11 fervor." USA TODAY: Latest World and U.S. News - USATODAY.com. http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/09/05/911-anniversary-afghanistan-war-syria/2771437 / (accessed September 12, 2013).

Hess, G. - Vietnam: Explaining America's Lost War. Reviews in History. ISBN 978-1405125284
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Post War Iraq a Paradox in the Making Legitimacy vs Legality

Words: 14187 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57694954

Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality

The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the Second World War, and again in the new circumstances confronting the world in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. Novel establishments have been formed, old ones have withered away and an equally enormous quantity of intellectual writing has studied this, which is debatably the most significant sphere of international law. Any discussion on the lawful use of armed force ought to start with the United Nations Charter. The Charter redefined understanding of the legitimacy of the application of force by outlining situations under which it is allowed.1

The guiding theory of the Charter is affirmed in its Preamble that armed forces should not be used except in the general interest. Article 2(4) of the Charter preserves this…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, Sydney D. Four Arab-Israeli Wars and the Peace Process. Palgrave: Macmillan, 1990

Barber, Benjamin. Fear's Empire: War, Terrorism and Democracy. W.W. Norton and Company, 2003

Barton, F.D; Crocker, B. Winning the Peace in Iraq. Washington Quarterly Volume: 26, Number: 2. Spring 2003, pp. 7-22.

Bijl, Nick van der. Nine Battles to Stanley. Pen and Sword Books, 1999
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Lessons Learned on Yom Kippur

Words: 2931 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59750372

Flight operations by Egyptian pilots using these aircraft have begun; approximately 16 Hawker Hunter jet fighters also arrived in Egypt from Iraq with Iraqi pilots. About 10 Lightning jet fighters were expected from Saudi Arabia;

(3) Movement of TU-16 bombers from Aswan to the Cairo area in the latter part of March which are equipped to carry air-to-surface missiles;

(4) A high state of alert imposed on the Egyptian air force since April 20 had been noted with some air force reservists being recalled on the third of May;

(5) Relocation and reactivation of various Egyptian air squadrons with shuffling to accommodate aircraft from Libya and Iraq;

(6) The evidence suggested that additional commando units may have moved closer to the Suez Canal since the middle of March; and (7) A report that the Egyptian staff had been ordered to prepare a detailed plan for an attack across the Canal…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Burr, William (2003) The October War and U.S. Policy. National Security Archives. 7 Oct 2003. Online available at: www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/

Indications of Arab Intentions to Initiate Hostilities (2001) National Security Council Archives. Declassified. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-01.pdf

Intelligence Memorandum for Secretary Kissinger (1973) National Security Council. From William Quandt and Donald Stukel. WSAG Meeting, Middle East, Saturday October 6, 1973, 3:00 P.M. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-15.pdf

Memorandum of Conversation: Simcha Dinitz, Ambassador of Israel; Mordechai Shalev, Minister; Henry A. Kissinger, Assistant to the President; and Peter W. Rodman, NSC Staff. The White House. National Security Council Archives. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-05.pdf
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Arab-Israeli War 1948 the War

Words: 3185 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20068053

It was after one of them bombed Cairo in July 1948, that the Israelis were able to establish air supremacy. Succeeding victories came in rapid succession on all three fronts. The Arab states all negotiated separate armistice agreements. Egypt was the first to sign in February 1949, followed by Lebanon, Transjordan and finally Syria. Iraq chose to withdraw its forces without signing an agreement. Israel significantly expanded its territory beyond the United Nations (UN) partition plan for Palestine at the expense of its Arab neighbors. The cost of victory was in more than 6,000 Israeli lives which represented approximately 1% of the population. After the peace agreement wartime recruits were rapidly dismissed. This made it difficult for the basic manpower problem of a small population faced with the need to mobilize a sizable army during a wartime emergency. After a study of the Swiss reservist system, Israel introduced a three-tiered…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"1948 Arab-Israeli War." 2007. 10 November 2009 <

 http://www.sixdaywar.org/content/Jerusalem1948arabisraeliwar.asp >

Frum, David. 2009. "1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War." 10 November 2009

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Arab-Israeli Conflict Specifically it Will

Words: 3314 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18642404

On the other hand, Israel, Jordan, and the United States were allied in their support of the Israeli state and Israel's land acquisitions during the Six-Day War. Eventually, the Sudan dropped out of the proposal, but, "By the end of 1971 the two leaders had taken soundings in Moscow, had appointed Egypt's war minister, General Muhammad Sadiq, supreme commander of both armies, and had reached agreement on broad strategy" (abil 22). They continued to gain support from the Soviet Union, knowing they needed support of a superpower to offset the military might Israel wielded in the area.

After the war, "Six Arab states, including Egypt, broke off diplomatic relations with Washington, and were subsequently drawn closer to the Soviet Union.28 Additionally, the 1967 war created another 200,000 Palestinian Arab refugees, and more than one million Arabs from this point on lived within Israeli borders" (Mork 21). This really changed the…… [Read More]

References

Ben-Ami, Shlomo. Scars of War, Wounds of Peace: The Israeli-Arab Tragedy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Cossali, Paul. "Arab-Israeli Relations 1967-2001." A Survey of Arab-Israeli Relations 1947-2001. Ed. David Lea. London: Europa, 2002. 39-283.

Mork, Hulda Kjeang. "The Jarring Mission: A Study of the UN Peace Effort in the Middle East, 1967-1971." University of Oslo. 2007. 2 June 2008.  http://www.duo.uio.no/publ/IAKH/2007/58588/HuldaxMxrkxxMasteroppgavexixhistorie.pdf 

Rabil, Robert G. Embattled Neighbors: Syria, Israel, and Lebanon. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2003.
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66). St. Justinus' was influenced by St. Caster at Coblenz and churches Michaelstadt and Seligenstadt (Fegusson & Spiers p. 220). The columns and roofs are of cultural interest and the massive Gothic choir and its original seating still exist.

3.4. Significances

St. Justinus' has undergone changes over the years. In 1298 the relics of St. Justinus' were transferred to the mother church St. Margaret who in turn dedicated the church. In 1419 the Antoniter order made numerous altercations to the church including the building of the gothic chancel. In the early 18th century the church added an organ that is mostly intact today (The American Organist). In the 1930s and the 1980s St. Justinus' underwent restoration; today the church belongs to the parish of St. Josef in the Frankfurt district of Roman Catholic Diocese of Limburg (aedekers Frankfurt).

Crusades:

4. Krak des Chevaliers, Syria (AD 1144 -- 1250) -- 950…… [Read More]

Bibliography Page

Albright, W.F. (1936), "Archaeological Exploration and Excavation in Palestine and Syria, 1935," American Journal of Archaeology (Archaeological Institute of America) 40 (1): 154 -- 167

Baedekers Frankford: a city guide series. Prentice Hall Press, 1987. Print.

Bennett, M. The Hutchinson dictionary of ancient and medieval warfare. Chicago, Il: Helicon Publishing, 1998. Print.

Billings, Malcolm. The Crusades: Five Centuries of Holy Wars. New York: Sterling