Statistics: T-Tests and ANOVA
T-Tests and ANOVA: Statistics
Independent sample t-tests and ANOVA are both used to test for differences in means of unrelated, independent groups. However, ANOVA has been shown to be more effective than the t-test when the number of groups is more than two. This is because ANOVA controls the risk of type I error by holding the probability constant at a .05 significance level. This text explores the differences between the two tests, and the specific situations when each one is more effective.
Independent Sample t-Tests
My week 1 research questions were geared at assessing the impact of community youth sporting programs on adolescents' academic performance, discipline, and social well-being. Q4 was selected to be used for this particular analysis. It read:
"Are there any significant differences between the levels of discipline of adolescents who engage in community youth sporting activities and those that do not?"…… [Read More]
Independent T-Test for Lower Level of Depression
Levene's Test for Equality of Variances
t-test for Equality of Means
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Equal variances assumed
Equal variances not assumed
The total sample size is 960. Out of the sample size, 524 women are unemployed versus 436 women are employed. The standard deviation of each group is 12.46 for unemployed women and 15.82 for employed women. The significant level of the two variables is 0.000 less than .05 showing that there is no statistically significant difference between them showing that there is no statistical difference between their means. Since the Sig is < .05, the study agrees that Equal variances not assumed. The value of the t statistic is 6,825 and p-value is…… [Read More]
Performing t-tests for means
1. Explain how the t distribution is similar to a normal distribution, and how it is different from a normal distribution
There are a number of similarities between the t distribution and the normal z distribution. To begin with, both of these distributions are symmetric, in the sense that they have a bell-like shape, about a mean of zero. In this regard, the t distribution can be utilized as a substitute to the normal distribution in the instances where the sample sizes are small so as to make an estimation of the confidence. However, at the same time, there are dissimilarities between the two distributions. First of all, the t distribution is in fact more variable as compared to the normal distribution. This implies that it is spread out and therefore has a smaller peak and end tails that are fatter. Secondly, whilst there…… [Read More]
Independent Samples and Paired Samples T-Test:
The Paired Samples T-test, which is commonly known as the correlated-samples T-test or matched-samples T-Test has some similarities with the Independent Samples because they are both used to compare two samples of observations. These procedures are also used to determine whether the mean of one sample is significantly different from the mean of another sample. Notably, the Paired Samples T-test is also known as the dependent samples T-test since its used to identify important mean differences between two groups on a certain measure such as GPA, ACT scores, SAT scores, height, or weight. Through the use of this procedure, the specific groups of interest are seemingly related as siblings or pre-treatment environment or post-treatment setting. Generally, the two groups being compared must be somehow related in order to be suitable for the procedures of Paired Samples T-test.
Despite of the previously stated similarities between…… [Read More]
epeated Measures ANOVA and Dependent Samples t-Test: Week 3 Assignment
Week 3 Assignment: epeated Measures ANOVA and Dependent Samples t-test
My research questions in week one sought to assess the impact of community youth sporting programs on adolescents' well-being, discipline and academic performance. None of the questions used then lends itself effectively to the repeated measures ANOVA or the dependent samples t-test; however, we could adjust Q4 to make it qualify for the same. Originally, Q4 read, "Are there any significant differences between the levels of discipline of students who engage in youth sporting activities and those that do not?"
To make it appropriate for the repeated measures ANOVA, we modified it as follows:
"Is there a difference in students' discipline levels before, after a three-month, and after a six-month period of engagement in community sporting activities?"
In this case, we would be interested in finding out how students' discipline…… [Read More]
Correlation, Regression, and T-Tests
Linear regression analyses are conducted after correlation has been established (Cohen, West & Aiken, 2014). Correlation shows how two variables are related, that is how one variable behaves when the other changes. Regression analyses somehow quantify this relationship -- we use it to predict the value of the dependent variable at different values of the independent variable. Since regression analyses yield numerical values, they can only be performed on quantitative, measurable values. RQ1 in the week one assignment -- how does engagement in social media relate to loneliness -- fits the qualification for simple regression analyses -- the independent variable (engagement in social media is measured in terms of the number of hours one spends on the internet) whereas the dependent variable is measured in terms of quantified categories ranging from 'very low' to 'very high', where quantification would involve assigning numbers to categories, for instance,…… [Read More]
Testing and Assessment
Describe the basic characteristics of a standardized test and norms.
Standardized tests are administered and scored in a consistent manner. When standardized tests are given, conditions are held consistent and conducted in a predetermined way that is considered the standard for the test. Some of the variables that are held constant include, such as the test questions, the conditions for administering the tests, the scoring procedures and interpretations of the answers. Norms are generated by using a single test score to relate it to the test scores of other students, or by the same students at different times. Norms are generally established on a nation-wide basis on standardized tests rather than classroom tests that are made by teachers.
A test measuring basic math skills in adults is normally distributed, with mean = 20 and standard deviation = 7.
Calculate the z score and T score for each…… [Read More]
Achievement and Intelligence Tests
Achievement tests measure more specific areas compared to general intelligence tests. They are meant to focus on measuring skill levels within certain specific talent ranges. Often known as standardized tests, achievement tests break down traditional intelligence assessment into very definitive categories. Typically, schools use achievement tests for state standards reporting, and the commonly taken SAT and ACT are standardized tests that represent achievement evaluation, rather than general intelligence testing. These tests are helpful when educators or researchers want to focus in a certain academic category, or to measure the general skill levels of large groups of students against state and national averages. Still, there are some major issues with achievement tests, primarily the fact that they often do not allow for the incorporation of higher level critical thinking skills or problem solving abilities.
On the other hand, intelligence tests have a much broader subject matter when…… [Read More]
standardized achievement tests and diagnostic tests.
Standardized tests are usually administered after the material has been taught, and they are used to determine whether or not the class has successfully met the district and state standards. The tests are administered under strict conditions and the tests are scored by machine rather than by hand. These tests are used to evaluate students as groups rather than individuals, and they show the performance of students by grade or by school.
Diagnostic tests are used to evaluate students who are having reading difficulties (Gillet 2008). These tests are somewhat less difficult than the standardized tests because they are mainly used for students who are having reading problems. They are usually administered to individual students rather than in a large group. The test questions and scores are broken down into skills and subskills, and each section is evaluated to determine where the student is…… [Read More]
T-tests in Quantitative Doctoral Business Research
Quantitative research is one of the methodologies that is commonly used in doctoral business research. The use of this approach is attributable to the availability of more data that requires analysis to help generate competitive advantage in the business field. The use of quantitative research entails conducting statistical analysis, which involves the use of different methods such as t-tests and ANOVA. T-test is used in hypothesis testing in quantitative studies to determine whether variations between the averages of two groups is unlikely to have emerged because of a random chance in selection of a sample. In essence, t-tests help to compare whether two groups have varying average values. In light of the role and significance of the assumptions underlying each parametric test, this paper provides a comparison of one-sample, paired-samples, and independent-sample t-tests within the context of quantitative doctoral business research. The comparison is…… [Read More]
If Mary wants to study the impact of background noise level on sixth grader learning in a math lesson, the independent variable is the background noise condition. Mary has decided to use a t-test, which means that she will only have two conditions that differ from one another (“T Test (Student’s T-Test),” n.d.). In this case, the experimental condition would be high background noise (measured by decibel level perhaps), and the control condition would be low background noise (also measured by decibel level).
The independent variable in this experiment would be learning in a mathematics lesson. Learning can be assessed using a number of different instruments appropriate to the specific lesson, with a simple quantifiable quiz the most appropriate. A quiz that had absolute right or wrong answers, whether by solving a math problem or answering multiple choice questions, would help to standardize the results and minimize bias.…… [Read More]
1. If I were designing my research study in the field of psychology, I would most likely use a t-test as the method of data analysis. A t-test is best used when the researcher wants to determine deviations from a normal distribution curve. If there are one or more normal distributions (bell curves), t he researcher can compare the two groups using the t-test method. The variances do not need to be known to perform a t-test either, which is another reason why I would select this method of data analysis in my particular research question. Furthermore, the researcher can use the t-test to measure the differences between two populations regardless of how small or large the sample size. The t-test, also known as the student t-test, is one of the best methods applied to studies using a small sample size. If my research were to progress to where I…… [Read More]
Independent – Samples t-Test
The Independent sample t-test is among the group of inferential statistical test. This test seeks to compare the means of two unrelated samples in a survey. The t-test determines whether the mean of the two sample is significantly different statistically (Paul & Garg, 2014). According to Ruane (2005) for this test to be undertaken, both samples must have scores with one carrying nominal scale and another one a numerical scale. The sample carrying the nominal is a grouping variable and is the independent variable. The sample with the numerical scale is a test variable and is the dependent variable (Ruane, 2005).
This paper seeks to determine the statistical significance between the means of work shift (day and night shift) and the mean of the number of widgets produced in either shifts. This will be undertaken by use of the independent sample t-test. The work shift is…… [Read More]
The standard value of 27.75 represents the distance of each score or frequency of representation of each employment category to the average or mean score or frequency for the distribution (i.e., employment categories.
Looking at the gender-commuting relationship, a possible hypotheses that can be developed from these variables are the following:
Ho: There is no significant relationship between commuting and gender.
H1: There is a significant relationship between commuting and gender.
SPSS results showed that generally, respondents went to work by driving a car. Directionally, females are more likely to take the passenger train (73%), while more than the majority of male respondents work at home (62%). However, these findings are not significant, and the X2 asymp. sig value of 0.101 showed that p< 0.05, which means that Ho is retained -- that is, there is no significant relationship between commuting and gender.
To determine the significance of the…… [Read More]
They hypothesis is rejected. The Chi-Square was significant X2 (1, 84) = 4.403, p < .05. The proportion of females alive at discharge was much greater than the proportion of males alive at discharge. This can be seen in the barchart below.
alive discharge * gender Crosstabulation
male female alive discharge no
4) Correlation & egression
Variables: Hours in Operating oom & Number of Preop isk Factors
Hypothesis: The population correlation coefficient is equal to 0.
The hypothesis fails to be rejected. The correlation coefficient is not significant (p. = .694).
The value of . was .043 and the . Squared value was .002, which, had the model been significant, would have indicated that the number of…… [Read More]
While the medical field agrees that prolonged suffering is not a desired product of medical care it has not yet reached the point of accepting that it is actually torture.
When we are at war we have soldiers how are standing trial for the torture and inhumane treatment of prisoners of war, however, we are not allowed to prevent that same level of torture from being thrust upon our loved ones who are ill / this makes no sense. Making someone endure the fevers, the pain, and the physical maladies that come with many of the life ending diseases today is actually a form of torture. It makes a person suffer against their will and at the hands of someone else, in this case the medical community.
More recently there have been strong arguments in courtrooms regarding Euthanasia and the right to choose to die now rather than later after…… [Read More]
Purpose: The Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic eading Battery's designation is for assessment and measurement of the important dimensions of phonological oral language abilities and phonological awareness, both in adult and children.
Population: Both adults and children (age of 3-80 years).
Date of Publication: 2004.
Acronym(s): WJ III (DB).
Score Scales: eading Comprehension, Basic eading Skills, Phonics Knowledge, Broad eading, Brief eading, Total eading, eading Fluency, Spelling of Words, Oral Comprehension, eading Vocabulary.
Time: 50-60 minutes.
Author (s): Fredrick, S.A., Nancy, M. & Woodcock, .C.
Publisher: iverside Publishing, Inc.
Comments: Software Scoring and Paper-and-Pencil.
Sub-tests: Passage Comprehension, Word-Letter Identification, Sound Awareness, Spelling of Sounds, Oral Vocabulary, Sound Blending.
elated eview: 1713318.
The Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic eading Battery is for the assessment and measurement of the important dimensions of phonological oral language abilities and phonological awareness, in both adult and children (Brande, 2008). By utilization of software scoring and the…… [Read More]
There are costs to bearing and believing in such a secret.
These costs are manifested in many ways. There are the psychosomatic costs Jesse endures, his impotence, his weakness around the black boy in the jail, his tremors at the thought of Otis, "Now the thought of Otis made him sick. He began to shiver." There are also the psychological costs that Jesse is plagued by, the self-delusion associated with believing racism is moral, the mental anguish, and the constant struggle over whether he can trust his coconspirators, "They were forced to depend on each other more and, at the same time, to trust each other less" (Baldwin). What Baldwin is underscoring with these psychological and psychosomatic burdens is that the path Jesse has followed, a path of racism and discrimination, has led him to a very troubled existence.
Baldwin wants the reader to understand that proponents for a Jim…… [Read More]
This is the goal of struggling readers. A dependent reader takes only a peripheral interest in the text. He gives it the minimum of his attention and approaches it only because he is forced. It is as though he is reading against his will and fighting all the way.
Beers provides an anticipation guide, but I don't necessarily agree that such a guide is very constructive or helpful. It deals solely with crass generalizations, and whether attitudes held before reading the text are still ascribed to after reading the text. For the most part, students' attitudes are going to be superficial and having them partake in an exercise of superficiality is likely to be counterproductive.
Beers argues that performing such activities will help to encourage students to become more involved with the reading. It will help them to engage their prior knowledge and challenge them to think. Beers recommends making…… [Read More]
System Analysis of T-SYSTEM
Because of its ability to improve the quality and delivery of health care services, the Electronic Health ecord is becoming a necessity in almost every healthcare organization. The purpose of this paper is to explain the impact of having an electronic health record system in an emergency department. The current computerized system used at Suny Downstate Hospital in Brooklyn is called T-SYSTEM, and has been in operation since 2007. Documentation prior to its implementation was achieved through handwritten notes on various forms as well as through dictation by doctors. Suny Downstate Hospital had to update its system in order to meet state standards and quality core measures. The transition from paper to electronic documentation is major; while it assures many advantages, it also faces many challenges. As the author of this paper, I will be using my workplace as the unit (ED) project observed. I will…… [Read More]
The data was gathered using a sub-analysis of a large randomized control group of 1047 pregnant young women. The data was collected from the assessments at the given time intervals.
The BMI was used as the dependent variable and STD occurrence was used as the independent variable.
Alpha coefficient was not used in the statistical models of this study.
The results of this study support the importance of the association between BMI and sexual risk, and suggest the need for sexual risk prevention and weight loss programs among young mothers.
Questions and Personal Design
-How important is BMI to overall health?
-Is there a difference in the severity of STD/STI's, if so how does that affect the importance of the study's outcome.
Designing a study for my topic would require assigning the independent variable STD occurrence and the dependent variable would be that…… [Read More]
1. The taster determined 11 of the 14 samples correctly. Three samples were incorrectly identified. Thus, the taster received a statistical score of 88%.
2. The results failed to support the null hypothesis. There was obviously a difference between the organic and conventional food items.
3. This output indicates that while there is a difference, the margin of 10% is too small.
4. The test indicated that for greater than 50% of the time the taster was able to identify the differences between organic and conventional foods.
5. For the next test, I would most likely use one fruit and run multiple tests with a single piece tasted each time.
Fullion, Laurence & Arzai, Stacey (2002), Does organic food taste better? A claim substantiation approach. Nutrition & Food Science, 32(4): 153-157.
Padel, Susanne & Foster, Carolyn (2005), Exploring the gap between attitudes and behaviour: Understanding why…… [Read More]
Nokes and Nwakeze (2007) was to test the effectiveness of health outcomes on health outcomes of HIV and people aged 50+ and older. This was a quasi-experimental designs and random sampling was used. The study setting was a community-based organization that served resource-challenged people living with HIV / AIDS and many of these were black with minimal education. There were potentially 639 eligible clients, but despite repeated attempts many could not be reached. In the end, 43 people participated in the research.
Identify the reliability and validity of the data collection instrument.
If the data collection instrument has been newly developed, has the appropriate pretesting for reliability and validity been conducted?
If that data collection instrument is an established one, has sufficient evidence been provided from prior studies to allow evaluation of the instrument's reliability and validity?
No data collection instrument was used in this case. Rather the premise of…… [Read More]
There are, for example, many ways for a student to present an understanding of the causes of the U.S. Civil War" (1999, p. 35).
The research showed high stakes standardized testing approaches are becoming increasingly commonplace in the nation's schools, and the outcome of these testing regimens has enormous implications for the students involved, as well as for their teachers and schools. The research also showed that by formulating standards to match these standardized tests, teachers run the risk of "teaching to the test" rather than providing their students with the type of education that is needed in the 21st century. While they are more complex and difficult to administer, the research also showed that portfolios and other assessment techniques such as capstone projects provide a more comprehensive and accurate way to determine how well students are learning and where they may need help.
Blasi, M. (2005). Standardized…… [Read More]
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
The TAT (Thematic Apperception Test) has long been used to assist psychoanalysts elicit fantasy material from their patients (Morgan & Murray, 1935). According to Belleck and Murray (1973), the TAT was designed to bring forth interpretations by subject of social situations. Stories and pictures reveal some of the dominant drives, emotions, sentiments, conflicts, and complexes of a personality. The original cards used in the test were drawn or painted in color (Morge, 1995), but over time and much use, they became more and more achromatic. This achromatic appearances of the cards has caused many to speculate about their validity, especially, in patients suffering from depression. The question being asked by some researchers was, "would the achromatic appearance of the cards cause a depressed story whether or not the subject was depressed?
The Thematic Apperception Test is an untimed, individually administered psychological test used for personality assessment.…… [Read More]
For instance, a decline in peripheral vision may impact the ability to pass approaching vehicles safely, and the decreased range of motion in an older person's neck may impair the ability to look behind when backing up. Also, reaction time decreases by almost 40% on average from age 35 to 65 (Jackson, 1999).
It also appears that the aging process may affect cognitive skills. Short-term memory loss, for instance, can decrease driving skills by interfering with an individual's ability to process information effectively when merging onto a highway into traffic or changing lanes. Such issues are magnified when driving under stressful situations. The higher incidence of cognitive impairment, particularly dementia, among older men and women leads to an increased risk of accident involvement (Jackson, 1999).
According to AAP, as a group, persons age 65 and older are relatively safe drivers. Although they represent 14% of all licensed drivers, they are…… [Read More]
The construction/validation sample of 96 juvenile sexual offenders ranged in age from 9 to 20, with an average age of 14. To administrate the exam, the test is not directly administered to the juvenile: instead the trained professional calculates the boy's relative risk factors, based up his past history, such as a history of violence, of being a victim of abuse himself, caregiver consistency, and history and preoccupation with sexuality. The problem with the test is that it to some degree stereotypes the boy and tries to predict the likelihood of negative behavior based upon negative past and family circumstances. However, it can be useful in family court settings for flagging 'at risk' teens who have already entered the system and may be helped by receiving additional social support to prevent future acts of violence.
Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI). Tacoma, A: Nichols & Molinder Assessments.
Prentky, Robert.…… [Read More]
According to these authors, the fatal tragedy could easily have been avoided by taking more time for more focused and carefully planned clinical trials. According to this view, it was unethical to test Tysabri in the way it has been done, and furthermore irresponsible to enter it into the market before all side-effects were ascertained.
3. Interested parties: The interested parties in this case include Walter Smith, Anita's widower, as well as Cambridge biotechnology and Elan Corp. From Smith's point-of-view, the companies are at fault for causing harm to his wife, and potential harm to many others using the drug. His current assertions regarding the reentry of the drug into the market appear to be well thought out and mature, focusing on the future benefit of patients rather than on his own need for revenge.
From the point-of-view of the companies, the drug is developed to help those suffering from…… [Read More]
Further, the subjectivity in scoring and interpretation is a huge issue (Sutherland, 1992). For example, if one believes that a relationship exists between say, a Rorschach feature such as color and a personality trait such as emotional style, then one's prior beliefs can bias judgment (Vyse, 1997). As evidence, psychologists were prone to say a relationship existed between a test response and a psychological condition -- if it accorded with their prior beliefs -- even when none actually existed (Chapman & Chapman, 1971, cited in Vyse, 1997).
Arnheim, R. (1974). Art and visual perception (rev. ed.). erkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Groth-Marnat, G. (1997). Handbook of psychological assessment (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley.
Lilienfeld, S.O. (1999). Projective measures of personality and psychopathology: How well do they work? Skeptical Inquirer, 23(5), 32-39.
Sutherland, S. (1992). Irrationality: Why we don't think straight! New runswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Vyse, S.A.…… [Read More]
The petit theft of the second degree charge will stand as well. Larceny in old common law was classified as compound or simple. Simple larceny was called grand larceny when the value of the stolen property was more than 12 pence, and petit (petty) larceny when the value was less. Compound larceny was the taking and carrying away of property from the person or house of the owner. In the U.S. today, the various criminal codes of the states generally define larceny and classify it as either grand larceny or petit larceny. Under these codes, property is stolen and larceny committed when, with definite intent to deprive oneself or a third person, one wrongfully takes, obtains, or withholds such property from an owner of it. In New York State, for example, grand larceny is classified as a felony. It is characterized as first-degree if the property is obtained by extortion…… [Read More]
marketers should test advertising or not. Ad-pre-testing is a necessary, even vital part of the successful marketing campaign, because it allows marketing professionals to analyze and alter campaigns according to the public's reaction to the advertising, allowing marketers to avoid costly ad campaigns that do not get the results they thought they would.
Ad pre-testing provides a significant function for marketers, allowing them to assess and analyze the reaction to advertising before they commit to a large, costly campaign. The effectiveness of this procedure is illustrated by special software developed by advertising experts to help analyze and assess data from ad pre-testing. For example, OTX, a consumer research and consulting firm, has developed specific software called AdCEP (TM), which "achieves a balanced view of ad effectiveness by measuring multiple key criteria that line up with campaign objectives" (Harbeck 2009). This illustrates just how significant ad pre-testing is for successful advertising,…… [Read More]
The use of the word MY also suggests that the speaker feels a sense of possession towards the assistant, thus the assistant's departure is seen as a loss of control, not merely a setback to the project as he says.
7. it's an animal urge, Puff. it's nothing to be ashamed of (65)
The word Puff suggests an animal, even if Puff is not an animal -- Puff is being assured that acting like an animal is natural, and not worthy of shame, despite Puff's feelings to the contrary and the ambiguous quality of Puff's name.
8. Remember, when in doubt: don't ever do what you really want to do (69)
This statement goes against the assurances of the naturalness of human behavior and impulses -- go against one's human or animal nature, it suggests, and repress and resist gut instincts. Instead, follow societal dictates and one's own superego.
9.…… [Read More]
akalar, JD, 'Marijuana as Medicine: a Plea for Reconsideration', 1876
Journal of the America Medical Association, June 21, 1995 - Vol. 273, No. 23, at http://www.calyx.com/~olsen/MEDICAL/lester.html
Policy Analysis: Thinking About Drug Legalization," at http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa121.html
Alternatives to the War on Drugs," at http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/4727/alt-wod-faq.html
Frequently Asked Questions," at http://www.paranoia.com/drugs/marijuana/hemp/FAQ-alt.hemp
Americans for Compassionate Use," at http://www.acu.org/~acu/
Ethan a. Nadelmann, "Thinking seriously about alternatives to the drug prohibition," Daedalus v.123:3, at http://www.calyx.com/~mariolap/debate/ethan1.html
NASRO Issue rief, Spring 1995 vol. 1, no.1,"Rethinking the War on Drugs and Crime: New Approaches to Local Polic." http://www.dscc.org/cwa/report.html
Policy Analysis: Thinking About Drug Legalization," at http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa121.html
Fish, Jefferson M, Ed. How to Legalize Drugs. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc.. July 1998, 675 pages., pp. 161
Lester Grinspoon, MD, James . akalar, JD, 'Marijuana as Medicine: a Plea for Reconsideration', 1876 Journal of the America Medical Association, June 21, 1995 -- Vol. 273, No. 23, at http://www.calyx.com/~olsen/MEDICAL/lester.html
Alternatives to the War…… [Read More]
Real Test for Any Proposed Speech Code or Policy" by Alan Dershowitz, the author explains his position on the dangers of censorship, even against the most egregious of speakers. At Harvard University, two people were invited to give speeches at the university and were paid honorariums for their presence. Tom Paulin's speech to the students and faculty included angry diatribes against Jewish people and even states that Jewish people living in certain parts of Jerusalem should be murdered, despite their age or gender. The other, Amira Baraka, is professionally anti-Semitic and speaks writes poems blaming Israel for many of the world's troubles. Neither of these people is altruistic and both men make their livings by spewing hatred against minority groups. Even though what they say is heinous, Dershowitz does not advocate censorship against these two persons or anyone else. Once one person's viewpoints are allowed to be prohibited by authority…… [Read More]
Certainly, Moore correctly points out the importance of structure and dialogue. Many educators today accept that notion that when learners are allowed to discuss course content with a personal connection to their lives, the connection between information to knowledge is strengthened and critical thinking skills are sharpened. However, Moore undervalues the value of communication technology to the active learner, likening it to buying a set of new golf clubs in hopes that just one more change of equipment would reduce his handicap. For a variety of reasons, communication technology is just as important as structure and dialogue.
Moore seems to forget that the merging of technologies and knowledge management alongside the rise of 'collaborative projects' within educational circles is what has made the switch to community-centered learning a predetermined reality. As online communication rapidly links our personal and work life, a new community is emerging so new venues…… [Read More]
, & Pivec, M. (2003). A Multimedia Knowledge Module Virtual Tutor Fosters Interactive Learning. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 14(2), 231.
This work demonstrates an example of how software can and has een developed to e interactive in the learning process, and especially good for tutoring individuals on concepts they have previously een challenged y. The authors are oth international educators from Austria reviewing emerging developments in elearning technology through the journal venue. The work is important to this iliography and its audience of educators as it outlines the development of interactive technologies that more naturally answer remedial instruction.
Knowlton, D.S. (2005). A Taxonomy of Learning through Asynchronous Discussion. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 16(2), 155.
The challenges and development of discussion models of elearning are outlined here as so much progress has een made in this area with regard to elearning technology and application. Discussion formatting and investment of…… [Read More]
Furthermore, forcing gay men and women to lie about their sexual orientation essentially forces them to engage in dishonest behavior, which is conduct far more 'unbecoming' to an officer than being openly gay, critics allege.
Even the Pentagon's own "exhaustive nine-month study" concluded that repeal would only bring about "some limited and isolated disruption to unit cohesion and retention, which could be mitigated by effective leadership" (Bumiller 2010). The theme of leadership is a critical one. The U.S. military and Congress must lead the nation in dispelling prejudice against gays and lesbians. By hanging back, despite the fact that the majority of servicemen and the public desire repeal, the military communicates to gay men and women that their service is not as valued as the sacrifice of straight people. It also validates prejudice and seems hypocritical: the policy suggests that being gay is something shameful, and should be kept in…… [Read More]
Deliberately reducing the amount of PO2 circulating in the breathable atmosphere around a person -- such as Kara accomplishes at sea-level with her tent -- ultimately produces a lowered rate of hemoglobin oxygenation in the arterial blood. This condition, hypoxia, can be dangerous and can, of course, impair aerobic physical exercise -- however the trick that Kara is taking advantage of is the body's ability to undergo acclimatization, in which the body's physiology and metabolism will engage in adjustments that improve the body's ability to tolerate the low-PO2 levels through different means, such as adjusting its own acidity (to change the level of interior biochemical reactivity in order to boost absorbable oxygen levels) but also -- more importantly for Kara and her endurance training -- by improving metabolism on the cellular level and blood circulation (to maximize the value of the oxygen actually obtained) and, most importantly, by "increased synthesis…… [Read More]
Making inferences to a greater population can only take place when the research investigator(s) conduct a longitudinal or experimental study that is sample selection appropriate and statistical processes are used to analyze the data. In fact, the authors began the article by stating that the research investigation was cross-sectional and later termed the research investigation a longitudinal study. Along with the erred research design and design confusion were the authors' lack of appropriate data selection procedures (i.e., non-random selection) and lack of measurement accurateness. The authors reported that their data came from observations over a six-year period of time and the data was then analyzed. However, the authors failed to inform the reader how these observations were quantified with respect to numeric values garnered from the observations. According to the authors correlations were run to determine certain relationships; however, the sought after relationships were never defined or adequately reported upon.…… [Read More]
. he American Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(3), 384-394.
2 groups of 70 patients with patellar tendon and hamstring tendon autografts were assessed 2 years following surgery. No significant differences were noted in terms of activity, although more patients in the P group experienced pain and loss of motion for a longer span of time than did patients in the hamstring tendon group. On the whole, patients with hamstring tendon grafts performed similarly to patients with patellar tendon grafts although more beneficial results seemed to incline towards the groups that had experienced hamstring tendon graft replacements.
Monaco, E., Labianca, L., Conteduca, F., De Carli, a., & Ferretti, a. (2007). Double bundle or single bundle plus extraarticular tenodesis in acl reconstruction?: a caos study. Knee Surgery, Sports raumatology, Arthroscopy, 15(10), 1168-1174.
he goal of this study was to evaluate the effect on the internal rotation of the tibia of lateral reconstruction…… [Read More]
The importance of this study is threefold: 1) it allows a new series of assays to be used in the clinical setting to detect the more common HPVs that cause genital and anal warts; 2) the assays are both robust and yet inexpensive enough to use globally, and, 3) the tests are designed to use real-time PC technology, which allows for the rapid identification and quantification of these pathogenic types of HPV. The technology and protocols used in this development will also likely have an effect on the ability to roll out testing for other HPV-like viruses, ostensibly even the HIV virus in a real-time, inexpensive manner. The lab results also suggest that as the at risk population for HPV increases, early testing and intervention might reduce the number of symptomatic individuals since they will have been tested and potentially treated much earlier.
The developing world notwithstanding, HPV…… [Read More]
Under certain situations would I administer a projective test to a client. A projective test would be administered to a client when there are questions about the client's personality. The projective test is designed to elicit responses from the client that reveal underlying emotions, thoughts, desires, or tendencies within the person. The questions are open-ended and allow the responses to be analyzed and assessed in terms of content. The content gives clues as to the personality of the individual.
These tests are most effective with adults because by then the personality has been established. They are less effective with children because with children, researchers find that behavioral tests are more effective in revealing whether or not the child has a behavioral disorder by using "behavior rating scales" (Groth-Marnat, 2009, p. 7).
Thus I would use projective test in adult settings wherein it is helpful to gauge the individual's…… [Read More]
ANOVA) is a test that is used to help interpret the results of a research study. It is not a way of gathering data, but a way of interpreting data that has already been gathering. In fact, ANOVA is a way of trying to find out how much variability there is in a group of data. It is an important test because there will be random variations within groups that could have an impact on research results, while not actually having an important scientific impact. However, there can also be variations in a group that do have an important scientific impact. ANOVA is one way to determine the strength of the impact of variations on whatever variables are being tested.
ANOVA is "a statistical analysis tool that separates the total variability found within a data set into two components: random and systematic factors. The random factors do not have any…… [Read More]
Prejudice and the Clark Doll test
Prejudice Today and the Clark Doll Study
I once witnessed an incident involving racial prejudice at a local Wal-Mart store. The store was located in a predominately white, suburban area of town. I was standing in a checkout line behind a white couple shopping with their young son. Standing right behind them was a well-dressed, African-American woman with a few items in her hand. A white cashier was quietly ringing up the family's items when I overheard the preschool age, little boy calling for his mom and saying that they needed to change lines. He was standing up in the shopping cart giving the African-American lady dirty looks. She stood quietly, ignoring him. The parents seemed completely oblivious; however, after several pleadings from the son, the mother turned and said, "What is it?" The little boy turned and boldly pointed at the African-American lady.…… [Read More]
Run a chi-square test for goodness of fit on the variable "Year," testing whether there are equal numbers of STA 250 students in all the represented class years. Copy and paste your output to a Word document and type your answers to the following questions below:
0 cells (0.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 13.8.
How many students would we expect to see in each of the represented class years if the null hypothesis is true?
How many students do we actually see in each class year? Freshman: 2, Sophomore: 23, Junior: 20, Senior
Is there a statistically significant difference between the distribution of students in the sample and the null hypothesis that there are equal numbers of STA 250 students in each of…… [Read More]
It doesn't take a rocket scientist to note that there have been disturbing trends in schools recently. While the spate of extreme violence appears to be waning, schools are still troubled places, with both students and teachers seemingly failing to get out of them what they expect or need, and suffering stress and trauma in the meantime. Society wants 'instant' gratification, TV is full of 'reality shows' that depend on people doing disgusting things to win a huge fortune, relatively speaking, so they can go do and buy more stuff. The most recent presidential race offered us a three-years-and-counting national discussion over who really won the presidency. And we have rushed headlong to send troops into two sovereign nations without benefit of the United Nations' sanctioning the acts, after the United Nations -- located on U.S. soil -- was founded to smooth out relationships between the world's peoples.
All…… [Read More]
I appreciate the value of the test for your faculty and staff as well as for students like me. Because I am confident the test would prove my high level of communications skills, I would not mind taking it under normal circumstances.
However, I would be unable to take the TOEFL exam before fall admission deadline because the test will not be administered before then. I am quite eager to begin my Masters degree research and would not want the TOEFL exam to cause any delays in my education. Given my strong academic record, my proven language and communications skills, and my having completed English language courses commonly recognized as substitutes for the TOEFL exam, I hope you will grant me this waiver. I can assure you I will become a terrific asset to your university and especially to the Master's program in my chosen field…… [Read More]
children, a boy in a grey t-shirt, sat on the blue couch staring intently at the objects on a coffee table before him. He made no motion to play with any of them of even touch them. Every once in a while he would look into the camera. When the time came for the quiz, the instructor simply asked the boy to name as many of the objects as he could. The boy remembered six of them: car, key, flower, duck, sunglasses, block, and either key or monkey (it was difficult for me to hear the last response clearly). Judging by this boy's behavior, I concluded that he was one of the children asked to memorize the objects and not to play with them.
The second of the four children, a girl in a green shirt, first played with one of the objects, a yoyo. Later she rolled up the…… [Read More]
Typical examples might include decisions not to recall products because the potential financial cost to the organization of recalling millions of units is much greater than the potential financial cost to the organization of simply compensating victims of the malfunctioning products or their families where design or manufacturing defects present risks of harm to consumers (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008). hereas organizational decision makers may view the only prevailing moral standard as being that which is dictated by law, the virtue ethicist would reject that approach out of specific concern for each and every potential victim of harm as well as by the profit-motive underlying that analysis (Hursthouse, 2005).
Ethical Perspective Evolution through the MBA Education Program
My perspective has not necessarily evolved during the MBA program. Rather, I would characterize the effect of the program on my ethical development as having greatly increased my awareness that objective moral values and…… [Read More]
Though Kellogg developed a study with significant findings, working memory can effect more than just sentence generation. Because "heavy loads" on working memory do affect sentence generation, it is reasonable to assume that they might also affect simple mathematical processes. Do "heavy loads" placed on working memory affect just sentence generation or writing skills, or do they also affect left-brained skills like simple math calculation? Because of the effect on right-brained skills, the assumed hypothesis for this experiment is that if college students are given a "heavy load" on working memory, they will take longer to complete simple math skills. In fact, one would hypothesize that the "heavy load" on a working memory would impact mathematical skills even more than sentence generation skills because the subjects are being asked to remember a large number and then work with numbers. For this experiment, data using both a "heavy load" consisting of…… [Read More]
In terms of overall reliability, the article is also strong. The information used from previous researchers is well documented, and well referenced. The authors are clearly identifiable, the article was published in a well-known peer reviewed journal, and the author is a member of several upstanding organizations. The data collected for the study is current, as are the references relied upon throughout the article.
While all three articles touched on the same topic, that of the relationship between crime and alcohol outlet density, only the Gorman article controls for other variables highly likely to influence the same criminal behaviors within any community. Further, his use of the hierarchical Bayesian model for statistical comparison further ensures reliable, accurate, and credible results. Thus, from a scholarly standpoint, the Gorman article is the most credible.
Appendix a in evaluating any piece of research material, there are several areas of importance to examine in…… [Read More]
Loveland, T.R. (2005) Writing standards-based rubrics for technology education classrooms, Technology Teacher, Vol. 65, Issue 2
This article can be used in the proposed writing study because it presents information on how students view rubrics and rubric teaching. The article states that there is nothing more frustrating for a student than receiving a project with little or no description on how the project will be graded. The article also states that standards must be measured or assessed in order to know whether the students are meeting the prescribed outcomes. This article seems to be stating that one of the reasons why the California standards are so difficult to meet is due to the lack of specificity in the standard's directions or instructions. The study can certainly take that viewpoint into consideration.
Jacobs, G.E. (2008) We learn what we do: eveloping a repertoire of writing practices in an…… [Read More]
AAPT Level IV Cert / Written Test
Anxiety is fear that interferes with normal, daily functioning (Akiskal & enazzi, 2006). There are several different categories, including generalized anxiety, panic disorder, and phobias. While these all present themselves in different ways, they are similar in the problems they can cause in daily life. Theories of anxiety and the psychopathology related to feeling anxious include issues with biological, cognitive, and learning perspectives. The biological perspective addresses the receptors in the brain and how the chemicals there work with one another. Cognitive theories deal more with the way people perceive issues, such as feeling as though they do not have control over something. The learning perspective focuses on how people actually learn to be anxious about something, and the changes they learn to make in their lives in order to lower the levels of anxiety they feel (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2004; Kato,…… [Read More]
165). On page 166 Bannister points out that outside of China, the numbers show a decrease in individuals being put to death through capital punishment. In 2006, the number of reported executions dropped to 1591 from 2148 in 2005; also, since 1996 more than 30 nations have "put an end to this cruel and inhuman practice" (Bannister, 170).
The Chief Editor of Criminal Law Review, Chen Xingliang, writes that there is a consensus among the scholars that contribute to his publication; and those scholars "…are in favor of strict limitations on the death penalty in order to eventually abolish it" (p. 41). However, Xingliang admits that the "public understanding of the death penalty is quite different fro that of these scholars" (p. 42). That is because the "public support for the death penalty is formed with an irrational understanding and thus should not be a justified factor considered for…… [Read More]
Shelby filed a notie of appeal and asked the 5th Distrit Court to rule.
Disussion -- This ase fouses on the question of irumstanes that surround a shool distrit's ability to ompel and medial examination of a student, when that student's parent or guardian refuses it. To reeive proper aid under IDEA, an evaluation must meet minimum Federal requirements. The IDEA at, in fat, states that a reevaluation is neessary when the shool distrit needs materials that are essential to assessing a hild's speial eduation needs. Beause the hearing offier and IDEA program reommended a non-invasive evaluation, the Court onluded that it was in the best interests of all parties that that evaluation our. Shelby is free, however, to deline speial eduation rather than submit to an examination. Conroe is not asking for the test, the test is required by the Federal government. Instead, the distrit is telling the Court…… [Read More]
In this paper as in the "Torture" paper I have demonstrated an improvement in my use of tone. The early versions of these papers were not written with a formal academic voice. The casual tone detracted from the potency of the arguments I presented. The latest versions of these papers have a more professional tone to them. The papers read like academic papers, rather than op-ed pieces. I consider this one of the most important transitions I have made this semester.
There is still room for improvement in my work. I can see even now, looking at those papers, some instances where the tone is inappropriate. I have worked hard to build strong introductions but I can see that the theses in both of these papers are not yet strong enough. I know that quality writing flows from quality research. I hope to continue to improve my writing in the…… [Read More]
Any potential barriers that might prevent agreement from occurring are discussed, such as strategic behavior that is displayed through hard bargaining. Wheeler defines bargaining power as the strength or weakness of one company's BATNA. He uses the example of Iranian hostage negotiations to describe how power could possibly be turned upside down in negotiations. In this example, bargaining power is the reflection of both knowledge and skill.
Finally, the article discusses the element of ethics, or what the right thing to do in each situation is. For example, candor, moral reasons and equity may be discussed in this aspect. For example, force with weapons is illegal, just as unethically tying a parties hands to something that is morally wrong should be done. Another issue that arises is the impact of the negotiation on bystanders, and how fair the negotiation process is to those directly affected by the potential agreement. One…… [Read More]
The majority of women can return to their normal routine the next day ("In Vitro Fertilization"). In most cases total bed rest is not required unless there is some risk associated with the development of OHSS ("In Vitro Fertilization").
The NIH further explains that women who utilize IVF must take the hormone progesterone for at least two months following the embryo transfer ("In Vitro Fertilization"). The hormone is taken through daily shots or pills. Progesterone is a naturaly produced hormone produced that assists in thickenign the lining of the uterus ("In Vitro Fertilization"). This thickening makes it easier for the embryo to implant to the wall of the uterus. If there is ot enough progesterone the woman will miscarry ("In Vitro Fertilization").
In additon to the risks associated with this type of reproductive technology, IVF is very expensive ("In Vitro Fertilization"). The NIH explains that many states require that insurance…… [Read More]
blueprints remain an important aspect to any teaching practice similar to how architecture is to the construction industry. A significant reason for the use and development of test blueprints within the teaching profession is to allow interpretation and expression of the differences in understanding and viewpoints of the term test' by teachers and students alike. Furthermore, students and teachers alike become progressively likely to have opposing expectations and thoughts in regards to the contents of a test. It is because of this, teachers are tasked with averting such confusions over the nature of a test. Test blueprints are a valid and reliable tool to help teachers make sound judgments regarding test scores prior to administering a test. "It is a useful tool for guiding the work of the item writer so that sufficient items are developed at the appropriate level to test important content and objectives" (Oermann & Gaberson, 2013,…… [Read More]
Administering Competency Screening Tests on a Minor
Balancing between Competency Screening Test (CST) expectations and demands of a given situation is normally an uphill task for CST administrators. A CST tool administers tests on juvenile or mentally challenged individuals. The process is tedious since there are several situations of communication breakdown, and this endangers the processes. For this reason, the administering official should display a proper and a higher degree of professionalism by using tests or face-to-face communication with the juvenile. This analysis will appoint Dr. oberts defense of a 17-year-old individual who has been accused of sexual assault and battery. The juvenile is a linguistically challenged immigrant from Chile. The individual can only communicate Mapudungun and Spanish; however, he can speak and communicate rudimentary English and this is not positive to the court. This study proves that Dr. obert should apply a professional approach in determining the case's course.…… [Read More]