Taxation Essays (Examples)

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Why Use a Partnership Instead Of An S Corp

Words: 628 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61261473

Federal Taxation of Partnerships and S-Corporations
As the title of the 2014 article “Why Use a Partnership Instead Of An S-Corp?” suggests, one of the primary criteria in selecting one particular entity type over another is the question of tax liability. In contrast to a C-corporation, in the case of a partnership or S-corporation, the income of the entity is not taxed; rather the partners and shareholders are taxed at standard rates. Income is not taxed at the entity level. It passes through to partners and shareholders and is taxed though them at their individual, personal tax rates. Of course, this raises the question of why become a C-corporation in the first place. But for very large entities, the benefits of legal fictional personhood are great, given that means that shareholders are not responsible for any debts or other legal liabilities generated by the C-corporation. In contrast, an S-corporation exists…… [Read More]

References

Why use a partnership instead of an S-Corp? (2014). Dulin, Ward & DeWald. Retrieved from: https://dwdcpa.com/blog/why-use-a-partnership-instead-of-an-s-corp


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Huey Long's Share Our Wealth Proposals Argument

Words: 2159 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95276602

An Analysis of Huey Long’s “Share Our Wealth”
The purpose of this paper is to provide a discussion concerning Huey Long’s speech, “Share Our Wealth,” delivered in a nationwide radio broadcast in April 1935, with respect to the Preamble to the United States Constitution and The Declaration of Independence. The point is made that while there are some similarities in the arguments and goals presented by Long and these two foundational documents, there are far more differences including most especially his views concerning income and inheritance limits as a means to achieving a perfect Union. An analysis of Long’s speech with respect to the Preamble and the Declaration of Independence drawing on relevant excerpts is followed by a summary of the research and key findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
Preamble and “Share Our Wealth” by Huey Long
How does Long’s arguments relate to the Preamble?
The Preamble to…… [Read More]

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Economics of Public Choice

Words: 1428 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29006812

TAXATION IS THEFT?

When Sam the mugger, decides to rob you of your valuable goods or hard earned money at gunpoint, you instantly know what the act is called: theft. You do not only receive sympathy from the public, but are also found entitled to police support and protection. The city administration upon learning of the incident would most certainly show some anxiety over deteriorating law and order situation and the government would certainly criticize the thug's immoral act.

However lets just suppose that Sam the mugger wants you money again. But this time, some respectable people like senators, parliamentarians, Congressmen etc., accompany him. Instead of the gun, he carries an official letter that says certain percentage of your hard earned money is now his. The tone remains the same i.e. threatening. You give him money O ... The dire consequences of not complying with his 'request' are repeated reiterated…… [Read More]

References

1) Chris R. Tame: Taxation is Theft, a publication of the Libertarian Alliance: Retrieved online 29th September 2004:  http://www.libertarian.co.uk/lapubs/polin/polin044.pdf .

2) Cohen, G.A. 1995. Self-Ownership, Freedom, and Equality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

3) Mill, John Stuart. 1970 Principles of Political Economy (Middlesex, England: Penguin Books.

4) Pollock, Lansing 1996 The Free Society. Westview Press. Boulder.
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Business Income Refers to Any Income Usually

Words: 2202 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64468481

Business income refers to any income usually realized for the execution or transaction of business activity. This indicates that business income is the aspect of earned income from the perspective of business transaction or activity. In order for the business income to apply to the aspect of the taxation system, it is essential to classify business income as ordinary income. Business income consists of business expenses, business losses, and business profits. It is the difference between revenues and expenses of the process of business transactions. This indicates that business income can be positive or negative within the financial year depending on the size of the expenses and revenues. Business income is received from the transactions or sales of products or services within the defined market.

Question Two

OECD model treaty defines a clear perspective in relation to the handling of the business income. This is through indicating that the income…… [Read More]

References

Ault, H.J., & Arnold, B.J. (2010). Comparative income taxation: A structural analysis. S.l:

Kluwer Law International.

Gustafson, C.H., & Pugh, R.C. (1993). International income taxation: Code & regulations, selected sections. Chicago, Ill: Commerce Clearing House.

Scha-fer, A. (2006). International company taxation in the era of information and communication technologies: Issues and options for reform. Wiesbaden: Deutscher Universita-ts-Verlag.
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Home-Based Companies Are Slowly Shifting Their Business

Words: 3553 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35239455

home-based companies are slowly shifting their business operations to foreign companies to ensure they have an impact in the global business world. Given the current modern changes in international business developments, the number of expatriates is increasing for both long-term and short-term durations. For these organizations, sending employees overseas is an opportunity undertaken to improve business activities but without the right preparation, it is a challenging initiative to any organization. In this regard, companies are constantly training employees on international work issues to ensure their success in the global marketplace (Kontrimas, 2006). However, businesses face several challenges relating to hiring employees for their American-based business or expatriating employees to work in remote facilities, open new plants, and work with international clientele. As is the case H2O, mentoring future corporate leaders to successfully manage operations on a worldwide scale is a welcome step to ensure their operations are not limited to…… [Read More]

References

Ajami, R., & Goddard, J. (2006). International Business: Theory and Practice. M.E Sharpe Inc.

Brock, D.M., Shenkar, O., Shoham, A., & Siscovick, I.C. (2008). National Culture and Expatriate Deployment. Journal of International Business Studies, 39 (8), 1293-1309.

Delios, A., & Bjorkman, I. (2000). Expatriate Staffing in Foreign Subsidiaries of Japanese Multinational Corporations in the PRC and the United States. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 11 (2), 278-293.

Fang, Y., Jiang, G.-L. F., Makino, S., & Beamish, P.W. (2009). Multinational Firm Knowledge, Use of Expatriates, and Foreign Subsidiary Performance. Journal of Management Studies, 47(1), 27-54.
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LLC & Partnerships the Objective of This

Words: 1892 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84007686

LLC & Partnerships

The objective of this study is to answer the questions of what similarities exist between LLCs and Partnerships and what are the benefits of an LLC over a Partnership as well as what issues may arise with the taxation of a trust. Finally, this study will answer whether the rules are clearly defined as to whether the treatment flows through to the grantor of the beneficiaries.

LLC and Partnership Differences

A partnership is reported to involve two or more individuals "who share ownership responsibilities in a business." (Carter, 2013, p.1) Carter additionally reports that a partnership business "does not have a legal identity separate from the owners of the business. A limited liability company combines the operational flexibility of a partnership with the personal asset protection that comes with operating a corporation." (Carter, 2013, p.1) The LLC is reported to have a legal existence that is separate…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Altieri, MP and Cenker, WJ (2012) Partnerships, LLCs, LLPS and S Corporations. The CPA Journal. Retrieved from: http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/2002/1002/features/f104002.htm

Blattmacht (2011) Trusts and Estates. Chapter 4. Retrieved from: http://www.pli.edu/product_files/booksamples/10318_sample4.pdf

Carter, C. (2012) The Difference Between an LLC and a Partnership. Small Business. Retrieved from:  http://smallbusiness.chron.com/difference-between-llc-partnership-3164.html 

Friedland, J. (2003) Understanding Partnership, and LLC Taxation. 2nd Lexis Nexis Matthew Bender. Retrieved from: http://www.lexisnexis.com/lawschool/study/understanding/pdf/PshipTaxCh1.pdf
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Revocable and an Irrevocable Trust The Difference

Words: 2897 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8194095

revocable and an irrevocable trust? The difference between a revocable and an irrevocable trust is very simple. A revocable trust is one that has been created and that can be revoked at a future time - generally for specific reasons (CompTax, n.d.). These kinds of trusts can also be changed, so if a person does not want to completely revoke the trust but wants to make adjustments, that is possible (CompTax, n.d.). Often these kinds of trusts are made when it comes to wills and estate planning, but they can also be used in order to focus on business transactions and the individuals who are allowed to initiate or complete those transactions. An irrevocable trust, as the name implies, is one that cannot be revoked. Once it has been created it is not able to be changed, which means that anyone who creates it must be very careful about doing…… [Read More]

References

CompTax. (n.d.). Source of investment income.
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Individual Financial Contingency Planning

Words: 1759 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7279253

Individual Financial Contingency Planning

Temporary Assistance is the temporary help for the needy women, men, and children. If one is cannot find a job or the job is not providing enough, and unable to work, temporary assistance ill help in paying the expenses. There are two types of Temporary Assistance programs: Family Assistance (FA) and Safety Net Assistance (SNA). Family Assistance is the provision of cash assistance to the needy families, which include minor children living with their parents or caretaker relatives. According to Family Assistance, qualified adults are limited to receive the assistance for a period of sixty months in their lifetime (Gitman & Joehnk, 2007, p. 21). Once this time has expired, not all the family members are legible to receive family assistance and other benefits. Parents and other adults who have been receiving Family Assistance must comply with the requirements of the fed in order to receive…… [Read More]

References

Arvai, Z. & Driessen, K. (2009). Regional Financial Interlinkages and Financial Contagion within Europe. International Monetary Fund.

Cumming, D. (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Entrepreneurial Finance. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gitman, L. & Joehnk, M. (2007). Personal Financial Planning. New York: Cengage Learning.

Jackson, P. (2006). Nonprofit Risk Management & Contingency Planning: Done in a Day Strategies. Washington: John Wiley & Sons
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Business Entities Laws and Regulations This Paper

Words: 1102 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47871027

Business Entities, Laws, And egulations

This paper will focus on the challenges faced by one start-up businesses and an established company with labor issues. For the start-up, a birth clinic, a case needs to be made for the type of business entity they should each use. The established company is a construction company whose business entity must be identified and employment law pertaining to the scenario will be discussed. For each business, identification of the best business entity for the given situation needs to be accomplished first. The decision of the type of business entity will take into consideration control, taxation, and liability issues. eview of the laws and regulations that each ownership group must consider and identification of risks that the businesses should protect against will be discussed. eview of the construction company's business structure and how it affects control, taxation, and liability issues along with how employment law…… [Read More]

References

Cheeseman, H.R. (2010). The legal environment of business and online commerce: Business ethics, e-commerce, regulatory, and international issues. (6th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

University of Phoenix. (2010). Course syllabus. Retrieved from University of Phoenix, BUS415 - Business Law website.
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Young Adults Housing Policy Does the Welfare

Words: 1528 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58399271

Young Adults Housing Policy Does the Welfare System Encourage or Discourage Young Adults to ecome Pregnant in UK

The specific purpose of this research is to scrutinize the impacts of the UK enefits System on the growing demographic of teenage mothers. ut in order to track down the list of genuine impacts, one must first understand how the system works. Generally speaking, each credible or qualified group is broadly categorized into whether they are taxable or non-taxable. That is to say, those groups of deserving people such as the sick or the low income groups are entitled to the various bonuses they receive, provided that they fulfill a certain taxation criteria. {Inland Revenue, 2001}

Literature Review

Ingham (2005) in this article gives a detailed background and development of the Teenage Pregnancy Policy in England over the last few years which has become part of the National Policy. It gives the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Arai, L. (2003).British policy on teenage pregnancy and childbearing: the limitations of comparisons with other European countries. Critical Social Policy, SAGE Publications, Vol. 23(1): 89 -- 102; 030496.

Ingham, R. (2005, September).Teenage Pregnancy Policy in England. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, Journal of NRSC, Vol. 2, No. 3.

Journal of Child Health Care, (2001, December). Review: Teenage pregnancy: a reflective analysis

5: 143-149,
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U S Tax in the Treatment US Tax

Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31249945

U.S. TAX in the TEATMENT

US Tax Treatment

Items of income considered earned from within the U.S.

Earned income can be defined as the payment for the performed personal services, for example wages, professional fees or salaries. The list below provides the categories of the types of income tax. It is essential to appreciate the fact that deductions made on the income are determined by the category in which the income falls. The column with heading variable income consists of income in the category of either unearned or earned income or even both (Fraser, 2009).

Types of income

Variable income: they include rents, royalties, and business profits

Unearned income: such incomes include annuities, pensions, social security benefits, Alimony, gambling winnings, capital gains, and interest dividends.

Earned income: tips, professional fees, bonuses, commissions, wages and salaries

Besides the types mentioned which always occur in the form of cash, other taxable sources…… [Read More]

References

Bater, P. (2007). The tax treatment of NGOs: Legal, fiscal and ethical standards for promoting NGOs and their activities. The Hague [u.a.: Kluwer Law Internat.

Dilworth, R.H. (2009). U.S. tax treatment of financial transactions involving foreign currency -- 1990. Arlington, VA: Tax Analysts.

Fraser M. (2009). Canada-U.S. Tax treaty: A practical interpretation. Toronto: CCH Canadian Limited.

Hammer, D.L., Shartsis Friese LLP., & American Bar Association. (2005). U.S. regulation of hedge funds. Chicago, Ill: American Bar Association Section of Business Law.
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Catching a Windfall Baseball

Words: 993 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76489575

Tax Memo

Sample Tax Memorandum

equested by:

FACTS:

Through sheer happenstance, the taxpayer caught an historic homerun ball at a baseball game you recently attended. At the point the ball flew over the wall of the playing field and into the stands of bleachers -- whereupon it became essentially non-playable -- the status of the ball changed from an ordinary baseball to a collectable item of considerable worth. Since the taxpayer received the valuable ball through luck (and the ability to catch a baseball inflight), the baseball is considered to be a gift. Had you (the taxpayer) taken specific action to select a seat that is commonly targeted by homerun balls (were such a thing possible), possession of the baseball might be considered a gambling win. However, no rules of gambling are applicable to this event.

ISSUE(S):

Is the ball considered a gift? A gift is any transfer to an…… [Read More]

References

Varian, A.R. (2012, March). Valuing Antiques and Collectibles. Pennsylvania Bar Institute, Course #7092. Retrieved from http://www.pbi.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/7092Tax-AspectCollectbles.pdf

____. (2014, December) IRS Topic 703 -- Basis of Assets. Retreived from http://www.irs.gov/taxtopics/tc703.html

____. (2014, November). IRS Topic -- Gift Tax Rules. Retrieved from http://www.irs.gov/Businesses/Small-Businesses-&-Self-Employed/Frequently-Asked-Questions-on-Gift-Taxes
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Tax System of One Country With That

Words: 4394 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98725627

tax system of one country with that of another is an exercise fraught with dificulties and ultimately doomed to failure . tax system will never be much more than a reflection of strongly national cultures and forces. discuss this statement in the light of your knowledge of comparative tax system in developing and/or developed countries i

Tax Systems

The following pages focus on analyzing the factors of influence on different countries' taxation systems. The paper begins with an introductory section that allows readers understand the point-of-view used in this paper. The following section refers to describing the taxes pand taxation systems used by most countries and their objectives, in order to understand the similarities and differences between these taxation systems. The paper continues with the analysis of several factors that influence countries' tax system design, like cultural factors, technological developments, and natural resources. In order to exemplify this, the taxation…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Pasekova, M. et al. (2011). Comparative Analysis of Tax Systems: Some Evidence from CEE Countries. World Academy of Science, Engineering, and Technology. Retrieved February 27, 2012.

2. Greenhouse, S. (2011). Tiny Tax on Financial Trades Gains Advocates. The New York Times. Retrieved February 28, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/07/business/global/micro-tax-on-financial-trades-gains-advocates.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all.

3. Ross, M. (2004). Does Taxation lead to Representation? Cambridge University Press. Retrieved February 28, 2012.

4. Seto, T. (2008). Four Core Principles of Tax Design System: Introduced and Applied to the Taxation of Multinationals. Loyola Law School. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
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Capital Gains Tax in Australia Capital Gains

Words: 2921 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17440945

Capital Gains Tax in Australia

Capital gains tax refers to a type of tax levied on capital gains incurred by organizations or individuals. The capital gains refer to the profits that an organization or individual selling a capital asset obtains through selling an asset at a price higher than the original price. In many countries, the amount of capital gains tax takes into consideration the type of investment and the holding period of the asset. Australian capital gains tax takes a proportion of all achieved capital gains. Capital gains are not separate tax but part of the income tax on individuals and corporations upon disposing of capital assets. Australian capital gains tax exempts personal properties such as home, car, and furniture. Australian residents in any part of the world are subject to capital gains tax.

Issue 1. Moodly's Conversion of her main residence.

Moodly being a childcare worker, wishes to…… [Read More]

References

OECD Tax policy studies. 2006. Taxation of Capital Gains of Individuals: Policy

Considerations and Approaches. No.14. Paris: OECD Publishing.

Pricewaterhouse Coopers. 2006. Mergers and acquisition: A global Tax Guide. New Jersey:

John Wiley and Sons Inc.
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Dividend Tax

Words: 3701 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57808097

Dividend Tax

Capital gains and dividend taxes were both initiated in the early 1970's, by the Democratic Party. efore dividend taxes were enforced, the government made its money through higher aftertax yields, The dividend tax was originally supposed to be a progressive measure, so that the wealthiest paid correspondingly more than the poorest because they had benefited more. At this time, only the wealthy invested in stocks. This is no longer true. Most middle-class people today are investors in the market and they do not have the expensive accountants hired by the rich to shield their investments from tax.

Investing in the stock market has become far more widespread over the last two decades, as 84 million people - representing nearly half of all American households - owning stock. Tax-deferred investment tools such as 401(k) plans and individual retirement accounts (IRAs) have placed millions of Americans who make $60,000 or…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Beach, William. (January 23, 2003). Just what our economy needs. San Diego Union-Tribune. (Berlau, John. *February 6, 2003). Accounting firm fights dividend-tax cut. WorldNetDaily. Retrieved from the Internet at http://civilliberty.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.wnd.com/news/article.asp%3FARTICLE%5FID=30894.

Centre for International Co-operation and Development. (2003). Corporate Income Tax. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.gzs.si/ENG/busenv/financ61.htm.

Edwards, Chris. (January 7, 2003). Nearly All Major Countries Provide Dividend Tax Relief. The Cato Institute. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.cato.org/dailys/01-07-03-2.html.

Hall, Joshua. (January 31, 2003). Dumping fed dividend tax practical on several levels. Columbus Business First. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.bizjournals.com/columbus/stories/2003/02/03/editorial3.html.
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Smuggling Be Legal in Migration

Words: 4122 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47306981

This indicates that the government must take necessary measures to limit or reduce the extent of criminal activities within the economy. This can occur through legalization of human smuggling while tightening the rules and regulations governing property or product smuggling.

Smuggling and Price Disparity odel

In the Bhagwati and Hansen odel (Bhagwati-Hansen odel), smuggling is a trade at the world or international prices. This indicates that there is evasion of taxes. This trade involves less favorable transformation curve in comparison to curves under the free trade condition in the absence of the taxation system. This is under the assumption that smuggling involves real cost such as additional transport costs. In their illustration of smuggling and welfare, Bhagwati and Hansen indicate that smuggling has negative effects on welfare. This illustration explains that smuggling reduces welfare in the presence of co-existence between legal and illegal trade (smuggling). Bhagwati and Hansen explain that…… [Read More]

Mark M. PiTT. Smuggling and Price Disparity. Journal of International Economics 11 (2001) 447-458. North-Holland Publishing Company

Mark M. PiTT. Smuggling and Price Disparity. Journal of International Economics 11 (2001) 447-458. North-Holland Publishing Company

Mark M. PiTT. Smuggling and Price Disparity. Journal of International Economics 11 (2001) 447-458. North-Holland Publishing Company
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Parliament What Three Factors Were Most Important

Words: 1551 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35642865

Parliament

What three factors were most important in the development of Parliament as an independent institution with broad political, legislative and financial powers prior to Henry VIII?

Parliament (meaning parler, or 'to talk' in French) came into common use in the mid-thirteenth century (p. 155). It was the term used to refer to the primary meeting of the King and his Great Council. The King typically relied on such assemblies of lords, bishops, earls, barons and abbots for advice regarding major matters that impacted the rights of British citizens. The primary functions of Parliament were to give the King legislative, political, judicial and fiscal counsel at least three times per year.

Parliament was the chief juridical court and open to even everyday freeman by petition. King Edward I is credited with encouraging the petitioning (requesting favor or justice) of Parliament which was a major shift its role and function. Consideration…… [Read More]

Reference

Roberts, C., Roberts, D., & Bisson, D. (2009). History of England, A, Volume 1 (Prehistory to 1714) 5th edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Pearson Prentice Hall.
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Long-Range Professional Objectives Why Have You Selected

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41443106

long-range professional objectives. Why have you selected this career path? Be as specific as possible about the kinds of positions you seek. Include in this discussion the reasons you have chosen the particular program and major or concentration to which you have applied. What contributions do you expect to be able to make to your classes based on your academic and/or professional experiences?

My academic and professional experiences have led to my short-range goal of earning a Master of Taxation degree from Georgia State University. I wish to attend law school after completing my Master of taxation degree in order to become a tax attorney. Toward my short-range goal I have pursued academic interests, including math, my first major. While working as a manager at Best Buy during my undergraduate years, I became fascinated with business, however, and later changed my major to finance.

After taking my first accounting course…… [Read More]

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Long-Term Goals After Completing the Program What

Words: 459 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15311958

long-term goals after completing the program. What characteristics do you possess that would make you a good fit for the goals

Short-term and long-term goals: MA in accounting

When embarking upon a master's degree in a field like taxation, it is essential to have a clear idea of one's long and short-term goals, so a student can use the program to its maximum degree of efficacy. Upon graduation, I hope to work at a large corporation, where I believe that my undergraduate degree in finance combined with the invaluable skills and knowledge given to me by graduate study in taxation will enable me to provide superior service to my employers. My knowledge of finance will contextualize any advice I bestow regarding the tax code that is relevant to the corporation, while my knowledge of taxation will contextualize any financially-related advice I may give over the course of my service. My…… [Read More]

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Tax Law Oil and Gas Is Currently

Words: 3220 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14203970

Tax Law

Oil and Gas is currently at the core of ussia's economy, even though there has been talk at the head of the ussian federation of intentions to attempt to move the economy from one which is based solely in these natural resources, to one which is based on rapidly evolving technology. Of course it will be at least a decade before movements and developments in this fashion are able to unfold with real significance. However, given the strong presence and foundation of the oil and gas sector in ussia's economy, it is natural that the bulk of the regulatory law is founded around these pillars.

Excise Tax

Excise taxes in ussia refer to taxes which need to be paid out on certain goods in ussia, such as raw and refined alcohol, alcoholic drinks which are stronger than 1.5% by volume, cars and motorcycles with engines that have horsepower…… [Read More]

References

Cfe-eutax.org. (2013). Excise duties in Russia. Retrieved from cfe-eutax.org:  http://www.cfe-eutax.org/taxation/excise-duties/russia 

Deloitte.com. (2012). Tax and Legal Guide. Retrieved from Deloitte.com: http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-Russia/Local%20Assets/Documents/Energy%20and%20Resources/dttl_Guide-to-the-Russian-Oil-Gas-Sector_03092012.pdf

EY.com. (2011). Doing Business in the Russian Federation. Retrieved from EY.com:  http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/Doing-business-in-the-Russian-Federation-2011/$FILE/Doing-business-in-the-Russian-Federation-2011.pdf 

GFC. (2010). Reducing Carbon Emissions Through Transport Taxation. Retrieved from greenfiscalcommission.org.uk:  http://www.greenfiscalcommission.org.uk/images/uploads/gfcBriefing6_PDF_ISBN_v7.pdf
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Mandatory Attached Reading Material Cite Reading Material

Words: 1113 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6420703

mandatory attached reading material cite reading material sources. Please 200 words answer 1) How EU address interest royalty payments made companies member states? 2) What main principles EU Directive? 3) What a "beneficial owner" OECD's Article's 10, 11, & 12? 4) Describe a triangular transaction EU exemptions prove helpful a situation.

How does the EU address interest and royalty payments made between associated companies of different member states?

One of the critical aims of EU statutes regarding interest and royalty payments is to avoid potentially crippling double taxation. To ensure this, a resident of one member state (state A) who receives interest income from a source based in another state (state B) is exempt from taxation from state B. (Module 10: Sources of Investment Income 2). In general, "interest will be deemed to arise in the country of residence of the payer unless the debt on which the interest arises…… [Read More]

References

Council directive. (2003). EU. Retrieved:

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32003L0049:en:HTML

De Bie, Erik. (2011). Successive supplies of goods -- which transaction is VAT exempted?

The Association of Corporate Counsel. Retrieved:
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What Potential Entrepreneurs Should Know

Words: 1455 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33369477

Entrepreneurs Should Know bout Federal Taxes for Corporations

ll corporations are subject to the corporate income tax on their net income. Taxable income is the gross income of the corporation, less the deductions allowed. Major sources of corporate income include: gross profits from sales; dividends received; interest; rents; royalties; and gains and losses. Still, there can be other factors that must also be considered in determining the corporation's income. There include: receipts that are actually contributions to capital; property distributions received by the corporation; rentals paid to shareholders of a leasing corporation; and income from a sinking fund.

Each business's tax liability is based on a graduated tax rate scale. Depending on individual factors, a corporation may also be subject to penalty taxes in addition to their regular income tax. The form of business that is operated determines what taxes must be paid. The four general kinds of business taxes…… [Read More]

Adam Smith believed that there should be limitations on what corporations should and shouldn't be allowed to get away with. He pinpointed a solution to the complex nature of taxes -- a simple and fair system that minimizes compliance and administrative costs. The U.S. tax code has one of the most complex tax codes in the world, which has become a burden on its economy. Smith's ideas should be used by the U.S. To design a tax code that would ease the collection burden and force interest groups to look for money elsewhere.

Appendix A Corporate Income Tax Rates -- 2002

Taxable income over Not over Tax rate
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Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

Words: 1980 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

Australia's taxation system is seen by some as being extremely complicated. It promotes tax evasion and limited understanding of the overall taxation process in Australia. Brinsden found that "Our system is ranked highest in 'complexity' and second lowest in 'fairness' when compared to the UK, USA, Canada, Singapore and Hong Kong." (1-2)

Rather than providing people with a more simplified tax system, the present day taxation policies have increased in complexity prompting some to believe Australia is headed towards an economic downturn. Businesses and the upper class are already using the complex tax policies to evade or seek further tax breaks as the middle class, immigrants, and working class suffer from the unfair policies.

One of the biggest hurdles faced by Australia's government is tax avoidance or evasion leading to a need for more revenue. Brinsden writes: "He said rather than the Australian Tax Office launching costly, large-scale taskforces, making…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brinsden, Colin. "Australian tax system complex: survey." Sunday Morning Herald, June 19th, 2008.

Colebatch, Tim. "Business fears poor revenue outlook will hit tax breaks" Sunday Morning Herald, April 18th, 2013.

Dixon, Daryl. "How to pay less tax by splitting two incomes." The Canberra Times, October 30th, 1988.

Forrest, Andrew. "Tax will leave WA with little but dust." The West Australian, August 20th, 2010.
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Company Structure a Pivotal Decision

Words: 2068 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7728970

The partners are directly responsible financially for the obligations of the business. Therefore, in case of loss or debts, the owners suffer the risks and losses since they have liability for the business. In terms of complexity and flexibility, the partnerships remain appropriate for the partners. The issue of raising finance is shared between the partners; however, they cannot get loans for the business independently. Therefore, they are not suitable for the two partners who wish to set their business.

The third venture is a corporation, which is a separate entity from the persons that establish the business. Therefore, in financial terms, they are easy to raise capital as members contribute, and can borrow finance independently. Like the limited liability partnership, they are legally bound and hence the liability is limited. They eliminate the issue of personal liability. The tax returns are similar to those of partnerships and are taxed…… [Read More]

Reference

Graubner, M. (2006). Task, firm size, and organizational structure in management consulting an empirical analysis from a contingency perspective. Wiesbaden, Deutscher UniversitSts-Verlag.  http://site.ebrary.com/id/10231907 .

Spadaccini, M. (2007). Business structures. Irvine, CA, Entrepreneur Press.

Douglas, a. (2009). Partnership working. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, by Routledge.  http://site.ebrary.com/id/10258056 .

Grandori, a. (2006). Corporate governance and firm organization microfoundations and structural forms. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
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Future of E-Commerce the Six

Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77564173



Security

One of the greatest impediments to e-commerce growth continues to be the lack of consistent security across computing platforms, Web browsers and programming languages. This is a continual threat to the loss of transaction and credit card data as well. The need for a consistent and comprehensive framework would do much to alleviate the confusion on these areas (Kesh, amanujan, Nerur, 2002).

Intellectual Property

The Internet has created an entirely different aspect of property validation and rights. The ownership of intellectual property (IP) online, from content and online systems to integration technologies is also an enabler of overall e-commerce. The role of IP is also serving to more clearly delineate how selling and services systems online manage part of the sales process and selling cycle. IP will continue to be an emerging area of law and will eventually become a catalyst of how companies build and support their e-commerce…… [Read More]

References

Someswar Kesh, Sam Ramanujan, & Sridhar Nerur. (2002). A framework for analyzing e-commerce security. Information Management & Computer Security, 10(4), 149-158.

Christopher J. Schafer. (2001). Federal legislation regarding taxation of Internet sales transactions. Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 16(1), 415-433.