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Television Violence and the Effects on Children
Although the debate goes on as to whether or not television violence has a negative impact on children, there is ample evidence to verify that indeed, children are impacted in largely negative ways by being witnesses to violence on television. This paper provides six reasons why allowing children to watch violent TV is a bad idea and can create aggressive people later in life.
Reason ONE: An article in the peer-reviewed journal Pediatrics (van der Molen, 2004) points out what may not be obvious to parents and others involved in raising and educating children. That is, local news on television, which is not fiction of course, is found to "rely heavily on sensational presentations of violence" (van der Molen, 1771). And what kind of news is typically shown on the "local news"? Certainly violence is a constant theme, along with rape, robbery, shootings,…
Anderson, Craig A., Berkowitz, Leonard, Donnerstein, Edward, Huesmann, L Rowell,
Johnson, James D., Linz, Daniel, Malamuth, Neil M., and Wartella, Ellen. (2003). The
Influence of Media Violence on Youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(3),
It seems that violence on television does contribute to aggressive behavior, yet it is important to note that television is only one of many causes of aggression (Gunter and McAleer, 1990). Many other factors unrelated to television influence violence, and the specific impact of televised violence is dependent upon age, sex, family practices, and the way violence is presented. One statement is often repeated: television has major effects on a small number of individuals, and little effect on a large number of people. In the future, the questions and approaches will continue to evolve, and currently, groups funded by both the cable and network industries are examining levels of violence in order to provide better information on the type of violence being shown on television.
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP). (April, 1999). Children and TV Violence. AACAP Facts for Families Journal, No.13.
American Psychological Association. (2004).…
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP). (April, 1999). Children and TV Violence. AACAP Facts for Families Journal, No.13.
American Psychological Association. (2004). Violence on Television - What do Children Learn? What Can Parents Do? Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.apa.org/pubinfo/violence.html.
Beckman, Jeanne. (1996). Television Violence: What the Research Says About Its Effect on Young Children. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.jeannebeckman.com/page18.html.
Gunter, Barrie, and Jill L. McAleer. (1990). Children and Television: The One Eyed Monster? New York: Routledge.
Two of the most important things that the industry is doing now is making sure that all television programs are rated, and using v-chips to keep children from seeing programs that contain violence (Szaflik, 2000). Neither one of these ideas are foolproof, however, and therefore more must be done. Unfortunately, not that many parents and educators are aware of what else can be done to help, and therefore television violence continues to grow. This can also lead to the idea that violence in the real world is increasing and that people are in more danger, regardless of what the actual facts are (Gerbner, 1994).
There are, however, things that parents can do to help their children when it comes to protecting them from excessive violence on television. These include:
Paying attention to what kinds of programs their children are watching and watching some of the programming together
Setting limits on…
Blakey, Rea. "Study links TV viewing among kids to later violence." CNN/Health on the Web
28 March 2002. 28 January 2005. http://archives.cnn.com/2002/HEALTH/parenting/03/28/kids.tv.violence/ .
Children and TV Violence." American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. April 1999. 27 January 2005. http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/violence.htm .
Dittmann, M. "Childhood exposure to televised violence may predict aggressive behavior in adults." American Psychological Association: Monitor on Psychology 5 May 2003.
The study in this report involved a 14-year-old adolescent female who was 5-feet 2-inches and weighed 132 pounds; she was given a challenge to walk for exercise and use an exercise machine at home -- and in turn she agreed to cut back on television and other media usage. The bottom line was, she lost weight, but moreover, one year after the study she was increasing the level of physical activity she had been given at the outset of the study.
Evidence is presented in an article titled "Body Dissatisfaction and Patterns of Media Use Among Preadolescent Children" that boys and girls determine to some degree how their bodies should look from watching television. The authors' empirical research indicates that "body dissatisfaction and concern with weight" actually develop before a child reaches age 7 in estern societies (Jung, et al., 2007, p. 40). The alert researcher can see from the…
Potter, James W. On Media Violence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing, 1999.
Jung, Jaehee, & Peterson, Michael. "Body Dissatisfaction and Patterns of Media Use
Among Preadolescent Children." Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal
Vol. 36 (2007): 40-50
Attitudes and practices varied by age of the child and the gender of the parent.
Colorito, Rita. (2002) "Violence on elevision News Programs is a Serious Problem." Is Media Violence a Problem? Ed James orr San Diego: Greenhaven, 2002. 24- 30.
Colorito says that even though rates of crime decreased in the 1990s, television news coverage of violent crime increased. V news shows like 20/20 and Dateline frequently show stories on horrible crimes, sometimes with bloody crime scenes and re-enactments of the crime. his makes people think that there is more violent crime than there really is.
Felson, Richard. "Mass Media Effects on Violent Behavior." Annual Review of Sociology 22. 1996. [Electronic Version]
he topic of violence in the media has been continually debated over the past several decades. here are a lot of empirical studies that show the effects of V on aggression. However, no review looked at the…
The topic of violence in the media has been continually debated over the past several decades. There are a lot of empirical studies that show the effects of TV on aggression. However, no review looked at the criminal aggression. The author concluded that even though the possibility of TV and film violence can lead to violent crime remains, most of the studies show that viewing violence does not cause crime.
Kirsh, Steven. Children, Adolescents, and Media Violence. A Crtical Look at the Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2006
This book gives a very good overview of variety of studies about media violence and children and adolesence. The book includes information on what is aggression and different theories about aggression and human behavior. Kirsh wants readers to be critical of the studies they read and make sure they are scientific. Although he does not believe that violence in the media is harmful based on the studies, he does say that it should not be ignored. He concludes by saying that there should be more positive media for younger children when they will be effected most.
In contrast, TV influences children in abandoning the theories they were taught and embrace other concepts, most related to violence. Also, after being exposed to TV violence children feel that it is perfectly natural for them to behave similar to the characters on TV (Langone, 1984, p. 48).
It is extremely important for a child to be assisted by an adult when watching TV. Studies have shown that children are influenced by the way adults perceive TV programs, meaning that a child is likely to gain a better understanding of right and wrong when he or she is supported by a mature individual. Even with that, TV violence can negatively influence children, as they will merely hide their aggression in the cases when they are assisted by an adult who disapproves of violent behavior in watching TV (Langone, 1984, p. 56).
Children are generally willing to do anything in ordered…
1. Barker, M. & Petley, J. (2001). Ill Effects: The Media/Violence Debate. New York: Routledge.
2. Hoffman, A.M. (1996) Schools, Violence, and Society. Westport, CT: Praeger.
3. Josephson, W.L. (1995). "Television Violence: A Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages." Retrieved August 16, 2010, from the Media Awareness Network Web site: http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/resources/research_documents/reports/violence/tv_violence_child.cfm
4. Langone, J. (1984). Violence!: Our Fastest-Growing Public Health Problem. 1st ed. Boston: Little, Brown
This behavior was observed in more than eighty eight percent of the children. In order to show that learned behavior is not necessarily short-term, when the children were reintroduced to obo a few months later, 40% showed the violent behavior.
In assessing whether watching excessive violence on television causes long terms aggressive behavior, research studies should be more comprehensive. They should take into account factors such as chemical or neurological imbalances, family history of violence, emotional and physical abuse or genetic factors. Whether it is indisputably proven that watching violence on television causes aggressive behavior or whether it isn't, one should realize that over indulgence is never a good thing. They can have physical, emotional and sociologically negative impacts.
Parents have an important role to play. Instead of relying on federal guidelines for television program ratings, parents should make up their own minds about whether a child should watch a…
Bandura, a. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Funk, J.B. (1993). Reevaluating the Impact of Video Games. Clinical Pediatrics, 32(2), 86-90.
Siegel, L.J. (2003). Criminology (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
It said that most parents would support new limits to be established on content of television programs and shows. Approximately half of the surveyed parents and their peers expressed concern that their own children saw what they saw on TV. More lack and Hispanic parents expressed this concern than did white parents. More than three-fourths of them said that inappropriate television and media material worried them the most. Two-thirds of them said they closely watched TV shows their children watched. Those who said they could not do very much said that the exposure had gone too widespread to be controlled or that they were too busy. The Kaiser study also reported that one in four of the parents surveyed admitted that the media were the main negative influence on their children. The rest said it had positive influence and the rest said it had little impact. Four in the 10…
Better Nutrition (2002). TV Bashed. 2 pages. PRIMEDIA Intertec: PRIMEDIA Company
Bower, B. (1985). Social Channels Tune in TV's Effects. 2 pages. Science News: Social Science Service, Inc.
Etzioni, a. (1993). Lock Up Your TV Set: Violence on Television. 4 pages. National Review: National Review, Inc.
Fram, a. (2007).Most Parents Concerned About Violence in Media. 2 pages. Oakland Tribune: ANG Newspapers
There was also significant risk of increased attention problems associated with watching nonviolent television for the same age group, but no risk was associated with viewing educational programming. Older children ages 4 and 5 showed no increased risk five years later for attention problems from watching violent or non-violent programs. This second study was based on data collected from parents of 933 children and shows that the effect of violent television content on attention problems is much higher than previously estimated when program content was not identified." (Seattle Children's Hospital Research Institute, 2008)
The work of Josephson (2005) entitled: "Television Violence a Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages" states that children at the preschool age, or between three and five years of age "...begin watching television with an "exploration" approach. They actively search for meaning in the content, but are still especially attracted to vivid production features,…
Reebye, Pratibha (2005) Aggression During Early Years - Infancy and Preschool. T h e C. A n a d I a n C. h I l d a n d a d o l e s c e n t P. s y c h I a t r y R. e v I e w F. e b r u a r y 2-0 0-5 (1-4): 1. Online available at http://www.irm-systems.com/onottaca/doc.nsf/files/B5699D7CBA111CF48725712D00526DF5/$file/Feb05AggressionDuringEarlyYears.pdf
Watching Violent TV at Pre-School Age Linked to Aggression in Young Boys (2008) Seattle Children's Hospital Research Institute, 2008. Online available at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/87763.php
Josephson, W.L. (2005) Television Violence: A Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages. National Clearinghouse on Family Violence. Online available at http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ncfv-cnivf/familyviolence/html/nfntseffevage_e.html .
Screen Violence Tied to Boys' Aggression: Study (2007) Reuters News. 5 Nov 2007. Online available at http://www.reuters.com/article/healthNews/idUSN0460670820071105
violence in the media can create violent behavior in children and teens. Many studies show that watching violent media, such as video games, films, and even the television news can cause violent behavior in children and teens, and that behavior can continue into adulthood.
Several different studies have indicated that violence in the media can produce violent and aggressive behavior in children and teens. Two researchers note, "In the past decade, media-effects researchers have progressively reached consensus that exposure to television violence can result in aggressive behavior" (Greene & Krcmar, 2005). In addition, a fifteen-year study by the American Psychological Association (APA) also showed that both men and women are affected by media violence, and that adults who watched this media as children tended to be more violent, and convicted of more violent crimes (Partenheimer, 2003). In the past decade, violence has become much more common in the media, as…
Editors. (2009). Children and media violence. Retrieved 4 Dec. 2009 from the MediaFamily.org Web site: http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_vlent.shtml .
Greene, K., & Krcmar, M. (2005). Predicting exposure to and liking of media violence: A uses and gratifications approach. Communication Studies, 56(1), 71+.
Partenheimer, D. (2009). Childhood exposure to media violence predicts young adult aggressive behavior, according to a new 15-year study. Retrieved 4 Dec. 2009, from the American Psychological Association Web site: http://www.apa.org/releases/media_violence.html.
Attraction to Violence in the Media
Violence on Films and in Television
Filmmakers Technique to Grab the Audience
Violence Made to Swindle the Viewers
Making Violence Funny
It is clear that one of the worthy changes in the social environment today is the advent and fullness of television. In this new setting, television, radio, videos, movies, computer networks and video games, have presumed central roles in people's day-to-day lives. Rather it be good or bad, it seems that the mass media are having some kind of a huge impact on people's standards, beliefs, and behavior. Regrettably, the consequences of one specific element of the mass media exposure has for the most part damaging effects on those that are watching' and others' health. There is much Research evidence that has been accumulating over a lot of ears that being exposed to violence on television and in video games does…
Bishop, R. A P.J., 2006. Violence. Theory, Culture & Society. Theory, Culture and Society, 23(3), pp. pp.377-385..
BJ., B., 2007. Moderating role of. Journal . Pers. Soc.Psychol, 23(4), p. 950 -- 60.
Bushman BJ, H.L., 2008. Effects of televised violence on aggression.In Handbook of Children and the Media. In: Thousand Oaks: Sage, p. 223 -- 54.
Bushman, B. A A.C., 2001. Media violence and the American public: Scientific facts vs. media misinformation. American Psychologist, 56(7), pp. pp.477-489..
professional wrestling in America today. Specifically, it will include the question: does pro-wrestling cause violence in children? Pro-wrestling is a violent sport, and one of the most popular in America today. Many people in the public and the media question whether pro-wrestling, especially popular with children, causes violent behaviors in them. There are many documented cases of children's violence being caused or aided by actions they saw pro-wrestlers make on television, and it seems quite certain that children are certainly influenced by the violence they see during pro-wrestling matches.
Does Violence in Pro-wrestling Cause Violence in Children?
Professional wrestling is one of the most popular sports in America today, and it is clear by watching only one or two bouts that it is an extremely violent sport. One writer notes about the current massive popularity of pro-wrestling, "America's latest cultural obsession lies in the wrestling ring, where the likes of…
Billups, Andrea. "Analysts Grapple With the Popularity of Pro-wrestling." The Washington Times 22 Dec. 1999: 2.
Butters, Patrick. "Wrestlers Pinned by Image of Gore: Fatal Fall is Further Injury to the Sport." The Washington Times 2 June 1999: 8.
Jackman, Mary R. "Violence in Social Life." Annual Review of Sociology (2002): 387+.
Reuter, Ted. " Kids Grapple with Wrestling Violence." Dr. Politics.com. 30 March 2000. 26 Nov. 2003.
TV & Internet
Mass media technology has become omnipresent in our society. It is not uncommon for children to now be raised with personal electronics, constant television and an overall barrage of sensory stimulus. Moreover, electronic devices are becoming the main means of communication for the younger generation, which can challenge their ability to relate to others. While many in the media have called into question the impacts of these socio-technical changes, others point the benefits that technology offers, and note that change is inevitable and the negative effects are overblown. This paper will take a look at the effects of television and Internet consumption on the young generation.
There are a number of different influences the have been hypothesized for children based on their exposure to television and the media, none more prevalent than the argument that children are exposed to much more violence throughout their childhoods than…
AAP. (2011). Children, adolescents, obesity and the media. Pediatrics. Vol. 128 (1) 201-208.
Castillo, M. (2013). Parents' TV time may be the biggest influence on kids' viewing habits. CBS News. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/parents-tv-time-may-be-the-biggest-influence-on-kids-viewing-habits/
Donnerstein, E. (2010). The media and aggression: From TV to the Internet. University of Arizona. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://www.sydneysymposium.unsw.edu.au/2010/chapters/DonnersteinSSSP2010.pdf
Harris, J., Speers, S., Schwartz, M. & Brownell, K. (2012) U.S. food company branded advergames on the Internet: Children's exposure and effects on snack consumption. Journal of Children and the Media. Vol. 6 (1) 51-68.
After all, when Marcellus is raped, the audience has witnessed the murder of two college students by Marcellus' hit men, and knows that Marcellus had a former ally thrown off of a roof for an unknown reason. In addition, it is because of Marcellus' orders that Vincent, whom the audience has grown to like, is killed at Butch's house. Marcellus is clearly not a good man, and yet, nothing in the movie suggests that he deserves to be raped by Zed and Maynard. It was significant that Tarantino chose Marcellus, the most criminal person in the movie, as the rape victim. It was even more significant that Tarantino chose Butch, the person with the most motive to see Marcellus injured, as Marcellus' rescuer. ather than dehumanizing people, the violence in the movie humanizes the monstrous Marcellus, both by depicting him as a victim and by showing him getting revenge. By…
Scorsese, Martin. Taxi Driver. Los Angeles: Bill/Phillips, 1976.
Scott, Ridley. Thelma & Louise. Los Angeles: Metro-Goldwyn-Meyer, 1991.
Tarantino, Quentin. Pulp Fiction. Los Angeles: A Band Apart, 1994.
Winner, Michael. Deathwish. Universal City, CA: Dino De Laurentiis Company, 1974.
Violence in Video Games
The cultivation of violence in video games: causal or correlational?
Studies on media effects have always included the influential role that television and new media technologies such as the computer and Internet (ICTs). With the proliferation of both mass media, there is greater penetration of its content to children and the adolescent youth, who are frequent TV watchers and ICT users. Among the concerns of parents and scholars about the proliferation of this mass media is its unintended effects -- the cultivation of violence and development of violent behavior of the child through TV and ICT content. Focus is especially given to the youth who actively engage in video gaming, either through the TV, computer, or Internet. Parents and mass media research claim that video games harness an individual's violent behavior, resulting to aggressiveness and development of hostile attitude towards other people.
In this paper, the…
Brody, M. (2001). "Playing with death." Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, (16)11.
Gaziano, C. (2001). "Towards a broader conceptual framework for research on social stratification, childrearing patterns, and media effects." Mass Communication & Society, (4)2.
Lynne Eagle, L., S. Bulmer, and A. de Bruin. (2003). "Marketing communications implications of children's new electronic media use: a survey of parental opinions and perceptions." Journal of Marketing Communications, (9)3.
Wagner, C. (2004). "Aggression and violent media." Futurist, (38)4.
Violence in Video Games
Guiding Question: Should the government have to be involved in legislation regarding video game content?
Proof 1: Explain how First Amendment ensures freedom of speech, including video game content.
"It is not the government's job to forbid content in media. It is the responsibility of the parents to decide what their children should play.
Body Paragraph 1: Music censorship case and ratings system for video games
Body Paragraph 2: Research evidence
Body Paragraph 3: Sociological implications and blaming
The First Amendment to the United States Constitution insists that citizens of the U.S. have the right to free speech. This Amendment has been utilized by artists from a wide variety of genres and talents to preserve their right to express themselves and prevent any form of censorship. Most calls for legislation regarding censorship have actually come from the parents of America's youth. Rather than take responsibility for…
Anderson, Craig (2003). "Violent Video Games: Myths, Facts, and Unanswered Questions."
Psychological Science Agenda.
Benedetti, Winda. (2008). "Playing the Blame Game." MSNBC. Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23204875/
Chalk, Andy. (2007). "Inappropriate Content: a Brief History of Videogame Ratings and the ESRB." The Escapist.
As children are our future, showing violent and frightening images on television has a negative impact on society because it aids in the creation of a society that is both aggressive and fear. And what causes war and conflict other than aggressive fear?
n addition to creating a society filled with those who are both aggressive and fearful, television creates a society filled with those who do not succeed academically and intellectually, preparing the world to spiral into a downturn of less than qualified leadership. According to Hedley et al.'s book, the negative correlation between television viewing and academic performance can be supported by five major studies. These studies, conducted mostly during the 1980s, used data collected primarily from educational and academic sources, such as the Educational Testing Service, the California Assessment Program, and the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Susan B. Neuman, in Literacy in the Television Age, a…
In addition to creating a society filled with those who are both aggressive and fearful, television creates a society filled with those who do not succeed academically and intellectually, preparing the world to spiral into a downturn of less than qualified leadership. According to Hedley et al.'s book, the negative correlation between television viewing and academic performance can be supported by five major studies. These studies, conducted mostly during the 1980s, used data collected primarily from educational and academic sources, such as the Educational Testing Service, the California Assessment Program, and the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Susan B. Neuman, in Literacy in the Television Age, a book published in 1999, adds to this data by arguing that the television could have been a great educational tool. Tha I t is not, and is rather a tool commonly seen as eroding academic ability, certainly speaks volumes to its nature. Neuman argues that three arguments have been made, associating television with negative affects on society. Some have argued that television takes time away from more academic pursuits like reading and imagining, while others suggest that it shapes the way that students' think. The other argument holds that TV makes students exhibit poor behavior during class. Clearly, one of the most important pursuits of a child or adolescent's life is education. Without it, society will be doomed to malfunction. Because television impacts education negatively, it has a negative impact on society.
Now that we've established how television can have a negative impact on society through encouraging violent behavior and poor academic performance, we can start to consider what can be done. Clearly, children are the focus of television's negative affects on society. Therefore, it must be children that are targeted in order to improve this situation. The burden must fall on parents, who should closely monitor what children watch and how much television they watch a day. Parents should encourage children to engage in other, more intellectually stimulating behavior, such as reading. By doing this, the negative societal affects or television can be removed. So make sure the children in your life aren't watching too much TV or shows that are inappropriate for them.
Thus, the television has been a wonderful invention that has helped us travel to other worlds. But the amount of children watching televisions for periods as long as their parents go to work is causing problems, impacting society negatively. In order to create future leaders who are not aggressive or intellectually stunted, parents must strictly monitor children's television watching.
Televised violence can in some cases be harmless, mainly because film directors overstress it to the point where it becomes obvious that it cannot possibly take place in real life. hen it is presented in a way that makes it even more real violence can be very harmful. "Reviews of the effects literature have concluded that exposure to television violence portrayed with particular contextual characteristics can lead to such negative effects as fear, desensitization, and disinhibition" (Potter, and Smith 301). The negative effect of televised violence is apparently highlighted by graphicness, as people are influenced to a larger degree if what they see on television is explicit. Images of blood and gore can be much more harmful when presented in a high-detail vivid nature (Potter, and Smith 301). As the level of realness increases, the level of shock also increases, making it possible for viewers to feel as if they…
Gunter, Barrie and Harrison, Jackie. Violence on Television: An Analysis of Amount, Nature, Location, and Origin of Violence in British Programmes (London: Routledge, 1998).
Gunter, Barrie; Harrison, Jackie and Wykes, Maggie. Violence on Television: Distribution, Form, Context, and Themes (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003).
Potter, W. James and Smith, Stacy. "The Context of Graphic Portrayals of Television Violence," Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 44.2 (2000): 301.
Krcmar, Marina. "The Contribution of Family Communication Patterns to Children's Interpretations of Television Violence," Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 42.2 (1998).
Quality TV generates interest about social problems
Quite often, fictional TV programs can raise national consciousness and awareness about social problems. Through fiction, viewers care about people far away because problems and issues are personalized and humanized. For example, the HBO program Oz about life in prison has generated compassion about the fate of incarcerated individuals and motivated calls for prison reform in a way that seeing someone in handcuffs on the nightly news cannot. The Sopranos was not simply a high-quality TV drama, its location in a suburban community also forced viewers to think more critically about their daily lives, like the lies, pain, and murder that lay behind the closed doors of affluent suburban New Jersey. The use of violence in these shows is designed to accurately depict life
Quality TV is cinematic
Violence has become part of the cinematic vocabulary, and modern television dramas with legitimate aspirations…
Video Violence: Assessing and Curbing the Effects of Television
Violence within Youth Programming in the United States of America
In today's day and age, technology has become a cornerstone of the American existence. With each passing day, new and improved technological devices turnover in order to bring the outside world into the individual American home, but the television has remained unaffected. The television and its programming have remained a constant yet changing staple in the country that brings with it an unparalleled ability to shape its watchers, with the most affected being the children and youth of America. While so many individuals immediately connect the phrase "children's programming" to harmless programs like Sesame Street and Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood, the truth remains that along with this wholesome educational programming, violence has also become a constant in many of the television programs geared toward children today. In viewing the research that is…
Hesmann, L.R. et al. "Early Exposure to TV Violence Predicts Aggression in Adulthood."
Developmental Psychology, 39(1): pp. 201-221.
Keer, Gregory. "The Effects of Seeing TV Violence." Parenthood. 2010. Web. 8 November
TV Series and the Society
The social set up in most communities in the world is indeed eroded with lots of images and teachings especially from the media. Among the major influences the lives of individuals in the society are affected by television programs and series. Most of the TV series that are relied to the individuals of a family in a particular setting basically influence the decision and the activities of the many individuals in either a negative or a positive manner. Indeed the most affected are the minor in the society, which are the children1.
From the healthcare providers' point-of-view, the media especially the television play a very important role in the escalation of the chances of teenage pregnancies and adolescent malpractices among the youths in America. These youth frequently use the media like television series, music movies and magazines in their plight for…
A in millions)
Current in millions)
Provided by Federal ureau of Investigation as of September 18, 2006. www.whitehouse.gov/goodbye/3ae6b1ac94aa97e6650780f280890a7c81100e47.html"
CHART: National Correctional Populations
National Correctional Populations
The number of adults in correctional population has been increasing.
A in millions)
Current million in millions)
Provided by ureau of Justice Statistics as of November 30, 2006. (Social Statistics riefing Room, 2006)
Violence in the Media
Huston and colleagues have estimated that the average 18-year-old will have viewed 200,000 acts of violence on television (Huston, a.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H. et al. ig World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.)
41% percent of American households have three or more televisions (Nielsen Media Research, 2000).
56% of children ages 8-16 have a television in their rooms (Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000)
Percentage of television-time children ages 2-7 spend…
Alter, Jonathan. "Moving Beyond the Blame Game. (Panel Discussion)," Newsweek, May 17, 1999.
Beyer, John. "PERSPECTIVE: How movie and TV violence hits children; Is there too much violence on television and is it time to curb it? John Beyer, director of the organization mediawatch-uk argues that media viol," Birmingham Post, March 21, 2007.
Chatfield, Joanne E.. "Influence of Media Violence on Children." American Family Physician, February 15, 2002.
Children's Hospital Boston. "Teen-Rated Video Games Loaded With Violence;
Television remains the single most influential medium in the lives of young people. However, a three-year National Television Violence Study found: "two-thirds of all programming contains violence; children's programs contain the most violence; the majority of all entertainment programming contains violence; violence is often glamorized; and the majority of perpetrators go unsanctioned" (Muscari 2002).
Television violence is graphic, realistic and involving, shows inequity and domination, and portrays most victims as women, children and the elderly (Muscari 2002). Children tend to focus on the more intense scenes, such as violent moments, rather than story components, and these "aggressive acts lead to a heightened arousal of the viewer's aggressive tendencies, bringing feelings, thoughts and memories to consciousness and can cause outwardly aggressive behavior" (Muscari 2002).
hen video games were introduced in the 1970's, they quickly became a favorite pastime for children, and now make up a $10+ billion industry. Today, children average…
Chory-Assad, Rebecca M. (2005 December 01). Effects of affective orientation and video game play on aggressive thoughts and behaviors. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. Retrieved January 16, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
Kirn, Timothy F. (2006 September 01). Nature and media's nurture spawn girl violence.
Family Practice News. Retrieved January 16, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
Muscari, Mary. (2002 November 01). Media violence: advice for parents.
Controlling TV Programmes:
The debate on whether or not to adopt stricter means of controlling television programmes arises from the impact of certain programmes on the viewers. This debate also emanates from the cultural and ethical concerns raised by various people regarding the suitability of certain television programmes. According to research on television, it has emerged that programme-makers and broadcasters sometime fail to draw the line when showing certain programmes. As a result, certain sections of the public has lost their degree of trust in television programming arguing that there should be stricter measures to control television programmes while others differ with them.
Arguments Supporting Stricter Control of TV Programmes:
The increased loss of trust and ethical concerns regarding television programming has resulted in various people supporting the adoption of stricter mechanisms of controlling TV programs. The proponents of such measures point at the following reasons & #8230;
Hayes, D.A. (n.d.). The Children's Hour Revisited: The Children's Television Act of 1990.
Retrieved from Indiana University website: http://www.law.indiana.edu/fclj/pubs/v46/no2/hayes.html
Kiisweko, O. (2011, August 19). The Dilemma of Children Hooked Onto TV. Retrieved August
31, 2011, from http://dailynews.co.tz/feature/?n=22940&cat=feature
Scaflik makes the claim that these types of tactics from networks mean that the network believe that violence is what attracts viewers the most.
Finally, shows such as Law and Order and Dark Shadows manage to show minimal amounts of violence and in inappropriate context, while they ultimately showcase the violence in a de-contextualized manner in the promos (Scaflik 2004). Scaflik points out that this is a serious problem for many different reasons, including the fact that viewers will get the wrong impression from the show and that viewers may also believe that there is a great deal of action and then will later be disappointed when only two or three minimally violent scenes are shown throughout the film or show.
The other problem is that violent promos are often times run during showtimes targeted towards children. Sometimes shows that have absolutely no violence in them at all will use…
Abelard, (1999-2008), Children and Television Violence, Retrieved from http://www.abelard.org/tv/tv.php
Cantor, Joanne, and Suzanne Stutman, Victoria Duran, (1996), What Parents Want in a Television Rating System: Results of a National Survey, National Survey Report, Retrieved from http://yourmindonmedia.com/downloads/parent_survey.pdf
Chandra, Anita, and DrPHa, Steven C. Martino, PhDb, Rebecca L. Collins, PhDc, Marc N. Elliott, PhDc, Sandra H. Berry, MAc, David E. Kanouse, PhDc, Angela Miu, MSc, (October 31, 2008). Does Watching Sex on Television Predict Teen Pregnancy? Findings From a National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. PEDIATRICS, Vol. 122 (No. 5). Retrieved from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/122/5/1047
Moran, Mark, (July 6, 2007), Govt. Seeks Ways to Reduce Kids' Exposure to TV Violence. Psychiatric News, Vol. 42. (No. 13)(Pg. 5). Retrieved from http://pn.psychiatryonline.org/content/42/13/5.1.full
Television on Society
Television has helped to create and perpetuate perceptions of gender and race.
Television and Perceptions of Gender
How children form ideas about gender
Perpetuating gender myths through entertainment programming
Gender portrayals on prime time news
Racial Stereotypes on Television
Television in shaping the perception of black people
Television and stereotyping Asian-Americans as the model minority
Television played a great role in colonial domination of American Indians.
Conclusion and change - where to now?
In his famous dictum of the medium is the message, Marshall McLuhan illustrated how mass media, as an extension of human capabilities, has tremendous personal and social consequences (McLuhan: 23).
Television is in a particularly strong position to initiate such consequences. After all, the great majority of American homes have at least one television set, putting the medium in an unparalleled position to affect American society.
Television also has a power to shape an…
Bird, S. Elizabeth. "Gendered construction of the American Indian in popular media." Journal of Communication. (49) 3: 61-83. Proquest. Proquest Direct. Los Angeles Public Library, California. http:proquest.umi.com/pdqweb.
Comstock, George and Erica Scharrer. Television: What's On, Who's Watching, and What it Means. London: Academic Press, 1999.
Dow, Bonnie. Prime Time Feminism: Television, Media Culture, and the Women's Movement Since 1970 Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.
Fujioka, Yuki. "Television portrayals and African-American stereotypes: Examination of television effects when direct contact is lacking." Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly. (76) 1: 52-75. Proquest. Proquest Direct. Los Angeles Public Library, California. http:proquest.umi.com/pdqweb.
Children: Exposure to Violence Through the Media
The extent to which exposure to violence creates violent children and/or aggressive behavior is a subject which has been debated in a comprehensive manner. However, the fundamental research findings are consistent. The research continues to demonstrate that exposure to violence creates negative manifestations in the behavior of children. "While violence is not new to the human race, it is an increasing problem in modern society. With greater access to firearms and explosives, the scope and efficiency of violent behavior has had serious consequences. We need only look at the recent school shootings and the escalating rate of youth homicides among urban adolescents to appreciate the extent of this ominous trend" (Beresin, 2010). Given the fact that children are manifesting violent behavior in more and more disturbing ways, making places like schools -- previously dens of safety -- into places where children feel unsafe…
Beresin, V .E. (2010). The Impact of Media Violence on Children and Adolescents: Opportunities for Clinical Interventions. This article examines the biophysiological impact of violent images on children and how those exact dynamics work. Retrieved march 25, 2013 from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/developmentor/the_impact_of_media_violence_on_children_and_adolescents_opportunities_for_clinical_interventions
Grayson-Mathis, C.E. (2005, June 10). Media violence may affect children's minds.
Offers a thorough appraisal on how violent media images impact the minds of children using relevant literature to support the case.
Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/parenting/news/20050610/media-violence-may-affect-childrens-minds
("hat do I Need..." para on "How big a presence...") The "American Academy of Pediatrics" believes that too much television at such an early age can negatively affect brain development since the first 2 years of a child's life are especially important in the growth and development of the brain and a child needs good, positive interaction with other children and adults in this period. (Ibid.)
The link between violence on television and violent behavior in children has been well established in numerous studies and is particularly disturbing. Statistics indicate that the typical American child is exposed to 12,000 violent acts on television a year and children's TV programming alone contains about 20 violent acts an hour. (Ibid.) Children imitate what they see and watching violent TV programs teaches children that violence is an acceptable way to solve problems. According to the "American Psychological Association," besides learning aggressive behavior, children…
Alexander, Allison. "Children and Television." The Museum of Broadcast Communication. 2005. November 13, 2006. http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/C/htmlC/childrenand/childrenand.htm
Fact Sheet: Television's Effect on Reading and Academic Achievement." National Institute on Media and the Family. July 7, 2002. November 13, 2006. http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_tveffect.shtml
The Good Things About Television." Media Awareness Network. 2006. November 13, 2006. http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/parents/television/good_things_tv.cfm
How Television Viewing Affects Children." Bulletin #4100: University of Maine Cooperative Extension. 2006. November 13, 2006. http://www.umext.maine.edu/onlinepubs/htmpubs/4100.htm
17). He is disgusted that news executives that direct what should be covered are less interested in "what's happening in Afghanistan" but more interested in "Michael Jackson and Laci Peterson" (Fenton, p. 20).
hat are the excuses TV executives, editors and producers give for focusing on scandal, sexual trysts, and embarrassing situations for celebrities? Fenton claims that those "gatekeepers of the news" will tell anyone listening that "the average [viewer] simply cannot absorb that much hard news, especially about events abroad" (p. 20). The CBS veteran insists that the media power brokers believe that "Americans are too broadly under-informed to digest nuggets of information that seem to contradict what they know of the world" (p. 20). That would seem to be a very condescending, elitist attitude on the part of the TV industry in particular.
Fenton (p. 22) asserts that because of the very real threats of terrorism on the…
Dorfman, Lori, Woodruff, Katie, Chavez, Vivian, and Wallack, Lawrence. "Youth and Violence
On Local Television News in California." American Journal of Public Health 87.8 (1997):
Downie, Leonard, and Schudson, Michael. "The Reconstruction of American Journalism."
Computer Games esearch
When considering the short history of computers, video and PC gaming are very recent on the timeline of technology. This is one of the reasons why there have not been many conclusive studies on the negative and/or positive effects of electronic games on children and young adults -- the most formative years. With the ever-increasing interest and involvement of children in this activity, much concern has been expressed about the impact of these games, especially ones of a more violent nature, on physical and psychological development. At the crux of the debate is the question of whether they are detrimental to a young person's health. There are specific concerns about such factors as aggression, addiction, criminal activity, obesity and reduced academic achievement.
Studies thus far show both positive and negative results from playing video and PC games. Some research finds that the playing or observing of violent…
Anderson, C.A., and K.E. Dill "Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, 78, 772-790.
Ask, A., Autoustinos, M., and A.H. Winefield, "To kill or not to kill: Competitive aggression in Australian adolescent males during videogame play." Children in the New Media Landscape. C. van Feilitzen and U. Carlsson (Eds.). Goteborg, Sweden: UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 2000.
Bowman, R.P. And J.C. Rotter. "Computer games: Friend or foe?" Elementary School Guidance and Counselling, 1983, 18, 25 -- 34
Calvert, S.L., and S. Tan, (1994). "Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1994, 15, 125-139.
Television and Cultural Plagues in America
American society is both one of the most litigious and one of the most violent in the world. ut violence is not the only cultural quagmire: Sexual promiscuity -- along with the itinerant sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies -- is another cultural minefield. And of course, racism, drug use and alcohol abuse are other major, seemingly unsolvable problems.
A common thread behind these social problems is the fact that social critics and activists blame television and its centrality to American culture for all. Television's pervasiveness especially among children is the concern. Today, often with both parents working and out of the house, latchkey kids come home from school and immediately turn on the television and start absorbing its disparate and often uncontrolled and only lightly censored messages.
Consequently, activists point their finger at television for corrupting the minds of our youth and steering…
American Academy of Pediatrics: Television and the Family. http://www.aap.org/family/tv1.htm
American Psychological Association: http://www.apa.org / .
Christenson, Peter. Substance Abuse in Popular Prime Time Television. Mediascope, Inc.: 2000.
Collins, Rebecca L., Marc N. Elliott, Sandra H. Berry, David E. Kanouse, Dale Kunkel, Sarah B. Hunter, and Angela Miu, "Watching Sex on Television Predicts Adolescent Initiation of Sexual Behavior," RAND Pediatrics, Vol. 114, No. 3, September 2004.
Therefore there should be more in-depth research into the types of content that are associated with television addiction.
The analysis of this article and other sources also raises the important issue of whether one can or even should avoid the influence of television in the information age. Television and other related media have become part of our everyday world and the problem of possible television addiction should be dealt with in terms of a healthy balance in television viewing. ather than a carte blanche condemnation of television there should be a more intensive focus on the negative forms of content that may lead to forms of addiction and other problem areas.
Bogart, L. (1956). The Age of Television: A Study of Viewing Habits and the Impact of Television on American Life (3rd ed.). New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing. etrieved August 12, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=35619009 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002209433
Bogart, L. (1956). The Age of Television: A Study of Viewing Habits and the Impact of Television on American Life (3rd ed.). New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing. Retrieved August 12, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=35619009 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002209433
Brock, B.J. (1994). Recreation Programming for the '90S Family: Demographics and Discoveries. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 65(6), 64+. Retrieved August 12, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002209433 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106449752
Bryant, J. & Bryant, J.A. (Eds.). (2001). Television and the American Family. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved August 12, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106449755 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022193704
Gambling Ads on TV Will Fuel Addiction'. (2007, August 10). The Daily Mail (London, England), p. 1. Retrieved August 12, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022193704 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001238566
Children (boys especially) are predisposed to watching scenes of violence for long periods of time without feeling the need to change the program. Consequent to this, they are expected to display antisocial behavior.
Cartoons are essential in influencing children, given the fact that most seem innocent to most parents, thus preventing them from wanting to change the channel. Studies have shown that cartoons have a more negative influence on children in comparison to violence seen directly on TV. hile cartoons do not necessarily influence a violent behavior in children, they are apparently responsible for children having a decreased capacity to create neurotic connections.
Advertising is yet anther domain which catches children of guard, taking into consideration that they are less capable of ignoring advertisements. hen they are specially made for children, advertisements have an even greater influence, as they can affect their "beliefs, values, and moral norms" (Moniek Buijzen, Patti…
1. Buijzen, Moniek and Valkenburg, Patti M. "The Impact of Television Advertising on Children's Christmas Wishes," Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 44.3 (2000)
2. Gunter, Barrie; Charlton, Tony; Coles, David and Panting, Charlie. "The Impact of Television on Children's Antisocial Behavior in a Novice Television Community," Child Study Journal 30.2 (2000): 65.
3. Johnson, Marilou M. "The Impact of Television and Directions for Controlling What Children View," Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 45.4 (2001).
4. Reis, Raul "The Impact of Television Viewing in the Brazilian Amazon," Human Organization 57.3 (1998).
Much has been said about the violence on television and its potentially harmful effects on children. Everything from cartoons to toy commercials depicts violence in some form, and it is understandable that parents may be frightened. However, television can be a valuable tool for children's social and academic education. Programs like Sesame Street have for years taught young children the basics of reading and math in a multicultural framework. Educational children's programming abounds, and each show has something unique to offer. By watching these shows, children are encouraged to be creative. Educational programming also includes shows on stations like the Discovery Channel and the History Network. Many of these shows can be watched by both adults and children and can therefore stimulate dialog within the home. Even entertainment television such as sitcoms can help children make sense of their world. An early exposure to popular culture can be…
Schools have more esponsibility to Prevent School Violence than ever before
Issues related to school violence have become an increasingly salient issue in modern society. This issue affects schools on many levels. On one level, there rise in the number of tragedies such as mass shootings have increased and these incidents clearly illustrate the need for safer educational environments for children and adolescents. However, there are also more subtle examples of violence that can occur in school environments such as bullying. The evidence that bullying is severe physical and psychological detriment to students has become increasingly clear. Furthermore, technology has also offered new platforms in which violence can occur between students. For example, there have been many cases of online bullying that have occurred on social networks. This analysis will provide a brief overview of different types of violence that can occur in schools as well as a…
Adelman, H., & Taylor, L. (2002). Building Comprehensive, Multifaceted, and Integrated Approaches to Address Barriers to Student Learning. . Childhood Education, 261-268.
Beccerra, S., Munoz, F., & Riquelme, E. (2015). School violence and school coexistence management: unresolved challenges. Procedia, 156-163.
Crews, G. (2014). School Violence Perpetrators Speak: An Examination of Perpetrators Views on School Violence Offenses. Jouranl of the Institute of Justice and International Studies, 41-62.
.....media contribute to violence?
Some research has shown that the media contributes to the emergence and exhibition of violent behavior in young people, or at least the desensitization to violence. The American Psychological Association summarizes the body of literature and claims that at the very least, extensive exposure to violent imagery can desensitize a child to violence ("Television and Video Violence," n.d.). Other research may reveal a more causal relationship between exposure to violence in the media and violent behavior. For example, a meta-analysis of 15 different studies has shown "evidence strongly suggests that exposure to violent video games is a causal risk factor for increased aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, and aggressive affect and for decreased empathy and prosocial behavior," (Kaplan, 2012). This does not mean that all people who are exposed to media violence will exhibit violent behavior or aggression, but that care must be taken when children are…
2. I agree wholeheartedly with the author. Random acts of kindness do make the world and our society a better place. We need to become more aware of the connections between people. We do need to smile more, treat others with deep respect, and recognize the impact our actions have on other people. Instead of walking around angry all day, we need to develop a positive frame of mind and speak and act with kindness.
Universal health care would reflect a deep change in our culture. We have become so focused on our independence that we forgot the value of sharing and caring. Our selfishness and greed has led to a situation in which most Americans cannot afford adequate healthcare. Yet Americans are afraid of making small sacrifices that could benefit our society such as paying slightly more taxes to fund a truly universal system…
..There is reason for concern, therefore, when aggressive acts are presented in a humorous context in the media" (622).
Although it is intended to refer to society and its misdemeanor, satire cannot be considered to be offensive, since there is a small probability that it will produce any resentment in people. A good example of the American society giving birth to something that is funny and enjoyable, despite its satirical character, is Charlie Chaplin. In times when movies were something new to the American public, the English actor succeeded in making it addicted to him and to his movies. His merit is also largely owed to the scriptwriters and to the movie directors that invested hard work in making the respective movies. Even with his obvious success among the American public, there still are a number of critics believing that the characters played by Charlie Chaplin had been too vulgar…
movies atings television shows atings. Cuently aea numbe shows television potaying negative aspects ace, class gende. Fo, show "Family Guy" a show played "pimetime" mateials show "kid-fiendly.
Watching Toy Stoy is likely to influence many adults to believe that it would be wong fo them to allow thei childen to view the animated comedy. I believe that it is wong fo the Motion Pictue Association of Ameica film ating system to povide it with a G. ating, taking into account the violent scenes that the animation contains. Andy's next-doo neighbo, Sid, is a hoible peson and he is obsessed with mutilating toys. While it would be pefectly nomal fo childen to occasionally beak toys, an individual who wants to mutilate toys and who ceates mutant toys consequent to doing so is actually deanged.
Poviding childen with the image of a deanged individual is pobable to have a negative effect on…
references and profanity, but violence is practically absent and adolescents are shown in ways that are characteristic to teenagers in general.
This film has an inappropriate rating and it should have been provided with an R. rating or even with a PG-13 rating. By labeling it NC-17, the Motion Picture Association of America virtually fails to acknowledge that teenagers are capable of putting across behaviors that are not socially acceptable. The reality is that many teenagers are likely to identify with characters in the film and that the most activities shown are actually perfectly normal for teenagers.
The chart is meant to emphasize the rating that each film should be provided with when concerning particular aspects like violence, sexuality, and drug use:
2 stands for G -- general audience
4 stands for PG -- parental guidance suggested
One study revealed Berry (2003) found that young children's retention of emotional information was greater in children viewing family sitcom than those who just watch an animated films or moppet program. This result justifies the fact that children are more likely to learn more due to the presence of human characters in family sitcoms as they find these characters more close to the reality than either cartoon or Muppet characters.
On investigating the type of family interaction shown in family sitcoms it was revealed that majority of family interactions were constructive or supportive in nature. Nonetheless, just about one fourth of these interactions were found to involve argument or negativity. Research shows that even though large amount of verbal and nonverbal interactions between siblings in family sitcoms were positive, nearly 40% of the examined behaviors were found to be negative (e.g., bullying, inappropriate remarks). (alma, Molen and Juliette, 171) As…
Berry, Gordon L., Developing Children and Multicultural Attitudes: The Systemic Psychosocial Influences of Television Portrayals in a Multimedia Society, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, ISSN 1099-9809, 11/2003, Volume 9, Issue 4, 2003, pp. 360-366
Bryant, J, A., Television and the American Family, Routledge, 2nd edition, 2000, 300- 350.
Corrigan, C, The impact of television viewing on young children, 2010, ISBN 9781124298979, 2010, 50- 70.
D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto. Attitudes toward TV advertising: A measure for children, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0193-3973, 2009, Volume 30, Issue 4, 2009, pp. 409-418
Television has become a necessity in today's world. From news to entertainment, from gossips to drama, from cooking to adventure, everything is showcased on it and this grab the attention of everyone despite of the race, gender, age, ethnicity or nationality they belong to. Almost all the people consider TV as their friend and an essential part of their lives and scientists, theorists and researchers have proved that what is shown on TV changes the viewer's perceptions and attitudes over the period of time. As rightly pointed out by Hammermeister, Winterstein, and Page (2005) in their research, "aside from occupational duties and sleep, the American nation spends more time watching television than at any other activity." (p.253) They also highlighted the fact that a normal American spends around 3-4 hours daily on watching TV which makes it 7-10 years of watching TV by the time he turns 70.…
Aber.ac.uk (2013). Cultivation Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/short/cultiv.html [Accessed: 17 Nov 2013].
Fisherhouse.com (2013). Cultivation Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.fisherhouse.com/courses/cultivation_theory.pdf [Accessed: 17 Nov 2013].
Gulisano, L. (2013). Cultivation Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.colorado.edu/communication/meta-discourses/Papers/App_Papers/Gulisano.htm [Accessed: 17 Nov 2013].
Hammermeister, J., Brock, B., Winterstein, D., Page, R. And Y (2005). Life without TV? Cultivation theory and psychosocial health characteristics of television-free individuals and their television-viewing counterparts. Health communication, 17 (3), pp. 253-264.
By examining violence and women in both Sin City and the Tekken series, one is able to see how seemingly similar representations of gender and violence actually create wildly different meanings depending on the particular medium. While Sin City and Tekken participate in the visual language of gender, when it comes to the relationship between gender and violence, Sin City focuses on the victimization of women's bodies at the hands of men while Tekken disavows any connection between the violence committed and the gender of those committing it. This analysis reveals an important distinction between violence committed by or against gendered individuals and violence committed because of gender, because as Tekken demonstrates, the former situation actually offers the possibility for a more expansive representation of gender.
Bryce, J.O., & utter, J. (2003). Gender dynamics and the social and spatial organization of computer gaming. Leisure Studies, 22(1), 1-15.
Bryce, J.O., & Rutter, J. (2003). Gender dynamics and the social and spatial organization of computer gaming. Leisure Studies, 22(1), 1-15.
Funk, J.B., Baldacci, H.B., Pasold, T., & Baumgardner, J. (2004). Violence exposure in real-life, video games, television, movies, and the internet: is there desensitization? Journal
of adolescence, 27(1), 23-39.
Namco Bandai (2009). Tekken 6 [videogame]. Tokyo: Katsuhiro Harada.
(Hill 83; Javors 35)
e are not alone in this. In China, often accused of attempting to mimic estern culture, the producers of an RTV show "Ying Zai Zhongguo," or translated somehow as "in" in English draw a similar conclusion:
their hope that the program would encourage more people in China to start their own businesses. Song enming...hoped the show would introduce the "positive power" of entrepreneurship. Ms. Zhou said she hoped potential entrepreneurs would learn the importance of both perseverance and passion. There was much more in the same vein. (Fallows)
Perhaps there is some altruism at the end of the tunnel when considering the cultural benefit of RTV. But the preponderance of the evidence seems to suggest that there is something deeply missing in the American psyche that needs to be healed. Is RTV the cure or part of the problem? This is the conundrum that researchers face.…
Breyer, Richard. "Reality TV: More Mirror Than Window." World and I Jan. 2004: 100.
Fallows, James. "Win in China! A Reality-TV Show Is Teaching the Chinese How to Succeed in Business." The Atlantic Monthly Apr. 2007: 72-84.
Hill, Annette. Reality TV: Audiences and Popular Factual Television. New York: Routledge, 2005.
Javors, Irene Rosenberg. "Reality TV Escape from Reality?." Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association 7.1 (2004): 35.
The scene between Jules, Vincent and Brett is one that clearly defines Hollywood's obsession with depicting the classic struggle between good vs. evil, but with a humorous twist that makes the scene appealing to a variety of audiences.
Violence is definitely evident in the words, deeds and actions of all the characters portrayed in the film. It is so available and accepted in fact, that an outsider looking in might presume that violence was the 'norm' rather than an extreme aspect of pop culture within the United States.
The filmmaker successfully depicts the paradoxical nature of violence in this movie, and attempts to incorporate the struggle of good vs. evil into the every day actions of many of the characters, in particular the lead character Jules. No where is this more evident than when Jules quotes "Ezekiel" noting that righteous men will always be beset on all sides by the…
Massing, Michael. "Movie Violence, Still Playing." Washington Post, Sunday July 4, 1999. p. B01, Retrieved March 8, 2005: http://www.lionlamb.org/movie_violence_still_playing.htm
Olinger, O.J. "Liberal Hollywood?" JDHauser.com, 2003. Retrieved March 8, 2005: http://www.jdhauser.com/Olinger/olinger_072203
Schneider, J. (2004). "New Hollywood Violence." Manchester: Manchester University
Press; as reviewed by Tom Gordon, 2003. Retrieved March 8, 2005: http://members.bellatlantic.net/~sschneid/NHV.htm
The Content Dominance of Reality TV
Few forces have emerged with greater dominance or less artistic appeal than that of reality television, which has largely defined primetime content for the last decade. hat at one time appeared to be a fad, or a phenomenon at worst, ultimately reached a crescendo as the best path to high ratings, bid advertising dollars and household names. This is the pattern of media content which perhaps best reflects certain cultural qualities distinct to our time and place. Indeed, our collective embrace of this form of television, which allegedly depicts real individuals living real lives or facing real problems in front of national viewing audiences, suggests both a desire to see ourselves on the screen and, simultaneously, a desire to feel better about ourselves by observing the lurid, embarrassing and pathetic moments experienced by the 'stars' of reality television.
This idea is…
Elite Daily. (2012). The Detrimental Effect Of Reality TV On Our Society. Elitedaily.com
Fahner, M. (2012). The real effects of reality TV. USA Today College.
Miller, A. (2013). Hook, Line and Sinker: Reality TV and Its Impact In Our Culture. In the Mix.
Classical Experiment on Violence in Video Games
I a design a classical experiment Violence video games, Elements include: • Identify components • What research question? • What hypothesis? • How select subjects assign a group? • How conduct experiment? Describe procedures.
Design of a classical experiment on Violence in video games
The game will involve the use of the following apparatus. They include;
A video game for example, a Nintendo 64 game system
Appropriate game cartridges, including one violent video game (wrestling) and one nonviolent video game (basketball). In the wrestling game, the human violence should be prevalent in that the object of the game is to punch, kick, and use blunt weapon and other wrestling moves to subdue the opponent. While, the basketball (NBA LIVE '99), game is meant to have no violence since the player is not supposed to hurt the opponent and if it happens, the…
Funk, J.B. (2005). Children's Exposure to Violent Video Games and Desensitization to Violence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(3), 387-404. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2005.02.009
Uhlmann, E., & Swanson, J. (2004). Exposure to violent video games increases automatic aggressiveness. Journal of Adolescence, 27(1), 41-52. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2003.10.004
For small amounts of viewing, achievement increased with viewing, but as viewing increased beyond a certain point, achievement decreased. That function was found for each of the 3 ages studied, but optimal viewing time -- the apex of the function - was different at each age and decreased with the age of the students. (Razel, 2001)
Research Showing Positive Effects on Children
On the other hand, there is some research that disagrees that television has a profound negative effect on a child's behavior, health and cognitive ability. This research does not support the hypothesis that television is bad for children. There is observation
Television and Children 7 research that shows that television can be a positive influence in a child's learning process. The television can inform, entertain, and educate children in many ways.
Even though there is an abundance of children's shows that promote violence and other generally un-educational topics,…
1. Comstock, George A., Eli A. Rubinstien, and John P. Murray. Television and Social Behavior: Television's Effects: Further Explorations. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health, 1972.
2. Winn, Marie. The Plug-In Drug. New York, NY: Viking Penguin Press, 1985.
3. Children and the News Retreived July 26, 2006 at http://aacap.org/page.ww?name=Children+and+The+News§ion=Facts+for+Families
4. Razel, M. (2001). The complex model of television viewing and educational achievement. Journal of Educational Research, 94, 371-379.
Violent TV Effect on Kids
Effects of Violent TV Programming and How to Impose Limitations to Exposure
"Violence on Television -- What Do Children Learn? What Can Parents Do?" By the American Psychological Association (APA) provides an introspective view into how violence on television affects children and presents an argument that exposure to violence should be monitored. Alternately, Tim Goodman provides an argument based upon personal opinions and observations in which he defends television programming and shifts the blame of exposure onto the individual. Both articles provide an insight into violence on television and what can be done to limit exposure to said violence.
In "Violence on Television -- What Do Children Learn? What Can Parents Do?," the American Psychological Association provides evidence that supports their claim that exposure to violence on television has a negative impact on children, provided these children are exposed to violent television programming. According to…
Sex and Violence in V
Sex and Violence on V and in the Movies:
Should Sex and Violence Continue to be Restricted for American Audiences?
here are many things that our society has been exposed to, especially with the advent of technology, and many of these things have not been positive. For instance, the new generation's constant obsession with sex and violence, one may state, is not exactly healthy. Yet younger and younger children know, from the internet, video games, and television shows, about sex and violence, and how these are portrayed in daily life. hough children must be aware of various things, sometimes, they need not learn of such topics at a young age. his paper will, therefore, argue that sex and violence on television and in the movies should continue to be restricted to minors, as it currently is, and will provide various opinions and facts on this…
The movie ratings of today vary in severity. The MPAA website explains, very clearly, why it chooses to restrict various movies, and why ratings are necessary. For instance, on its website, it clearly includes a page that has all ratings, which vary from G (General Audiences) to NC-17 (No One Under 17 and Under Admitted). It is important, due to the gruesomeness of some films and television shows, as well as due to sexual nature, that parents do follow these guidelines, thereby allowing children to learn, at their own pace and at a proper age, rather than in an unrealistic way, often portrayed by television and movies, what sex and violence truly means and how harmful these can sometimes be to society, as well as how they can affect it. This can mean that parents should truly try to abide by the ratings given by the MPAA, which, again, include G (General Audiences a.k.a all ages), PG (Parental Guidance Suggested a.k.a some material may not be suitable for children), PG-13 (Parents Strongly Cautioned, no minor under 13 without parents admitted), R (Children under 17 Require Accompanying Parent or Adult Guardian), and NC-17 (No One 17 and Under Admitted).[footnoteRef:1] There is a reason why these guidelines are in place, and for this reason, parents should follow them. [1: "What Each Rating Means." Motion Picture Association of America. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. . ]
The reason why this paper argues so strongly pro-censorship and the need thereof is not just because of those individuals who have already instituted this system for a certain purpose, but also because there are various articles and studied written on the topic as to how widely and negatively children can be affected by being exposed to the harshness of humankind from a young age, especially with regard to violence and sex. The Parents Television Council, for instance, has many papers from which to start.[footnoteRef:2] And yet another website offering advice with regards to this topic is Parenthood in America.[footnoteRef:3] In this latter website's article, "Protecting Children from Harmful Television," it is clear to see why ratings are necessary. As the article states, "Much research suggests that television viewing is related to a host of negative outcomes in children. Studies have found that television viewing is associated with aggression, a "desensitization" to violence, and increased fear […] Given that children's exposure to television is inevitable, parents may wonder what they can do to protect their children from experiencing these and other negative effects. The purpose of this paper is to discuss one option for controlling children's television viewing: the use of television ratings. More specifically, this paper will briefly describe the history and development of television ratings, discuss three of the major problems associated with television ratings, and then finally point out some of the other methods that are available to help parents cope with the presence of television in their children's lives."[footnoteRef:4] [2: "Studies on Violence and Sex in the Media - Parents Television Council." Parents Television Council - Because Our Children Are Watching. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. . ] [3: "Protecting Children from Harmful Television: TV Ratings and the V-chip." Parenthood in America. 15 Oct. 1998. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. . ] [4: "Protecting Children from Harmful Television: TV Ratings and the V-chip." Parenthood in America. 15 Oct. 1998. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. . ]
To further cement these facts and conclusively argue that children should be protected from sex and violence on TV and in movies, one need only to look at some examples in which children were exposed to such instances at a young age. One such example refers to the 2004 Super Bowl, which TV rating company Nielsen "estimates that 6.6 million kids 2-11 were watching at about the time that CBS's little halftime fiasco developed when Justin Timberlake ripped off a piece of Jackson's bodice, exposing her right breast to the nationwide audience. Another 7.3 million teens 12-17 were tuned in at that time as well."[footnoteRef:5] For these reasons, one should not throw caution to the wind and not care about children watching harmful television, but should rather make a point to protect children from these harmful effects for as long as possible, at least until they have reached an age at which they can truly understand how sex and violence affect society, and what is good and bad about these issues. [5: "Sex, Violence, and Profanity in the Media Fact Sheet, TV Statistics - Parents Television Council." Parents Television Council - Because Our Children Are Watching. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. . ]
causes of teen violence, "Missing the Mark" by Jackson Katz and Sur Jhally, and "Stop Blaming Kids and TV" by Mike Males. Katz and Jhally argue that teen violence is a male-centric occurrence caused by socialization that promotes violent masculinity. Males provide a gender-neutral view of teen violence that he believes is caused by parents who engage in domestic violence.
Because of the obvious differences in these theories, it's tempting to try to advocate one premises over the other, but further thought shows that these two theories are complimentary because the family plays such a large part in the male socialization process.
Both articles deal with the subject of teenage violence and avoid placing blame on teens for their troubled behavior. Instead, these articles present the idea of imitation as a cause of teen violence, but they differ on who the kids are imitating. Males states that teens are copying…
meeting class, wrote subject relationship violence media (attached 'First Paper') . hen revisit thoughts, changed? How materials semester complicated, deepened, reinforced, transformed understand relationship violence media, sense matters? Draw SPECIFIC articles terms concepts materials show process development.
Violence in relationship with the media
hile society has experienced significant progress during recent years, the masses continue to be obsessed with diverse concepts such as sex and violence. The media exploits people's obsessions by using these respective concepts whenever it gets the chance to do so. hile there is much controversy with regard to the effect that this has on the masses, it is generally accepted that many have trouble filtering information and are negatively affected as a consequence of being bombarded with information promoting violence.
hile many are inclined to say that the media simply provides society with stories that have nothing to do with the real world and that cannot…
Al-Taee, Nasser, "Representations of the Orient in Western Music: Violence and Sensuality," (Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2010)
Andersen, Robin, "Consumer Culture and TV Programming"
Bagot, Martin, "GTA 5 torture row: Teachers slam scenes of extreme violence in most expensive game ever," Retrieved from http://www.mirror.co.uk/lifestyle/staying-in/video-games/gta-5-torture-row-teachers-2278689
Best, Jessica, "GTA V: Violent dad throttles girlfriend who asked him to stop playing game hours after its midnight release," Retrieved from http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/gta-v-violent-dad-throttles-2334297
This can be directly linked to the frustration-aggression theory. Writer Smith continues, "In this theory, frustration and aggression are linked in a cause and effect relationship. Frustration is the cause of aggression and aggression is the result of frustration" (Smith, 1999). The aggressive behavior may be passed down from parent to child. Studies also indicate that aggressive parenting often produces aggressive children who continue the behavior.
There is a need for reducing domestic violence. Using these theories, one way to reduce the behavior is to reduce the frustration of poverty and lack of education. This is a social condition that can change, and should change. By helping people change their circumstances, they can experience less frustration and more satisfaction. educing outside violent influences, such as games and parental behavior is important too, as is education violent partners how to manage their violent tendencies.
Smith, A.K. (1999) Theories of aggression.…
Smith, A.K. (1999) Theories of aggression. Retrieved from the Bryn Mawr College Web site: http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/neuro/neuro99/web3/Smith.html3 Aug. 2006.
Firearms Legislation and Firearms-Related Violence in Europe
This paper examines the relationship between firearms legislation and gun-related violence across countries and regions in Europe. The focus of the paper is to identify possible sources of literature to help answer questions regarding whether legislation is an effective tool in reducing firearms-related violence. The paper focuses on variance of gun violence rates throughout Europe, gun legislation, and possible national strategies for addressing the issue of gun violence. It finds that there are many variables that impact regions and can effect greater or lesser rates of gun violence -- factors such as education, culture, economic stability, political instability, and so on. No two countries are the same in terms of people, customs, traditions, ideals, and execution of the law. It is therefore important to better understand how culture plays a role in determining the effects of firearms-related violence in throughout Europe. This information…
Alcohol, Drugs, And Domestic Violence
Family violence - or male aggression against women in a relationship setting - also known as domestic violence (DV) is most certainly a devastating social and moral problem in our society; but it is also a serious police problem, and an expensive health problem. In fact, the annual health care cost associated with the manifestations of DV is estimated to run as high as $857 million in the United States (odiguez, et al., 2001). But moreover, DV takes a toll on American families that is much greater than any dollar amount could ever reflect - and, in addition, DV is a social blemish on the face of America that seems to be getting worse, not better. The "causes" of violence in the family - why men act aggressively against their wives and girlfriends and even their children - are varied and complicated; but in too…
Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly (2003). Alcohol use may increase the likelihood of domestic violence. 15 p7.
Brain, Paul F. (1986). Alcohol and Aggression. London: Croom Helm.
Brookoff, Daniel, M.D., Ph.D. (1997). Drugs, Alcohol, and Domestic Violence
In Memphis: Research in Progress Seminar Series. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.
Here he is talking about the same ideal of non-violence for the sake of mental purification. Yet he gives a violent example when describing how this tranquility works. He says: "Take, for example, Emperor Shun's execution of the four criminals. They themselves had committed the crimes and Shun, therefore executed them. Did Shun have any personal feeling or selfish desire in the matter?..." So it appears that the important this is not avoiding all forms of violence in the world or in action, but avoiding all forms of violence of the mind. So a martial artist in the above example may be able to intervene violently to stop a rape, and yet do so without any hate or anger in his heart.
That this is an internal peace is obvious when it is contrasted to the negative ideal of judgementalism or anger. Many people would argue that society should execute…
Though the potential for difficulty with the policy is there the standard is set for the concrete results of removing individuals from positions of physical power who do not have the skills to utilize the power in a safe and effective manner to protect and serve without further victimizing the community.
Though some would argue that such tactics do not take into account anomalous actions, such as in cases where individuals show little sign of abuse potential before incidences occur, but it is clear that these are anomalous and should not be regarded as the most significant risk of the program. Another concern would be that the program will deter officers from performing important tasks as a result of the fear of association with a permanent mark on ones record, as a result of a use of force incident. This may be a real fear, as the system may result…
Up to this point many technology-based systems and programs have been supplemented by federal funding, but even in the face of increased threats such funding may run out and leave the individual, especially small police forces in jeopardy of the loss of technology or the inability to upgrade to meet the demands of the changing face of crime or even quickly communicate between individuals and departments. (Schwabe, Davis & Jackson, 2001, p. 46) the foundational issues with regard to the utilization of technology and its cost to departments have yet to be answered fully, but likely they will, slowly and with many changes.
Lastly the society demands for technological policing, coupled with the collective fear of loss of rights of privacy is a puzzle the law enforcement community has yet to fully respond to. The public wishes for police to rely on servaialnce, both private and public to prevent and solve crimes and yet does not wish to be recorded and watched through the same system. This is an issue that will likely escalate in the coming years, partly as a result of terrorism prevention and response.
Schwabe, W., Davis, L.M., & Jackson, B.A. (2001). Challenges and Choices for Crime-Fighting Technology: Federal Support of State and Local Law Enforcement. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Today, television has a relatively negative reputation among parents and researchers for its negative influences on young minds. It appears that, the younger the mind, the more negative the impact of television on such minds. However, authors like Fisch (2008, p. 10) point out that, while it is true that much programming promotes violence as a means of solving problems, there are those that take their educational and influential responsibilities more seriously. There are few children, or indeed adults, alive today, for example, who do not know the name Sesame Street. Worldwide, the show has gained a reputation under many translations and different titles, but the premise remains: preschool children worldwide learn both intellectual, social, and emotional skills by the content presented within the show. The majority of research relating to television and its influence has focused on the negative side of its impact. Less attention has been…
Adasiak, P.F. (2008, Jan 18). Neighborhood design: a Sesame Street-based analysis. The Fairbanks Pedestrian. Retrieved from: http://fairbankspedestrian.wordpress.com/2008/01/18/neighborhood-design-a-sesame-street-based-analysis-part-1/
Ashby, E. (2012). Sesame Street. Retrieved from: http://www.commonsensemedia.org/tv-reviews/sesame-street
Bryson, C. (2012). "Sesame Street" TV Show Review. Retrieved from: http://kidstvmovies.about.com/od/tvshowreview1/fr/sesameseason.htm
Fisch, S.M. (2008). Children's learning from television. Televizion. Retrieved from: http://www.br-online.de/jugend/izi/english/publication/televizion/18_2005_E/fisch.pdf
Law Enforcement TV Shows
The mass media in the contemporary society and for the last few decades has seemed to be addicted to sensationalism. The masses appear to be particularly supportive of stories that have been exaggerated for the simple purpose of captivating viewers' attention. As a consequence, diverse media devices take advantage of the opportunity and produce a series of works specifically designed as a response to people's needs. TV police shows in particular are aimed at providing viewers with stories that are likely to impress them and in many cases certain aspects of these respective stories are fabricated.
Reality TV shows involving law enforcement officers catching criminals have become more and more common in recent years. Most of these shows display both the honorable and risky lifestyle of police officers and the ruthlessness of criminals. However, in many cases it is difficult for viewers not to feel…
Doyle, A. "Arresting Images: Crime and Policing in Front of the Television Camera," (University of Toronto Press, 2003)
Violence in Media Contribute to Violent Behavior in Children?
In this day and age, the media is part and parcel of most people's lives in such a way that there is an interaction with media in different forms each day. People access media for many reasons, some of which are to gather information, to be entertained and in order to advance their education. In today's media, violence has become a common feature, raising fears of what the impact of this might be. This issue is prevalent all around the world today and has been accessed by people of all ages, races and religions. Questions have been raised as to the effect this violence has had and will have on the viewer (Hinkley, et al., 2014). Media can be accessed in various forms, including television, radios, films, games and the internet. All these mediums have a potential to affect people's lives,…
Bushman, B. J., Gollwitzer, M., & Cruz, C. (2015). There is broad consensus: Media researchers agree that violent media increase aggression in children, and pediatricians and parents concur. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 4, 200-214. doi:10.1037/ppm0000046.
Ferguson, C. J. (2015). Does Media Violence Predict Societal Violence? It Depends on What You Look at and When. Journal of Communication 65, E1 -- E22. doi:10.1111/jcom.12129
Ferguson, C. J., Olson, C. K., Kutner, L. A., & Warner, D. E. (2014). Violent video games, catharsis seeking, bullying, and delinquency: A multivariate analysis of effects. Crime & Delinquency, 60, 764-784. doi:10.1177/0011128710362201
Greitemeyer, T., & Mugge, D. O. (2014). Video games do affect social outcomes: a meta-analytic review of the effects of violent and prosocial video game play. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 578-589. doi:10.1177/0146167213520459
It explains how an Iraq War Vet became a military consultant in Hollywood. It quotes a professor who says that as the war goes on, the stories of war will become the fabric of American culture and identity. For example, many popular television programs began to incorporate the Iraq War into their stories. hese include the episodes from ER, Las Vegas, Extreme Makeover, comedy Arrested Development, and soap opera Days of Our Lives. he article quotes one producer saying: "I think people are just ready to watch . . . something that is contemporary and important and dramatic and exciting." his comment by a producer shows that war generates interest in war stories and thus people's love and glorifying of war stories. Explaining to my viewers that such breeding of interest in war stories may have very negative consequences for our culture and the nation is important to my blog.…
The second material I am using is an article by ABC News Good Morning America "Iraq War Images Seep into Popular Culture." It is available online at http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/IraqCoverage/story?id=759253&page=1 , This material mainly explains how the war in Iraq is becoming part of America at home. It explains how an Iraq War Vet became a military consultant in Hollywood. It quotes a professor who says that as the war goes on, the stories of war will become the fabric of American culture and identity. For example, many popular television programs began to incorporate the Iraq War into their stories. These include the episodes from ER, Las Vegas, Extreme Makeover, comedy Arrested Development, and soap opera Days of Our Lives. The article quotes one producer saying: "I think people are just ready to watch . . . something that is contemporary and important and dramatic and exciting." This comment by a producer shows that war generates interest in war stories and thus people's love and glorifying of war stories. Explaining to my viewers that such breeding of interest in war stories may have very negative consequences for our culture and the nation is important to my blog.
Third media material I am using is the "war and militarism" section of FAIR [Fairness & Accuracy in Reporting]. The website is available at http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=7&issue_area_id=26 . FAIR is dedicated to challenging the mainstream media reporting. It has specific sections that deal with a variety of issues, but most important for my blog is the section on war and militarism. The articles here show how often mainstream media reports present wrong impressions of wars and militarism. The media often lies about the realities of war and militarism and many people accept media representations as truth and fail to see many negative consequences of wars. For instance, Pat Tillman, a former popular soccer player who went to war but became an anti-war soldier and killed in a friendly fire, was at first reported to have been killed in a heroic fight with the Taliban. FAIR helps to expose these kinds of lies of the mainstream media.
All three materials are important for my blog. The documentary extra featuring George Gerbner explains the relationship between violent images in the media and American culture. The video tells how heavy exposure to violent images has affected America's national psyche. Many people are addicted to violence and crave for more and more violent imagery in films and on TV. The ABC News article is important to my blog because it explains how an ongoing war -- in this case, the Iraq War -- enters the American society. It explains how the Iraq War is becoming part of our popular culture. And the third media material is invaluable to my blog because it regularly publishes articles that are relevant to the topic of war, violence, and the nation. I will add these materials to my blog and also add my detailed commentaries because my purpose is not only to present media materials, but also try to explain some of the consequences of our culture's increasing obsession with war and violence.