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Talent Management - A Critic
In today's business environment, there exists cutthroat competition for talent as well as need for strategic business growth. The contemporary environment for business calls for strategic measures to recruit, manage and retain an effective and talented workforce. This creates the need human resource management through a well formulated planning strategy (Budhwar & Mellahi, 2016). According to Budhwar and Mellahi (2016), human resource planning entails, coming up with measure of identifying talent among the workforce and managing these talents in a strategic manner. This paper presents a critical on strategic talent management by Collings and Mellahi (2009).
Summary of the Article
The authors identify the scope of talent management by highlighting the different components of human resource management and their contribution to a sustainable organization. In the article it is evidenced there is no clear and concise definition of talent in the field of human resource…
Budhwar, P. S., & Mellahi, K. (2016). Handbook of Human Resource Management in the Middle East.
Collings, D., & Mellahi, K. (2009). Strategic talent management: a review and research agenda. Human Resource Management Review, 19(4), 304-313.
Conkin, D. J. (2005). Critiquing research for use in practice. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 19, 183-186.
Trans-Theoretical Model for Health Behaviors
The adoption of a healthier and new clinical behavior consists of multiple factors. The oger's diffusion theory is helpful in adopting specific clinical health behaviors. oger identifies compatibility, relative advantages, complexity, observability, and trialability as the elements that determine a change clinical behavior. (Sanson-Fisher, 2004).
Moreover, the TTM ("Trans-theoretical Model of Behavioral Change") (James & Wayne, 1997 p 38) is one of the most popular theoretical models used to modify a health behavior. The TTM focuses on decision-making with reference to the abilities of an individual rather biological and social influences on human behavior. The paper uses the TTM for the implementation plan for heathier changes of diabetes patients.
Overview of the TTM
The trans-theoretical model of health behavioral changes involves six changes: Contemplation, preparation, pre-contemplation, maintenance, action and termination. In essence, the model assesses the individual readiness to employ a healthier behavior as well…
Campbell, J. (2012). Diabetes Empowerment. Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, 14
James O. P. & Wayne, F. V. (1997) The Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior Change. American Journal of Health Promotion.12 (1):38-48.
Lach, H.W. Everard, K.M. Hisghstein, G. et al. (2004). Application of the Transtheoretical Model to Health Education for Older Adults. Health Promotion Practice. 5 (1): 88-93.
Path Diagrams of Research Models
This current research developed and tested a model of work engagement contagion in which the organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and competitive behaviors of coworkers influence employees' engagement with their jobs. In a sample of 1,422 departments of an insurance firm, multilevel analysis revealed that coworkers' OCBs and competitive behaviors explain variance in individual work engagement over and above that explained by other individual and group-level predictors. Broadly speaking, these results suggest that coworkers' OCBs and competitive behaviors play critical roles in explaining why people are more engaged with their work. Implications are discussed.
Hypothesis 1: Coworkers' OCB is positively related to work engagement.
Hypothesis 2: Coworkers' competitive behaviors mediate the positive relationship between coworkers' OCBs and focal employee work engagement.
OCB (+1) WORK ENGAGEMENT
OCB (+2) COMPETITVE BEHAVIORS WORK ENGAGEMENT
The OCB's are the independent variables. The employees' competitive behaviors are the mediators. The…
Criminal Acts and Offender Behavior
Theoretical Dimensions of Criminal Behavior
Laws exist to maintain order and peace and provide for the safety and well-being of all members of society. Acts that disrupt and threaten this system of order are deemed criminal in nature and are therefore punishable by law. The psychology of criminal behavior addresses the thought processes that result in deviant acts and the motivations that drive them. It is believed that criminal types operate from a self-centered framework that shows little, if any regard, for the safety and well-being of others (Merton, 1968).
There are generally three broad theoretical models of criminal behavior: biological, psychological, and sociological. Most theoretical models overlap in their analysis and point to the genetic predisposition of some individuals toward criminal behavior, as well as environmental influences (Morley & Hall, 2003). Most commonly both play a part in developing a person's tendency to engage…
Holmes, S.E., Slaughter, J.R., & Kashani, J. (2001). Risk factors in childhood that lead to the development of conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 31, 183-193.
Merton, Robert K. (1968). Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.
Morley, K., & Hall, W. (2003). Is there a genetic susceptibility to engage in criminal acts? Australian Institute of Criminology: Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 263, 1-6.
Raine, A. (2002). The biological basis of crime. In J.Q Wilson & J. Petrsilia (Eds.) Crime: Public policies for crime control. Oakland: ICS Press.
Theoretical Foundations of Nursing:
Nursing can be described as a science and practice that enlarges adaptive capabilities and improves the transformation of an individual and the environment. This profession focuses on promoting health, improving the quality of life, and facilitating dying with dignity. The nursing profession has certain theoretical foundations that govern the nurses in promoting adaptation for individuals and groups. These theoretical foundations include theories, theory integration, reflection, research and practice, and assimilation.
Grand Nursing Theory:
There are several grand nursing theories that were developed by various theorists including the Science of Unitary Human Beings by Martha ogers, Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model, and Systems Model by Betty Neuman. Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model is based on the consideration of the human being as an open system. She argues that the system reacts to environmental stimuli via cognator and regulator coping techniques for individuals. On the other hand, the…
American Sentinel (2012). 5 Steps for Nurses to Stay Updated with Health Care Changes.
Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.nursetogether.com/5-steps-for-nurses-to-stay-updated-with-health-care-changes
Andershed, B. & Olsson, K. (2009). Review of Research Related to Kristen Swanson's Middle-range Theory of Caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23, 598-610.
"Application of Theory in Nursing Process." (2012, January 28). Nursing Theories: A
Healthcare Reform Models
Health Care Reform Models
Shim and colleagues (2012) argue for taking advantage of provisions within the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 that emphasizes preventive and integrated care. They propose that the primary care setting is ideal for screening patients for signs of mental illness and associated risk factors. A mental health wellness program could also include coaches and other experts that interface with patients on an individual basis, including at the patient's home.
Long-Term Behavioral Health Care
Bao and colleagues (2012) examined four patient populations defined by disease severity and ability to pay, and then assessed how these four groups will fare under the behavioral health provisions in the ACA. Patients with private insurance and suffering from mild to moderate mental illness will probably receive the best care at a Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH). The authors suggest that the presence of…
Nursing Concepts and Theory
Conceptual-Theoretical Structure paper
Personal belief about nursing theory and knowledge development process for nursing practice
All nursing theories play an important role in defining nursing and giving the roles that nurses need to play. Originally, the role of nurses was simply to carry out activities as instructed by doctors, however, over the years, this role has been changed to include more responsibilities as the nursing world has evolved. Nursing theories describe, predict and explain the various phenomena in nursing practice and thus create foundations for nursing practice. They also help to generate knowledge in the field of nursing and to point the direction which the field should develop in future. This view is supported by Carper (1978)
who states that nursing theories elaborate nursing practice and create professional boundaries for the profession. Nursing knowledge comes from research that has been conducted on nursing which forms scientific…
Anderson, A.M. (2005). Nursing Leadership, Management, and Professional Practice for the LPN/LVN (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company.
Carper, B. (1978). Fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing. Advances in Nursing Science, 1(1), 13-23.
Clark, M.J. (2003). Community health nursing: Caring for populations (Fourth ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Dayer-Berenson, L. (2010). Cultural Competencies for Nurses: Impact on Health and Illness. Burlington, Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Attitude-Influence model of reading involves teaching good attitudes about reading in an effort to influence how children feel about the reading experience. Attitude was chosen as the most important component of the model because it plays such a strong role in research done on a psychological level. However, attitude can be hard to measure, because it is very subjective and can fluctuate wildly. That is one of the cons of the attitude-influence model, and one of the cons of attempting to address attitude in general when it comes to research. However, in this model, attitude is not all that is considered. Influence is also very important. Influence means how a person is influenced to read and how he or she sees reading. If a person's attitude is good but there is no influence, reading might not take place. The same is true if the attitude is bad but there is…
Tracy is a thirteen-year-old, Caucasian female, who is being raised by her mother, Melanie in Los Angeles. Also living in the home is Tracy's older brother Mason, who is fifteen. Tracy's parents are divorced, with Melanie as custodial parent. Tracy is in regular contact by telephone with her father, Travis, who is now remarried with a new baby. Travis is employed with a decent salary but has suffered periods of unemployment in the past; Melanie is a high-school dropout who receives child support but otherwise makes a basic subsistence income as a hairdresser for children and women, operating out of her own home. She is a recovering alcoholic who attends weekly A.A. meetings, but most of her social circle is from the recovery movement. For example, Melanie's boyfriend Brady, who is about ten years younger than Melanie but still substantially older than the children, also regularly stays at…
Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V.S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press.
Freud, S. (1963). The unconscious. Standard edition Vol. 14. London: Hogarth Press.
Gardner, S. (1991). The unconscious. In Neu, J. (Ed.) The Cambridge companion to Freud. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Greene, R. (2008). General systems theory. In Greene, R. (Ed.) Human behavior theory and social work practice. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. 165-193.
Dual Coding Theory (DCT) was originally developed for memory research. The basic notion is that images and words influence memory differently. DCT has been applied to reading and has been used to improve reading programs. The assertion is that learning to read a new word is more efficient if more than one part of the brain is activated, by paring verbal and nonverbal codes. Verbal code would be language in any form; nonverbal codes are tangible objects, pictures, feelings, and events. If one code is forgotten, the second code can serve as a backup during word retrieval. By paring written words, pronunciations, pictures, and experience we are focusing on all levels of processing in DCT which fosters learning. The following paper describes the basic elements of DCT.
According to Dual Coding Theory (DCT) information is represented in the brain via both verbal and imagined codes (Paivio, 1971). These two…
Nursing Theorist: Sr. oy Adaptation Model
The oy Adaptation model for Nursing had its beginning when Sister Callista oy happened to get admitted in the Masters Program of pediatric nursing in the University of California, Los Angeles, in the year 1964. At that time, Sr. Callista was familiar with the idea of 'adaptation' in nursing, and it must be mentioned that Sr. Callista's adviser at that time was Dorothy E. Johnson, who believed firmly in the need to define nursing as a means of focusing the development of knowledge, for the practice of nursing. When Sr. Callista oy started working with children in the pediatric ward of the hospital, she was quite impressed with the basic resiliency of the small children who had been admitted into the wards for treatment. This was why when the first seminar in pediatric nursing was called for; Sr. Callista oy proposed that the basic…
"Callista Roy's Adaptation Model" Retrieved From
http://www.geocities.com/ninquiry2002/callistaroy Accessed 28 October, 2005
'Case Study" Retrieved From
http://www.geocities.com/ninquiry2002/casestudy.html Accessed 28 October, 2005
Psychoanalytic Model (Object elations)
In this paper, the object relations psychoanalytic model will be employed for solving a family issue; the family in question is taken from movie. The paper will further delineate key object relations concepts, the theory's assumptions, and its application to the aforementioned movie.
The chosen model
The object relations concept is a variant of the psychoanalytic theory, which deviates from the idea held by Sigmund Freud that mankind is driven by acts of aggression and that of sexual drives. Instead, psychoanalytic theory proposes the notion that man is primarily driven by a need to forge relationships with others (i.e. contact). Object relations therapists aim to aid clients in uncovering early mental pictures that can further any current problems in their associations with other people, and adapt them to improve interpersonal performance.
Basic Concepts in Object elations
The word 'object' in the object relations concept does not…
Balk, D. (1996). Models for understanding adolescent coping with bereavement. Death Studies, 20: 367-387.
___. (1990). The self-concepts of bereaved adolescents: Sibling death and its aftermath. Journal of Adolescent Research, 5(1): 112-132.
Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.
Daniel, V. (2007, October). Object Relations Theory. Retrieved from Sonoma State University: https://www.sonoma.edu/users/d/daniels/objectrelations.html
Introduction and Background of the Four-Frame Model
The multi-frame model developed by Bolman and Deal provides a useful approach for organizational leaders to gain an improved understanding of their respective roles, as well as providing the ability for them to gain new insights into complex organizational situations to facilitate their decision-making (oddy, 2010). For instance, Monahan, Shah, Bao and ana (2015) report that, "Bolman and Deal (1991) defined these frames that assist decision-making with regard to the specific situation" (p. 1). The four-frame model was developed by Bolman and Deal is based on the findings that had emerged from a wide range of leadership theory studies and identified four fundamental frames: (a) the structural frame (relates to hierarchy and formal rules), (b) the human resource frame (focuses on the people in the organization), (c) the political frame (views organizations as arenas where participants compete over resources, power, influence,…
Amsler, M. & Kirsch, K. (1994). Diagnostic tools for the systemic reform of schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
Andrade, M. S. (2011). Managing change -- engaging faculty in assessment opportunities. Innovations in Higher Education, 36, 217-233.
Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (1991). Leadership and management effectiveness: A multi-frame, multi-sector analysis. Human Resource Management, 30(4), 509-534.
Bolman, L., & Deal, T. (1990). Leadership orientations (self). Brookline, MA: Leadership Frameworks.
Psychoanalytic Model (Object elations)
The object relations concept is a variant of the psychoanalytic theory, which deviates from the idea held by Sigmund Freud that mankind is driven by aggressive and sexual drives. Instead, psychoanalytic theory puts forward the notion that man is primarily driven by a need to forge relationships with others (i.e. contact). Object relations therapists aim to aid clients in uncovering early mental pictures that can further any current problems in their associations with other people, and adapt them so as to improve interpersonal performance.
Basic Concepts in Object elations
The word 'object' in the object relations concept does not denote inanimate things but rather, it refers to significant individuals with whom one relates -- often, one's father, mother, or a primary caregiver. This term is also sometimes employed in referring to some part of an individual (e.g., the mental depictions of the important people in life,…
Good therapy. (2016, May 9). Who Practices Object Relations? Retrieved from GoodTherapy.org: http://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/types/object-relations
IPI. (2016). Object Relations Therapy. Retrieved from International Psychotherapy Institute: http://www.theipi.org/about-ipi/teaching-philosophy/36-general/about-ipi/82-object-relations-therapy
Scharff, J., & Scharff, D. (1992). Scharff Notes: A Primer of Object Relations Therapy. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
Identity specifically how the lens shapes the steps taken in the research process, using Box 3.1 as a guide.
The research study conducted by Sirin et al. (2008) represents a traditional approach to a mixed methods study. To examine the progression of this work as a way to explore how the lens shapes the research steps, we can place the study in such a form. First, the researchers incorporate mixed sets of social theories to help give a foundation for their inquiry. They have chose to work within social conflict theory, race, immigrant, and gender theories to incorporate into identifying the nature of Muslim-American adolescents in today's context. Next, the research turned towards provided a methodology to collect data, and a sample study of 97 Mulsim-American young adults were surveyed. This is then testing the hypothesis and defining the variables which are derived from the multiple theoretical bases. Survey questions…
Avgitidou, Sofia. (2009). Participation, roles and processes in a collaborative action research project: a reflexive account of the facilitator. Educational Action Research. 17(4):585-600
Sirin, S.R.; Bikmen, N.: Fine M. (2008). Exploring dual identification among Musli-American emerging adults: A mixed methods. Journal of Adolescence. 31(2):259-279.
There is a higher ratio of women in blue-collar positions
Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.
Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…
Fall, K.A., Holden, J.M. & Marquis, A. (2004) Theoretical models of counseling and psychotherapy New York: Taylor and Francis.
Freud, Sigmund. (1926). Inhibitions, symptoms, and anxiety, SE, 20(14): 111-205.
Kohlenberg, R.J., Bolling, M.Y., Kanter, J.W. & Parker, C.R. (2002) Clinical behavior analysis: where it went wrong, how it was made good again, and why its future is so bright. Behavior Analyst Today. 3(3): 248-253
Martz, E (2002) Principles of Eastern philosophies viewed from the framework of Yalom's four existential concerns. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling. 24(1): 31-42
ill Gates is perhaps a good example in this sense: Microsoft during the early 70s was but a mixture of their programmers, but they selected ill Gates to coordinate and organize their efforts because they saw him as the best prepared among them. This is also what named him chief software architect at Microsoft (besides the fact that he owned the company at that point) and he retained the respective function even after he was no longer CEO.
There are other particularities of leadership in the software development industry as well.
ecause the work activity is based on the existence of development teams that generally incorporate developers, testers and writers and which are led by a team leader or project manager, there is a distinctive importance attributed to the project manager or team leader. His or her job is many folded, which means that he probably needs to have all…
1. Spencer, Emily. Leadership Models and Theories: A Brief Overview. On the Internet at http://www.cda-acd.forces.gc.ca/cfli/engraph/research/pdf/12.pdf.Last retrieved on August 10, 2008
2. Models and Theories. On the Internet at http://www.stewart-associates.co.uk/leadership-models.aspx.Last retrieved on August 10, 2008
3. P.G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, (Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1997
4. G. Yukl, Leadership in Organizations, 4th Edition, (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1998
(Clark, 1) This is an approach which is given foundation by such theories as Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, which dictates that personnel will perform according to the manner in which certain ranked needs are met by leadership.
The Political Framework which is offered "suggests some characteristics linked to the concept of political leadership: (1) an interactive process, (2) the emphasis on individual political behavior, (3) the collective purpose, and (4) the non-routine influence over the political process." (Peral, 68) These are instructive in promoting such theoretical characteristics as coalition building which garners real support and dedication from members of the organization at every level and which balances the use of persuasion, negotiation and coercion as various instrumental ways to achieve intended organizational outcomes. (Clark, 1)
The fourth leadership framework is the Symbolic Framework, which relies upon the leader as a symbol through whom certain organizational characteristics and cultural conceits are…
Clark, D. (1998). Bolman and Deal's Four Framework Approach. NWLink. Online at http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/framwork.html
Meyer, K. (2006). The Structural Framework. University of Memphis. Online at https://umdrive.memphis.edu/kmeyer/.../Structural%20Frame.ppt
Peral, N. (1998). Political Leadership: A Tentative Framework. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 4(3), 68-83.
The works of Borko and Putnam (1998) expressed the contemporary perspectives to the concept of contextual learning. Situated recognition (uses both social and physical contexts),social cognition (uses an individual's construction of a given knowledge) as well as distributed cognition which employs or relates to both the social and situated nature of cognition (Clifford and Wilson,2000). While employing this ideas, I emphasize on problem solving, recognition of the fact that teaching as well as learning must occur within multiple contexts, assist my students in the process of learning, anchor my lesson and teachings on various diverse real life context of my students, encourage my students to learn from one another while also employing an authentic assessment technique.
Audience Analysis and Considerations
The audience basically comprises of adult learners who are either interested in advancing their careers or leaning of better ways of running their own firms. Their learning style is based…
ATHERTON JS (2002) Learning and Teaching: Learning from experience [Online]: UK: Available: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/experience.htm
Borko, H., and Putnam, R.T. "The Role of Context in Teacher Learning and Teacher Education." In Contextual Teaching and Learning: Preparing Teachers to Enhance Student Success in and Beyond School. Information Series No. 376. Columbus: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education, Center on Education for Training and Employment, College of Education, The Ohio State University, and Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education, American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, 1998. (ED 429-263)
Brown, B.L. Applying Constructivism in Vocational and Career Education. Information Series No. 378. Columbus: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education, on Education and Training for Employment, College of Education, The Ohio State University, 1998. (ED 428-298) http://cete.org / acve/majorpubs.asp
Clifford, M., and Wilson, M. "Contextual Teaching, Professional Learning, and Student Experiences: Lessons Learned from Implementation." Educational Brief no. 2. Madison: Center on Education and Work, University of Wisconsin-Madison, December 2000.
diverse population nurses must attend to, the concept of 'transcultural' nursing is important to understand. Instead of viewing health as a universal concept, transcultural nursing attempts to understand the conceptual building blocks of the nursing profession as cultural products that are socially-constructed. It strives to understand the similarities and differences between different health attitudes and practices (Leininger 1991). First developed by Madeline Leininger, transcultural nursing is founded upon the idea that the "health care providers need to be flexible in the design of programs, policies, and services to meet the needs and concerns of the culturally diverse population, groups that are likely to be encountered" (Transcultural nursing, 2012, Current Nursing).
Nurses must be culturally astute and adapt their practices to patient's cultural needs as well as to physical needs. This concept has been somewhat controversial within the nursing profession given that Western medicine's emphasis on preserving life and optimizing treatment…
Adult obesity facts. (2013).CDC. Retrieved: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html
Dorothea Orem's self-care deficit theory. (2012). Nursing Theories. Retrieved:
Milligan, F. (2008) Child obesity 2: recommended strategies and interventions. Nursing Times;
662). In other words, individuals coalesce around environments repetitively to form the collective. The collective structure stays even when the individual is alone. This is close to the collective representations of Durkheim, but it is based on innate or genetic structures that connect during the repetition of social encounters (which in Allport are not religious). The social bonding function is similar: "The collective-structure event-format (so called 'reality of the group') is thus preserved, though the particular contacts of individuals may vary in space, time, and number" (Allport, 1955, p. 662).
This interweaving with the collective has lasting effects on the individual structure. He says, "It is also worth noting that the collective structure itself is often represented, usually in a schematic or abridged format, in the meaning-cycles of the individuals involved, on the basis of their contacts with other individuals in the regular and repetitive course of the structure's operation"…
Allport, F.H. (1955). Theories of perception and the concept of structure: a review and critical analysis with an introduction to a dynamic-structural theory of behavior. New York: John Wiley.
Durkheim, E. (1984). The Division of labor in society W.D. Halls, Trans. New York: Free Press.
____. (1915). The Elementary forms of religious life J.W. Swain, Trans. New York: Free Press.
____. (1938). The Rules of sociological method S.A. Solovay & J.H Mueller, Trans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Still, this trait is mostly applicable within the growing services industry, whereas the industry and manufacturing fields still rely tenability on their machines and equipments to lead to the attainment of the pre-established objectives.
In such a setting then, the problems with the plant's machineries and equipments constitute a pivotal factor in the generation of delivery delays. The more stringent situation in this sense is represented in the case of lean times, which subsequently exacerbate the delays in using the respective machine; lead times can take any time from a few weeks to several months. In this context, the single solution is for the manufacturing managers to ensure adequate planning solutions (the Eagle Technology Group, 2011).
Another example is represented by the malfunction in plant production equipments which would also slow down -- or even temporarily cease -- the manufacturing operations. Aside from the actual delays, these forces also generate…
Clinically meaningful differences between juvenile and adult participants were also found. Compared to adults, juveniles were more likely to be male, recall an earlier age at OCD onset, and have different lifetime comorbidity patterns. Significant outcomes were that children were less likely than either adolescent or adults to report aggressive obsessions and mental rituals.
The glaring - and possibly only -- distractions that I see with this study are that groups are ill matched. There is a large range of ages even amongst each group (children ranged between 6-12 whilst adolescents ranged between 13-18); they were ill-matched in OCD symptoms too; there were far less children than adolescents; and adults more than doubled the size of the juvenile and children group combined. Self-reported OCD symptom could have been produced by an alternate factor (another determinant) that was not taken into account. What could have been taken then as start of…
Abramowitz, J. (1997) Effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a quantitative review Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 1-35
Fineberg, N.A. & Gale, T.M. (2005). Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Int J. Neuropsychopharmacol; 8, 107-29.
Foa, E.B. & Goldstein, a. (1978) Continuous exposure and complete response prevention in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive neurosis. Behav Ther; 9, 821-9.
Freeman, J.B. et al. (2008). Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings From a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach J. Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 47, 593 -- 602
Utility of the Knowledge of Nursing Theory in Patient Care
When people describe nursing theories and theoretical concepts, they frequently try to separate the theory from the practice of nursing. However, this is a critical mistake. Theory and practice are inseparable. While there are many established nursing theories, it is important to look at the origins of those theories. They developed, not in an isolated academic setting, but because they reflected the issues that were presented to nurses in the field and reflect how those nurses dealt with questions and concerns that frequently arise in the context of nursing practice. As a result, it is important to keep in mind that theory and practice are not distinct from one another. On the contrary, theory should be viewed as a type of practice because theories involve: asking certain questions, questioning the status quo, seeking the most plausible or meaningful answers, and…
Butts, J. (2010). Components and levels of abstraction in nursing knowledge. In J. Butts & K.
Rich (Eds.), Philosophies and theories for advanced nursing practice (pp.89-112).
Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Goodson, P. (2010). Theory in practice. In J. Butts & K. Rich (Eds.), Philosophies and theories for advanced nursing practice (pp.71-88). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
hen it comes to pedagogy, the art of teaching, there are many different interrelationships among different theories of knowledge, theories of learning, conceptions of curriculum and approaches of broad inquiry for the purposes of schooling. Every teacher is faced with a challenge to effectively convey his or her message of knowledge and inspire today's youth. It takes a certain amount of passion and consistency to pursue such a career.
This paper will argue the validity of Nel Noddings' groundbreaking work on the notion of care and take a look at her book Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education. The thesis born out of the reading will also touch on her other works as well. To pursue a just argument that the notion of care works today, this paper will also look at Aristotle's Ethics. By examining his work, the paragraphs below will conduct a theoretical conversation…
Aristotle. (1976). Ethics (J.A.K. Thomson, Trans.). London: Penguin Classics.
Cunningham, L.L., & Mitchell, B. (1990). Educational Leadership and Changing Contexts
in Families, Communities, and Schools. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Esquith, R. (2003). There Are No Short Cuts. New York: Pantheon Books.
Societies and social beliefs change from tribe to tribe, and from nation to nation. The constructed nature of social beliefs mandate that from one society to another, the social beliefs change because each tribe has experienced a different growth curve, has experienced a different history, has identified different seminal events. As a result, each tribe has a unique set of socially constructed beliefs.
For most of the last century, the primary understanding of social values has been based on a constructed and evolutionary model. Darwin's and his cousin Galton's theories of constructed identities have influenced the field of sociology. What was once believed to be passed down as 'truth' on the authority of a society's religious beliefs has now been redefined as 'myth construction.' We believe that man's feelings of weakness, or powerlessness over aspects of his environment has led individual societies to build myths which look…
Goodale, Jane. To Sing with the Pigs is Human. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 1995
Learning & Teaching
Identify a behavior in the healthcare setting that you would like to change that involves extinguishing an undesirable behavior and replacing it with a healthier behavior (e.g., getting cardiac patients to reduce their high-fat diet and eat healthier foods; getting patients with low back pain to minimize their pain and become more independent in their activities). Describe how the behavior could be changed using the principles of a particular learning theory. Then describe how the same behavior could be changed using a different theory. Depending on the behavior to be changed and replaced, you might also discuss why one plan might work better for men than women, or for younger people than older people.
To start with the last sentence first, it is clear that the younger a person is, they are generally more pliable and "changeable" than with older and/or more mature people that are more…
Behlol, M., & Dad, H. (2010). Concept of Learning. International Journal Of
Psychological Studies, 2(2), 231-239.
Bradshaw, M.J. (2013). Innovative teaching strategies in nursing and related health professions (6th ed.). New York, NY: Jones & Bartlett.
DeYoung, P.A. (2003). Relational psychotherapy: a primer. New York: Brunner-
School Cultural Theory
Any environments where human beings reside, there is an existing culture. The total time that the community members, teachers, and students spend in school environments develop cultural elements have a direct influence on how they act and function in their respective positions.
Developing a system of cultural awareness in schools is critical in activating teachers and school stakeholders to engage in growth promoting activities. Teachers in school settings make up the main components of a school organizational network. It is important noting that schools are forms of organizations that uphold a shared culture. Milner and Browitt (2013) in their study of organizational cultures argue that any organization strives to find a meaningful purpose together as a group that has a shared goal. They further discussed the organizational systems develop individual structures and behavioral patterns with actual means of accomplishing the processes. Organizations create the necessary tools for…
Agger, B. (2014). Cultural Studies as Critical Theory. Routledge.
Hudson, K., Ben-Ary, G., Lawson, M., & Hodgetts, S. (2013). The Dynamics of Collaborative Resistance: Negotiating the Methodological Incongruities of Art, Cultural Theory, Science and Design. Proceedings of the 19th International Symposium on Electronic Art, ISEA2013, Sydney.
Milner, A., & Browitt, J. (2013). Contemporary Cultural Theory: An Introduction. Routledge.
The public will also be presented with information from the experiential view of someone who in the past failed to have their child immunized. Evaluation will be conducted by distributing surveys/questionnaires about access to immunizations in the previous 12 months. The model will be modified by identifying weak points in the efforts to inform the public.
(2) providing information to the public about cancer screening: the public will be given written and verbal information about cancer screening for their family and about how to access cancer screening in the community of providers. A special speaker will provide information about how cancer screening helped save their life. Evaluation will be conducted by distributing surveys/questionnaires about access to cancer screenings in the previous 12 months. The model will be modified by identifying weak points in the efforts to inform the public.
(3) Providing information about safe sex: the public will be given…
Clement, JJ and Rea-Ramirez, MA (2008) Model-Based Learning and Instruction in Science. Springer 2008. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=dc_14UNzOlYC&dq=GEM+model+for+learning&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Cultural Competence Education for Students in Medicine and Public Health Report of an Expert Panel (2012) Joint Expert Panel and the Association of American Medical Colleges and the Association of the Public Schools of Health. July. Retrieved from: https://members.aamc.org/eweb/upload/Cultural%20Competence%20Education_revisedl.pdf
Health education: theoretical concepts, effective strategies and core competencies (2012) World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://applications.emro.who.int/dsaf/EMRPUB_2012_EN_1362.pdf
Kulbok, PA (2012) Evolving Public Health Nursing Roles: Focus on Community Participatory Health Promotion and Prevention. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 17. No. 2 May. Retrieved from: http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-17-2012/No2-May-2012/Evolving-Public-Health-Nursing-Roles.html
"Morris goes to School" by B. Wiseman.
Your name, whole group, 5th grade, all, 09/03/2012.
Objectives for Lesson
The students will engage in reading and writing activities with reflection and understanding.
The students will be motivated to connect the story to their own particular cultural/ethnic / routine experiences
The students will be encouraged to generate situations and to apply to new circumstances using the story as their base
The students will be encouraged to imagine a recipient of their story and to direct the writing of their story to this recipient.
CSO's or SOLs (WV New Generation Content Standards and Objectives)
Engage in reading of the text with understanding and motivation
Apply the story to their own circumstance be able to find launch pads from the story with which they can craft their own informative and meaningful tale.
Participate in collaborative conversation with partners and…
Multiple Therapeutic Models of a Family
The main components of structural therapy
Structural therapy is a family treatment model founded on the frameworks of systems theory. The distinctive component of this model is the emphasis it has placed on structural adjustments as the primary objective of the therapy session. This emphasis is prominent over details of adjustments in individual behaviors. This model is distinctive because the therapist is the most active agent and receives much attention in the course of family restructuring (Lock & Strong, 2012).
The main purpose of structural family therapy is prevention of sequences from repetition by coveting the hierarchical structures of families. This encompasses shifts in power distribution among family members by adjusting interaction styles. Nevertheless, structural family therapy operates by making alterations on the dysfunctional family structure through encouragement and promotion of growth among family members with the primary intention of re-building the family (Petridis,…
Goldenberg, H., & Goldenberg, I. (2008). Family therapy: An overview. Australia: Thompson Brooks/Cole.
Lock, A., & Strong, T. (2012). Discursive perspectives in therapeutic practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Peterson, G.W., Steinmetz, S.K., & Sussman, M.B. (2009). Handbook of marriage and the family. New York: Plenum Press.
Petridis, N., Pichorides, S.K., & Varopoulos, N. (2010). Harmonic analysis, Iraklion 1978: Proceedings of a conference held at the University of Crete. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
In their view, the assumption of indexation to past inflation is the key factor driving this result. According to them, when viewed in the light of indexation to long-run inflation, the optimal inflation volatility often moves closer to zero. They equally showed that for the welfare rankings of policies, the initial conditions do matter to a very significant extent.
In their work, Leeper Erik et al. examined how the conventional dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models, including the Christiano-Eichenbaum-Evans model is affected or impacted by government investments. As a way of explaining the effects of government investments in this regard, they considered two main factors, namely, the future fiscal adjustments to debt-financed spending and implementation delays for building public capital projects. In their work they demonstrated that, in the short run implementation delays can produce small or even negative labor and output responses; while for both a qualitative and quantitative positive…
Christiano Lawrence J., Martin Eichenbaum, & Charles Evans. "Nominal Rigidities and the Dynamic Effects of A Shock to Monetary Policy." Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland Working Paper May 2001: 5-50.
DiCecio, Riccardo, Edward Nelson." An Estimated DSGE Model for the United Kingdom." Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review July/August 2007. http://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/review/07/07/DiCecio.pdf
Fischer, Stanley. "Long-Term Contracts, Rational Expectations, and the Optimal Money Supply Rule." Journal of Political Economy. 5 June, 2011. http://www.jstor.org/pss/1828335
Keen Benjamin, Wang Yongshang. "What Is A Realistic Value for Price Adjustment Costs in Keynesian Models?" Department of Economics, University of Oklahoma. 5 June 2011. http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/K/Benjamin.D.Keen-1/Price_adjustment_costs.pdf
One of the complexities of 21st century medicine is the evolution of nursing care theories in combination with a changing need and expectation of the stakeholder population. Nurses must be advocates and communicators, but must balance these along with an overall philosophy of ethics while still remaining mindful of budgets and the need for the medical institution to be profitable. It seems as if these issues comprise a three-part template for nursing: respect for patient value & individuality, education of patients, and cognition and respect for the realities of contemporary medicine. In many ways, too, modern technology has advanced further than societal wisdom, especially when confronting the issue of death. The modern nurse's role is to create a nurse-patient culture that encourages the individual to take responsibility for their healthcare and, in partnership with the nurse, to be involved in their recovery. The modern complexities of…
Basford, L. And O. Slevin. (2003). Theory and Practice of Nursing: An Integrated Approach to Caring Practice. New York: Nelson Thomas.
Beckstead, J. And Beckstead, L. (2004). A multidimensional analysis of the epistemic origins of nursing theories, models and frameworks. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 43
Cohen, J. (1991). Two portraits of caring: a comparison of the artists - Leininger
A High Impact Negotiations Model: An Answer to the Limitations of the Fisher, Ury Model of Principled Negotiations
This study aims to discover the ways in which blocked negotiations can be overcome by testing the Fisher, Ury model of principled negotiation against one of the researcher's own devising, crafted after studying thousands of negotiation trainees from over 100 multinational corporations on 5 continents. It attempts to discern universal applications of tools, skills, and verbal and non-verbal communication techniques that may assist the negotiator in closing deals with what have been "traditionally" perceived as "difficult people." This study concludes that there are no such "difficult people," but rather only unprepared negotiators. The study takes a phenomenological approach to negotiations, with the researcher immersing himself in the world of negotiation training from 2012-14, for several major multinational corporations, intuiting the failings of the negotiators with whom he comes in contact,…
Allred, K., Mallozzi, J., Matsui, F., Raia, C. (1997). The influence of anger and compassion on negotiation performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 70(3): 175-187.
Andonova, E., Taylor, H. (2012). Nodding in dis/agreement: a tale of two cultures.
Cognitive Process, 13(Suppl 1): S79-S82.
Aristotle. (1889). The Nicomachean ethics of Aristotle. (Trans R.W. Browne).
Black-Scholes model is essentially a formula used in the calculation of a theoretical call price for options. It is considered to be the fundamental model for pricing in the option market (Cretien, 2006). This model uses in its calculation the five main determinants of an option's price, which include stock price, strike price, volatility, time left until expiration, as well as risk-free, short-term interest rate (Hoadley, 2010). The computations executed by the Black-Scholes model result in prices that are close to actual market value as long as input variables are determined that are reasonably accurate (Cretien, 2006). A benefit resulting from the use of this model is that it provides traders with a means to compare market prices with alternative values while using different inputs (Cretien, 2006). The Black-Scholes model also assists in the prediction of movements in price for investments other than options by providing a way to compute…
Crawford, Gregory. "A new model; The world of finance was changed when Myron Scholes and Fischer Black penned a paper on how to price an option.(P&I at 30: The class of '73)." Pensions & Investments. Crain Communications, Inc. 2003. HighBeam Research. 8 Dec. 2010 .
Cretien, Paul D. "Comparing option pricing models." Futures. . 2006. HighBeam Research. 8 Dec. 2010 .
Hoadley, Peter, (2010). Option pricing models and the 'Greeks'. Hoadley Trading and Investment Tools. Retrieved from http://www.hoadley.net/options/bs.htm 8 Dec. 2010.
McKenzie, Scott; Gerace, Dionigi; Subedar, Zaffar. "AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE BLACK-SCHOLES MODEL: EVIDENCE FROM THE AUSTRALIAN STOCK EXCHANGE." Australasian Accounting Business & Finance Journal. University of Wollongong School of Accounting and Finance. 2007. HighBeam Research. 8 Dec. 2010 .
214). The author notes many empirical reasons for his critique of the five-factor model. Among the many objections that are put forward is the assertion that there is in the breadth of the five factors an indefiniteness and inconsistency. Block also refers to the descriptive coarseness of the "Big Five."
Block's article has created much debate on this subject. A useful study that counters many of arguments put forward by Block is Solid Ground in the Wetlands of Personality: A eply to Block by Costa and McCrae (1995). In contrast to Block's critique, this article suggest that, "...the most impressive achievement of the FFM is its reduction of conceptual jangle, showing how constructs ostensibly as different as absorption, intuition, and need for change all reflect aspects of the single, broader construct of Openness. " (Costa and McCrae, 1995).
The validity and acceptance of the FFM model and the various aspects…
Block, J. (1995). A contrarian view of the five-factor approach to personality description. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 187-215.
Clark, L.A. (1993). Personality Disorder Diagnosis: Limitations of the Five-Factor Model. Psychological Inquiry, 4(2), 100-104. Retrieved January 21, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77524910
Costa P, McCrae, Robert R. (1995) Solid ground in the wetlands of personality: A reply to Block. Psychological Bulletin. 117(2), 216-220 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77524936
The Help Desk has grown from being a stand-alone service strategy to one that is leading many organizations to support a multi-channel and in some instances, multi-channel based approach to delivering service.
Examples of TSS options across different service industries include on-demand service and support through guided solution applications on websites, guided help on telephone systems, (ATMs), electronic kiosks for baggage check in or a boarding pass at airports as well as for room check out at hotels, and service computers with internet connection at airports (Dabholkar 1994, 1996; Kotler 2000; Meuter, Ostrom, Roundtree, and itner 2000; Carlin 2002; Harler 2002; Wright 2002).
The transformation of service options from the Help Desk to multi-channel strategies that are technology-based service can be viewed in terms of the relationships between employee, customer and technology components (Figure 1). Note that a single strategy of just using a Help Desk fails to support the…
Bibliography of all resources to be used in qualitative research and literature review
Anitsal, Ismet, Mark a. Moon, and M. Meral Anitsal (2002b), "Technology-Based Self-Service: Toward a New Retail Format," Marketing Advances in Pedagogy, Process, and Philosophy, Beverly T. Enable (Ed.), Vol. Greenville, North Carolina: Society for Marketing Advances, 146-151.
Bates, Albert D. (1989), "The Extended Specialty Store: A Strategic Opportunity for the 1990s," Journal of Retailing, 379-388. Bateson, John (2002),
Bitner, Mary Jo, William T. Faranda, Amy R. Hubbert, and Valarie a. Zeithaml (1997), "Customer Contributions and Roles in Service Delivery," International Journal of Service Industry Management, 8 (3), 193-205.
Carlin, Mary (2002), "Technology Tamed: The New Future of Self-Service." Randolph, New Jersey: Kiosk Business, the Magazine for Customer-Activated Solutions.
leadership capability relation accepted model leadership management. Part 1. 'Situational leadership redundant a task .' As a future leader teams, present arguments statement.
The internal environment within economic agents is suffering dramatic changes within the modern day society and this is the result of numerous pressures from the internal and external environments, such as technology, competition or increasing demands from the various categories of stakeholders. In such a setting, the role of the leaders and managers gradually increases, as these come to portray the link between executives and employees, and they are more essential in ensuring that the firms attain their overall objectives.
As the role of leaders and managers increases, the emphasis placed on the formation of the leaders and managers must also increase. In such a setting then, the current project sets out to discuss the situational leadership model through the lenses of its applicability within…
Haydon, G., 2007, Values for educational leadership, SAGE
Humphreys, J., Zhao, D., Ingram, K., Gladstone, J., Basham, L., 2010, Situational narcissism and charismatic leadership: a conceptual framework, Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, Vol. 11, No. 2
Ireh, M., Bailey, J., 1999, A study of superintendent's change leadership styles using the situational leadership model, American Secondary Education, Vol. 27, No. 4
2012, Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Online, http://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/feedback last accessed on May 22, 2012
Price Call Models
Black-Scholes Model and the Binomial Model are some of the widely used price call options. Despite the fact that these two models share the same theoretical foundation and assumptions like the Brownian motion theory and risk neutral valuation, they happen to have some notable differences (endleman & Bartter, 1979).
The Black-Scholes model is basically used to calculate a theoretical call price. This call price ignores dividends paid during the life of the call option. Some of the determinants of the option price include stock price (S), strike price (X), volatility (v), time to expiration (t), and short-term interest rate (r) (endleman & Bartter, 1979). This model has got some assumptions. One of the assumptions is that the stock pays no dividend during the option's life. This assumption is a serious limitation of the model considering that companies do pay dividends to their shareholders (endleman & Bartter, 1979).…
Conroy, R.M. (2003). Binomial Option Pricing. Retrieved August 27, 2013 from http://faculty.darden.virginia.edu/conroyb/derivatives/Binomial%20Option%20Pricing%
Rendleman, R. & Bartter, B. (1979). Two State Option Pricing. Journal of Finance, 34 (1979),
Traditional udgetary Model
Organizations have for a long time been using budget as the main tool in management control. Using budget control as the sole method of management control has several demerits. udgets, for example, cost a lot to prepare. It has been noted that budgets often limit an organization's responsiveness and may be a road block to change. Another disadvantage of budgets is that most focus on reduction of costs instead of focusing on the addition of value. In view of these disadvantages, some people have proposed that budgeting be entirely done away with. Hope and Fraser with the clarion "eyond udgeting" are notable proponents of this push to do away with budgeting.
The "eyond udgeting" approach and the "alanced Scorecard" Framework
The "eyond udgeting approach ()" has been proposed by European practitioners as a way of solving the problems inherent in the traditional ways of budgeting. The literature…
Anthony RN and Govindarajan, V. (1998) Management Control Systems. Richard D. Irwin Banham, R. (2012). "Freed From the Budget," CFO, Vol. 28, No. 7, pp. 41-46.
Bescos, PL, E Cauvin, P Langevin and C. Mendoza. (2003) Criticism of budgeting: A contingent approach. Proceedings of the 26th European Accounting Association Conference, Seville, Spain, April 2-4, 2003.
Bruns, W.J. & Waterhouse J. 1975. Budgetary Control and Organization Structure. Journal of Accounting Research, autumn 1975, 177-203
Bunce, P., Fraser, R. & Woodcock, L. 1995. Advanced budgeting: a journey to advanced management systems. Management accounting research, 6, 253-265.
Organizational Diagnostic Models
Falletta (2005) outlines several different organizational diagnostic models. The first such model is the Force Field model, developed by Kurt Lewin in 1951. In this model, an organization remains in as state of equilibrium until it is shifted out of that state by a driving force that overcomes the restraining forces. The current state then becomes a problem (Falletta, 2005). This model can be used to explain what situation an organization is in, and even how that situation came about. The downside is that it provides little in terms of information about how the company can move to its new equilibrium point. But Lewin's model explains how companies enter into an equilibrium state. The company's current equilibrium has still allowed for steady gains in revenue and profit based on growth, but stability in profit margin (MSN Moneycentral, 2014).
Leavitt's model is a somewhat different representation…
Falletta, S.V. (2005) Organizational Diagnostic Models: A Review and Synthesis. Retrieved January 15, 2014, from http://www.iei.liu.se/fek/frist/723g16/files/1.120328/Orgmodels.pdf
McMillan, T. (2014). Can Whole Foods change the way poor people eat? Slate.com. Retrieved November 28, 2014 from http://www.slate.com/articles/life/food/2014/11/whole_foods_detroit_can_a_grocery_store_really_fight_elitism_racism_and.html
MSN Moneycentral. (2014). Whole Foods Market. Retrieved November 28, 2014 from http://www.msn.com/en-us/money/stockdetails/fi-126.1.WFM.NAS?symbol=WFM&form=PRFIEQ
National Defense University, Systems Thinking and Learning Organizations, Retrieved November 7, 2012 from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/ndu/strat-ldr-dm/pt1ch4.html
CBT can be effectively used in a variety of stressful or tense situations. Depending on the nature of the issue, focusing on changing behaviors often aids the individual in reducing an addiction, changing their approach to a situation, or focusing on interaction and dialog issues. CBT may be used, for example, with:
Severe anxiety from a recent sexual assault -- CBT may be used to unearth the issues surround the assault and resulting anxiety by helping the client focus on adaptation. The therapist should help the client understand that they were a victim, did not choose the issue, and the fault of the issue is with the perpetrator. Anxious feelings are a rational response to trauma, but by practicing assertion training, the client can take charge of their own emotions and begin to heal (SOUCE, p. 23).
A Gay/Bisexual person struggling to come out to friends and family --…
Follette, V. And J. Ruzek, eds. (2007). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies for Trauma, 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press.
Fong, T. (2006). Understanding and Managing Compulsive Sexual Behaviors. Psychiatry. 3 (11): 51-58. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2945841/
Wright, J. (2004). Cognitive Behavior Therapy. In J. Wright (Ed.), Review of Psychiatry (Vol. 23). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1949)
Sigmund Freud is the undisputed father of psychoanalysis. Should this statement seem to contradict assertions regarding the age-old status of psychology, it must be clarified that Freud was the first theorist to formalize the process of analysis, a practice that is not used in all modalities of psychology today. Analysis, specifically the psychoanalysis so often parodied in the cartoon of the tormented patient lying on the couch before the bearded quasi-Freudian father figure of the therapist, presupposes in its theoretical structure the existence of an subconscious element to the human mind, in other words, that how humans think they immediately perceive the world is not all that there is to human consciousness.
Freud used techniques such as free association to elicit reasons for his patient's behaviors. Freud began his treatment upon hysterics. He grew to believe that unresolved childhood traumas rather than physiological causes were at…
Pavlov, Ivan. (2003) Lectures and translations. http://www.ivanpavlov.com last modified: April 14, 2003. Retrieved on September 19, 2004 at http://www.ivanpavlov.com/
Ross, Kelly R. (2002) Karl Jung. Retrieved on September 19, 2004 at http://www.friesian.com/jung.htm
Thorton, Steven P. (2001) "Sigmund Freud." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved on September 19, 2004 at http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/f/freud.htm#Backdropto his Thought
) I will etun to the stengths and limitations of gowth accounting as a tool to use to assess the economic development of these nations below.
Gowth accounting is an economic method designed to measue the elative and absolute contibutions of diffeent factos to economic gowth and development. Developed by Robet Solow in 1957, this methodological appoach disaggegates o decomposes the diffeent elements of economic gowth. The most impotant assumption of this method is that the goss output of an economy can be analyzed into inceases in the ange of factos (pimaily inceases in labo and in capital) and which cannot be accounted fo by discenible changes in the utilization of these factos.
Anothe way of explaining Solow's model is this: The unexplained pat of gowth in an economy's GDP is best undestood as a simple incease in poductivity, with poductivity being defined in common-sense tems as achieving…
For example, when I examine the data that Sarel (1996) finds inconclusive (he writes that the labor and capital accumulation vs. total factor productivity debate remains inconclusive") I find to be entirely conclusive -- in the direction of an exogenous model that is based on an assessment of factor accumulation rather than a reliance on a significant element of technological innovation as prompted by government incentive and intervention. But Sarel is impelled to ask what might have been the effect of governmental intervention and to investigate how these may have interacted with initial conditions that obtained. Taking into account only those factors that lie outside of governmental influence simply does not make sense to him (or other non-neoclassical economists), even when the picture is in fact complete. Sarel (1996) concludes:
The study does not offer clear and conclusive results nor does it make clear policy recommendations. Its main judgment is that, from a positive point-of-view, a promising avenue for the explanation of growth performance is the examination of initial conditions. Nevertheless, from a normative point-of-view, it is far from clear what specific policies governments should pursue, beyond the standard set of policies aimed at getting the basics right.
I find it fascinating that Sarel should be impelled to try to divine -- like someone seeking water with a forked stick -- the (beneficial) effects of governmental influence in the Four Tigers as necessary to understand how these nations might have accomplished the level of growth that they have.
In other words, Sarel sees the hand of the national governments even when there is no good factual evidence for this. This does not mean that his scholarship should be considered in any way to be dishonest. Rather, I am simply using his work (which raises important questions) as a demonstration of the ways in which initial assumptions and beliefs about the nature of markets (and about human nature) affect how we read economic indices.
In regard to organizational strategy, the companies can work towards a similar strategy of delivering high quality products to their clients. This would be the same for their shared values. The efforts towards integrating the structures, systems and strategy should however be given most attention. The strategy of partnerships, strategic alliance and acquisitions must be upheld.
Using this framework, we can see the need for new leadership so as to ensure that the new acquisition does not suffer from the past bad decisions.
Congruence Model for Organization Analysis
The congruence model of organizational analysis specifies the inputs, outputs and the throughputs in manner which is more consistent with the open systems theory as noted by Katz and Kahn (1978).In this regard the inputs, outputs and the throughputs of both Skype and Microsoft must be analyzed with a view of transforming them into a clear and concise organizational model.According to this…
Bryce, DJ (2011). Microsoft's Skype Deal: How to Make it Work.Available online at http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2011/05/microsofts_skype_deal_how.html
Cummings, T.G. & Worley, C.G. (1993). Organization development and change. Fifth Edition. New York, NY: West Publishing.
Gable, R.K. & Wolf, M.B. (1993). Instrument development in the affective domain: Measuring attitudes and values in corporate and school settings. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers
French, W.L. & Bell, C.H. (1995). Organization development: Behavioral science interventions for organization improvement. Fifth Edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Generally, the classification of model transformation tools is based on whether it is declarative or operational, directionality or multiplicity.
The study further discusses the sub-categories of model transformation that include:
hybrid transformation tools, graph transformation, relational, template based, operational based, structure driven and direct manipulation.
All the sub-categories of model transformation have the following features:
Hybrid transformation combines two or more transformation approaches;
Graph transformation focuses on graph rewriting over variation and extensions of labeled graphs.
Relational approach uses declarative approach-based mathematical relations; template approach uses model template specifications.
ATL Transformation Tool
The project reveals that ATL is one of the effective transformation tools used to semantic or syntactic translation and it is built on transformation Virtual Machine model. The ATL was developed from the ATLAS framework, which enabled the specification of one or more target models. The project further reveals that ATL is hybrid language providing the mix of…
Braun, P. & Marschall, F. BOTL The Bidirectional Object Oriented Transformation
Language. Institut fur Informatik Technische Universitat Munchen. 2003.
Cremers, A.B. Alda, S. & Rho, T. Chapter 13, Mapping Models to Code Object-Oriented Software .Construction. University of Bonn. German. 2009.
Einarsson, H.P. Refactoring UML Diagram and Models with Model-to-Model Transformation . Master of Science in Software Engineering, University of Iceland. 2011.
pragmatic models in the analysis of real human behavior has been a major area of study. There are two main theories that are put into test for the analysis. These are the speech act theory and the implicature theory. The pragmatic model is very fundamental for the modeling of interpersonal communication and general language use.
It is important to note that the pragmatic models serve to emphasize the elements of creativity and motivational aspects of the human characteristics in the interaction domain. Language is a form of communication and communication by itself has creative aspects to it in terms of two aspects. Throughout the human history, there have been various forms of interactions that involve the aspect of communicative exchange of words or rather language. It is this history that forms the patterns of correlations that also emphasizes the individual human behavior that is often referred to as self-concept. With…
Bach, K. (1987a). On communicative intentions: A reply to Recanati. Mind & Language, 2, 141-154.
Bach, K. (1999a). The semantics-pragmatics distinction: What it is and why it matters. In K. Turner (Ed). The semantics-pragmatics interface from different points-of-view (pp. 65-84). Oxford: Elsevier.
Bach, K. & R.M. Harnish (1979). Linguistic communication and speech acts. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Carston, R. (1988). Implicature, explicature, and truth-theoretic semantics. In Ruth Kempson (Ed). Mental Representations: The Interface between Language and Reality
38). The Mundell-Fleming model is most graphically illustrated under the assumption of constant prices with the following three equations as shown in Figure 1 below.
E (Y, r) + NX (q, Y, Y*)
PL (Y, r)
NX - B (B, r, r *, q, q + ?) = 0.
Figure 1. The Mundell-Fleming model.
Note: All foreign values are indicated with an asterisk and are assumed to be exogenous; the sign of the partial derivative is denoted above each symbol.
Source: Bosworth, 1993, p. 37.
Notwithstanding it's the Mundell-Fleming Model's usefulness for certain applications are described above, it does have its constraints. According to Eichengreen and Frieden (2001), "The fixed vs. floating debate for Europe has largely been carried out (sometimes implicitly) in the context of the Mundell-Fleming model, so this model is the appropriate venue to consider the implications of local currency pricing. However, in this model, behavior is…
Bosworth, B.P. (1993). Saving and investment in a global economy. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
Eichengreen, B., & Frieden, J.A. (2001). The political economy of European monetary unification. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Fan, C.M., & Fan, L.S. (2002). The Mundell-Fleming Model revisted. American Economist, 46(1), 42.
Macdonald, R. (1993). Floating exchange rates: Theories and evidence. Place of Publication: London: Routledge.
Other scholars have been more critical of ELM. The Morris, Woo, and Singh study, along with the Cook, Moore, and Steel study, focuses on the major shortcomings of ELM. Unlike Schroeder and Areni, these scholars evaluate ELM as an actual model for psychological studies, as opposed to just a conceptual framework. The Morris, Woo, and Singh study found that the model had an excessively narrow focus on the cognitive aspects of audience elaboration, neglecting the emotional aspects. The Cook, Moore, and Steel study found that ELM did not offer an actual causal explanation of persuasive communication and offered Positioning Theory for a causal explanation.
When Cook, Moore, and Steel use the term "causal explanation," they are getting at the predictive value of ELM, which is a very important element of a model's usefulness. One problem with the predictive value of the ELM is the model's argument variable. To test ELM,…
Petty, R.E., & Cacioppo, J.T. (1986). The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion. Advances in Experimental Psychology, Vol. 9).
Schroeder, L. (2005). Cultivation and the Elaboration Likelihood Model: A Test of the Learning and Construction and Availability Heuristic Models. Communication Studies, 56(3), p. 227 -- 242
Areni, C. (2003). The Effects of Structural and Grammatical Variables on Persuasion: An Elaboration Likelihood Model. Perspective Psychology & Marketing, 20(4): p. 349-375
Morris, Woo, and Singh. (2005). Elaboration Likelihood Model: A Missing Intrinsic Emotional Implication. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, 14(1), p. 79 -- 98
e-Business Models of Dell Computer and Gateway
The e-business models of high tech manufacturers that combine quoting, pricing, and product configuration systems with production, Enterprise esource Planning (EP), and fulfillment systems exemplify how advanced multichannel selling has progressed over the Internet. The intent of this analysis is to evaluate Dell and Gateway's e-business models, as each have real-time integration of their customer facing quoting, pricing and product configuration systems with production, EP and fulfillment systems. Both of these companies are redefining the value chain of high tech manufacturing using the speed and accuracy of the Internet as the basis of their multichannel selling strategies. Selling over the Web, through telemarketing, catalogs, through stores, mass merchandisers including WalMart, and for enterprise accounts, through a direct sales force, Dell's e-business strategy is what makes it possible to unify all these channels into a consistent user experience. Dell continues to evolve their e-business…
CG Ash, & JM Burn. (2003). A strategic framework for the management of ERP enabled e-business change. European Journal of Operational Research, 146(2), 374-387.
Rob Bois. (2004). Quoting Complex Products across Multiple Sales Channels -- A
Sales Configuration Vendor Landscape. In AMR Research Editing Services (Ed.), AMR Research Series. Boston: AMR Research.
Louis Columbus. (2003). Configuration Is the Heart of Customer Fulfillment for Complex Product Manufacturers. In AMR Research Editing Services (Ed.), AMR Research Series. Boston: AMR Research.
Egan's skilled helper model is a 3-stage model that is designed to help people become self-empowered. Very similar to oger's famous counseling system, the model is client-oriented, refers to the client as individual who leads the process and structures his goals and is used on the context of the recent past and future. The ogerian guides, too, of empathic listening, unconditional judgment, and respect are its fundamentals.
The Egan model addresses three primary questions
What is going on?
What do I want instead?
How might I get to what I want?
Stage 1: What is going on Each person perceives his or her particular life narrative in her own specific way. Similarly, too, does one accord one's challenges a personal interpretation. Egan encourages the helper to allow the client to articulate his perspective of the account and to fully listen to that account. Articulation of the story frames the narrative…
Birmingham City Univ. Counseling skills: Egan's skilled helper model. Continuing Professional Development Unit.
Egan, G. & Cowan, M.A. (1979) People in systems: A model for development in the human services and professions. CA: Brooks.
Personal Model of Helping
Therapists do whatever they can to help their clients overcome a wide range of problems ranging fromdeath of a pet to major life changing crisis, such as sudden loss of vision. However genuine a therapists' desire to help is, they will be limited by the tools he or she uses. It makes sense, then, as a therapist to design and integrate webs of models that have shown to yield efficacy. This new, personally designed model should work to assist and meet the requirement of every client. To embark upon this task of designing a personal model of helping, it is important to be aware of existing theories and models.
The first is the humanistic approach based on Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Maslow's triangle consists of basics needs at the base followed by needs of safety, love and belonging, achievements and lastly self-actualization at the top.…
Brew. (2007, Nov 27). Models of Helping. Retrieved April 3, 2011, from http://www.uk.sagepub.com/upm-data/18616_chapter3.pdf .
Eysenck 1965; Thomas et al. 1968; Heatherington and Parke 1986; Sheldon 1994a
Brian Sheldon, Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy: Research, Practice, and Philosophy (London: Routledge, 1995) iii, Questia, Web, 3 Apr. 2011.
The notion of age particular incentives is further discussed in Age and Work elated Motives. The author's findings are that "intrinsic and achievement motives are more important for older workers as compared to younger workers" (Kooij, D. Delange, a. Jansen, P. Kanfer, . & Dikkers, J. 2011. pp 20/217). Given this finding, "older workers should be offered more mentor roles, and since motive strength for interesting work, autonomy, and achievement increases with age, older workers' jobs should be redesigned to include these characteristics" (Kooij, D. et al. 2011. pp 20/217).
2.9 esistance to Change
From the specifics of age and gender factors on motivation and organizational dynamics, the literature review concludes with the examination of the change directive and the resistance which can impede its implementation. If the review thus far has produced a single finding it is a considerable relationship between individual motivation, their subsequent performance, and the successful…
Bertolino, M. Truxillo, D. Fraccaroli, F. (January 2011). Age as Moderator of the Relationship of Proactive Personality with Training Motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 32. pp. 248-263. January 2011
Buchanan, D. Addicott, R. Fitzgerald, L. Ferlie, E. & Baeza, J. (2007). Nobody in charge: Distributed change agency in healthcare. Human Relations. 60-1065. 2007
Caldwell, R. (2003). Models of Change Agency. British Journal of Management. Vol. 14
pp 131-142. 2003
The bottom line when using Reality Therapy is to lead the student to a place where he may take "more effective control" of his life (Mason, 6). The acronym DEP describes the procedures of Reality Therapy: (wants and needs); D (direction and doing); E (self-evaluation); and P (planning towards the goal) (Mason, 6).
A number of healthy behaviors are to be presented for -- and taught to -- the student within the Reality Therapy procedures. Those include issues dealing with survival and health; love and belonging; self-worth and power; freedom; and fun (Mason, 8). Following the presentation of those behaviors (and within each category there are bullet points that bolster that particular theme) the counselor / teacher is advised to "engage all colleagues in an ongoing honest discussion of both the cost of the work and the quality needed…" in a Lead Management Framework (LMF) (Mason, 9). Moreover, the LMF…
Mason, Cynthia Palmer, and Duba, Jill D. (2009). Using Reality Therapy in Schools: Its Potential Impact
on the Effectiveness of the ASCA National Model. International Journal of Reality Therapy,
XXIX (1), 1-10.
Ethics: The TERA model
Ethics is a process which allows us to analyze the principles that underlie a decision and it culminates into a specific action. Ethical analysis involves norms such as possibilities and interdictions which act as a guide to human behavior as well as the practical rules and values that lead us to choose one way over another as well as the moral principles which we strive to respect when it comes to the relationships we have with ourselves and towards others. The TERA model is part of the existing ethical vision that aims at discovering and highlighting elements which will allow a moral reflection. This model was inspired by the theoretical construction and its utility has been confirmed by several researches as well as training sessions which involved several different organizations and different employee categories. The TERA model is based on three fundamental ethics; Critique, Justice and…
Virgin's Organizational Culture
Model of the organization
Organizational culture is built around three aspects: (1) complexity, (2) formalization, and (3) centralization.
Complexity: Complexity depends on the hierarchical structure of the organization, the larger it is generally the more complex it is. Complexity, then, is reduced to three tiers: vertical, horizontal, and geographical.
Vertical: The larger the depth of layer the more 'vertical' the organization is. A complex and broad organization, therefore, would generally have more layers than one less complex (Bartol, Twein, Matthews, & Martin, 2007). Branson was an exception to this. Though leader of exceedingly broad and complex operations, he managed to reduce the structure of verticality by splitting Virgin Groups up into multiple small companies. Branson believed that employees preferred to work under small companies than under large impersonal corporations. By the late 1980s, for instance, he had fragmented his collection of companies into more than 100 loosely…
Bartol, K., Twein, M., Matthews, G., & Martin, D. 2007, Management: A Pacific Rim Focus, Prentice-Hall, Sydney.
Burns, T. & Stalker, G.M., 1961, The Management of Innovation, Tavistock, London.
Cherrington, D.J. Orgnizational Behavior, 1994. USA: Alleyn & Bacon
Cooperrider, D.L., & Godwin, L. 2010. 'Positive Organization Development: Innovation-inspired Change in an Economy and Ecology of Strengths'. Appreciative Inquiry Commons. http://appreciativeinquiry.case.edu/intro/comment.cfm
Felder-Silverman model is similar to the better-known Myers Briggs model. It features four areas of personality that contribute to learning: active/reflective, sensing/intuitive, visual/verbal, and sequential/global (Adultlearn.com, 2011). It reflects the idea that different people learn in different ways, based upon the personality of the individual learner. If I could attend a training program designed around one of the learning style preferences in the Felder-Silverman model, the learning style preference that I would choose would be sensory, verbal, reflective, and global. This was actually a difficult question for me to answer, because I would generally not choose to attend a training program designed around any of the learning style preferences in the Felder-Silverman model. I find that I learn the best through reading well-prepared materials, and then having access to a trainer who can provide answers to any questions I may have after reading the material. I would much prefer that…
Adultlearn.com. (2011). Learning style models. Retrieved from:
Coaching Learners. (2011). Felder-Silverman learning styles. Retrieved from:
Different countries or regions around the world tend to be characterized by different shared values, beliefs, norms, and practices (Dorfman et al., 2012). Simply, culture differs from country to country, or region to region. These differences mean that behavioral tendencies often differ from culture to culture. Indeed, the underlying national or societal culture significantly influences how individuals behave (Dorfman et al., 2012). It dictates how people interact and communicate with one another. For instance, Anglo-Americans tend to behave differently from Africans or Asians. Generally, Anglo-Americans are characterized by low power distance in the sense that recognition is informed by one's accomplishments as opposed to their authority or status. This is unlike Africans or Asians, where there is clear recognition of status and power (high power distance). Accordingly, a leader or a manager in an Anglo-American culture would tend to forge a more participative and democratic style of leadership or…
As such, she fails to address the central problem of feminism in the Pontellier perspective, namely the impossibility of female individuality and independence in a patriarchal world. It is only in isolation that Edna can find any happiness, and she must make this isolation more and more complete in order to maintain her happiness, as the patriarchy has a means of encroaching on all populated areas, and Wollstonecraft's feminism does not offer an alternative to this need to escape humanity.
A final snort of disgust might be distinctly heard from Edna Pontellier upon her reading of this line of Wollstonecraft's, afterwards she might likely have flung the text aside (or into the fireplace, depending on the season): "Pleasure is the business of woman's life, according to the present modification of society" (ch. 4, par. 10). What Wollstonecraft means is that women are thought to be so fragile, so emotional, and…
Chopin, Kate. The Awakening. 1899. University of Virginia E-Text Center. Accessed 28 May 2012. http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/ChoAwak.html
Hammer, Colleen. To Be Equal or Not to Be Equal: The Struggle for Women's Rights as Argued by Mary Wollstonecraft and Christina Rossetti. UCC [working paper].
Heilmann, Ann. The Awakening and New Woman cition.
Horner, Avril. Kate Chopin, choice and modernism.
"From an historical standpoint, her concept of nursing enhanced nursing science this has been particularly important in the area of nursing education." ("Virginia Henderson's Need...," 2008) Principles of Henderson's theory, published in numerous primary nursing textbooks utilized from the 1930s through the 1960s, along with principles embodied by the 14 activities continue to prove vital in evaluating nursing care in thee21st century, not only in cases such as Keri's, but in a myriad of others benefiting from nursing.
Kearney, Kathleen M., the Nurse's Duty to eport Child Abuse vs. The Attorney's Duty of Confidentiality: The Nurse Attorney's Dilemma Journal of Nursing Law. Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.; January 25, 2007. etrieved September 25, 2007, at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1256366.
esuggan, ay N;PN;MN. (Last Modified: August 17, 2008). "Virginia Avernal Henderson." Nurses.info. etrieved September 25, 2007, from: http://www.nurses.info/nursing_theory_person_henderson_virginia_.htm.
Singleton, Joanne K. "Nurses' perspectives of encouraging clients' care-of-self in a short-term rehabilitation unit within…
Kearney, Kathleen M., the Nurse's Duty to Report Child Abuse vs. The Attorney's Duty of Confidentiality: The Nurse Attorney's Dilemma Journal of Nursing Law. Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.; January 25, 2007. Retrieved September 25, 2007, at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1256366 .
Resuggan, Ray RN;RPN;MRN. (Last Modified: August 17, 2008). "Virginia Avernal Henderson." Nurses.info. Retrieved September 25, 2007, from: http://www.nurses.info/nursing_theory_person_henderson_virginia_.htm.
Singleton, Joanne K. "Nurses' perspectives of encouraging clients' care-of-self in a short-term rehabilitation unit within a long-term care facility," Rehabilitation Nursing, January 1, 2000. Retrieved September 25, 2007, from: