My personal orientation lies in Gestalt (Fritz Perls), Person Centered (Carl ogers) and eality Therapy (William Glasser) psychotherapy.
What do you see as the time frame of counseling? Are you more oriented to the past, present, or future?
I am oriented to present; however, I believe that many problems can come from the past. Therefore, the past must be discussed at some point.
To take this a step further, do you believe counseling is intended to work on current issues and feelings or to help people with issues and feelings from the past? Or, do you believe that people need to focus on their future feelings, thoughts and behaviors.
I believe people should focus on their current issues first. However, every individual are different. Therefore, therapy should be aim at individuals' need.
What is your view of people? Do you believe people are essentially good, bad, or…… [Read More]
This theory therefore supports the idea of "… education as a force to enhance personal grow and development & #8230; stress self-actualization; freedom and responsibility & #8230;" ( Popovic)
On the other hand, the critical/emancipatory approach as found in the writings of Paulo Freire and Ira Shor, while similar to the above, has the important difference of emphasizing the social, political and cultural context. From this point-of-view the emphasis is on the" political nature of education in a rational, learner-centered manner" (Tisdell & Taylor, 1999, p. 6)
This theoretical stance also focuses on the upliftment of the marginalized and oppressed in society and the importance of recognizing social and economic disparities. This view could also be likened to the feminist theoretical perspective.
There are of course many other theoretical orientations. The point being made, albeit very briefly, is that each of these orientations will initiate a certain teaching response and…… [Read More]
Theoretical Approach to Generational Poverty
Poverty is one of the most pressing social problems and the generational nature of poverty remains one of the reasons it is so difficult to eradicate poverty. While there are several different theories suggesting why poverty is transmitted from generation to generation and theorists sometimes strongly disagree on those reasons, there is almost universal acceptance of the idea that poverty is transmitted from one generation to another. In fact, there has been a significant amount of study directed at chronic poverty in the developed and developing countries. This research suggests that while poverty may be simplistically defined as a lack of money, the problem of poverty actually addresses the "absence of transfer of different forms of capital: human, social-cultural, social-political, financial/material and environmental/natural" (Moore, 2001). This more complex definition of poverty helps explain why simply providing financial resources to a family does not generally fix…… [Read More]
Integrated Counseling Orientation
Key Concepts of the Integrated Approach
My theoretical orientation as a counselor will be based on an integration between the psychoanalytical approach, the cognitive-behavior therapy approach and the reality therapy approach. These approaches complement one another and serve to address issues of concern in a multicultural society. The key concepts in the psychoanalytical approach are the conflict between the id, ego and superego. This conflict is created as an individual tries to balance needs with social norms and expectations, pleasure and reality. These conflicts are generally present in the unconscious but psychoanalysis helps to bring these issues into the conscious of the client so that their ego strength is increased and they can take better control of their behavior.
In cognitive-behavior therapy, the key concepts are learning and skill acquisition. A number of interventions are formulated, administered and evaluated to enable the client to acquire…… [Read More]
(Clark, 1) This is an approach which is given foundation by such theories as Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, which dictates that personnel will perform according to the manner in which certain ranked needs are met by leadership.
The Political Framework which is offered "suggests some characteristics linked to the concept of political leadership: (1) an interactive process, (2) the emphasis on individual political behavior, (3) the collective purpose, and (4) the non-routine influence over the political process." (Peral, 68) These are instructive in promoting such theoretical characteristics as coalition building which garners real support and dedication from members of the organization at every level and which balances the use of persuasion, negotiation and coercion as various instrumental ways to achieve intended organizational outcomes. (Clark, 1)
The fourth leadership framework is the Symbolic Framework, which relies upon the leader as a symbol through whom certain organizational characteristics and cultural conceits are…… [Read More]
CBT can be effectively used in a variety of stressful or tense situations. Depending on the nature of the issue, focusing on changing behaviors often aids the individual in reducing an addiction, changing their approach to a situation, or focusing on interaction and dialog issues. CBT may be used, for example, with:
Severe anxiety from a recent sexual assault -- CBT may be used to unearth the issues surround the assault and resulting anxiety by helping the client focus on adaptation. The therapist should help the client understand that they were a victim, did not choose the issue, and the fault of the issue is with the perpetrator. Anxious feelings are a rational response to trauma, but by practicing assertion training, the client can take charge of their own emotions and begin to heal (SOUCE, p. 23).
A Gay/Bisexual person struggling to come out to friends and family --…… [Read More]
Theory and Philosophical Orientations
An area of interest for a possible research topic that I consider is organizational performance. My topic of research interest is the effect of employee participation on organizational performance. The philosophical orientation that mirrors my worldview is the interpretivist research paradigm. In-depth inquiry is enabled by interpretivist research, which sees knowledge as subjective (Bryman, 2008). In other words, knowledge is not generalizable – it is contextual, situational, or circumstantial. This means that different individuals interpret their world differently. To ensure in-depth inquiry, interpretivist research focuses on a small sample and employs qualitative techniques such as in-depth interviews, focus groups, and observations. Such techniques enable the researcher to cultivate a closer relationship with the subjects (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2015). A close relationship gives the researcher an opportunity to understand the perspectives, experiences, and worldviews of the subjects with respect to the research phenomenon (Creswell,…… [Read More]
Develop your theoretical orientation to the counseling process and identify how this approach compares to Cognitive Behavioral theory
Since its inception nearly fifty years ago, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) has become recognized as perhaps the most effective therapeutic approach. Indeed, CBT has myriad uses, and is applied in a number of situations, including depression, personality disorders, and wellness and rehabilitation. However, there also exist limitations to cognitive behavioral therapy, mainly surrounding treatment with patients from diverse cultures. This paper develops appropriate therapeutic orientations, discussing different therapeutic concerns and approaches. First, attention is paid to the nature of people; next, the role of the individual in families and other systems is addressed. Then, multicultural considerations, wellness and prevention, and the nature of problems are discussed. Finally, the paper addresses the process of change and how the orientations enacted are successful in practice.
The nature of people
People are diverse, not…… [Read More]
Licensed professional counselors are individuals who are certified to provide a high level of quality health as well as substance abuse care to hundreds and possibly millions of Americans (American Counseling Association, 2012; 2006). These individuals possess either a masters or doctorate degree in the field of counseling or any other related field which includes a coursework or internship in human behavior and development. They also have effective counseling strategies and ethical practice I various other knowledge areas. More than 80,000 professional counselors who are licensed in close a total of 48 states together with the District of Columbia State licensure are usually required to have either a master's or doctorate degree, 2-3 years of supervised clinical experience as well as the passage of a counseling examination. In the states where licensure or any other certifications are not required, the professional counselors are required to be certified by the National…… [Read More]
CBT integrates theory, i.e. The tenets of psychotherapy, with practical, behavior modification exercises. This, in turn, creates real tangible results. As Cooper writes, "If, on the one hand, you look at the particular therapies that have been shown to be effective for particular psychological problems -- as advocates of empirically supported treatments have done -- there is no question that the evidence base is strongest for CBT. hile, for instance, there are scores of high quality controlled trials demonstrating the effectiveness of CBT for depression17, there are just a handful of studies demonstrating the same thing for person-centred therapy. And while CBT has been shown to be effective for numerous psychological difficulties -- such as phobias, panic, PTSD, bulimia, sexual problems and deliberate self-harm -- there is little equivalent evidence for the vast array of non-CBT practices18 (2008).
CBT is an approach that has been empirically proven to be successful…… [Read More]
Jen is a 19-year-old female of mixed ethnic background. When asked what her therapeutic goals are, Jen states that she wants to "get over" the physical abuse she was subjected to her from her mother's ex-husband (her stepfather). In the third therapy session with Jen, she abruptly claims that she may not be continuing with therapy because she is just "therapist shopping."
Also in this session, Jen mentioned for the first time that she works as an exotic dancer. She asks with a belligerent tone, "You don't have a problem with that, do you?" Even though there was no response, Jen quickly defends herself, saying, "I love my work. I make so much money. There is nothing else I can do to make this much money. All my friends work harder than I do but they make less than me! I mean, I not only pull in what I make…… [Read More]
Setting the stage for the group
Psychological intervention might be most efficient when females start modification by leaving the abuser and get in a shelter. Shelters are an essential resource for victims because they offer females and kids security and link them with social, legal, and financial resources (Dutton, 1992). Furthermore, battered females in shelters have a greater threat for PTSD than those who do not look for shelter (Jones et al., 2001). Provided the problems connected with PTSD, these signs might disrupt victims' capability to successfully utilize resources made to enhance their security once they leave the shelter (Foa, Cascardi, Zollner, & Feeny, 2000).
Unlike various other PTSD victims, damaged ladies in shelters deal with continuous security issues. Numerous of their viewed dangers are genuine (Foa et al., 2000). For that reason, conventional PTSD therapies that include exposure are contraindicated, as habituation to feared stimulations might enhance their danger…… [Read More]
The objective of this work is to provide viable research techniques to use in order to help a child and her family. This report represents a summary of Alicia Thomas, a nine-year-old African-American 4th grader with a series of legitimate medical as well as possibly psychosomatic physiological and psychological concerns. The young lady has been specifically diagnosed as having a duodenal ulcer with the inherent gastrointestinal symptoms including vomiting and intermittent pain. The pain has been linked to increased absenteeism from school, four hospitalizations, adverse sleeplessness, nightmare experiences with detail of dismemberment and professed fears of death for herself and for her family members.
The family consisted of eight total children and an intact parental situation but of these members, there has also been a history of mental retardation, depression and one sibling who has since deceased but in life was a main care provider. There is also…… [Read More]
It appears that there is a significant amount of utility in interpersonal psychotherapy. This utility extends beyond that of the patient and also includes a degree of usefulness for the therapist and for afflictions involving both mood disorders and non-mood disorders. Interpersonal psychotherapy seems like a viable option for helping patients to assert themselves and their control over their own lives and happiness. In consideration of these reasons, I would advocate utilizing this methodology for a variety of therapeutic applications and am all but convinced at the sort of good it can produce in the process.
Perhaps the principle reason that I am in favor of interpersonal psychotherapy is that many of its core tenets are aligned with my personal worldview. For instance, one of the fundamental principles of this psychological approach is that there is a direct correlation between one's environment and the forces that it asserts…… [Read More]
Multicultural therapies like ethnic family therapy recognize the multiple worldviews and diversity of values among clientele. Moreover, multicultural therapies avoid problems associated with decontextualization and the ignorance of politics and power structures in people's lives (Comas-Diaz, 2014). Therapists working in a diverse environment do need to develop cultural competence to serve their communities. Cultural competence requires self-awareness and recognition of one's own worldview, biases, and attitudes. Likewise, cultural competence leads to effective means of helping people whose worldviews and backgrounds are different from the therapist. Without branching too much into related social sciences like sociology, anthropology, and social work, multicultural psychological therapies do draw from other disciplines in order to form a more cohesive vision of cultural competence. No person develops in isolation of his or her culture or background. Therefore, it is critical to include dynamics of oppression, experiences of racism or stigma, issues related to the immigrant experience,…… [Read More]
skills, and professional attributes you bring to your area of practice or specialization.
I bring several different types of skills and professional attributes into my area of practice of specialization. First, my capacity for empathy, sympathy, and understanding are all beyond reason of a doubt. I have always had the ability to converse well and calmly with individuals suffering from a variety of emotional states and recovering from different emotional capacities. In my own practice and attempts at counseling, I have been able to use my calming and comprehending personality to a therapeutic advantage. Therefore, I feel my own personality is attributed and akin to tuning into the needs of disabled veterans when counseling. Furthermore, I have had personal relationships with veterans, so I have a solid understanding of their sufferings and needs. For the most part, I realize it is incredibly difficult for them to talk about these instances,…… [Read More]
My thoughts and feelings about contemplative psychology are somewhat conflicted. On the one hand, there are several tenets with this particular approach to psychology that I think are valid. However, I am not sure that many of them have a place in true psychology. Psychology is a science and a discipline -- it is based on empirical evidence and fact. Many of the Eastern philosophical concepts that are incorporated into contemplative psychology are not based on empirical evidence or fact. Therefore, my view on this particular aspect of psychology remains conflicted (if not outright contradictory) -- I see some boons of this methodology, yet am not sure that I could validate them from a purely scientific perspective.
From a personal standpoint, there are numerous aspects of contemplative psychology that I intuitively can relate to and which I utilize as focal points for my own life. One of the…… [Read More]
However the only aspect that I disagree with is that in some parts of the writing it often feels as if diversity is seen like an overwhelming task to surmount. Diversity should not be viewed in this manner. We are all different and there should be a global respect for those differences. These differences should not be viewed as an obstacle yet just as a state of being.
The next cite discusses the responsibilities of the therapist. I actually agree completely with all the writings on this particular cite. I s is important that therapists be held to a higher level of responsibility than most other positions. The site states that the group psychotherapist must provide services with respect for the dignity and uniqueness of each patient/client as well as the rights and autonomy of the individual patient/client. The group psychotherapist safeguards the patient/client's right to privacy by judiciously protecting…… [Read More]
He wanted to show how conversation analysis and ethnomethodology may elucidate two interrelated matters of continuing concern to the ethnographer: the role of culture in shaping an informants' behavior and the apparent capacity of an investigated culture to compel the fieldworker to follow local habits of thought.
For this research, Watson defined ethnomethodology as "the study of how people, in their everyday lives, constitute the world as a recognizable state of affairs." Similar to conversation analysis, it is concerned with explication of order in social interaction and attempts to replace the existing Parsonian motivational approach to the analysis of social action to one with procedure. It asks not why but how. stipulates four basic moves in conversation analysis of ethnomethodology: 1) Conversation analysis and ethnomethodology look at utterances as tools for the performance of activities, not just things that stand in for other things. Further, activities performed by utterances are…… [Read More]
Science is a “way of knowing,” meaning that it is one way of ascertaining the truth about the world. Although it is not the only way of knowing, it is the most reliable way of knowing the physical universe because it is based on systematic, rigorous methods of testing, experimentation, and calculated observations. According to the Union of Concerned Scientists (2017), science yields “unbiased and verifiable information to make important decisions,” (p. 1). The scientific method is used to acquire and analyze information. Using the scientific method, it is possible to test hypotheses again and again, to come up with verifiable and repeatable experiments that can yield factual and provable data.
The most important elements of the scientific method include observation, identification, description, investigation, and explanation. Observation is often the genesis of scientific inquiry. Observing an interesting, important, unique, or unusual phenomenon might lead to a hypothesis about why that…… [Read More]
These three seminal perspectives may possess a lot of similarities, yet each of them has contributed novel ideas that are consistent with its theoretical underpinnings. In many of the substance abuse treatment arenas, the significant aspects of all these three approaches are blended to provide for a cognitive-behavioral model that gives the best result in terms of all the other therapies. (Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy)
Three theorists who have influenced the behaviorist theories are:
1. Watson J.B. - One of the originators of behaviorism and a proponent of the reductionist approach to the study of human behavior.
2. Skinner B.F. - He was the one most responsible for the spread of the behaviorist philosophy.
3. Wolpe, Joseph. The method of systematic desensitization to deal with fear was created by him. (Theories and Theorists)
Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." NIDA. etrieved at http://www.addictionalternatives.com/philosophy/briefcbtherapy.htm. Accessed on February 15, 2005
Bush, Winston John. (December 22,…… [Read More]
Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theory
Psychodynamic & Humanistic Theory
A seminal study on the personality trait differences of therapists practicing with different theoretical orientations is an interesting place to begin this compare and contrast discussion. Tremblay, et al. (1986) administered the Personality Orientation Inventory to 90 male and 90 female psychotherapists who self-designated and were equally distributed in groups designated as behavioral (BEH), psychodynamic (PSY), and humanistic (HUM). Interestingly, the study suggested that a core therapist personality exists and that further distinction can be achieved through consideration of the patterns of personality that were associated with theoretical orientation. The caveat was that the patterns associated with theoretical orientations were characterized more by overlapping traits than unique traits. Of the three theoretical categories, the HUM group exhibited the most unique traits: they were more flexible, more accepting of personal aggression and expressing feelings in action, and differed in their development of intimate…… [Read More]
Social psychology is the study of human behavior in social situations, showing how social pressures and sociological variables can impact psychological phenomenon such as identity, motivation, personality, or behavior. A quintessential topic in the field of social psychology is bullying. Bullying can be studied from a public health perspective, showing how the external variables such as how a school is designed and the leadership and organizational culture of the school affects risk factors implicated in bullying behaviors or victimization patterns. Alternatively, bullying can be examined from a purely psychological perspective to reveal the factors implicated in aggressive physical or verbal behaviors or alternatively, to study victim characteristics or why some bystanders refuse to step in when they observe bullying behaviors. This latter issue links in with the social psychology approach. The social psychology of bullying examines factors like why some people perpetrate bullying behaviors due to their upbringing, their sense…… [Read More]
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
1.2 Objective…… [Read More]
Likewise, engaging in too much control over a Stage III supervisee could lead to quite a bit of tension in the supervisor/supervisee relationship and result in negative transference to clients in counseling sessions. Nonetheless, this notion that counseling supervisees develop in relatively predictable stages and that an effective supervisor can best help them progress by approaching them at the level of supervision that corresponds to their own development is very helpful in performing efficient and rewarding supervision for counseling trainees.
Empirical research has validated the approach of the integrated developmental models to some extent. In order to determine the supervisee's developmental McNeill, Stoltenberg, and omans (1992) developed the Supervisee Levels Questionnaire -- evised (SLQ -- ). Lovell (1999) found that the SLQ -- results from trainees indicated that the level of education and prior supervised experience was related to the level of the supervisee opposed to such concepts as cognitive…… [Read More]
Nursing Study on Hourly ounding
Qualitative nursing Study on Hourly ounding
Similarities and difference to other quantitative articles
Similar to other qualitative papers, ethnographic researchers target the inclusion and representation of the views and observations of the subjects. The questions in qualitative and ethnographic researchers try to focus on the understanding of the subjects in their engagements in the day-to-day experiences. It is the interests of qualitative and ethnographic researchers to seek the relative positions and evaluations of the subjects about the subject matter (Green, Dixon, & Zaharlick, 2002).
Qualitative and ethnographic researchers obtain guidance on implementation and design in conducting their study from the theoretical orientations. These orientations include data collections tools -- interviews, artifacts, participant observation -- and data analysis measures (Green et al., 2002). Theoretical guides also direct on measures of entering the field, data to collect, the relevant literature to retain, necessary records to make and…… [Read More]
Abramson, R. (2010). Psychotherapy of psychoses: some principles for practice in the real world. he Journal Of he American Academy Of Psychoanalysis And Dynamic Psychiatry, 38(3), 483-502. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Abramson, R. (2010) explains that treatment of psychoses must include psychological treatments for the mind joined with the commonly employed biological treatments for the brain. here are various schools of psychotherapy, but psychoanalytic treatment is the only Western discipline devoted to comprehensive understanding of the subjective mind. Psychoanalytic authorities have written extensively on the psychodynamics involved in treatment of psychoses, but such approaches are limited by the realities of limited resources and number of therapists who have advanced training. Also, the techniques and understandings developed by prominent authors cannot always be implemented by many therapists who do not enjoy as robust a theoretic background. Presented here are five principles that are useful to keep in mind during the treatment…… [Read More]
Psychological Foundations Towards Education
Major characteristics of Freud's theory and Erikson's theory
Looking at pages 143-164 of the article, Freud and Erikson address the basic issue of self-definition. According to Freud believes that a person's sense of self stems from parental projections in the course of the genesis of super-ego. In addition, he argues that these introjects form the foundation of a person's self-definition in childhood and that such parental identifications are not significantly updated or revised during childhood or adolescence. Either way, an individual's self-concept is believed to be a function of the fundamental identification process, which takes place during one's pre-school years. Although Freud has extensively written on the human development process, Erikson was the pioneer in writing about the formation of identities. In his works, Erikson has gone far and beyond Freud's parental introjects and childhood identifications (Austrian 37). He argues that the presence of self-selected identity…… [Read More]
Verification of Interpretation -- Trustworthiness
Dependability and Confirmability
Advanced Qualitative esearch Methods
The role of research methods knowledge and its benefits for social research is an area of debate and confusion since the beginning of the profession's inception (Austin, 1983). Central to this understanding is the broader context of social research as new found study areas. In social research, the knowledge of research methods helps in selecting appropriate method for a particular area of research as well the knowledge of strengths and weaknesses of particular methods can lead a researcher to choose combine methods and adopt strategies to address the weaknesses of a particular method. In this research report the author intends to describe advanced qualitative research method, theory, practical implications, ethical consideration as well as types of advances research methods, the importance and significance of employing qualitative research methods, the sampling procedures and data collection and analysis…… [Read More]
In addition, the views presented by sociologists concerning idealistic tradition is based on the significance of the concerned group that is sort to motivate, influence to belief and the subject of interest. In this regard, sociologists will not disassociate from the scientific data but will involve the subject of interest to attempt to understand the environment in its own context, showing how sociologists have subjective explanations and not objective ones (Adams et al. 267).
ith regard to the above, there exists queries on whether the sociological theory is a micro or a macro understood occurrence. Apart from the philosophical aspects of knowledge, the micro and macro aspects of sociological theory are highly debated in there associations. It inquires on how these sociological theories on character, reactions, and interpersonal procedures can associate with other social influences. Just like in sciences where there exists micro-macro differences which even with the advanced technology…… [Read More]
data collection and the sources to be utilized for this project. The highlighted gaps in knowledge will be investigated with the help of two research methods. The research methods have been chosen on the basis that they have the best chance of answering the research questions. Lastly, the procedures that will be utilized to analyse the results and also the limitations of the methods will be highlighted. Ethical considerations will also be given (Frandsen & Johansen, 2010).
There is a need for a comprehensive evaluation in order to capture the sophisticated processes of public relations crisis communication and also to provide a broader perspective on the matter in addition to helping with the investigation of the related issues. A mixed-method study approach (a mix of quantitative and qualitative study methodologies) will be employed for the purposes of providing an overview of the subject matter and also to help provide data…… [Read More]
Vavrus, M. (2002). Transforming the multicultural education of teachers: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Teachers College Press
Weiner, L. (2000). esearch in the 90s: implications for urban teacher preparation. eview of Educational esearch, 70(3), 369 -- 406.
Zeichner, K., & Hoeft, K. (1996). Teacher socialization for cultural diversity. In J. Sikula, T. Buttery, & E. Guyton (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 525 -- 547). Old Tappan, NJ: Macmillan
De Vita, G. (2001) "Learning Styles, Culture and Inclusive Instruction in the Multicultural Classroom: A Business and Management Perspective" Innovations in Education and Teaching International 38(2): 165-174
In this paper, the author stated that in many occasions a number of teachers and most administration educator find that even a well -- organized lecturers and workshops usually don't connect all students when it comes to the composition and working with different cultures. The paper highlighted that most traditional…… [Read More]
Group Counseling for Jake Green
The group will be designed for children suffering from Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The group will be for young children aimed at focusing on self-awareness. The children will be taught self-management skills like positive self-talk techniques and self-soothing behaviors. All this is aimed at improving their social skills and improve interactions with others. Having a group of ADHD children will allow Jake to recognize he is not alone and he will be able to interact with other children who have the same challenges. The group to be created will be a psychoeducational group because the purpose is to develop the members feeling, thinking, and behavioral skills by using a structured learning format. Psychoeducational groups are aimed at high-functioning individuals who have a deficit in specific areas (Pitschel-Walz et al., 2006). The group will be focused on educating group members regarding their disorder…… [Read More]
This course fulfills its promise to help students understand research methods in education and educational administration specifically. Concepts of research have been covered clearly, to allow students better insight into how they might construct their own research from the proposal stage through the analysis and interpretation of results. Through encounters with original research like the Porter, Polikoff, Goldring, et al. (2010) study, students in this course also become more familiar with how researchers develop and implement assessments to evaluate the efficacy of different school leadership models.
Moreover, this course empowers students to adopt a professional mindset to evaluate the research of others, consider gaps in the literature, and contribute to the growing body of evidence on educational administration. The course has also covered theoretical orientations in educational research, encouraging students to consider their own points of view and the directions their research and their careers will take them. Ultimately, students…… [Read More]
Cultural bias implies an emphasized distinction or preferential status that indicates a predilection for one culture, over another. It is often discriminative, and is characterized by an absence of integration in a group, in terms of social principles, codes of conduct, and beliefs. Cultural partisanship introduces the accepted behaviors of one group as superior, and more valued, than those of another lesser-respected cultural group. In my surroundings, most of the residents, and hence, patients are white, making us (Afro-Americans and Asians) minorities, feel different if not isolated. Such deferential factors are responsible for establishing where specific individuals live, and what opportunities are available to them, in the healthcare and educational context (Sue et al., 2009)
The presence of cultural bias within the context of healthcare-related recommendations and decision-making gives rise to significant challenges. Well-documented inequalities in health status of different racial and ethnic communities, in addition to nationally-publicized…… [Read More]
At times, even though the research may be complicated by varying definitions of homelessness, researchers are establishing methods for estimating the size of the homeless population, which includes people who have nowhere to go; at risk of losing housing through eviction or institutional discharge (Drury, 2008).
Case Study Methodology
In the case study methodology, a form of qualitative descriptive research, according to M. Dereshiwsky (1999) in "Electronic Textbook - Let Us Count the Ways: Strategies for Doing Qualitative esearch," the researcher using the case study methodology does not focus on discovering a universal, generalizable truth, nor do the researcher generally search for cause-effect relationships. Instead, the researcher emphasizes the exploring and describing process. As the researcher examines one individual or small participant pool, he/she then draws conclusions only about that one particular participant or group; only in the designated, specific context Case Studies 2008).
In considering or defining the case…… [Read More]
There is disagreement as to whether CSB is an addiction, a psychosexual developmental disorder, an impulse control disorder, a mood disorder, or an obsessive-compulsive disorder, however most scientists dispute the idea that someone can become addicted to sex in the same way they become addicted to alcohol, thus abstinence as a treatment is viewed as an oversimplification of the problem (Compulsive).
Samantha Jones might be the first to admit that she has CSB, or not. But as long as it does not harm anyone, then "ho cares what you are just enjoy it."
Compulsive Sexual Behavior. Retrieved November 07, 2005 at http://www.uc.edu/psc/sh/SH_Compul_Sexual_Behav.htm
Quotes: Samantha Jones. Retrieved November 07, 2005 at http://en.thinkexist.com/quotes/by/character/samantha_jones/
Samantha Jones. Retrieved November 07, 2005 at http://www.hbo.com/city/cast/character/samantha_jones.shtml
Stein, Daniel J. "Sexual Addiction: An Integrated Approach." Retrieved November 07, 2005 at http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/51/1/123
Vukadinovic, Zoran. "Sexual addiction, sexual compulsivity, sexual impulsivity, or what? Toward a theoretical model." The…… [Read More]
Counseling is described by Kobeisy as the professional form of guidance that is aimed at addressing concerns as well as aid individuals in improving their attitude, coping skills as well as behavior (Kobeisy 1).Counseling can help people, families as well as groups in achieving optimal growth and development for the stages of life in which they go through. Counseling as a profession has many specialties like marriage, grief, and pastoral as well as career. It is worth noting that apart from pastoral counseling, the field of counseling is meant to be a free.This is to imply that the counselor should be open minded while approaching their clients with an attitude that is non-judgmental. They are also not allowed to impose or even direct their clients. The counseling process should therefore help the clients to clearly see their choices, appropriately set their objectives while making the necessary changes in order to…… [Read More]
Empathy and Counseling
Review and Critique of "The Relationship Between Clients' Perceptions of Therapist-Parent Similarity with Respect to Empathy, Regard and Unconditionality and Therapists' Ratings of Client Transference" (1998) by Barrie Mariner Arachtingi and James W. Lichtenberg
From a counseling perspective, it is clearly much easier to have sympathy for others in need, such as "sympathy for the poor," than it is to have empathy, which requires a significant mental and emotional involvement. A study by Barrie Mariner Arachtingi and James W. Lichtenberg (1998) investigated the similarity between clients' perceptions of their therapists and their perceptions of their parents (or early parental figures) in terms of the relationship qualities of empathy, positive regard, and unconditionality of regard and how those perceptions compared with their therapists' ratings of transference.
ypothesis. The study hypothesis was that there was a positive associated between the similarity of the therapist and parents or parental figures…… [Read More]
mental health clinic is understaffed and counselors decide to use group work to deal with more clients during a particular period of time. The counselor organizes a group and asks for candidates from colleagues and places a message on the clinic's bulletin board. However, the incoming members are not prepared, and the announcements fail to inform them about the purposes and goals of the group, the background and qualification of the leader, the expectations of the group and the techniques that will be used. Consequently, the receptionist admits the first 12 people who sign up or call regardless of the nature of their problems. During the first meeting, one depressed and suicidal member takes up the entire session and the important matters are not discussed. The intensity of the client's crisis also scared some of the members and they fail to return for the next session.
How to screen more…… [Read More]
Psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic, transpersonal, and existential (HTE) psychology are the three primary movements in the study of the human experience. Each of these movements uses different research methodologies and epistemologies, and each focuses on different aspects of the human experience. Moreover, each of these movements presents unique therapeutic interventions and goals in the field of psychology. With each having contributed tremendously to the social sciences, psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic psychology can also be integrated for a richer understanding of human consciousness and the human condition. Historical context of the science and practice of psychology helps illuminate the field’s core values.
Historical Context and Rationale
Although inquiries into the human experience can be traced through the disciplines of philosophy and religion, the first scientific, empirical studies of human nature and behavior began more concertedly in the nineteenth century. William Wundt opened the first real laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychology…… [Read More]
Westaby, J.D., Pfaff, D.L. & Redding, N. (2014). Psychology and social networks. American Psychologist 69(3): 269-284.
Westaby, Pfaff & Redding (2014) attempt to fill a gap in the literature on social networks by focusing on how social networks influence goal striving via emotional pathways. The authors base their research on dynamic network theory, and the results can be applied to numerous practical or clinical settings including organizational-industrial behavior or even information science. The dynamic network theory orientation also sheds light on numerous types of social networks and organizations, illuminating both individual and collective behavior. Although not an experimental research or a meta-analysis, the study does direct psychologists and researchers toward potentially fruitful areas of investigation.
The authors explain dynamic network theory in depth, centering their attention on the importance of emotional responses in social networks, and then outline the most important roles social networks fulfill in human behavior. Dynamic network…… [Read More]
Power, Inequality and Conflict
The two theorists used in this paper to explore the theme of “power, inequality and conflict” are W. E. B. Du Bois and Patricia Hill Collins. The theme is one that gets to the heart of the struggle within the American Experience. The great attraction of the American Dream has always been that people are created equal and are endowed with a natural right to pursue life, liberty and happiness. For many minorities and marginalized persons in America, however, the Dream has a way of turning into a nightmare. Whether because of segregation, Jim Crow laws, gender pay gaps, or all manner of harassment (both sexual and racial), the theme of “power, inequality and conflict” has been a constant one throughout American history. While Du Bois explores this theme in “The Conversation of Races,” it is Patricia Hill Collins who is most helpful in providing understanding…… [Read More]
The DSM explicitly "strives to be atheoretical, using merely observationally referent terms. The hope with this is to make the manual as acceptable as possible to professionals with different theoretical orientations (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). Specific criteria and systematic descriptions are offered as guidance for making diagnoses. "Essential features, associated features, prevalence rates, sex ratios, family patterns, and differential diagnoses are listed" and it is noted when "alternative or additional diagnoses…should be considered," such as the possibility that a manic episode could mask itself as schizophrenia (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). This might occur if the clinician was unacquainted with the patient and the patient's past history of depression, for example, and/or mood disorders in the patient's family.
Also key to the efficacy of the DSM in approaching the ideologically and theoretically charged world of abnormal psychology is its multiaxial system. The multiaxial system "allows for a more holistic and comprehensive…… [Read More]
This is discussed at length by Fusick and ordeau (2004) "...school-based counselors need to be aware of the disturbing inequities that exist in predominantly Afro-American urban school districts, where nearly 40% of Afro-American students attend school in the United States" (Fusick and ordeau, 2004) This again places emphasis on the need for mental health programs in these areas of concern. This is also related to findings from a study by McDavis et al. (1995) Counseling African-Americans, which refers to research that stresses the "...widening achievement gap between Afro-American and Euro-American students." (McDavis, et al. 1995)
An important study Laura a. Nabors, Evaluation of Outcomes for Adolescents Receiving School-ased Mental Health Services (2002) refers to the particular issue and problems experience at inner-city schools. The author states that, "School mental health (SMH) programs are an important setting for providing mental health services to adolescents, especially urban youth who typically face in-…… [Read More]
Nursing Culture: Overcoming Barriers to Change
Introduction and Theoretical Framework
This program of study continues personal research and professional practice in the field of nursing within the area of public and private health systems. In an era characterized by increasing calls for more efficient approaches to healthcare delivery and accountability on the part of healthcare providers, there is a growing need for identifying opportunities to overcome organizational barriers to change that facilitate the implementation and sustainment of evidence-based practices over time. In order to accomplish this challenging enterprise, the nature of existing organizational barriers must be better understood, an issue that directly relates to the problem to be considered by the study proposed herein and which is discussed further below.
Statement of the Problem
According to Mannion, Davies and Marshall et al. (2005), the results of much of the research to date have identified a relationship between nursing culture and…… [Read More]
Long before the term postpartum depression became part of the vernacular, Charlotte Perkins Gilman deftly and sensitively describes the complex condition in her short story “The Yellow Wallpaper.” The story describes the prevailing attitudes towards women and their narrowly defined roles in society. White, upper middle class women like the narrator of “The Yellow Wallpaper” could not easily express discontent with their position as wife and mother. The narrator’s husband—a physician—believes there is “nothing the matter” with his wife except “temporary nervous depression” and “a slight hysterical tendency,” (Gilman 648). Noting her brother is also a physician, the narrator exclaims, “But what is one to do,” when one is just a woman, and therefore a subordinate whose total financial and social dependency on their male counterparts precludes their self-determination (Gilman 649). To address her “hysteria,” the narrator’s husband and brother confine her to a pleasant enough country home, but restrict…… [Read More]
& #8230; in its heyday there was elitism and arrogance among psychoanalysts, a sense of having superior knowledge that set us up for a fall" (Altman, ¶ 3). In a field that claims to possess knowledge of the unconscious, Altman asserts, this constitutes an occupational hazard. To counter the temptation to feel more knowledgeable than others, whether patients or the public in general, therapists who practice psychoanalytic therapy, need to remember that the depths of their own unconscious realms are as unfathomable as those they treat.
Psychoanalysis, nevertheless, possesses particularly valuable offerings, despite numerous attacks on meaning. Due to the fact that people currently, continuing to move faster and faster as they pursue success and security. Consequently, "thoughtfulness and self-reflection get crowded out. People are instrumentalized, working around the clock, on their cell phones and e-mail and Blackberries, allowing themselves to be exploited in the service of the corporate bottom…… [Read More]
They wanted to know the best places to go after work, and expected him to help them in that regard.
Hanes finally told his Japanese trainers "he preferred not to mix business with pleasure." ithin a couple days, the group requested another instructor. The critical issue here, one can quickly discern, is that Hanes did not do his homework on the Japanese business culture; if he had, he would know the Japanese are intensely committed to their work, on duty and off duty.
The "Miscue No. 2" involves Ray Lopez, top salesperson for his company who was fluent in Spanish; he was sent to Buenos Aires to make a marketing pitch to a distribution firm there. He arrived and was picked up at the airport and surprised to learn that the meeting had been postponed for two days "...so that Ray could rest after the long trip" and also have…… [Read More]
The concept of ideal type was also discussed during the discussion, it was agreed that the 'an ideal type is a concept constructed by a social scientist, based on his or her interests and theoretical orientation, to capture the essential features of some social phenomenon'. The program also discussed the significance of the religious books, and it readings. The program sought the justification for the integration of the capitalism and religion, and the impact of the religious affiliation and social stratification on the Spirit of Capitalism was identified. In the program the Marx theory was referred, 'and capitalists and proletarians are equally alienated'.
The social evolution has been predicted, and the sources of the evolution have been regarded as controversial, therefore the capitalism has been placed against religion, where the capitalism. The host refuted the affects of religious affiliation and social stratification on the Spirit of Capitalism, and regarded both…… [Read More]
Overall parental involvement has an effect on the child from the early stage to the secondary stage. Students need the parents for guidance, integrity and confidence to become successful in life because it is not the teachers job to make sure the students have these qualities. "In reality, parent involvement is a more diverse and complex concept than is generally acknowledged" (Dom & Verhoeven, 2006, p.570).
The study will help to determine the reason for the different challenges students may face due to the lack of parental involvement.
esearch Design and Methodology
The proposed study will use a quantitative research design that uses both secondary resources as well as primary data collected specifically for the purposes of this research. The research procedure will proceed in a step-wise fashion, beginning with an exploratory review of the literature to identify common themes and trends in the research concerning current patterns of parental…… [Read More]
leadership has been in existence since ancient times with various contributions on this phenomena having been cumulative. egardless of these cumulative contributions, there are still more significant concerns and deficiencies in the existing knowledge on leadership. Examples of these deficiencies is that many studies have ignored the type of organization and culture with which leaders function, services provided by the leader's organization, and the relationships between leaders and their superiors. On the contrary, these studies on leadership mainly focus on the relationship between leaders and their direct followers.
Leadership and Management:
Leadership is described as the creation of a vision or direction for a group of people to follow making a leader to be the head of new direction or vision. Leadership and management are terms that have continued to be used interchangeably though they are very different. These two concepts are necessarily connected and complementary with attempts to separate…… [Read More]
Multicultural Counseling Competency
The development of American society as a multicultural society in the recent years resulted from the numerous incidences of diaspora and migration among individuals who belong to various cultures and societies all over the world. At present, the United States is host country to peoples of various race, ethnicity, worldviews, as well as social class, which include Europeans, Asians, Africans, Hispanic, and Native Americans. The diversity of American society thus necessitates an awareness of the cultural differences among these groups to further understand and tolerate these differences as each group interacts with the other and the whole of American society.
Understanding cultural diversity is indeed imperative for the counselor, who faces the challenge to provide efficient mental health service for an individual who may belong to a culturally-different group other than the white Americans. The hybridization of American society serves as a challenge for multicultural counseling to…… [Read More]
He realizes and wants the reader to realize that those roots have merit and modern day approaches simply that the field of mental health to the next step or next level of the industry, but he stresses the importance of action therapy not reflection therapy. Each step is a building block toward the eventual goal of having answers more quickly and more accurate than the past answers, however without Freud and those who came after him the new theories would not be possible.
he book is a refreshing approach and puts Glasser's reality therapy into play by acknowledging the others who have developed theories and giving them their dues before moving on to examine the next step which he believes is his approach.
Glasser's book is based on an individual's power to choose. hey can choose how they react to life, they can choose how they react to people and…… [Read More]
Marx Historical Context
Classical sociological and economic theories like those of Karl Marx emerged in Western Europe when it was experiencing the Enlightenment, the emergence of scientific method, a growing sense of individual autonomy over one's life conditions, the emergence of private property, urban growth, and a total shattering of the social balance of relations among peoples that had been in place for centuries if not millennia. Christianity and other traditional religions were being undermined by the new developments in science and technology, while urban, industrial capitalism was breaking up the old feudal-agrarian order in Europe and the Americas. All the founders of modern sociology had to deal with this radically new society, and attempted to describe its historical origins, the new social and economic problems of industrial capitalism, and how governments and societies should deal with them. Karl Marx received his PhD in economics in Germany during the dawn…… [Read More]
Dysfunctions and Their Therapies
Dysfunctions and emedies involved
Treatment and Control of Dysfunctions
The Thought Focused Treatment System
The thought focused treatment systems are those which narrow down to thought processes and systems of belief. The system believes in the child developing process being the cause of dysfunction. Social learning and modeling of ideas result to the personalities of an individual. The personalities result to experiences such as thoughts and feelings, critical learning, and the imitation of these behaviors. For instance, the child develops thoughts and behaviors from the parents. If the parents hide their feelings and never cry, the child grows knowing that crying is not the solution. The environment directly affects the child's thoughts. Therefore, if an individual's development is distorted in any manner, there is likely to be an experience of dysfunctional issues or poor health. An individual learns how to cope with stress and problems in…… [Read More]
Multiple Therapeutic Models of a Family
The main components of structural therapy
Structural therapy is a family treatment model founded on the frameworks of systems theory. The distinctive component of this model is the emphasis it has placed on structural adjustments as the primary objective of the therapy session. This emphasis is prominent over details of adjustments in individual behaviors. This model is distinctive because the therapist is the most active agent and receives much attention in the course of family restructuring (Lock & Strong, 2012).
The main purpose of structural family therapy is prevention of sequences from repetition by coveting the hierarchical structures of families. This encompasses shifts in power distribution among family members by adjusting interaction styles. Nevertheless, structural family therapy operates by making alterations on the dysfunctional family structure through encouragement and promotion of growth among family members with the primary intention of re-building the family (Petridis,…… [Read More]
Delayed Speech: Identification and Treatment
One common question parents ask is if and when they should be concerned when a child manifests delayed speech. For an infant, delayed speech is of concern when the baby "isn't using gestures, such as pointing or waving bye-bye by 12 months; prefers gestures over vocalizations to communicate by 18 months; has trouble imitating sounds by 18 months; [and] has difficulty understanding simple verbal requests" (Delayed speech or language development, 2012, Kid's Health: 1). In an older child, a lack of developmentally-appropriate speech becomes worrisome when the child does not engage in spontaneous speech; repeats words or phrases without apparent understanding; cannot follow simply instructions; and has difficulty being understood by members outside of the family (Delayed speech or language development, 2012, Kid's Health: 1).
Early intervention for children who exhibit language delays has a significantly higher success rate than later interventions. "First, there is…… [Read More]
Ulysses: An Odyssey of Errors
Critics of James Joyce call his work cryptic and rambling, not easily followed by most readers. They proclaim that it lacks plot and classical elements of modern literature. However, Joyce did not intentionally write a bad novel, rather he was experimenting with a new literary style, one which broke almost all of the rules of modern literature. None the less, there have been those in society who have attempted to "correct" and "improve" upon Joyce's works. These attempts at "improvement" are to be the subject of this research. This research will approach the controversy surrounding Ulysses in reference to its place as a piece of art. In such a context, it is doubtful whether later versions of Ulysses have succeeded in clearing up the obscurities in the original novel, but rather have served to further confuse the issue.
Joyce was the first to use the…… [Read More]
technology adoption by small & medium-sized logistics providers," using a qualitative methodology. However, the use of a mixed methods approach could add another dimension to this study. Instead of engaging in a relatively small number of interviews of logistics providers, I could also submit questionnaires to be quantitatively assessed to a much wider framework of logistics competitors within the same industry. Qualitative research is always limited to some degree in scope because its focus is on depth, not breadth, and individual experiences. The introduction of a quantitative component would allow me to gain a broader perspective on the issues raised and qualify my findings from my more anecdotal, qualitative research. "Mixed methods begins with the assumption that investigators…gather evidence based on the nature of the question and theoretical orientation" rather than are shackled to a single worldview ("Best practices," 2014).
Mixed methods approaches to research offer 'the best of both…… [Read More]