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Throughout the duration of the war, Paine was responsible for publishing a series of propaganda pieces which were published in the Crisis. In these, he often addressed the British Crown and warned of the Americans' united spirit: "In all the wars which you have formerly been concerned in you had only armies to contend with; in this case, you have both an army and a country to combat with," (Paine, Crisis 68). During this time he was also appointed to the position of secretary to the Committee of Foreign Affairs in 1777. Paine was partially responsible for securing supplying deals with France for the benefit of the American war effort. Yet overall, his role in the war was that of an essayist, in the aim of promoting American morale by artfully composing works that reminded the individual colonist of the ideals for which he or she fought and sacrificed. In…
Ayer, a.J. Thomas Paine. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.
Burke, Edmund. The Philosophy of Edmund Burke. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1960.
Foner, Philip S. The Life and Major Writings of Thomas Paine. Secaucus: The Citadel Press, 1974.
Hawke, David F. Paine. New York: Harper & Row, 1974.
Moreover Thomas made people realize that kings are the cause of all wars with his evidence from the Bible:
In the early ages of the world, according to the scripture chronology, there were no kings; the consequence of which was there were no wars; it is the pride of kings which throw mankind into confusion." (Thomas Paine)
Thomas was an expert in reaching down to the souls of common man and with his knowledge about the deepest desires of the Americans he was able to stir up emotions and the desire in them to have a land of their own - to gain their independence. Thomas stated poetically to the people of America to "bring the doctrine of reconciliation to the touchstone of nature, and then tell me, whether you can hereafter love, honor, and faithfully serve the power that hath carried fire and sword into your land?" (Thomas Paine)…
1) Anonymous - Article Title: Tom Paine's Place in History. Magazine Title: The Wilson Quarterly. Volume: 19. Issue: 3. Publication Date: Summer 1995. Page Number: 129.
2) Thomas Paine - Book Title: Common Sense. [Online Website] Available at http://earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/milestones/commonsense/text.html [Accessed on: 15/9/2005]
3) Frank Smith - Book Title: Thomas Paine: Liberator. Publisher: Frederick A. Stokes. Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 1938. Page Number: 26.
4) Declaration of Independence [online website] Available at http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/document/ [Accessed on: 15/9/2005]
Thomas Paine's influential pamphlet, Common Sense, provided the inspiration for America's independence from Great Britain. Common sense reflected the common belief that British rule was often heavy-handed, unnecessary, and even unfounded. Thus, the success of Paine's Common Sense can be attributed to Paine's ability to tap into the beliefs of his audience, the American people.
Paine's Common Sense is divided into four key sections, plus an introduction. The first section describes Paine's thoughts on the origin and design of government and the relationship of these spots to the English constitution. The second section presents Paine's arguments against the validity of the English and monarchy in the colonies. Section three is an examination all of American political life in the late 1770s. The final, fourth section, describes the present ability of America to exist as a nation independent of British rule.
Paine's arguments for American independence are based on his understanding…
Paine, Thomas. Common Sense. Dover Publications, 1997.
In the second chapter of Common Sense, Paine wrote: "Society is produced by our wants, and government by our wickedness; the former promotes our happiness Positively by uniting our affections, the latter negatively by restraining our vices." Also, Paine's philosophy was also unusually critical, compared with the singers of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, in its uncompromising embrace of a non-theologically-based state order, a state based upon the concept of the author's beloved vale of reason. The value of reason vs. religious ideation was a popular concept during the Enlightenment amongst some European philosophers, but a controversial one on a mass level -- still, Paine was unafraid to advocate the idea of religious belief always being subordinate to political doctrines that could be justified through logic.
This is important to remember when issues of religion are debated today, in the contemporary public discourse. It is interesting to remember…
Paine, Thomas. "Common Sense." From the Health Anthology of American Literature. Paul Lauter, General Editor. 8th edition, Volume 1. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Thomas Paine -- Common Sense
Thomas Paine wrote "Common Sense" as an argument for American independence from Great Britain.
Paine begins his essay with general reflections concerning government. He begins the second paragraphs with "Society in every state is a blessing, but Government, even in its best state, is a necessary evil; in its worst state, an intolerable one" (Paine pp). ith this statement Paine is appealing to the masses by laying out his general view of government, assuring them that yes, it would be ideal to live without government, yet in reality impossible, however, it is not necessary to tolerate one in which treats its citizens unfairly. Paine continues, "for when we suffer, or are exposed to the same miseries by a government, which we might expect in a country without government, our calamity is heightened by reflecting that we furnish the means by which we suffer" (Paine pp).…
Paine, Thomas. Common Sense. Bartleby.com http://www.bartleby.com/133/0.html
This person named Paine could not even come out of a charter for his imaginary independent America without borrowing from the English Magna Carta. The colonies are part of the British nation and we have been treating the colony like the mother country. And if the traitors like Paine and others like him decide to rebel, we will have no choice but to use our military might to pacify the colony and bring it under control.
Thomas Paine: The English King's response validates every argument I made in my pamphlet. The King needs to realize that we have nothing against England and nothing against Magna Carta, which was a document written by those who were fed up with the tyranny of British monarchs. We are only against British tyranny and King's brutality in treating its subjects in the colonies. We want to enforce a better document than Magna Carta to…
Paine, T. (1776) Common Sense. Retrieved 27 Feb. 2012, from: http://www.ushistory.org/paine/commonsense/singlehtml.htm
West, R. (2003) Tom Paine's Constitution. Virginia Law Review, 89(6): 1413-1461. Retrieved 27 Feb. 2012, from http://www.jstor.org/
It is difficult to think of the founding of the United States without calling to mind Thomas Paine. Paine's "Common Sense" and "Age of Reason" have become not only part of American history, but part of classic American literature.
In "Common Sense," Paine wrote, "The new republican materials, in the persons of the commons, on whose virtue depends the freedom of England" (Paine pg). Paine is perhaps the least revered and celebrated of all the founding fathers, but, perhaps, one of the most patriotic and influential.
Thomas Paine was born January 29, 1737 in Thetford, Norfolk, England. His mother was Anglican, his father was Quaker. The family was poor, and Paine had only a brief education before going to work for his father, and went to sea at age nineteen. Later, he had various jobs, and eventually became an excise officer, collecting taxes from smugglers (Encarta pg). In…
Biography of Thomas Paine (1737-1809)." http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/B/tpaine/paine.htm.(accessed 12-03-2002).
Cichowski, John. "PATRIOT STATUE'S PAINFUL EPISODE." The Record. March 06, 1991; pp 001.
Paine, Thomas. Encarta. http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761558762.(accessed 12-03-2002).
Paine, Thomas. Common Sense. January 10, 1776. The Thomas Paine
Rights of Man
Thomas Paine wrote his book "Rights of Man" between 1791 and 1792, as a response to a French book written by Edmund Burke's called "Reflections on the Revolution in France." Paine is one of the most well-known writers of revolutionary times in the United States. Amazingly enough, Paine was a native Englishman, but when he came to America he became a true American, and for the rest of his life he wrote about freedom, liberty, and the "Rights of Man," as they related to both the English and Americans.
The "Rights of Man" is a lucid and compelling book, written when the American Revolution was still fresh in history. From the beginning, Paine maintains he is not on any side, but simple stating his strong beliefs and convictions. "I am not contending for nor against any form of government, nor for nor against any party here or…
Paine, Thomas. Rights of Man, Common Sense; and Other Political Writings. Ed. Philp, Mark. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Frederick Douglass and Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine and Frederick Douglass are two men who inspired two very different revolutions, one of which led to the founding of a new nation, the other of which led to the freedom from slavery of an entire race of people. These two revolutions were nearly a century apart, yet the principles of each are the same. Both Paine and Douglass spoke with such eloquence and forethought that it is not surprising that their writings made such an impact on citizens as to inspire such profound change that the course of history was altered forever.
Each author spoke to a particular audience. Paine's work was addressing the American colonists who were under the rule of the British monarchy, and Douglass was addressing the issues of slavery within the new nation. Both issues, within their era, were topics of heated debates and passionate protests. Paine and…
Douglass, Frederick. (1845). Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An
American Slave. Retrieved November 02, 2005 from:
Paine, Thomas. (1776). Common Sense. Retrieved November 02, 2005 from:
" Paine explains that the next war may not be as kind on the people of Britain, therefore it is necessary to learn the errors of past views and perspectives in order to spare future generations and relationships between Great Britain and surrounding areas. Paine begins focusing on the effects of this continued perception of negativity on future wars. "The next war may not turn out like the last, and should it not, the advocates for reconciliation now will be wishing for the last..."
Paine uses this essay as a platform not only to inform the reader about the current situations concerning past and future wars, he also uses the essay as an opportunity to open the readers eyes to the similarities in man regardless of his location or circumstances. He expresses that the government and its rain like all things must end. "The authority of Great Britain over this…
Paine, T. (2002). The Heath Anthology of American Literature (4th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co..
Paine explains: "A government of our own is our natural right: and when a man seriously reflects on the precariousness of human affairs, he will become convinced, that it is infinitely wiser and safer, to form a constitution of our own..."
His concept of independence as a nation-state is no different from people's common notion of independence of the individual as a human being's natural right. Each American has the natural right to be free; and so, upon the creation of a nation in America, the country itself attains 'collective independence.' Paine speaks of independence in the purest and natural sense, where every individual shall actively participate in the process of nation-building of a newly-independent America.
While Madison shares Paine's argument that independence should be given to America, his was an altogether different kind of independence. He firmly believes that the American nation should have representative or a "minority" who…
Language of Ordinary People
The American evolution could not have been as strong as it was if it were not for one man, Thomas Paine. He was the one who supported and fought for it with all his synergies, combined in the written form of most celebrated and valued book and pamphlet Common Sense and The American Crisis, which turned the tables for revolution and brought a vibrant change in the history of America. Thomas Paine spoke the language of common people through his words. This assisted them in being able to rise up for their individual rights. He believed that ordinary people should defend their liberty and this concept was written strongly in his top works of eighteenth century, which is still remembered and read throughout the America as an inspiring piece of inscription to raise the most necessary revolution to change America. This thesis tends to explain how…
"Hope for the Wrongly Accused." Voices for Freedom. 1-21, 2011. http://voices4freedom.wordpress.com/2011/12/21/hope-for-the-wrongly-accused / (accessed 7-6, 2012).
Marin., Lucian E. "Free Women from Domestic Violence." Voices for Freedom. 1-16, 2012. http://voices4freedom.wordpress.com/2012/02/16/free-women-from-domestic-violence / (accessed 7-6, 2012).
"Together We Can Change the World." Voices for Freedom. 12-13, 2011. http://voices4freedom.wordpress.com/2011/11/13/toegther-we-can-change-the-world-volunteer / (accessed 7-6, 2012).
Whittier, John Greenleaf. Voices of Freedom. london: BiblioBazaar, 2011.
Homelessness in the United States
Common Sense by Thomas Paine
The political situation in the colonies of America were more than ready to receive the pamphlet entitled Common Sense by Thomas Paine. Paine's writing provided a nation confused about their future and issues surrounding it, with a needed spur towards action and clarity of thought. The ambivalence of the time from the end of 1775 results from equally strong but opposing forces in the collective consciousness of the American mind during this time.
On the one hand, there was the urge towards autonomy and independence, while on the other a fundamental dependence on the ritish still reigned. Exacerbating the confusion within people's minds was the political upheaval manifest in the war breaking out in Massachusetts during April, as well as the Second Continental Congress. Further battles against the ritish were fought in New England and the South (Foner 79).
Foner, Eric. Tom Paine and Revolutionary America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.
Paine, Thomas. Common Sense. Penguin, 1983
Common Sense & Fed #
Thomas aine: Common Sense
Thomas aine argues in Common Sense that America should declare independence from Great Britain because submission to, or dependence on, Great Britain tends to directly involve the colonies in European wars and quarrels and sets them at odds with nations that would otherwise "seek our friendship, and against whom, we have neither anger nor complaint."[footnoteRef:1] [1: Thomas aine, "Common Sense." Constitution Society (1776). Accessed September 19, 2012. http://www.constitution.org/tp/comsense.htm ]
aine asserts that the strongest arguments for staying part of the British Empire are that she had her military protect the colonies and furthermore, that America has flourished under this relationship. He also points out that some argue that this connection is necessary if the colonies are to continue to flourish and it will always be this way.
However, aine rejects these arguments claiming that America would have flourished as much, and…
Paine sites a number of reasons for pressing forth with revolution at once. The number of colonists was sufficient to rebel, but not so great as to be unable to reach an agreement on the matter. The passage of time might make it impossible to form the continent into a nation. The various colonial interests as well as the inevitable increase in trade would diminish the united purpose and pit colony against colony. "Each being able might scorn each other's assistance: and while the proud and foolish gloried in their little distinctions, the wise would lament that the union had not been formed before. Wherefore, the present time is the true time for establishing it."[footnoteRef:4] The youth of the colonies and the common misfortunes suffered at the hands of the King creates a common bond between the colonies that may never exist again. Hence the present time is ripe and this opportunity may never come again. [4: Thomas Paine, "Common Sense." Constitution Society (1776). Accessed September 19, 2012. http://www.constitution.org/tp/comsense.htm ]
Paine argues that the independence of America is inevitable. He presents this argument by citing events that have occurred to cause the current unstable state of the relationship between the colonies and the English king. By introducing the idea of American independence and its inevitability, the idea of full rebellion becomes much more palatable to the colonists.
Paine argues against reconciliation with Britain, saying that even if the colonists reach an agreement with Britain, the problems that have developed between the colonies and the king will inevitably be repeated, new taxes will be levied and parliament
American History -- Thomas Paine
Modern examination of the roots that birthed this nation illuminates with steadfast clarity the manner, importance, and weight of the movements of the past. Bernard Bailyn knows this firsthand; in his analysis of Common Sense, he not only studies the historiography of Thomas Paine's revolutionary pamphlet, but by placing himself in retro-active historical context, he is able to find age-old movement in the piece to share with the political historian today. Inside the Englishman's pamphlet on logic and politics, he finds not just a call for revolution, but instead a greater amass of the smaller pleas for transition that, when united under the banner of intellectual outreach and historical debate, reaffirms the common sense Pain purported two hundred and thirty years ago.
In The Most Uncommon Pamphlet of the Revolution: Common Sense, Bailyn supports the widely held belief that Thomas Paine's pamphlet that urged America…
The Sons of Liberty, a clandestine network of individuals dedicated to the freedom of enterprise and the fairness of government that the British Crown once stood as the protector of, have caused enough damage with their secretive acts to both the Crown and the forces here that oppose it. ould it not be better to move their actions from the shadows they have been forced into do to the label of sedition they have been branded with, and allow for the airing of the legitimate grievances and concerns of the people inhabiting these several colonies? ould not the Sons of Liberty, and indeed all Sons of Man, be better served by an open declaration of our independence from the Crown rather than continued unnecessary belligerence?
It has been well argued by the loyalists here that to denounce the King and his Crown as authority figures here would be a matter…
Nash, Gary; Jeffrey, Julie; Howe, John; Frederick, Peter; Davis, Allen; Winkler, Allan; Mires, Charlene; Pestana, Carla. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, 6th Ed. New York: Longman, 2007.
Oliver, Susan. "Creating Demand for Revolution: Thomas Paine's Common Sense." Accessed 12 July 2009. http://www.cerritos.edu/soliver/American%20Identities/Thomas%20Paine/thomas_paine.htm
Paine v. Chalmers
Maintaining historical perspective is a difficult task nearly two-hundred and fifty years after the event but a reading of Thomas Paine's Common Sense (Paine, 1997) and the contradictory pamphlet, Plaint Truth (Chalmers, 2010), prepared by British loyalist, James Chalmers, offers readers an excellent glance at the situation in colonial America in the beginning days of the evolution. As evidenced by the rhetoric in both volumes, lines were being sharply drawn which would seem to indicate that there were only two sides to the issue but, in reality, the Chalmers and Paine writings are only examples of the two extremes and most of the colonists were philosophically positioned somewhere in between the two extremes.
The significance of Paine's pamphlet cannot be overstated. elations between the Mother Country, England, and her colonies had been growing strained for a number of years but the impassioned words of a young dissident,…
Chalmers, J. (2010). Plain Truth: addressed to the inhabitants of America, containing remarks on a late pamphlet, entitled Common sense. Toronto, Canada: Gale ECCO.
Paine, T. (1997). Common Sense (Dover Thrift Editons). Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.
Paine v. Chalmers
Though Jefferson played a major role in the development of the United States he preferred to be remembered for the things he gave the people and not the things the people gave to him. His final request was that his tombstone read: HERE AS BURIED THOMAS JEFFERSON, AUTHOR of the DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE, of the STATUTE of VIRGINIA for RELIGIOUS FREEDOM, and FATHER of the UNIVERSITY of VIRGINIA.
The Townsend Acts were a series of laws passed by the Parliament of Great Britain beginning in 1767. These acts were intended to raise revenue to pay the salaries of governors and judges, enforce compliance with trade regulations, punish New York for failure to comply with the Quartering Act, and establish a precedent that Parliament had the right to tax the colonies.
The Stamp Act of 1765 was a direct tax imposed by Parliament on the American colonies. The act required that…
"Brief Biography of Thomas Jefferson." Thomas Jefferson's Monticello. Web. Accessed 31
"Short History of the University of Virginia." University of Virginia. Web. Accessed 31 March
Summary of the three most important leadership lessons learned
What one can and should learn from studying the life and thinking of Thomas Jefferson is that leaders are not necessarily born, but they are also shaped. What is takes to be a leader in those days, is similar to these. One needs constant learning and interest in different fields of activity that will cultivate not only a good understanding of their society but also a way of thinking that results into initiative. One of the features of Jefferson's leadership is the importance of initiative. Also, one should have within his communication skill those of persuasion. Without a convincingly presentation of one's ideas, these cannot become valuable initiatives - support, and later on persons that carry on one's idea, so therefore followers, are won by powerful statements by powerful men. That is what Thomas Jefferson had: initiative, based on a rigorous…
Biography Online. 3 Major Achievements of Thomas Jefferson. n.d. 22 March 2008. http://www.biographyonline.net/thomas_jefferson/achievements.html
Chemers, Martin M.. An Integrative Theory of Leadership. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 1997
Eicholz, Hans. Harmonizing Sentiments: The Declaration of Independence and the Jeffersonian Idea of Self-Government. New York: Peter Lang. 2001
Gould, William D. "
Burke therefore advocates an adherence to the past, because the past is the roots upon which the future of society is to be built.
The biggest contrast between Thomas Paine and Edward Burke in their views on the social contract is that Paine rejects the religious adherence to history that Burke advocates. Instead, Paine suggests that each society during each time period has a right to discard what no longer applies to them, and to create new paradigms, laws and institutions. His basis for this was the equality of all human beings in the eyes of God.
Paine's social contract is then based upon the current needs of society and the protection of individual right, rather than on the collective view of society. Like Burke, Paine also saw the contract as an agreement among various human beings. Paine's view is however much narrower than that of Burke: instead of over…
Kreis, Steven. Thomas Paine, 1737-1809. Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History, 2007. http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/paine.html
Webster, Andrew. Edmund Burke's Legacy. 2007. http://www.bigeye.com/burke1.htm
Thomas Abraham Clark was born into extreme wealth in an urban area, he is an Anti-Federalist. He corresponds with some of the most influential Anti-Federalists, sees centralized government as a curse, and has prospered under the Articles of Confederation.
Because his economic interests are threatened by an unstable currency as well as high tariffs imposed by other states, Josiah Bartlett can be considered to be a Federalist. Federalism would impose a single, stable currency and remove state tariffs and taxes.
Anti-Federalists generally believed in an agrarian republicanism, where the local wealthy landowners would represent the masses in political issues. Because Edward Heyward is a member of the landed aristocracy it would be logical to assume that he is an Anti-Federalist. However, his view of a united effort against the Indians may be an overriding factor as Federalism proposes a united national government. Therefore I am undecided.
As the "voice of…
Thomas Paine was an earlier conqueror of the special association that was formed between America and France. His part in this association was initiated with his responsibility of the post of American Congress Secretary of Foreign Affairs where he continually used dialogue to make relations between the two better. He retained this post throughout the American evolution. Paine, however, is better noted for his works written throughout the American and French evolutions Eras. In his writings, Paine offered spirited protection of accepted autonomy, human rights, and the republican government. Both Common Sense (1776) ights of Man (1791-1792) stick out as the most broadly read political areas from the era. Paine's distinctive global thought also can serve as the building blocks for liberal cosmopolitanism in worldwide relations. His unrelenting faith in aspects of democratization, free trade, and respect for human rights being the factors that cut back worldwide conflict stands among…
Fruchtman, Jack, Jr. "Thomas Paine and the Religion of Nature." Johns Hopkins University Press . 1993.
Fruchtman, Jack, Jr. "Thomas Paine: Apostle of Freedom." Four Walls Eight Windows. 1994.
Keane, John. "Tom Paine: A Political Life." Little, Brown. 1995.
Thomas Paine & the American Crisis
Thomas Paine and the American Crisis
Thomas Paine was a brilliant political propagandist. He devoted his life to the causes of freedom, liberty, and justice and believed in the essential rights and liberties of all human beings, including the right to resist tyrannical authority. These beliefs are evident in The American Crisis, written at the height of the revolution to rally American forces. After its publication, it was very difficult for colonists not to be convinced that separation from British rule was the correct course of action.
Paine's work was directed toward erasing political and social injustices rather than creating new political systems. He argued for the natural rights of man and that the state existed to serve man, not the reverse. "These are the times that try men's souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the…
Paine, Thomas. "The American Crisis." American Crisis (2009): 1. Academic Search Premier. Web. 19 Sept. 2012..
America was finding its footing, Americans were finding their identity. The spark of revolution trickled down the vine where three men decided to take arms. One took arms by defending the country against the British and securing the role of president of a new country. A second took pen and wrote to inspire the reluctant to declare independence from an unfair Britain. A third took brush and art to establish a painted history of the American revolution along with the first museums to showcase them in.Three notable figures, George Washington, Charles Willson Peale, and Thomas Paine became some of the most influential men of their time.
George Washington was born on February 22, 1732 or February 11, 1731 and died December 14, 1799. He was alive during the time of the American evolution and played a pivotal role in America's victory over Great Britain.He became the first President of the…
Burns, J.M., & Dunn, S. (2004). George Washington. New York: Times Books.
This source discusses the life anf career of George Washington.
Greene, J.P., & Bailyn, B. (1967). The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. American Historical Review, 11(3), 588-90. doi:10.2307/1849163
This is a journal source that discusses the reasons behind the American Revolution.
In the period between the evolution and the drafting of the Constitution, Jefferson noted that the eventual existence of a dictator in place of a king in Ancient ome clearly indicated the existence of real failings within the oman system:
dictator is entirely antithetical to republicanism's "fundamental principle...that the state shall be governed as a commonwealth," that there be majority rule, and no prerogative, no "exercise of [any] powers undefined by the laws." "Powers of governing...in a plurality of hands." (Zuckert, 1996, p. 214)
As a result, Jefferson, like the philosophes before him (and the Iroquois) would turn to ideas that would balance the necessary evils of government power with the rights of the people. James Madison agreed wholeheartedly, and urged in "Government of the United States" that a constitutional government based on separation of powers was the only sure way of preventing the country from taking the "high road…
Black, E. (1988). Our Constitution: The Myth That Binds Us. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Brooks, C.K. (1996). Controlling the Metaphor: Language and Self-Definition in Revolutionary America. CLIO, 25(3), 233+.
nature in American literature, from earliest writings to the Civil War period. It is my purpose to outline the connection between spirituality, freedom and nature and explain how American writers have chosen to reflect and interpret these themes in relation to their historical realities.
At the beginning of the colonization process there were two congruent depictions of nature. Initially, the tribes comprising The Iroquois League lived in close contact with nature and believed in the importance of maintaining a harmonious relationship with it. In this respect, the Iroquois Constitution imposes a devout display of gratitude to all by-human elements of the world before the opening of any council. On the other hand, the early explorers and founders of the United States perceived an immense natural potential in the country. In this sense, Thomas Hariot describes the New World as a land of wealth, his words and images aimed both at…
Barna, Mark. (2001, May) Our Romance with Nature. The World and I, Vol.16, No.5
Webb, J. Echoes of Paine: Tracing the Age of Reason through the Writings of Emerson (2006). ATQ (The American Transcendental Quarterly), Vol. 20, No.3
Whicher, G.F. (1945) Walden Revisited: A Centennial Tribute to Henry David Thoreau. Chicago: Packard
Atlantic Revolutions and How the Structure of the Atlantic World Created the Environment for These Revolutionary Movements to Form
The objective of this study is to examine the American, French, and Haitian Revolutions, known as the Atlantic Revolutions and to answer as to how the structure of the Atlantic World created the environment for these revolutionary movements to form. The North American Revolution took place between 1775 and 1878. The French Revolution took place between 1789 and 1815, and the Haitian Revolution between 1971 and 1804 and finally the Spanish American Revolutions between 1810 and 1825. These revolutions were found because of the issues of slavery, nations and nationalism, and the beginnings of feminism. In fact, the entire century from 1750 to 1850 was a century of revolutions. Political revolutions occurred in North America, France, Haiti, and Spanish South America. All of the revolutions were derived from ideas concerning Enlightenment.…
13h. The Age of Atlantic Revolutions (2012) U.S. History: Pre-Colombian to the New Millennium. Retrieved from: http://www.ushistory.org/us/13h.asp
Klooster, W. (2009) Revolutions in the Atlantic World: A comparative history. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=8A-PwV_3zkcC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q=culture&f=false
Roots of the Feeling of Moral Superiority in the U.S.
The United States has been criticized in recent years for assuming an air of moral superiority and for trying to impose their opinions on the rest of the world. Even when the tragedy of September 11 happened, some countries were happy to see America suffer. hy would they hate us? Partly it might be because they envy the wealth and freedom that American citizens have. It is also because they think Americans believe they are always in the right, (my country, right or wrong). Did this attitude emerge with the founding fathers? e can see American attitudes to ourselves and also to other countries in non-fiction and fiction of the first two centuries, from the 1770's to the 1970's.
In "Common Sense," 1776, Thomas Paine declared "Neither can ye reconcile Britain and America...The Almighty hath implanted in us these inextinguishable…
The Norton Anthology of American Literature, vol. 1, 5th ed. Nina Baym
De Crevecoeur, J. Hector St. John. Letters From An American Farmer. New York, Fox, Duffield, 1904. www.xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/CREV/letter04.html.
Melville, Herman. Moby Dick. New York, W.W. Norton and Company, 1967.
Paine, Thomas. "Common Sense" and "Epistle to Quakers." 1776. New York, Bartleby.com, 1999. http:www.bartleby.com/133/
Criticisms against and praise for colonialism in America: A comparative analysis of "Common Sense" by Thomas Paine and "Origin and Progress of the American Rebellion" by Peter Oliver
The declaration of King George III of the United Kingdom that America is in an active state of rebellion in August 23, 1775, marked the opportunity for Britain's 13 colonies in the country to be liberated from British colonialism. The path towards rebellion in America is an arduous process, where there had been a series of economic and political pressures that Britain had imposed in order to maintain control over the gradually rebelling members of the colonies.
What made the study of the history of the American Revolution interesting is that there are numerous literatures illustrating the political and economic climate between the Americans and British at the time where rebellious ideologies and propaganda are gradually increasing. There had been…
Whether it was the Spanish that fought to conquer lands in the south, or the Dutch that engaged in stiff competition with the British, or the French that were ultimately defeated in 1763, the American soil was one clearly marked by violent clashes between foreign powers. This is why it was considered that the cry for independence from the British was also a cry for a peaceful and secure future for the next generations. Thomas Paine argued that the time had indeed come for the colonies to be excluded from the continuous clashes that had defined their past. Thus, because of the British's traditional inclination towards war, such an objective was hard to reach under the Empire's constant control. Consequently, the time had come for the colonies to break apart and search their peace as an independent state.
Looking at the historical development of the events, it is easy to…
Aptheker, Herbert. 1960. The American Revolution, 1763-1783: a history of the American people. New York: International Publishers.
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. 1994. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier.
Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. 1998. Les Grandes Doctrines. Paris: Ellipses.
Carlyle, Thomas. 2004. The French revolution, New York: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. Vol. 2
American evolution Was Modeled After evolutions in France and England
The American quest for freedom, modeled after reform movements in England and France, has resulted in the most revered democratic society in the world. We are free of the religious and political tyranny that plagued Europe in the 18th Century and early colonialists would approve of our government in 2002.
While the American evolution and the quest for freedom was modeled after revolutions in France and England, the United States has done something that its European relatives admire - it achieved a stable democracy free of aristocratic and religious tyranny - and this was accomplished in a relatively bloodless fashion.
Our success would meet with accolades from European philosophers and historians including Jean-Jacques ousseau, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Thomas Paine and Francois Furet. However, our success has also many developing nations and Middle East nations to regard us as arrogant…
1. J. Rousseau, The Social Contract, 1762, Chapter 18
2. F. Furet, paraphrased from Interpreting The French Revolution, 1970
3. F. Bastiat "What is Seen and What is Not Seen," in Selected Essays, pp. 1-50.
4. J. Rousseau, The Social Contract, 1762, Chapter 18
Thus, the term "a new start" came to embody a lofty ideal and it was considered to be more important from the simple fact that the respective period in history dealt with the particular issues addressed by people such as Thomas Paine. For instance, he tried, through his writing to give a new incentive for the people fighting for the independence from Britain and from this point-of-view he is remembered as an important figure of the era (Philip, 2005).
Without a doubt there are periods in history that are dominated by certain interpretations of the notion of "a new start." This is precisely due to the fact that the American literature, it its attempt to escape the influence and the stereotypes of the British creations, have searched for new sources of inspiration. In this sense, while in the British Isles the romantic view of the world was still predominant, in…
Funston, Judith E. (1990) "Authority, Autonomy, and Representation in American Literature, 1776-1865." By Mark R. Patterson. Review. The Journal of American History, Vol. 77, No. 2., pp. 650-651.
Kwok, Gordon. (2001) Civil War Poetry. 13 Feb 2008. http://hometown.aol.com/gordonkwok/cwpoetry.html
Larkin, Edward. (2008). Thomas Paine and the Literature of Revolution. Cambridge University Press.
Outline of American Literature. (2006). Democratic Origins and Revolutionary Writers, 1776-1820. USINFO.STATE.GUV website. 13 Feb 2008. http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/oal/lit2.htm
Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:
Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)
Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…
Alexander, Meena. Women in Romanticism. Savage, Maryland: Barnes & Noble, 1989.
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.
Cone, Carl B. Burke and the Nature of Politics. University of Kentucky, 1964.
Conniff, James. "Edmund Burke and His Critics: The Case of Mary Wollstonecraft" Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 60, No. 2, (Apr., 1999), 299-318.
Bloss, a Christian evangelist and labor activist who published a newspaper titled "Rights of Man" (Kaye, p. 147).
ere there others whose names are not well-known but who played an important role in the abolitionist movement? According to author Harvey J. Kaye, the co-editor of "Freedom's Journal" was an African-American named Samuel Cornish. Kaye writes (p. 147) that Cornish also launched his own abolitionist newspaper, "The Rights of All." Another free black man, David alker, from North Carolina, was "apparently moved by the Bible, the egalitarian spirit of the Declaration of Independence, and the revolutionary example of Paine's "Common Sense," started his own pamphlet that called on black slaves to "rise up against their white oppressors" (Kaye, p. 148). The pamphlet launched by alker was called: "An Appeal, in Four Articles, Together with a Preamble, to the Colored Citizens of the orld, but in Particular and Very Expressly to Those…
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave.
Charleston, SC: Forgotten Books, 1845.
Kaye, Harvey J. Thomas Paine and the Promise of America. New York: Macmillan, 2006.
Lamme, Ary J. "Commemorative Language in Abolitionist Landscape Texts: New York's 'Burned-Over District'." Southeastern Geographer 48.3 (2008): 356-373.
American Revolution after 1763
There are several factors leading to the American Revolution. During the 18th century, the ritish colonists in North America established themselves as a new nation. Increasingly, they had begun to see themselves as American rather than ritish. This new consciousness contributed to increasing resentment of any ritish attempts at control and influence in America. ritish action deemed unfair by American colonies, such as taxes on tea and sugar, contributed significantly to this problem.
Exacerbated American Grievances after 1763
The Stamp Act is one of the greatest ritish thorns in the American side when 1766 arrived (enjamin Franklin Testifies Against the Stamp Act, p. 3). The problem was that this tax had to be paid by order of a Parliament where the colonials were not specifically represented. Franklin in fact threatens the ritish with a loss of respect and "affection" from the colonials if this Act were…
"History 205 - Documents for Chapters 5&6.
Garraty, John A. & McCaughey, Robert A. The American Nation: A history of the United States. New York: Harper & Row, 1987.
1776: Adam Smith opposes Mercantilism (1776), p. 1
In this encouragement, American would help to touch off something
perhaps all the more miraculous given the proximity to its oppression to
the European peasantry at large. First in the doctrines which would be
formulated in the wake of French independence and secondly in the way that
Napoleon Bonaparte would begin the spread of such doctrines to a continent
driven by inequality, America's revolution could be said to have been the
opening round in the deconstruction of colonialism and feudalism throughout
Europe and thus, the world.
Drafted in the image of the American Declaration of Independence,
though perhaps more ambitious and sweeping even in its trajectories, the
Declaration of the Rights of Men would dictate a universal principle
arguing that all men are born equal and that any distinctions made between
men according to the social conditions must be terms agreed upon by all
parties. The constitutional document underscoring the…
Center for History and New Media (CHNM). (2005). Monarchy Embattled.
George Mason University. Online at
Chew, Robin. (2004). Napoleon I: Emperor of the French. Lucid Caf?.
Online at http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/95aug/napoleon.html.
Locke, John. (2003). Two Treatise of Government, 14th. ed. Cambridge
Declaration of Rights of Students
A Declaration of the Rights of Students to the Uber Chancellor Supreme
Acknowledging that there is one governor above us, we the students put before his attention and the attention of all a list of complaints, which should, being rational and true, secure a place of prominence in the mind of any man, who calls himself a rational being. This Declaration casts no blame, nor proposes injury; its purpose is only to draw attention to the God-given, natural, and inalienable rights of students. For a student is no less a man than any other -- and for students to be viewed as something less than equal to any other living member of the human race is nothing but an abuse of reason, and an abuse of justice. In justice' sake, in equality's sake, and out of a fraternal bond that separates us not but links…
Buchler, Justus, ed. Introduction to Contemporary Civilization in the West. Vol 2. New
York: Columbia University Press, 1961.
Damrosch, David, ed. The Longman Anthology. British Literature. Vol 2A: The Romantics and Their Contemporaries. New York: Longman, 2002.
"The Quotable Franklin." The Electric Ben Franklin, n.d. Web. 21 Feb 2011.
American History prior 1877 signed . Start introduction paragraph discuss historical events / people occurances, devote approximately page topic chosen.
"Unimportant" American Events
In spite of the fact that they had a decisive influence on the American society, particular historic events are likely to be forgotten by the masses. Little people know something regarding Thomas Paine's "Common Sense" pamphlet or about the influence that it had on colonists during the ar of Independence. The Three-fifths compromise made it possible for Southerners to increase their power in the U.S. through exploiting the fact that they had slaves. The Fugitive Slave Clause of 1793 was among the first legislations issued with the purpose of allowing slaveholders to get their slaves back. The ar of 1812 played an essential role in shaping U.S. history, but received little attention from the public across time. The Land Act of 1820 prohibited the acquisition of public…
"Common Sense," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the Digital History Website: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/documents/documents_p2.cfm?doc=267
"Land Act of 1820," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the University of Oklahoma Website: http://jay.law.ou.edu/faculty/Hampton/Mineral%20Title%20Examination/General%20Reading%20-%20Land%20Act%20of%201820.pdf
"The Fugitive Slave Acts of 1793 and 1850," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the University at Buffalo Website: http://www.nsm.buffalo.edu/~sww/0history/SlaveActs.html
"The Presidency of Andrew Jackson," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the Digital History Website: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=637
If he had love, he had no pot in which to plant it. And so it stayed trapped in his mind, separate from any object -- for Kant insisted on the gulf between faith and reason. If one had to accept certain truths on the authority of the one revealing them -- Kant wanted no part in it. According to Kant, one should accept only that which can be reasoned. According to Aquinas, it is not unreasonable to accept that which is revealed.
In a sense, many of us today are Kantian rather than Thomistic. We are Hamlet figures, forever trapped in doubt. What Aquinas allows us to do is put away doubt. He allows us -- in fact, implores us, to act. He is now to us like the ghost of Hamlet's father -- reappearing to urge his son to action. Still, Hamlet delays. What happens to Hamlet --…
Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Contra Gentiles. London: Burns and Oates, 1905.
Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica. UK: Fathers of the English Dominican
McInerny, Ralph, ed. Thomas Aquinas: Selected Writings. England: Penguin, 1998.
second page, and begins with the first paragraph on that page.
Let me know if there's any other questions.Declaring Independence
The core of Thomas Jefferson's argument in the Declaration of Independence is that the colonies and fledgling states in America should be independent of the influence of the ritish monarchy. In arguing thus, Jefferson implies that all monarchies are somewhat detrimental to the greater good of the people. However, a large part of Jefferson's argument in this document is based on the fact that he and many others within the colonies at the time of this writing perceived the king of ritain as a tyrant. Consequently, there are a number of moral and righteous implications found in the Declaration of Independence in which the colonies are merely continuing a lengthy tradition found in European culture of rebelling against tyranny.
What is interesting about these main points of Jefferson in the…
Foner, Eric. 2013. Give me liberty!: New York, New York: An American history. W.W. Norton and Company.
In regard to the naval force of the British, these frictions affected in particular the effective number of the marines that made up the fleet, despite the fact that the threat of the American uprising was looming and that the British strategists were well aware of the fact that the English power relied mostly on the naval forces. Therefore, once this aspect of the military force was weakened, the eventual failure of the naval operations was obvious. The internal situation in the Empire also led to a lack of consideration for the treatment of the sailors who had constantly rebelled against the negligence and the mistreatment they had been throughout the years subject to. (Trevelyan, 1962) Even more, following the actual clash with the American revolutionaries, the state of the navy was, according to Trevelyan, "a deplorable one (as) its ships were being evicted from the Mediterranean Sea, where the…
Boatner, Mark M. (1966) Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. New York: D. McKay & Co.
Gardner, Allen. (1913) a naval history of the American Revolution. Boston, Houghton. Retrieved 30 May 2007. http://www.americanrevolution.org/nav1.html
Halsall, Paul. Thomas Paine's Common Sense. Penguin: New York, 1982. Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved 30 May 2007 http://www.ushistory.org/paine/commonsense/singlehtml.htm
Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.
It maybe suggested that the American Revolution was inevitable. America was far from its colonial master, and unlike colonies in Africa (for example) most of the colonists were both here by choice and considered this new land to be a true home, which weakened their loyalty to the former homeland. America was a huge land rich in natural resources, and as the colonies grew it seems certain that eventually their citizens might resent having these resources co-opted by a little island across that Atlantic. Moreover, the settlers in America were an independent sort, a tendency encouraged by the vast frontier and predicted by their own or their ancestor's willingness to cross oceans to escape the control of an authoritarian state. So it seems most likely that the revolution would happen some day. Yet there must be a specific reason why it happened in 1775 rather than, say,…
This, to the perception of the Declaration, would be an ironically close
approximation to British monarchy.
In line with Jefferson's ideals, Thomas Paine's Common Sense is a
compelling political document from the time, as in its grievances against
the tyranny of the British throne, it seems almost to anticipate the
implications of an empowered American governance. He deduces that "society
is produced by our wants, and government by our wickedness; the former
promotes our happiness positively by uniting our affections, the latter
negatively by restraining our voices. The one encourages intercourse, the
other creates distinctions." (Hoffman et al, 2001) Quite to the point,
even before America's freedom from imperial oversight, Paine demonstrates
an awareness of the forces that will ultimately come to intervene with the
premise of the Declaration. For the disenfranchised groups that direct our
gaze in this discussion, there is an inherency to the idea that America's
Certainly there were myriad slave rebellions, in the American South and elsewhere, before Douglass's time. But Douglass came along when the time was right for social change, when the South had been recently defeated and American slavery was in its most precarious state ever. Therefore, Douglass and Abolitionists like him: black and white; male and female, seized the moment, and in 1865 slavery was outlawed.
The name Frederick Douglass is a household word in most American households. However, it was not until publication, in 1999, of Alfred F. Young's historical biography of the Shoemaker and the Tea Party (Boston: Beacon Press) that a brave shoemaker who risked his life in the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party, George Robert Twelve Hewes was known to history at all. Though he, too, was a man of his era, Hewes was not nearly as representative as Douglass. Nor was Hewes's era representative…
Colonial Culture efore the American Revolution
The Great Awakening and Religious Change
The Impact of Education
When discussing causes of the American Revolution, most historians cite growing taxation, lack of representation in the national government, attempts by the King and Parliament to curb the power of colonial legislatures, and restrictions on trade as some of the primary causes. Often ignored as a cause are the changes in American colonial society that occurred in the decades before the revolution. Americans began to develop a cultural identity separate from that of Great ritain. Attitudes toward religion underwent sweeping modifications as a result of the Great Awakening. Landed aristocracy was unable to dominate society in the same way that it did in England. Education became more prevalent. New ideas concerning the nature and rights of people were debated and gradually accepted. All of these factors played a part in propelling Americans toward independence.…
Canada, Mark. "Journalism." Colonial America: 1607-1783. n.d. 25 February 2003 http://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/allam/16071783/news/ .
Franklin, Benjamin. The Autobiography and Other Writings. Ed. L. Jessie Lemisch.
New York: Nal Penguin, Inc., 1961.
Heyrman, Christine Leigh. "The First Great Awakening." October 2000. National
revolutionary the American evolution was in reality. This is one issue that has been debated on by many experts in the past and in the present too. The contents of this paper serve to justify this though-provoking issue.
American evolution-how revolutionary was it?
When we try to comprehend why the American evolution was fought, we come to know that the residents of the American colonies did so to retain their hard-earned economic, political and social order when the British had stated to neglect them. However, before we began to understand what The American evolution was all about, it is necessary for us to look at conditions of the colonies preceding the war. The economy of Colonial America were divided into three separate parts: New England, where the economy was commerce; the South, where cash crops were the major source of earning; and the middle colonies, a combination of both. [Account…
Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (Harvard University Press, 1967).
Kurtz and Hutson (eds), Essays on the American Revolution (University of North Carolina Press, 1973).
Account of a Declaration 1, available at: http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/account/ , accessed on: February 11, 2004
American Journey, available at:
The expansion meant progress and it implemented the idea of progress into the minds of the new people. As Thomas Jefferson noted, the permanent moving forward of the boundaries and the idea of growth and multiplication enhanced the feeling of unfailing progress: "However our present interests may restrain us within our limits, it is impossible not to look forward to distant times, when our rapid multiplication will expand itself beyond those limits, and cover the whole northern, if not southern, continent, with a people speaking the same language, governed in similar forms, and by similar laws; nor can we contemplate with satisfaction either blot or mixture on that surface." (Peterson, Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation, 1970, p. 746) Turner was the one who has actually laid the basis for a theory of the frontier in American history in the nineteenth century. Before him however, Jefferson, long before he came…
Donald McQuade, Robert Atwan et all. (1999) Harper American Literature, Single Volume Edition. Third Edition. New York: Harper.
Peterson, Merrill D. 1970. Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation. New York: Signet
Smith, Greg. (2001) "Supernatural Ambiguity and Possibility in Irving's 'The Legend of Sleepy Hollow'." The Midwest Quarterly 42.2: 174.
The Frontier and the West.(2001)" Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons.
Articles of Confederation: The Articles of Confederation were approved in November, 1777 and were the basic format for what would become the Constitution and Bill of ights for the United States. There were, of course, deficiencies in the document, this was a new experiment and getting the delegates to agree in kind to pass any sort of document was challenging at best. The Articles did allow a semblance of unity, the further impetus to remain at war with the British, and the conclusion that there would be some sort of Federal government. The Articles, however, failed to require individual States to help fund the Federal (National) government, a template for an Executive and National Judicial Branch, or the issuance of paper money and a central banking system. In essence, the largest failure was the Articles' inability to allow a Federal government to regulate commerce, tax, or impose laws upon the…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Amar, a. (2005). America's Constitution: A Biography. New York: Random House.
Bailyn, B., ed. (1993). The Debate on the Constitution. Library of America Press.
Beeman, R. (2009). Plain, Honest Men: The Making of the American Constitution.
When studying the history of the formation of the United States, one usually thinks in terms of separate events and individuals. However, the American republic was established, instead, by a series of important decisions and the joint efforts of some of the most prominent men of all time. In a matter of ten years, these critical interactions among the eight leading figures of John Adams, Aaron Burr, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and George Washington formed a nation that to this day remains one of the most successful "experiments" of democratic governments. As Joseph J. Ellis, the author of Founding Brothers: the Revolutionary Generation states:
What in retrospect has the look of a foreordained unfolding of God's will was in reality an improvisational affair ... If hindsight enhances our appreciation for the solidity and stability of the republican legacy, it also blinds us to the…
Constitution of the United States was a highly important and significant document that was adopted on September 17, 1787, and ratified by conventions.
Eleven states participated in the ratification, and the Constitution officially went into effect on March 4, 1789.
The Constitution of the United States is important for many reasons, including keeping order and law and guaranteeing basic freedoms for the American people. Without the Constitution, it would be much easier for lawmakers to make changes that might not have value to the people of the country and that could cause them harm by taking away some or all of the rights that they have come to expect. Overall, the U.S. Constitution is a document that can be changed and adjusted but that does include guarantees for specific rights that will not be lost even if those changes and adjustments are made.
The U.S. Constitution was written by Governor…
Bailyn, Bernard, ed. (1993). The Debate on the Constitution: Federalist and Antifederalist Speeches, Articles, and Letters During the Struggle for Ratification. Part One: September 1787 to February 1788. NY: The Library of America.
Garvey, John H. ed. (2004). Modern Constitutional Theory: A Reader 5th ed. NY: Penguin.
Mason, Alpheus Thomas and Donald Grier Stephenson, ed. (2004). American Constitutional Law: Introductory Essays and Selected Cases (14th Edition). NY: Penguin.
This paper examines the death penalty as a deterrent and argues that states have not only the right but the duty to apply the death penalty to criminal cases because it is incumbent upon states to back the law with force. The death penalty acts as a forceful and compelling consequence for those who should choose to violate the law and commit murder. For that reason it can be said to be a deterrent. This paper also examines the opposing arguments and shows that those would say it is not an effective deterrent cannot offer any quantitative proof for this argument because no measurements exist that could possibly render such a claim factual or provable. The paper concludes by showing that the death penalty should only be administered in states where there is harmony between social justice and criminal justice.
While it may seem ironic that the death…
East From Indian Country
This summarizes Chapter 6 of "Facing East from Indian Country," by Daniel ichter. This chapter talks about the race for Indian lands after the evolutionary period was over, and how there were really two wars for independence, one by the Native Americans trying to hold on to their land, and one by the white colonists seeking more land and opportunities. ichter believes the continual takeover of Native lands was a form of ethnic cleansing, and refers to that often throughout the chapter, comparing it to other areas where ethnic cleansing took place, such as wanda, and these dual wars began in 1763.
He details two examples of these revolutionary wars, one waged by the Delaware Indian Pontiac against Fort Pitt and other locations, and the other by the "Paxton Boys" of Pennsylvania who fought the Indians near Lancaster and Philadelphia. He describes the hatred each group…
Richter, Daniel K. Facing East from Indian Country. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.
The truth is that the forefathers were actually quite surprised at the effect that the signing of the Constitution had created in America; at the democratic society and government that resulted after the ratification of the Constitution.
The ratification in itself was a long one, and it involved in essence the perusal of the written Constitution by each state for ratification purposes, for which each state was required to create an independent ratifying committee headed by special delegates. The discussions of the advantages and the disadvantages of the newly written constitution of America began almost immediately after it was signed, and the two opposing factions of the Federalists to whom the majority of the forefathers belonged, and the Anti-Federalists who formed the opposing group brought these forth. The situation in America at the time of the writing of the Constitution was that of pro-democracy. The political as well as the…
Encyclopedia: American constitution. Retrieved at http://nationmaster.w2n.net/encyclopedia/American-constitutionAccessed on 4 October, 2004
Encyclopedia: American Revolutionary War. Retrieved at http://nationmaster.w2n.net/encyclopedia/American-Revolutionary-War . Accessed on 4 October, 2004
Encyclopedia: Articles of Association. Retrieved at http://nationmaster.w2n.net/encyclopedia/Articles-of-AssociationAccessed on 4 October, 2004
Encyclopedia: Articles of Confederation. Retrieved at http://nationmaster.w2n.net/encyclopedia/Articles-of-Confederation . Accessed on 4 October, 2004
eligious tolerance and freedoms do come out from holly scriptures of any religion, they are stated in Koran and in Bible nearly in the same way: "avoid unfaithful" not persecute them but simply avoid. These words have a deep meaning, which refers not just to the religion but also to any other belief and views. oger Williams was the first minister who introduced the principles of modern religious liberties into the civil practice as he wrote in the Bloudy Tenet of Persecution (1640):
No man shall be required to worship or maintain a worship against his will." Until then, Europe and America had endured what Thomas Paine later called, "the adulterous connection between church and state."
In order to defend the representatives of different confessions and guarantee free participation of citizens in country's public life, there had to be taken measures that would preserve from the dominance of one religious…
Madison, James Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessments 20 June 1785
James Madison, Report on the Virginia Resolutions
Roger Williams the Bloudy Tenet of Persecution 1640;
Ward, Nathaniel the Simple Cobbler of Aggawam, 1645
Here, urke argued that revolution in general, and the French Revolution in particular, must be matched with reason and a reluctance to completely give up to radical thinking.
Rousseau gave in directly to the revolution, arguing that it is a direct result of man's socialization, but urke was much more cautious: Revolution is not automatically good for urke, nor is it intrinsic to man.
Given urke's record as a strong supporter of American independence and as a fighter against royalism in England, many readers and thinkers were taken aback when urke published his Reflections on the Revolution in France in 1790. With this work, urke suddenly went on to became one of the earliest and most passionate English critics of the French Revolution, which he interpreted not as movement towards a representative, constitutional democracy but instead as a violent rebellion against tradition and justified authority and as an experiment…
Discourse On The Arts and Sciences, 1750
The Social Contract, 1762
Discourse On The Origin And Basis Of The Inequality Of Men, 1754
Echoes of the Colonial Era in American Identity Essay
The American Identity during the 1700s was still very much in development. Prior to the American Revolution in the latter half of the century, the colonists for the most part considered themselves subjects of England and the British crown. They had a king, they had local governments in their territories with members who represented the crown, but their identity as citizens of an autonomous, independent nation was not nearly as full-fledged as it is today. The American Identity really came into being thanks to writings of individuals like Ben Franklin, whose autobiography laid the blueprint for the American Dream and showed that hard work and self-reliance can lead one to the “promised land” of happiness in America. Likewise, the oppression that many colonial leaders felt under the British and their dislike of having to pay taxes to the crown added to…
It separates the various forms of government and does not allow one to become more powerful than another, and it ensures that laws are created fairly, that justice is fair, and that the President does not gain too much power. Essentially, it is the backbone of our Democracy, and that assures our freedom and the public good.
Critics of the Constitution and its support of the public good believe that the laws can promote gridlock in legislation, and that it can make it easier for government leaders to not take responsibility for problems. However, the framers of the Constitution had the citizens in mind, and they formed it to create a Democratic country with the good of the public as a foremost concern.
The Virginia Plan was a plan favored by James Madison, and it had three branches, legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislature chose the executive and judicial branches,…
Allowing the students to "choose" the lesson, both empowers them and allows them a more engaging learning experience.
Part 3 -- Questioning - Ineffective questioning typically asks for a rote memorization paradigm, as opposed to a more robust use of higher-level questions designed to go beyond the text and make the issue relevant, personal, and interesting. Instead, look at the learning target and formulate questions that will continually guide the students towards discovering answers -- not the answer. Use nonverbal clues such as nodding, eye contact, moving around the classroom. Continually ask students "why," or follow up on another student's answer with, "Mary thought this, in your situation, what would you say?" In effect, if the teacher can take Bloom's taxonomy of learning, and simply superimpose that on every lesson (certainly not using every issue every time), but more of a method of moving to evaluation, analysis, and synthesis; the…
On October 23, 1783, Deborah was honorably discharged "as a great soldier, with endurance and courage, something much needed in the military at that time" but was only granted a veteran's pension at the end of her life ("Deborah Sampson Gannett: American Patriot," American Revolution, 2007). "Sampson's superiors all agreed that she was an excellent soldier...it was her reliability, intelligence, and bravery that made it possible for her to go undetected for so long" (Saxon, 2004). She risked her life to save her country and to fight for her country, and even risked her life to remain a soldier.
Sampson's life "bears out a theory that Margaret R. And Patrice L.R. Higonnet developed to describe the effects of war and peace on gender. They imagined a system in which men and women are positioned as if they were opposing ribbons of a double helix, which, no matter the circumstances, always…
Deborah Sampson Gannett: American Patriot." American Revolution. 2007. 24 Jun
Henretta, James a. "Unruly Women": Jemima Wilkinson and Deborah Sampson Gannett
Biographies from Early America." Published in America's History. Ed. By James a. Henretta, Elliot Brownlee, David Brody, Susan Ware, & Marilynn Johnson. 3rd Ed., Worth Publishers Inc., 1997. Reprinted in the Early American Review. Fall 1996.
Not only was this theme fully explored within the historical context, but thoroughly analyzed within Europe as well. The teachings of such notable thinker as Sigmund Freud points to this direction of development. He concluded that there modernism within Europe had become characterized by the disorder of the mind. More precisely, there was a lack of any fixed system of reference for living and thinking. Europe, which had formerly been the center of intellectual development and revolutionary thinking now suffered under the burden of a weak political infrastructure. As a result, many of their greatest talents and knowledge now flowed away from Europe to other developing nations such as the United States.
The Age of Anxiety was coined not by historian but by Europeans of the age themselves. They reflected upon the disturbing trends that were occurring within European nation-states. It gave rise to radical social, political and scientific ideas…