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To some of us, Thurgood Marshall is the first black man ever to become Supreme Court Justice but to most Americans, he is more than that. His name today symbolizes complete equality and freedom, not only for blacks but also for every individual regardless of his color or race. To associate Marshall with law alone and to discuss his accomplishments in this context might be unfair to a person who devoted his whole life to the creation of a moral society where every individual is accorded equal rights and where color doesn't determine or plague civil rights. Thus Marshall was the man who taught us to value freedom and equality over 'heritage' or 'history'. He must therefore be remembered as a champion of civil rights and as someone who had the courage to reject rigid interpretations of law to create a better and more humane society for every…
Barbara A. Perry, A Representative Supreme Court? The Impact of Race, Religion and Gender on Appointments, Publisher: Greenwood Press. Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 1991.
J. Clay Smith Jr., Thurgood Marshall: fighting for a moral society. Magazine Title: Negro History Bulletin. Publication Date: January-December 2001. Page Number: 49+.
Juan Williams. Article Title: The Thurgood Marshall nobody knows; first Black Supreme Court Justice recalls his life on the front line of the civil rights issue. Magazine Title: Ebony. Volume: 45. Issue: 7. Publication Date: May 1990. Page Number: 68+.
Peter B. Levy, The Civil Rights Movement. Publisher: Greenwood Press. Place of Publication: Westport, CT. Publication Year: 1998. Page Number: 84.
Thurgood Marshall and Clarence Thomas
Ever since Clarence Thomas, a conservative, replaced Thurgood Marshall, a liberal, on the United States Supreme Court in 1991, there has been constant comparison between the two African-American justices.
Just this past month, in June 2005, Thomas again drew attention and comparison to Marshall concerning two Supreme Court decisions. Thomas was one of three justices who disagreed when the Court stated that a Texas killer's rights were compromised when prosecutors removed all but one African-American from the jury.
In another case, the Court stopped California from making it harder for defendants to get their claims of racial bias in jury selection investigated, and Thomas, the Court's only black member, was the only justice to disagree with the ruling.
These cases were public reminders of Thomas' status as the Court's toughest critic of racial discrimination claims, and one of America's more enigmatic figures.
Although he grew…
Novick, Sheldon M. 1992. A Unique Voice on the Court Thurgood Marshall
Demonstrated the Value of Simply Opening Doors. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. January 10. Available from HighBeam Research Library Web site. (accessed July 03, 2005).
Henderson, Stephen. 2005. Justice Thomas a strong critic of racial discrimination claims. Knight Ridder Washington Bureau. June 18. Available from HighBeam Research Library Web site. (accessed July 03, 2005).
people in American history. Specifically it will discuss the three most significant people in American History since 1865: George Washington Carver, Shirley Chisholm, and Thurgood Marshall, and tell why they are significant and how they affected the course of U.S. history. Each of these three individuals was extremely important to American history. Black, driven, and significant, they helped change the course of education and agriculture, politics, and criminal justice, and they live on today as heroes of the Black community. They show that anyone can make a difference in American society, and that hard work and dedication really do pay off, for individuals, and for society.
Shirley Anita St. Hill Chisholm was born on November 30, 1924, in Brooklyn, New York. Her mother and father were both Caribbean, and moved to New York a few years before Chisholm was born. She was the oldest of three daughters. Her mother, uby,…
Haskins, James. Distinguished African-American Political and Governmental Leaders. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1999.
Kessler, James H., et al. Distinguished African-American Scientists of the 20th Century. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1996.
Building Security Evaluation: Baltimore-Washington Thurgood Marshall International Airport
Just a couple of decades ago, travelers, visitors and virtually anyone else could walk freely through the nation's airports without being challenged at any point, and security considerations were generally restricted to concerns over possible so-called "skyjackings" to Cuba, but even these were rare. Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, though, all of this changed in fundamental ways as airports across the country implemented a wide range of security measures intended to prevent a recurrence of these deadly security breaches. Indeed, today, security at the nation's airports has never been stricter, and despite the time and trouble these initiatives have created for air travelers, most passengers today appear to accept these measures in stride as part of the post-September 11 climate. To determine what security measures have been taken in a specific airport facility, this paper provides an evaluation of…
Facts & figures. (2009). Baltimore/Washington Thurgood Marshall International Airport. [Online]. Available: http://www.bwiairport.com/about_bwi/facts_figures/ .
Fire suppression division. (2009). Maryland Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation. [Online]. Available: http://www.marylandaviation.com/content/aboutthemaa/firerescuedept.html.
Ramstack, T. & Lively, T. (2004, January 7). BWI airport police search entering cars; action taken as a Code Orange precaution. The Washington Times, C08.
Wallis, R. (2003). How safe are our skies? Assessing the airlines' response to terrorism. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Ferguson required that the decision of the lower court be affirmed. The Court agreed with Mr. Sweatt. While the University of Texas School of Law "may properly be considered one of the nation's ranking law schools," Justice Vinson wrote for the Court, such could not be said for either version of the law school for African-American students (d. At 633). "n terms of number of the faculty, variety of courses and opportunity for specialization, size of the student body, scope of the library, availability of law review and similar activities, the University of Texas Law School is superior, " noted the Court (d. At 633-634). Moreover, Justice Vinson continued, in no way could the new institution compare with the University of Texas School of law in terms of more intangible measures, either (d. At 634).
Although the decision in Sweatt was a vitally important step in the creation of justice…
It was amid this turmoil that the U.S. Supreme Court then issued its decision in Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, 377 U.S. 218 (1964), or, as the case is colloquially known, Brown II. Faced with the problems and impediments to integration created by Senator Byrd's "massive resistance" campaign in Virginia, the Court made it the responsibility of the U.S. District Courts to implement school desegregation and ordered that they do so "with all deliberate speed." (Id. At 234).
Few today can argue the correctness of the Court's decision in Brown v. Board, or the case that came before it, and upon which it so heavily relied, Sweatt v. Painter. Few cases exist, moreover, that were of greater importance, and so directly affected the lives of so many.
Ultimately, the State did open the Texas State University for Negroes in Houston with "a faculty of five full-time professors; a student body of 23; a library of some 16,500 volumes serviced by a full-time staff; a practice court and legal aid association" (Id. At 633). This law school, at Texas Southern University, is today named the Thurgood Marshall School of Law.
Ethics of the Death Penalty
The death penalty is a majorly decisive issue. Some countries feel that it is a cruel punishment and have outlawed it, such as England. Others practice the punishment liberally with small caliber crimes receiving the harshest possible punishment. In the United States of America, the death penalty exists in some states but has been abolished in others. Crimes that qualify for the death penalty are serious felonies such as murder. Those on opposing sides of the issue often look to the philosophy of ethics to prove their own position or to subvert the opposition's perspective. Often those who support the death penalty argue that this is the only just punishment for someone who has committed heinous crimes against other people. The dignity of the victim is the only one they consider. Antithetically, those who oppose the death penalty argue that committing a crime like that…
Bedau, H.A. (2004). The death penalty in America, yesterday and today. Killing as Punishment:
Reflections on the Death Penalty in America. Northwestern UP: Boston, MA. 3-15.
Kant, I. (1972). Justice and punishment. Philosophical Perspectives on Punishment. Ed. G.
Ezorsky. State University of New York Press: Albany, NY. 103-106.
GM 1983 Discrimination suit
G.M. And acial Discrimination
The civil rights movement in the United States began slowly. Changing centuries of discriminatory practices across an entire country was not a task that was without opposition, and ignorance on the part of the average citizen. However, when that ignorance was institutionalized within businesses, the wheels of justice needed a significant push in order to begin to afford black American access to the same opportunities which Caucasian-Americans enjoyed. Toward this end, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission actively sought out target candidates which would have the largest impact on moving the civil rights agenda forward.
In 1973, a suit filed against the worlds largest automaker, General Motors, the EEOC alleged that the corporation actively discriminated against black, Hispanic and women workers. At the time of the suit's filing, the company had 6.4% of its journeymen (skilled labor) positions filled by minority workers. Under…
Agence France Presse. Minority workers sue General Motors for 7.4 billion dollars
Brunner, Borgna. Civil Rights. 2003. Info Please.com. 2 Dec 2003. http://www.infoplease.com .
Civil Rights: an overview. Legal Information institute. 2003. Cornell University. 2 Dec. 2003. http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/civil_rights.html .
However, Justice Vinson went further, adding his historical comments to Gaines by saying that the Fourteenth Amendment rights were "personal' which meant that "it is no answer... To say that the courts may also be induced to deny white persons rights of ownership and occupancy on the grounds of race or color."
In Missouri, the state where Gaines had sought to attend law school, his case was significant in that the undergraduate college he attended, Lincoln, seized the opportunity to use the Missouri law and grant money set aside to educate black graduate students, to create a black law school in St. Louis. Less than a year after the Gaines decision had been handed down by the Supreme Court, some thirty students enrolled in the St. Louis law school that had been created for black law students as a result of the Gaines case.
In the years that followed the…
Abrams, Kathryn. "The Legal Subject in Exile." Duke Law Journal 51, no. 1 (2001): 27+. Database online. Available from Questia,
Mississippi is fortunate in having men at its leadership who have vowed to prevent integration of our schools. The very sovereignty of our state is threatened'."
Most whites in the state opposed Meredith's admission, and the Governor of the state vowed not to allow Meredith to enter the school, or segregate other schools. A reporter notes, "The following day Barnett spoke on the air, saying, 'No schools will be integrated while I am your governor.' Calling Meredith's admission 'Our greatest crisis since the War Between the States,' Barnett said that the federal government was 'employing naked and arbitrary power'."
In fact, even after the courts assured Meredith he could enroll; Governor Barnett met him on the steps of the school and denied him admission. Meredith did finally attend the University for a year, and graduated in 1963 with a law degree.
Of course, his year at Ole Miss was not…
Editors. 2007. About James Meredith. Jackson, MI: Online. Available from Internet, ttp:/ / www.jamesmeredithbooks.com/about.html. accessed 16 April 2007.
Fisk, Candace D., and Beth Hurst. "James Meredith at Ole Miss: 'Victory over Discrimination'." Social Education 68, no. 6 (2004): 418+.
Levy, Peter B. The Civil Rights Movement. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.
Mazama, Ama. "Paul Hendrickson. Sons of Mississippi: A Story of Race and Its Legacy." African-American Review 37, no. 4 (2003): 662+.
165). On page 166 Bannister points out that outside of China, the numbers show a decrease in individuals being put to death through capital punishment. In 2006, the number of reported executions dropped to 1591 from 2148 in 2005; also, since 1996 more than 30 nations have "put an end to this cruel and inhuman practice" (Bannister, 170).
The Chief Editor of Criminal Law Review, Chen Xingliang, writes that there is a consensus among the scholars that contribute to his publication; and those scholars "…are in favor of strict limitations on the death penalty in order to eventually abolish it" (p. 41). However, Xingliang admits that the "public understanding of the death penalty is quite different fro that of these scholars" (p. 42). That is because the "public support for the death penalty is formed with an irrational understanding and thus should not be a justified factor considered for…
Center for Individual Freedom. (2007). Death Penalty Deters Future Murders, According to Remarkable New Empirical Study. Retrieved Dec. 1, 2010, from http://www.cfif.org .
Bannister, Piers. (2008). The death penalty: UN victory puts total abolition within our grasp.
International Review of Law Computers & Technology, 22(1-2), 165-170.
DeathPenalty.com (2010). Does the death penalty deter crime? Retrieved Dec. 1, 2010, from http://deathpenalty.procon.org . (Muhlhausen, ACLU, Bert, Reno, Borg, Van Den Haag).
Adds Tindall and Shi (1242-1242), the Court cited current sociological and psychological findings that were presented by Kenneth Clark, a noted black psychologist. "It might as well have cited historical evidence that Jim Crow facilities had been seldom equal and often not available to blacks at all." A year later, the Court further directed "a prompt and reasonable start toward full compliance" where the process should move "with all deliberate speed." The white South's first response was "relatively calm," says Tindall & Shi 1243). "Eisenhower refused to take any part in leading white southerners toward compliance. Privately he remarked: 'I am convinced that the Supreme Court decision set back progress in the South at least fifteen years. The fellow tries to tell me that you can do these things by force is just plain nuts'" (1243).
In the early 1960s, blacks rebelled throughout the South, and in the late 1960s…
Johnson, Paul. History of the American People. New York: Harper Collins, 1997.
Tindall, George Brown and Shi, David. America. A Narrative History. New York:
Zinn, Hoard. People's History of the United States. New York: Harper Collins, 1999.
acism has always been a defining feature of the American criminal justice system, including racial profiling, disparities in arrests convictions and sentencing between minorities and whites, and in the use of the death penalty. acial profiling against blacks, immigrants and minorities has always existed in the American criminal justice system, as has the belief that minorities in general and blacks in particular are always more likely to commit crimes. American society and its legal system were founded on white supremacy going back to the colonial period, and critical race criminology would always consider these historical factors as well as the legal means to counter them. From the 17th Century onward, Black Codes and slave patrols were used to control the black population, and keep them confined to farms and plantations. Blacks did not have the right to trial by jury or to testify against whites, and the law…
Capital Punishment (2011). Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Cooper, S. (2006). "A Closer Look at Racial Profiling" in S.J. Muffler (ed). Racial Profiling: Issues, Data and Analyses. Nova Science Publishers, pp. 25-30.
Garland, D. (2010). Peculiar Institution: America's Death Penalty in an Age of Abolition. Harvard University Press.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) the United States Supreme Court upheld racial segregation of passengers in railroad coaches as required by Louisiana law. Three years later the Supreme Court was asked to review its first school case dealing with equal treatment of school children. In Cumming v. Richmond County Board of Education (1899) the court found that the temporary cessation of services for minority high-school children did not violate equal protection even though services continued at the high-school for Caucasian children. The Court reasoned that the closing of the school was based on economic considerations, and was not found to represent bad faith or an abuse of discretion. The court concluded that although all must share the burdens and receive the benefits of taxation, school finance was a matter belonging to the states and federal interference without a clear and unmistakable disregard for…
"Brown v. Board of Education." Oracle Think Quest Education Foundation. 2011. 14 June 2011. < http://library.thinkquest.org/J0112391/brown_v__board_of_education.htm>
"Brown v. Board of Education - 1954,1955." United States Courts. The History of Brown v. Board of Education. 2011. 14 June 2011.
Cambron- McCabe, Nelda H., Martha M. McCarthy, and Stephen B. Thomas. Public School Law: Teacher's and Student's Rights. 5th Ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Education Inc., 2004.
Meador, Derrick. "Brown v. Board of Education Summary." About.com. Teaching. New York Times Company. (2011). 16 June 2011.
4th Amendment's evolution and history, together with the "search and seizure" law.
4th Amendment Background
People's rights of being secure in personal effects, papers, houses and persons, against unreasonable seizures and searches, may not be breached, nor shall any warrants be issued, but in case of probable cause, which is supported by affirmation or oath, and describes, particularly, the place that must be searched, or the things or individuals that should be seized, under the 4th Amendment. Like most fields in U.S. law, the English common law forms the principal basis of the 4th Amendment. Broadly, it was created for limiting governmental powers and their capacity of enforcing legal actions upon citizens (4th Amendment - constitution -- Laws.com). Amendment IV was implemented in immediate reaction to the historical writ of assistance's abuse. This writ was a sort of general governmental search warrant employed in the American evolution's era. Amendment IV…
(n.d.). Annenberg Classroom. The Right to Protection against Illegal Search and Seizure. Retrieved April 27, 2016, from http://www.annenbergclassroom.org/Files/Documents/Books/Our%20Rights/Chapter_15_Our_Rights.pdf
(n.d.). Arizona Defense Attorney James E. Novak Law Blog -- Legal discussions and observations with Arizona Criminal Defense Attorney James E. Novak. Requirements and Exceptions to Lawful Search Warrants in Arizona -- Legal discussions and observations with Arizona Criminal Defense Attorney James E. Novak. Retrieved April 26, 2016, from http://blog.novakazlaw.com/2013/01/requirements-and-exceptions-to-lawful-search-warrants-in-arizona/
Boyd v. United States, 116 U.S. 616 (1886)
(n.d.). Conservative Policy Research and Analysis. Guide to the Constitution. Retrieved April 25, 2016, from http://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/amendments/4/essays/144/searches-and-seizures
upport for this contention comes from the observation that male offenders too are comparatively lightly punished when domestic abuse is involved.
Other factors, however, indicate greater complexity. treib (1990), for instance, showed that confounding factors for deserving the death sentence include the offender's prior record for committing crimes; premeditation of the crime; and her potential for future violent crimes. Women are less likely to represent or possess these characteristics than men and, therefore, subsequently are figured less often on Death Row.
However, it is also very likely that simple sexism plays a part. This is particularly likely when it is seen that those tending more towards the death penalty - i.e. more conservative, Republican, white-male dominated groups -- are also less strongly against women receiving this penalty. In fact, these groups have sometimes even prominently militated against women receiving the death sentence, as was the case with Pat Robertson and…
Baker, David V. (1999). A Descriptive Profile and Socio-Historical Analysis of Female Executions in the United States: 1632- 1997, Women and Criminal Justice 57
Bakken, G.M. (2010). Invitation to an Execution: A History of the Death Penalty in the United States. USA:University of New Mexico Press
Banner, Stuart (2002). The Death Penalty: An American History. Harvard University Press
Crocker, P. (2001), Is the Death Penalty Good for Women, Buffalo Criminal Law Review 917
Recommendation: The training staff must ensure all participants in a "live" fire training exercise "have received the training and opportunities to properly perform the job." And this is pivotal to safety measures for recruits: A student's first experience "in a live burn exercise should not be in an acquired structure" (IIL).
Structures and Facilities (NFPA 1403 4.2 & 4.2.2): Buildings selected for structural fire training exercise must be properly prepared -- which in this case, the row house at 145 South Calverton Road, it was not properly prepared. A previous ventilation drill, which opened several upper floor walls to the outside air (and the wind which was 20 miles per hour at that time) made the building "unsuitable" for live fire training. Adding to the mistakes made in the exercise at 145 South Calverton Road was the serious question as to whether the fire department had permission to burn that…
BCFD Preliminary Investigation Into The Line Of Duty Death Of Recruit Racheal M. Wilson
On February 9, 2007. (2007). Retrieved November 12, 2009, from http://www.minnesotafireservice.com/pubs_open/20070226bcfd_wilsonreport.pdf.
Goodrich, Art. (2007). Baptism by Fire or Death by Diversity? Retrieved November 12,
2009, from http://chiefreasonart.com/about-2/.
Though six other Justices joined in overturning Staples' conviction, it was Justice Thomas who wrote the majority opinion, and he makes it clear that anything not explicitly allowed or made illegal by the law -- either in the Government's actions or in the actions of individual citizens -- is left to individual (or local, it is implied) discretion (Oyez 2009).
How Do You Get to the Supreme Court? estraint, estraint, estraint
In keeping with his generally conservative politics, Justice Thomas is also an advocate of judicial restraint. The Staples case demonstrates this quite clearly, as do other of his published rulings. In Archer et ux v. Warner (2002), Justice Thomas dissented form the majority opinion, which used what was considered the intent of a bankruptcy exemption for fraud to overturn the decisions of lower courts and demand that the Warners pay the Archers a previously agreed-upon settlement (Oyez 2009). In…
Fraser, N. (1992). "Sex, lies, and the public sphere: Some reflections on the confirmation of Clarence Thomas." Critical inquiry 18(3), pp. 595-612.
Gerber, S. (1999). First principles: The jurisprudence of Clarence Thomas. New York: New York University Press.
Klonick, K. (2009). "Clarence Thomas reaches new low in self-awareness." Accessed 26 October 2009. http://trueslant.com/kateklonick/2009/10/24/clarence-thomas-reaches-new-low-in-self-awareness/
Overby, L; Henschen, B.; Walsh, M. & Strauss, J. (1992). "Courting constituents? An analysis of the Senate confirmation vote on Justice Clarence Thomas." American political science review, 86(4), pp. 997-1003.
I couldn't have imagined their lives even if I had tried. (Broyard, p.42).
hen she reveals this, Broyard demonstrates an attitude that is probably shared by many white people; a desire to talk about race, but the concern that even broaching the topic is impolite. Therefore, the gulf between the races gets wider and wider.
Broyard also acknowledges the problem with claiming her own African-American identify. Talking about her first post-funeral meeting with her father's family, Broyard discusses her thoughts about claiming to be black, when she had no real life experiences as a black woman. She asked herself:
Had I ever had trouble getting a cab or service in a store or the respect of my colleagues because of the color of my skin? as I ever judged not as an individual but as a credit or an embarrassment to my race? Had anyone ever assumed I was stupid,…
Broyard, Bliss. One Drop: My Father's Hidden Life - a Story of Race and Family Secrets.
New York: Little, Brown, and Company, 2007.
e. As waitresses.)
II. Social Action
Max eber developed the concept of social action as a means of describing those actions that take into account actions and reactions of other people, then modifying that action based on those occurrences. Sociologists employ social action as a conceptual model as a means of determining how certain behaviors are modified in specific environments. hen we evaluate the norms of social discourse and the customs that prevail in any given society, we see how social action works.
Importantly, social action takes into consideration reactions of others. hen the reaction of an individual or group is not wanted, then the action will be modified accordingly. Sociology is essentially the study of social action, as it takes into account the way society functions and the way human behavior is established in societal structures. According to social action theory, people change their actions according to what social…
Cohen, Roger. "Her Jewish State." The New York Times Magazine, July 8, 2007.
Mills, C.W. The Sociological Imagination. London: Oxford University Press, 1959.
Conservatives, on the other hand, have many passions and one of them is a color-blind government. Most of them believe that all policies of discrimination should be discarded. They view these policies as unwise, immoral and unconstitutional. Three conservative organizations submitted a collective brief to the Supreme Court on the Michigan cases. These organizations were the Center for Equal Opportunity, the Independent Women's Forum and the American Civil Rights Institute. Their brief succinctly stated that racial preferences were incompatible with the 14th Amendment. The 14th Amendment, according to them, clearly states that no person within its jurisdiction would be denied the equal protection of the laws. The silence of the justices to this statement was perceived to indicate insufficient interest in the original understanding than in their own case law. In 1865 and 1866, radical Republicans proposed a constitutional amendment that no State could set distinctions in civil rights and…
Katznelson, I. (2006). When is affirmative action fair? 19 pages. Social Research: New School for Social Research
National Review (1995). Courting trouble. 2 pages. National Review, Inc.: Gale Group
O'Sullivan, J. (2003). Affirmative action forever? 5 pages. National Review: National Review, Inc.
Paul, P. (2003). The legacy of affirmative action. 2 pages. Media Central, Inc.: PRIMEDIA Company
" Her close attention to statutory detail (she once offered an amendment to a bill in order to insert an important missing comma) and complete mastery of facts is especially notable in light of her future judicial methodology. Anxious to return to law in 1974, O'Connor won a seat as a trial judge on the Maricopa Superior Court....In 1980 Babbit, who had been elected governor, appointed O'Connor to the Arizona Court of Appeals (an intermediate appellate court). (Friedman & Israel, 1997, p. 1761)
It is stated that when she was faced with particularly hard cases, she chose to seek out the most extreme views on each side and then find the moderate stand in the middle with the most logical demonstration of resolution. O'Connor is also said to have held that her nomination to the Supreme Court was "a classic example of being the right person in the right spot…
The Battle for the Court Begins; Democrats Warn Bush to Consult. (2005, July 2). The Washington Times, p. A01.
Friedman, L. & Israel, F.L. (Eds.). (1997). Their Lives and Major Opinions (Vol. 5). New York: Chelsea House.
Perry, B.A. (1991). A Representative Supreme Court? The Impact of Race, Religion, and Gender on Appointments. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Stevenson, R.W. Greenhouse L. (July 1, 2005) O'Connor, First Woman on High Court, Resigns After 24 Years New York Times Retrieved November 1, 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/01/politics/01cnd-court.html?ex=1277870400&en=7beaf086d8184bc3&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss
Barbara Ransby has written a thoughtful, analytical and very readable account about the uniquely important political life of American civil rights activist Ella Josephine Baker. The work is incredibly significant because Baker is one of those handful of people to whom very much is owed by very many. Beyond the documentation of a critical era in American history, the book is a seminal investigation of the history of the African-American freedom and civil rights movement in America. This is not to mention that Ransby has added immeasurably to the understanding of black women's history as well. In the age of the teleprompter and prepackaged news, original thinkers like Baker are a rarity and their stories need to be treasured like gold. She is proof that even little people can have an impact for good. Truly, her activism provides a template for anyone who wants to have an impact…
Ransby, B. (2005). Ella baker and the black freedom movement: A radical democratic vision . Chapel
Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.
Institutions are defined as the existence of formal rules, on the one hand, and informal conventions and norms (such as impolitic societal rules that constrain behavior and impose forms of conduct) on the other. A system of enforcement structures are set in place to ensure that society abides to both and the strength of that enforcement system generally determines the extent to which individuals of a particular society will abide by its rules and conventions.
Enforcement may be carried out by various means depending on the specific set of situations. It may be carried out by self-enforcement (such as when one imposes upon oneself dietary restrictions of eating in order to lose weight). Enforcement may also be carried out by a second party as retaliation (as, for instance, another refusing to cordially greet the other is impolitely dealt with). Thirdly, and most strongly linked to maintenance and support of institutions,…
Bergman, P. (1980). Sociology of Knowledge, Oxford Univ. Press: Oxford.
Crossley, N. (2006) Contesting Psychiatry: Social Movements in Mental Health Routledge
Gerard, A. Institutions, path dependence and decomocratic consolidation, Journal of Theoretical Politics 13(3): 249 -- 70
Harris, H.W., Felder, D., & Clark, M.O. (2004). A Psychiatric Residency Curriculum on the Care of African-American Patients. Academic Psychiatry 28 (3): 226 -- 239
images from the university gallery museum. Those works were the Victim, Abolish the Death Penalty, George Jackson Lives, Ruth Snyder, and Lynching. All five works examine how violence has become an institutionalized part of modern American society, so much so that it seems almost commonplace. Taken as a whole, the pieces are powerful, because they serve as a reminder that when violence is institutionalized and permitted, it creates an atmosphere of violence in society. The images also serve as reminders that violence, whether government-sanctioned or individually driven, often targets those in society with the least power. While powerful people are not wholly immune from violence, they are not nearly as likely to be victimized as people in marginalized positions.
The first work I examined is called The Victim. It depicts a skull-head type figure, done in stark blacks with some splashes of red, and it is clear the image in…
black colleges/Tuskegee University
The psychological, economic, political importance of historically black colleges
In a workplace, the significance of scholarly and nourished atmosphere cannot be underrated in forming a stronger base for future success. (Historically Black Colleges - Letters to the Editor) Before the period of 1964, the 'Historically Black Colleges and Universities'- HBCU's, the postsecondary academic institutions were established and its educational purpose was to teach African-Americans. (The Importance of HBCUs) Historically, HBCUs came into being at a time when Black students were mainly barred from other institutions of higher education, and their purpose was to give these students with chances for scholarship and professional training. (Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Their Aspirations & Accomplishments) HBCU's have been a main basis in the growth of the African-American middle class. They offer a helpful social, cultural, and racial atmosphere for people of color who are looking for a college…
History of Tuskegee University. Retrieved from http://www.tuskegee.edu/Global/story.asp?S=1070392& ; nav=CcX4DGwrTuskegee Accessed on 16 February, 2005
Recognizing National Historically Black Colleges and Universities and the importance and accomplishments of historically Black colleges and universities. (Introduced in House). Retrieved from http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z-c108:H.RES.82.IH : Accessed on 16 February, 2005
Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Their Aspirations & Accomplishments. Retrieved from http://www.ets.org/research/pic/hbcprefa.html Accessed on 16 February, 2005
The Importance of HBCUs. The Common Sense Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.common-sense.org/?fnoc=/common_sense_says/99_february Accessed on 16 February, 2005
Divorce is no longer taboo at all. It is not unusual, but almost expected, for couples to marry, have at least one child, and subsequently separate. About half of American children are being raised in single-parent households or in households where there is a revolving door of partners for their custodial parent. Divorce is not the only issue that threatens the institution of marriage in America; approximately one in four people are currently in an abusive marriage. Furthermore, if a woman in America is murdered, the odds are overwhelming that her husband is the killer. Domestic violence does more to provide a real threat to more marriages in America than same-sex marriage ever could. As far as threatening individual marriages, the legalization of gay marriage would probably promote individual relationships. If homosexuals had the opportunity to marry their chosen partners, they may feel less pressure to remain in the closet,…
Daniels, Cora. "Not the Marrying Kind." New York Times Magazine. 4 Apr. 2004.
Dominus, Susan. "Growing Up with Mom and Mom." New York Times Magazine. 24 Oct. 2004. NYTimes.com. 15 Mar. 2005 http://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/24/magazine/24KIDS.html?ex=1111035600&en=656b9a5c2df4044b&ei=5070&ei=5087&en=f38f090206fd0295&ex=1101441600&rd=hcmcp?p=048CcD048Cea4Jyc_012000mzPv%24zPwK&nl=ep&adxnnl=1&adxnnlx=1110899159-NQx7RMeEtns2Jxp+R4YdZQ .
Garrow, David J. "Towards a More Perfect Union." New York Times Magazine. 9 May 2004.
Brown vs. Board of Education
A landmark court case that occurred in the early 1950's resulted in the desegregation of public schools. This historic Supreme Court case was known as Brown vs. Board of Education. The place was Topeka, Kansas, 1951. A little girl named Linda Brown and her father, Oliver Brown, attempted to enroll Linda in a neighborhood elementary school that accepted whites only. The request was denied, by the hite elementary school. The little girl only lived a few blocks from the hite elementary school, which would have been a good fit for her. Instead, she ended up traveling about a mile each day to attend the nearest Black school.
Brown decided to request the help of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The NAACP was glad to help in the fight. Mr. Brown and the NAACP moved forward and challenged the segregation law.…
Brown vs. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483. 1954. Appeal from the United States
District Court for the District of Kansas [online]. Washington, DC: The National
for Public Policy Research; available from
Hanging, for example, can sometimes produce horrendous results: if the drop is too short, it results in slow and agonising strangulation; if it is too long, it may tear the head off. Electrocution too, at times, fails to kill instantly and the awful stench of burning flesh that follows the process is indicative of the excruciating pain suffered during the killing.
Another reason why capital punishment is wrong is because death is irreversable, human justice is fallible and criminal proceedings would always be prone to errors. There have been several cases of sentencing to death before evidence proving their innocence was uncovered. Since 1973 alone, 119 people in 25 USA states have been released from death row when evidence of their innocence came to light. ("Capital Punishment" ikipedia) Others, not so lucky, have been executed before evidence clearing them was discovered. James Adams, a Black American, who was executed in…
Baird, Robert M., and Stuart E. Rosenbaum, eds. Punishment and the Death Penalty: The Current Debate. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1995.
Bedau, Hugo Adam. (1992). "The Case Against The Death Penalty." American Civil Liberties Union. 1992. Retrieved on September 29, 2005 at http://sun.soci.niu.edu/~critcrim/dp/dppapers/aclu.antidp
Capital Punishment." From Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. On September 29, 2005 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capital_punishment
Death Penalty, Q&A." Amnesty International USA. 2005. Retrieved on September 29, 2005 at http://www.amnestyusa.org/abolish/dp_qa.html
He has the well-earned reputation of being the "a hawk's hawk in the Bush administration" (Corn, 2005). For instance, when the Bush administration did not get UN's backing for its war in Iraq, Bolton observed that was "further evidence to many why nothing should be paid to the UN system." (Ibid.)
Officials who have worked under him, invariably describe Bolton as a bully. At his confirmation hearings in the Senate, a former colleague accused Bolton of harassing an intelligence analyst who challenged his findings on biological weapons in Cuba and called Bolton a "classic kiss-up, kick-down kind of guy." (Bosco, 2005) Questions have even been raised about his integrity: he received payments from a $100 million secret Taiwan government slush fund and submitted pro-Taiwan testimony to Congress in the 1990s without revealing he was a paid consultant to Taiwan. (Corn, 2005)
Of course, once the President had decided to nominate…
Bosco, David. (2005). "The World According to Bolton." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. July/August 2005 pp. 24-31 (vol. 61, no. 04). Retrieved on November 10, 2005 at http://www.thebulletin.org/article.php?art_ofn=ja05bosco
Corn, David. (2005). "Bush Gives the UN the Finger." The Nation. Posted 03/08/2005. Retrieved on November 10, 2005 at http://www.thenation.com/blogs/capitalgames?bid=3&pid=2245
John R.Bolton. (2005)." From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved on November 10, 2005 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_R._Bolton
Recess Appointment." (2005). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved on November 10, 2005 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recess_appointment
e must canonize our own saints, create our own martyrs, and elevate to positions of fame and honor black women and men who have made their distinct contributions to our history." (Garvey1, 1)
Taken in itself and absent the implications to African repatriation that we will address hereafter, this is a statement which seems to project itself upon both Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, mutually driven as they would be by a belief that African men had been deprived of a humanity which it was their duty to see restored. But it is here that we can also begin to observe the elements of Garvey's rather poetic and frequently biblical rhetoric as producing multifarious responses in its future champions. Certainly, the greatest and most daunting common ground between King and Malcolm X in this instance is in their mutual 'creation' of 'martyrs.' They would both sacrifice themselves to the…
Associated Press (AP). (1963). MALCOLM X SCORES U.S. And KENNEDY; Likens Slaying to 'Chickens Coming Home to Roost' Newspapers Chided. New York Times.
Edward, W. (1996). "A Lunatic or a Traitor" by W.E.B. DuBois. African-American Political Thought, 1890-1930: M.E. Sharpe.
Edward1, W. (1996). "The Negro's Greatest Enemy" by Marcus Garvey. African-American Political Thought, 1890-1930: M.E. Sharpe.
Garvey, a.J. (1967). The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey. Routledge.
Judiciary -governing and selection
Judiciary: Article eview
One of the most controversial decisions in recent memory of the U.S. Supreme Court was that of Citizens United, which effectively declared corporations 'persons' in terms of their ability to fund political campaigns through political action committees (PACs). According to Thomas B. Edsall's article "Cash and carry" for The New York Times, Citizens United and "a series of related cases, especially SpeechNow.org v. Federal Election Commission, which was decided by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, have not just gutted campaign-finance reform. They have undermined the democratic character of the presidential nomination process by empowering the rich to exert disproportionate control over it" (Edsall 2012). Edsall excoriates the recent Citizens United decision, stating it has fundamentally undermined the democratic process.
In the past, the label of 'activist judges' has usually been wielded by conservatives against…
Edsall, Thomas B. (2012). Cash and carry. The New York Times. Retrieved:
Modern-Day Corruption and Graft
The Watergate incident that occurred in President Nixon's Administration is exemplary of modern day corruption. Here, the government under Nixon's presidency was recognized to have sanctioned a sequence of confidential monitoring operations conducted by highly-trained agents that was financed by illegal campaign contributions. The seriousness of the incident was such that ichard Nixon had to resign his presidency.
Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois offered differing philosophies, strategies, and tactics for African-Americans following econstruction. In your opinion, which of these leaders gave the best advice for their times? Why do you feel this way?
Booker T. Washington primarily believed that the approach to deal with the African-Americans after the econstruction was tolerance, adaptation, and self-assistance with maximum attention on the provision of job opportunities for possible advancement of the community W.E.B. Dubois, on the other hand, asserted that the best methodology was the use of campaigning…
Brunner, B. (2011a). Civil Rights Timeline. Accessed 29-12-11 from: http://www.infoplease.com /spot/civilrightstimeline1.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
narrative analysis of historical content, themes, patterns, and events related to "race and empire in U.S. History. For this reason, six books have been considered. The paper will cover the narrative analysis of historical content related to race and empire in U.S. History, summary of the chronological themes, and the strengths and weaknesses for each book.
Manifest destinies: the making of the Mexican-American race
The key to the approach of Gomez is the thought that Mexican-Americans do not from ethnicity, in fact a race. The difference lies in societal construction. Rather than having inborn worth, race is history reliant and given meaning by social processes, institutions, and persons. In the view of Gomez, the identity of Mexican-American is a result of social attitudes and legal definitions during the era, after the war between U.S. And Mexico. In fact, for Mexicans, there was no proper racial model[footnoteRef:1]. [1: Gomez,…
8. Hardy, T.J.. Race as an Aspect of the U.S.-Australian Alliance in World War II. (Diplomatic History, 2013)
9. Mora, A.P.. Jose Angel Hernandez. Mexican-American Colonization during the Nineteenth Century: A History of the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands. (The American Historical Review, 118(3), 818-819., 2013)
10. Guyotte, R.L., & Posadas, B.M.. Filipinos and Filipino Americans, 1870 -- 1940. Immigrants in American History: Arrival, Adaptation, and Integration, 347, 2013
Bakke v. Regents of the University of California
The so-called Bakke decision was the earliest in which the United States Supreme Court addressed affirmative action. The case certainly did not mean and end to the issues involved, and there have been several attempts to overturn the Bakke decision since. It has been referred to as a reverse discrimination case, and it was of great import when it was decided in the late 1970s after nearly a decade of affirmative action to bring more blacks and members of other minorities into the mainstream of work and academic life through programs of recruitment and special assistance to redress historical imbalances and discrimination. The issue of affirmative action remains a difficult one for Americans to this day. Affirmative action is often characterized as a quota system, though quotas need not be part of affirmative action at all. The Bakke case was an early…
Bresler, Robert J. "The Courts Close in on the Diversity Rationale." USA Today Magazine 130(2680)(January 2002), 13.
Burka, Paul. "Fight Bakke." Texas Monthly 24(5)(May 1996), 228.
Gose, Ben. "Supreme Court Rejects Appeal of a Decision That Cited 'Bakke' to Defend Affirmative Action." Chronicle of Higher Education 47(39)(6 June 2001), A24.
Gratz v. Bollinger (122 F. Supp.2d 811 [E.D. Mich. Dec. 13, 2000]).
Voice & Identity in "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass"
This essay discusses the book NARRATIVE OF THE LIFE OF FREDERICK DOUGLASS, AN AMERICAN SLAVE: WRITTEN BY HIMSELF, by Frederick Douglass, John W. Blassingame, John R. McKivigan (Editor) and Peter P. Hinks (Yale University, 2001).
Frederick Douglass was an early-19th century American slave who escaped the South and found freedom in the North. Seven years after his escape, Douglass published "Narratives of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave," his story of his life under the brutal system of American slavery, as well as his ability to prevail under and escape such difficult circumstances. It has become an American classic.
Narrative of the Life," published in 1845, was the first book of Douglass' writing and journalism career. He went on from "Narratives" to become an accomplished speaker and journalist, arguing passionately for the abolition of slavery, and describing…
Sandra Day was born on March 26, 1930 in El Paso, Texas to Harry and Ada Mae, owners of the Lazy--Cattle ranch in Southeastern Arizona, where Sandra grew up (United States Supreme Court 2003) as an only child until she was eight. In those early years, her family lived in isolation and with strained resources. The ranch did not have electricity and running water until she was seven years old and their nearest neighbors lived 25 miles away. Her loneliness forced her to make friends with the ranch's cowboys and pets. She read vigorously, learned to drive at seven, could fire rifles and rode horses well. ecause the hardiness of the ranch prevented her from attaining a formal education, her parents sent Sandra to her maternal grandmother in El Paso (U.S. Supreme Court). Her grandmother was Mamie Scott Wilkey.
She went to the Radford School for girls from…
Cook, Beverley, rev. 1997. Justice Sandra Day O'Connor: Strategist on the Supreme Court. By Nancy Maveety. Landham, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. Vol 7 # 4 pp 142-145. http://www.unt.edu/lpbr/subpages/reviews/maveety.htm
Gearan, Anne. 2003. Supreme Court's Day: Gay Rights Cases Up. Monterey County: Associated Press Wire
O'Connor Urges Law Grads to Volunteer
Hedding, Judy. 2004. A Brief Biography of Supreme Court Justice Sandra O'Connor. About, Inc. http://phoenix.aboutcom/cs/famous/a/oconnor.htm
Freedom and Equality in the 20th century
AN UN-ENDING FIGHT
Two Primary Methods against Segregation Policies
The Civil Rights Movement of African-Americans in the United States, also called the 1960s Civil Rights Movement, consisted of mass actions, aimed at ending racial discrimination and segregation against them (Tavaana, 2015). At the same time, it aimed at acquiring legal recognition and federal protection of their rights as citizens, as enshrined in the Constitution and federal law. The Movement was particularly active in the South between 1954 and 1968 (Tavaana).
The two primary methods used by the Movement in pursuing its ends were non-violent protests and civil disobedience (Tavaana, 2015). These and other campaigns were forms of civil resistance. They triggered crises and induced the holding of meaningful talks between them and government authorities. These initiatives were effective in the federal, state, and local levels of government as well as businesses and communities.…
AAO (n.d.). The civil rights era. Part I, African-American Odyssey. Retrieved on February 21, 2015 from http://www.memory/oc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart9.html
Civil Rights 101 (2001). Civil rights expanded: contemporary effects. The Leadership
Conference. Retrieved on February 21, 2015 from http://www.civilrights.org/resources/civilrights.101/erexpanded.html
Foner, E. (1997). Expert report. Diversity Matters: University of Michigan. Retrieved on February 21, 2015 from http://www.vpcomm.umich.edu/admissions/legal/expert/foner.html
subscribe to any of these theories about punishment. I have a different one, which is this: slavery never really went away -- prisons are the new slave plantations and the blacks that are imprisoned are put there so that they can make parts for Nike and Apple for slave wages and be perpetually recycled back into the system because of the high rates of recidivism that the prison farm systems know will occur (because the ex-cons can't pay their prison bills (yes, they have prison bills upon leaving -- they actually have to pay for their own incarceration) because they haven't earned anything from their corporate prison slave plantation masters). The system is set up to exploit black labor -- just like as of old (Benns, 2015).
I think Tom is appealing in the wrong manner. Instead of appealing on the "void for vagueness" doctrine, Tom should appeal simply because…
Benns, W. (2015). American Slavery, Reinvented. The Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/09/prison-labor-in-america/406177/
Lehman, J., Phelps, S. (2008). West's Encyclopedia of American Law. MI: Gale.
New York State Bd. Of Elections v. Lopez Torres. (2008). SupremeCourt.gov.
Retrieved from http://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/07pdf/06-766.pdf
Stand Your Ground Laws: A Cry for epeal
THE EFFECTS OF HYPOXIA
STAND YOU GOUND: A CY FO EPEAL
Stand Your Ground Laws: A Cry for epeal
Academic and Professional Writing for Graduate Students (LS526-01)
The "Stand Your Ground Law" is one of the most controversial laws in recent years and has gained notoriety due to its enactment in thirty-three states so far. Advocates of the law claim that it reduces the threat of violence in society, but the statistics prove otherwise as research shows that the law actually inflames race-based violence (Purdie-Vaughn, Williams, 2015). As such there are several states that have either taken a wary view of the law and have decided to steer clear of it, or have raised issue(s) with enactment of the law while considering it. It is because of this scrutiny the law has been misunderstood by some people, abused by others, and just…
Alabama Criminal Code, Section 13A-3-23. Retrieved from http://codes.lp.findlaw.com/alcode/13A/3/2/13A-3-23
Campbell, R. C. (2014). Unlawful/Criminal Activity: The Ill-Defined and Inadequate Provision
for a "Stand Your Ground" Defense. Barry Law Review, 20(1): 3-21.
Cook, R. (2012). The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. 'Stand Your Ground Law' in Effect in Georgia More Than 100 Years. Retrieved: http://www.ajc.com/news/news/local/stand-your-ground-law-in-effect-in-georgia-more-th/nQSgW/
ace in Sociology
The sociology of racism, according to Clair and Denis (2015) is the study concerning racial inequality, racial discrimination, and racism and the associated features. acism basically is the domination of another race based on the percept and preconception that the dominating race is superior culturally or biologically. This thinking of superiority is used to justify the ill treatment of people from other races. acialization has led to people being divided into various groups based on physical appearances such as color of the skin, shape of the eye or hair and languages spoken, among others. These groups are then called races. acial discrimination involves unequal treatment meted to these groups and manifests itself prominently in such areas as education, income, and health.
ace is a construct of the society. It has no biological bearing, as there are no behavioral differences in humans that can be attributed to differences…
Clair, M., & Denis, J. S. (2015). Sociology of Racism. Retrieved September 8, 2016, from Scholars at Harvard: https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/matthewclair/files/sociology_of_racism_clairandenis_2015.pdf
Crossman, A. (2016). Sociology Of Race And Ethnicity. Retrieved September 8, 2016, from About Education: http://sociology.about.com/od/Disciplines/a/Sociology-Of-Race-Ethnicity.htm
Delinder, J. V. (2004, January). Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka: A Landmark Case Unresolved Fifty Years Later. Prologue Magazine, Vol 36. Retrieved from The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration: http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2004/spring/brown-v-board-1.html
Library of Virginia. (2003). What Was Brown v. Board of Education? Retrieved September 8, 2016, from Library of Virginia: http://www.lva.virginia.gov/exhibits/brown/whatwas.htm
Michelle Obama (2013) spoke at the Bowie State University commencement proceedings and talked about graduates committing to the "building ladders of opportunity for anyone willing to work for it" (p. 1) and the responsibilities of graduates to carry on the work and role that they inherited by becoming graduates. The argument she seemed to be making was that for many African-Americans the challenge of attending (and graduating) from college was just too much to bother with; that they would much rather sit on the couch "for hours playing video games, watching tv" (p. 2) and that "instead of dreaming about being a teacher or a lawyer or a business leader, they're fantasizing about being a baller or a rapper" (p.2). Her message was that young African-Americans seemed to have lost that drive, that 'hunger' that earlier generations showed in their determination to obtain an education. She backed up her statements…
Obama, M.; (2013) Remarks by the First Lady at Bowie State University
Commencement Ceremony, May 17, 2013, accessed at https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/05/17/remarks-first-lady-bowie-state-university-commencement-ceremony on October 17, 2016
Media Articulation Of The ites Of
HETEOSEXUAL vs. HOMOSEXUAL MAIAGE IGHTS
In the Land of the Free where the Bill of ights is supreme, all marital unions between consenting adults should be accorded the same level of societal respect and legality under federal and state laws. It was just a few decades ago when the Gay ights Movement was born in a raucous Greenwich Village bar, but homosexuals have become increasingly accepted in mainstream American society in the years since and a growing number of states are legalizing same-sex marriage in response to this trend. Unfortunately, the path to equal rights for all American citizens has been hampered by negative media coverage of homosexuals in the United States in recent years in ways that are frequently subtle but which are discernible through careful analysis. This type of analysis is important because prejudicial public information or notice of the…
Black's law dictionary. (1999). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. (2011). Library of Congress. Retrieved from http://
Gallagher, M. (2006, May 15). Banned in Boston. The Weekly Standard, 11(33), 3.