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Tolkien and the Canon
Is J.R.R. Tolkien a canonical writer? This depends, of course, on how we define canonical status -- or indeed who we acknowledge as our arbiter of canonicity. I will begin by noting the whiff of sanctimony in the very idea of a "canon." The idea of a "canon" is, in itself, originally a term derived from religion: as the Christian religion underwent a centuries-long process of defining its own orthodoxy, extant Christian writings were arranged into a canon by religious authorities, separating the essential sacred texts from the inessential. It was these same religious authorities who, in the process of debating which works to include and which to exclude, chose to include the four canonical Gospels that can be found today in any copy of the New Testament, but who did not include the non-canonical or "apocryphal" gospel of Thomas, let alone the gospel of Judas,…… [Read More]
R.R. Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings
The Lord of the Rings forms a significant part of the substantial canon of works written by the English author and academic J.R.R. Tolkien (1892-1973) set in his invented world of Middle Earth. It consists of three volumes: The Fellowship of the Ring (1954), The Two Towers (1954), and The Return of the King (1955). For many readers it forms, with its predecessor The Hobbit (1951), the most accessible and rewarding part of Tolkien's non-academic oeuvre. Certainly The Lord of the Rings is one of the most successful literary works of the twentieth century. The recent film versions of the trilogy have increased its profile in contemporary culture, but long before this most recent large-scale adaptation this epic work had achieved enormous popularity. It is a creation of unique scale and ambition, seemingly the product of the author's determination to become the creative…… [Read More]
Tolkien also had three other children, Michael, Christopher, and Priscilla ("The Tolkien Trail"). After the war, Tolkien became a university professor. His first job was at the University of Leeds. Later, he taught at Oxford. According to "The Tolkien Trail, "Tolkien retired from Oxford in 1969. Tolkien and his wife then moved to Bournemouth. On November 22, 1971, Edith died... Tolkien died on September 2, 1973." sample of Tolkien's work is the following paragraph from the Fellowship of the Ring:
hen Mr. Bilbo Baggins of Bag End announced that he would shortly be celebrating his eleventy-first birthday with a party of special magnificence, there was much talk and excitement in Hobbiton.Bilbo was very rich and very peculiar, and had been the wonder of the Shire for sixty years, ever since his remarkable disappearance and unexpected return. The riches he had brought back from his travels had now become a local…… [Read More]
Had Tolkien been an American (shudder), it is likely that the trilogy would have assumed some gangster or other bad-guy qualities that would belie its roots in mythology and legend. Fortunately for generations of avid readers and now a motion picture-going audience, the world continues to delight in the writings of Tolkien precisely because he sends his modern readers to the dictionary once in awhile just to see what he is talking about. The precision of Tolkien's use of words and phrases in the books that comprise the trilogy are noteworthy if for no other reason than their ability to communicate exactly what the author intended, but the use of the right word in the right place has also contributed to the work's enduring popularity among readers who might not otherwise ever learn that a "coney" was something besides a hot dog with chili and cheese.
Black's Law…… [Read More]
Bombadil and Treebeard in Middle-Earth
Middle-earth is the mysterious made-up setting in which the characters of J... Tolkien's story, The Lord of the ings, conduct their lives. As is evident in the name, Middle-earth is a continent located in the central (the middle) of the fictional world; it is not the entire universe or world, yet the characters that inhabit Middle-earth engage in global scale battles and wars with immense and long-lasting stakes. Treebeard and Bombadil are two of the inhabitants of Middle-earth are outwardly as different as could be imagined; yet they share a capacity to deal with adversity and to survive in an arbitrary and hostile world.
The character of Tom Bombadil is an engaging fellow -- he is spry for his age, has a teasing wit, and speaks in a whimsical, jolly, and rhyming manner (McCloskey, 2002). Bombadil tends to narrate his life, speaking in the third…… [Read More]
features of residual (or "secondary") orality preserved in Voluspa, according to the criteria Ong (1982) advances?
Ong (1982) talks about how cultures in the past were only able to preserve their heritage through stories that meticulously passed down through the years (41). He says that since type was invented, importance has moved from the wise old man or woman to someone who can "discover new things" (Ong, 1982, 41). However, societies still deem some things as too important to completely lose their oral tradition. He talks about the residual orality of having to memorize certain things through mnemonic devices (Ong, 1982, 41).
However, he also talks of residual or secondary orality in another way also. He says that secondary orality is "an orality not antecedent to writing and print, as primary orality is, but consequent on and dependent upon writing and print" (Ong, 1982, 167). His analysis of the practice…… [Read More]
second of the Ring trilogy by Tolkien, the Two Towers takes place in Middle Earth and the events immediately follow the events in the first book, Fellowship of the Ring (which followed the prefacing story told in The Hobbit).
List two main characters and tell something about each one.
Peregrin ("Pippin") Took and Meriadoc ("Merry") Brandybuck are both captured by the fierce Urak-Hai after the fellowship was betrayed by Boromir. These two hobbits, cousins of Frodo (the Ringbearer), manage to escape when the Rohorrim attack and destroy the orcs holding them hostage and are befriended by the erstwhile leader of the Ents, "Treebeard." Treebeard takes the two hobbits to his home and provides Pippin and Merry with near-magical "Ent draughts" (two different types) that appear to make them both taller than all other hobbits back in The Shire (an important attribute that will play an important role in The Return…… [Read More]
sof Hengest, though the employment of this striking phrase within the space of a few lines to designate both the opposing parties must be regarded as confusing" (rown) This not only provides confusion for the interpretation and translation of the poem but also for the actual context and flow of events. Thus, this can be an example of transmutation that in turn can determine the value of a translated version or its lack of consistency.
Another important aspect in relation to the style of writing is focused on the artistic literary techniques. More precisely, the accent lies in the way in which the verse and the rhyme are constructed. Up to the interpretation of Tolkien, the rhyme and the verse were considered as lacking precision and value. Still the rhyme is thoroughly analyzed for any potential matching to an already invented system of rhythm and alliterations. A perfect example in…… [Read More]
It is possible that Lewis had not intended certain matters from his books to have the effects that they eventually had on the public. It had most probably been because of the fact that he did not planned for a large amount of time before deciding to write the series. In contrast, Tolkien had prepared The Lord of the Rings for several decades, studying various geographical locations and history before he decided to proceed in writing.
In spite of being the sixth book from the Narnia series published by Lewis, The Magician's Nephew describes the first period when considering Narnian years. In this book, two children named Digory and Polly end up in magical universes in 1900 consequent to coming across two rings which have supernatural powers. One world in particular appears to be different from the others to Polly and Digory, and, after a chain of unfortunate incidents, they…… [Read More]
In both books, these individuals are disembodied. Sauron needs the ring that was found by the Hobbits to return to power, and readers find out in the sixth Harry Potter book that the evil Lord Voldemort has fragmented his soul into multiple pieces, all hidden. Once they are found and joined together, Voldemort will return with full power again.
In both books, the antagonists have symbols that can be seen in the sky. In Lord of the Rings the symbol is a great eye that can be seen from a tower and be transmitted into crystal balls that allow Sauron to observe what is going on in various parts of the world. In the Harry Potter books, the symbol is shot into the sky by Voldemort's followers, called "Death Eaters." However, ather than allowing Voldemort to observe others, it draws his followers together. The ring wraiths of Lord of the…… [Read More]
Nature of the Universe
The term fantastic insinuates that it has to do with matters extra-terrestrial. It has to do with the world beyond the conventional one that we interact with at the physical level. Tolkien has an obviously clear view of what it is in relation to the value of creative thinking and imagination. Literature is created from the primary imagination which is also referred to as an echo from the primary imagination. This is also the force and living power behind all human perception. This is a repetition of the eternal act of creation as is encased in the creation by the infinite "I AM." The fairy story and triology are nothing but creation. It is the crafting of the secondary universe by imagination. Essentially, that aspect is the outstanding activity of the maker of the fairy story. This is what sets such a creator apart and makes…… [Read More]
The existence of human suffering poses a unique theological problem. If God is omniscient, omnipotent, and all-loving, then why does suffering exist? Indeed, this difficulty is confronted in scripture itself: perhaps the most important look into the problem of suffering comes in the Old Testament story of Job. Mainstream Christianity continues to have a variety of ways of approaching this theological question, although historically Christians had a much broader spectrum of responses. For example, today's mainstream Christianity is a result of the establishment of orthodoxy in the face of Gnostic Christians, who used the existence of suffering as a way of questioning whether God was indeed omnipotent or all-loving. Gnosticism instead posits a "demiurge" or "alien god" that created this world and its suffering without being omnipotent or good. ut the oldest mainstream form of Christian orthodoxy today -- represented by the Roman Catholic faith…… [Read More]
The fandom of Harry Potter is maybe the most important due to its rapid growth over a short period of time and to the huge number of "followers" it gained even among adults.
One of the most relevant television series in support of the idea that on one hand, a TV show sets trends is "Sex and the City" Carrie Bradshaw sands for the intellectual modern women in the big cities all over the world. It is a reciprocal that operates here in the influencing and trend setting. The fandom is clearly impossible to be left out nowadays when it comes to considering the follow up of a television show and the show leaves an unmistakeable mark on its most devout audience on a bigger scale than ever. hen looking back at the origins of serial edited stories, based on the idea that serialization is the best way to manipulate…… [Read More]
Frances Hodgson Burnett's 1909 "The Secret Garden" is one of the best loved children's stories of all time. As with most children's stories it is based on the fairy tale motif.
No one really knows the exact origin of fairy tales, in fact they seem to have originated in that timeless realm of their subjects (Harischandra Pp). J.R.R. Tolkien describes the realm of fairy tales as "wide and deep and high and filled with many things: all manner of beasts and birds are found there ... beauty that is an enchantment ... there it is dangerous ... To ask too many questions, lest the gate should be shut and the keys be lost" (Tolkien pp). Fairy tales generally have elements of good and evil, often portrayed by evil stepmothers and fairy godmothers, and usually a fair maiden as the protagonist. Burnett modernized the fairy tale motif in "The…… [Read More]
Hero with 1,000 Faces
The classic hero seems to teach us the value of humanity, while helping us strive for excellence by understanding the value of the experiences rendered through intuition, emotions, and often feelings that are special to the hero -- often rather than logical reasoning. The paradigm of heroism transcends genre, chronology and has become so common in the human collective consciousness that it is easily recognized and repeated (Campbell).
One very interesting aspect of the human experience is the manner in which certain themes appear again and again over time, in literature, religion, mythology, and culture -- regardless of the geographic location, the economic status, and the time period. Perhaps it is the innate human need to explain and explore the known and unknown, but to have disparate cultures in time and location find ways of explaining certain principles in such similar manner leads one to believe…… [Read More]
Lord Rings the Two Towers First paragraph: 5-8 sentences. In sentence, include title, author, subject/theme book. In middle paragraph, reader interest - statement, quote, background information.
Lord of The Rings: The Two Towers by J.R. Tolkien
The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers by J.R. Tolkien illustrates the theme that absolute power corrupts people in an absolute fashion. The story unfolds the saga of a great, all-powerful ring that gives its wearer the ability to rule over all of Middle Earth. Various beings strive to gain control over the ring as the tale unfolds, including the former hobbit driven mad by the ring's power named Gollum and the evil wizard Saruman. The good hobbit Frodo nearly dies in his quest to bring the ring to the only place in the world -- Mount Doom -- where it can be destroyed. The book illustrates the important lesson that truth, duty,…… [Read More]
Robert McCollough: Experiences from the past, pedagog for the future.
An onlooker into the courses taught by this professor would be surprised and little confused as to Robert McCollough's style. Robert strives to know each of his students individually, to the point that he can refer to them with nicknames and hash out class discussions in an almost informal manner. Students admire his candor and passion for knowledge, and are drawn to his courses. Somehow it is this magnetism that results in the ultimate success of his students, and with a class average of 4.0 it is no mystery that Robert McCollough is a student and university favorite.
A Lifetime Legacy
Robert McCollough was a first generation American, born into a Scottish family. His father was an air force pilot and part of an elite team known as the Flying Tigers. His father's work resulted in Robert moving to Japan…… [Read More]
And so America continues to search subconsciously for ways back, for snorkels to lower to those buried souls. Consider the resurgence of magical literature in America over the last decade and a half. Never since Tolkien has the fantasy genre -- the Twilight books and the wealth of vampire chronicles accompanying for example -- been so widely successful. J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter novels are a recent manifestation of that search for snorkels. What could be more escapist than to imagine being a wizard estranged and insulated from his magical heritage and forced into the mundane -- muggle -- world? As Shoeless Joe was to Ray Kinsella, as writing was to W.P. Kinsella, so has Harry Potter been to a recent generation of Americans. Harry Potter is a mythological symbol of the type Campbell knows has been lost to the detriment of the people. He is the truth Americans wish they…… [Read More]
With one comment saying, "And now he's going to be replaced by Arwen, Warrior Princess. He's fought a balrog, for Heaven's sake, and he losses out to a girl. Played by Liv Tyler no less." (Mathis, 2006) to address these concerns, the three would use the internet to show that their casting decisions were in line with the ideas of fans. Where, they had Tyler talk directly with fans, with her saying that she was a fan of the novels and how her part in the film; would help bring the true die hard fans visions to life. Reluctantly, the fans agreed to go with Tyler. This is significant, because it shows how the internet marketing strategy was able to build a relationship with the fans. Where, executives used the internet to allow each fan to feel, as if their voices were an important part of the production process. At…… [Read More]
But courage shown by the two is different. Irene's courage comes from her belief and faith in something higher and nobler, Curdie's courage comes from her brave heart. Irene is thus able to see the grandmother while Curdie cannot because he simply doesn't believe in something magical and bigger than what he has experienced so far. Irene on the other hand is able to demonstrate faith in grandmother's thread which is a true test of her belief in something bigger than herself. Irene is frustrated when Curdie cannot see her grandmother but she is told that Curdie was still not spiritually mature enough to believe and seeing doesn't mean believing: "Curdie is not able to believe some things. Seeing is not believing- it is only seeing." (p.227)
The story thus contains important spiritual, moral and even emotional practical messages for children. When Irene is frustrated and feels misunderstood, grandmother calms…… [Read More]
The intent or purpose of this book was originally intended to be a science fiction written to meet a bet, but it ended up being the first book in a trilogy with the theme of describing how pitiful human beings are and how far from our original purpose on the earth - that is to tend it and make it plentiful, and to care for one another. C.S. Lewis was a Christian and this Christian theme permeates all of his novels. The theme of the book is that earth is seen by inhabitants of another planet as being valuable, but the humans are a problem when they think of inhabiting our planet. Oyarsa may be an angel and seems to care for the earth and sends Ransom back with a mission to make the earth better. This theme of bettering the planet Earth is the main one, plus Lewis has…… [Read More]
Looking for fidelity in Nick Hornby's High Fidelity
Nick Hornby's Rob is a creature of hierarchy (note his power rankings which start off his confessional narrative), and being such he is more a man of medieval sensibilities than one might at first realize. Rob, is after all, a (not-so-young-anymore) man in modern day England, whose exploits seem to have little if anything to do with Thomistic scholasticism or feudal arrangements. But there is a connection -- and the connection might just as easily be made between everyman and that bygone age. In a sense, Rob is Hornby's Everyman, a child of the modern world, of revolution, pop music/culture, and innocent (though oftentimes selfish) longing. hat stands Rob apart, and elevates him, is his attachment to fidelity. On the literal sense, of course, fidelity refers to the sound quality of a specific recording (and Rob has many records); but…… [Read More]
Ring of Gyges: A Retelling
Once upon a time, long ago, long before H.G. ells penned his science fiction classic, The Invisible Man, long before Tolkien created his epic saga of the one ring that would rule them all, there lived a shepherd by the name of Gyges. Now, this Gyges was a humble man in the service of a king, a mere shepherd whose only desire was to tend his flock and live peacefully. But one day, while tending his sheep and their lambs, Gyges' world was shaken by a great storm that opened up a huge crack in the earth.
Curious as to what lurked in the bowels of the earth, Gyges descended and found a hollow bronze horse with doors on its side. Inside the tomb of a horse was a naked body with a gold ring. Gyges was not wealthy, so he took the ring and…… [Read More]
Consider the fact that the Iroquois are said not to have had a strong word for the singular "I," and that they subsequently developed what was arguably the longest lasting communal representative democracy the world has ever known. The Inuit, whose culture revolves around the arctic world, have dozens of words for snow - this sort of technical knowledge allows quick and accurate transmission of conditions and training in survival.
In Western terms, one remembers that Jesus Christ was said to be "The Word," yet in the original Greek this indicates not only a spoken word but also the Logos - the root term for intellectual reason, for Meaning within context (be that the context of a sentence, a life, a history, or a universe); logos was rational order. The difference between saying that a religious figure is the Word (which at its most profound seem to indicate a kind…… [Read More]
Nevertheless, the remnants of Anglo-Saxon gods can be still heard in the English days of the wee: Tiw, god of war, gave way to Tuesday, Woden, the god of storms, wisdom, and the dead, became Wednesday, and Frige, love-goddess, took berth of Friday. The language of the Saxons is known as Old English and was, before the Germans, based on the runic alphabet. Written literacy was introduced in full with the Christianity brought from the Mediterranean, and was fostered by the Norman ruling class, which oversaw the agricultural, sylvan lives of the early trading Saxons.
Prehistory should be first mentioned since it not only locates the starting point of the historical development of our continent in the Central European cradle or our people," agreed anthropologists in the early half the last century.
The early cultures that populated the nascent Western World were all unique; proximity, difficulty, and a mastery of…… [Read More]
Leadership, Values, And Beowulf
The epic poem of Beowulf is a narrative a famous warrior who eventually becomes a powerful king. The story involves the exploits of a Scandinavian warrior-prince who comes from the land of the Geats, located in what is now southern Sweden. The poem may be divided into two periods of the Beowulf's life. These two periods exemplify the heroic life in youth and old age.
The poem starts by acquainting the reader with the problems of Hrothgar, King of the Danes, who is being threatened by Grendel, a monster who relentlessly has come to the kingdom night after night for twelve years to carry off and devour the vassals of Herot. Beowulf hears of this situation and resolves to defeat the monster. Eventually, Beowulf defeats Grendel in hand to hand combat tearing off one of the monster's arms. The following night Grendel's mother comes to avenge…… [Read More]
Questions on Readings
There are different kinds of peril that a person can find himself (in this case) in, and Macready and Macon Detornay find themselves embedded in several of them, in large measure because of their own actions, including their own attitudes about the position that they hold in the world in which they spend their lives. Detornay is more clearly culpable for the problems in which he finds himself because these are dangers into which he places himself. Lacking what he perceives to be an authentic life, he casts off the superficial markers of the community in which he has been raised and to which his life has accommodated him, he pretends that he can live a more authentic life by becoming what he sees as an urban black. Not only does this place him at occasional physical risk but on a consistent basis in moral…… [Read More]
Eastern eligion, Eastern Mysticism, And Magic
Influence the Pop Culture in America
Eastern religion" - also alluded to in this paper as "Eastern Mysticism" and "mysticism" - and the occult, along with magic and its many off-shoots have had a considerable influence on American Pop Culture over the past few decades. Movies, books, music - all have been touched and enhanced by mysticism and its cousins. So, when referring to "Eastern religion," this paper is generally alluding to the ancient religions: Buddhism, Hinduism, Confucianism, and other spiritual genres.
It is also important to be clear on what "occult" truly means; it is a word that comes from the Latin occultus, meaning, literally, "hidden" or "concealed" (Merriam-Webster defines occult as "to shut off from view or exposure"). "Occult" has been equated with Satan, witchcraft, vampires, and other unseemly topics related to death and blood-letting. For this paper's purpose, the occult will…… [Read More]
The king died then the queen died. After the death of the king, the queen died from grief.
The first sentence refers to the story while the second sentence is the plot. A plot basically refers to a story being told by a third party. It may be inaccurate and biased, but certainly more interesting. Most of the works of fiction are based on the actual events or the same basic stories (Krane, 2007).
The Objective of the Research
This research aims at describing aesthetic aspects found in the Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the rings by J.R.R. To help him fulfil the information required, the researcher employs numerous tactics, including spending time in the library reading bibliographies. The collected data is then analysed using phenomenological approaches to help discover the aesthetic aspects of the novel.
One of the ancient rings believed to have been…… [Read More]
This is why exercise is needed. I believe that practice is fundamental for the solidification of a virtuous character. I still fail to see how people could still be considered possessors of virtue if they do not apply it (the intentionality factor is a key one here).
esides being a manifestation of the good, virtue is also a principle of temperance and moderation. Therefore a person who is courageous for example, demonstrates that he is half way between a reckless behavior and one which could suggest indifference or cowardice. Virtue can be opposed not only to non-virtue, but also to passions. Perhaps it would be more wisely said that it is the passions which are more likely to lead you in the direction on injustice and unjust acts. Moderation prevents the passion from getting the best out of the individual and it is a stimulus in the direction of virtue.…… [Read More]
This is indeed an absolutely profound concept in that it can't help but support the idea of the autonomous individual, existing in connection to thought. The truth of these emotions, be them good or bad, speak to the authenticity of the self. There's a notion of realness -- of the self that is a facet of the genuine, as emotions and desires are founded upon the genuine. This notion of genuineness and authenticity implies that there's a core aspect of the human experience which is not manufactured or artificial -- it just is, as thoughts and emotion occur organically with truth attached to them. This demonstrates that the internal processes of the self are based in the real, the actual and the genuine, offering more support to the idea, "I think therefore I am."
However, this is not to imply that there is a perfection in the human being's processes.…… [Read More]
Justice Given by the Character Thrasymachus in Plato's Republic Is Incorrect
The objective of this study is to prove that the theory of justice given by the character Thrasymachus in Plato's Republic, using only Plato's arguments in ooks 1 and 2 is incorrect.
The theory of justice given by Thasymachus in Plato's Republic holds that justice "is another's good and the interest of the stronger, and that injustice is a man's own profit and interest, though injurious to the weaker." (Jowett, 2012) ook 2 relates that justice is "sometimes spoken of as the virtue of an individual and sometimes as the virtue of a State." (Jowett, 2012) Justice is related in ook 2 of Plato's work to be formulated in the mind of the individual through experiences and information gained in the society and educational institutions in the individual's life. Thrasymachus claims that justice is the advantage of the stronger…… [Read More]