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Yet, if the strep throat lab test is negative, the CBC may be needed to help conclude the cause of tonsillitis (Tonsillitis, 2012).
Treatment for tonsillitis depends in part on the cause. If tests reveal bacteria as the cause, treatment will entail the use of antibiotics in order to cure the infection. Antibiotics may be given as a single shot or taken by mouth for ten days. Even though symptoms will likely get better within two or three days after starting the antibiotic, it's vital to take all of the medication the doctor prescribes in order to make sure the bacteria are gone. Some people need to take a second course of antibiotics to get rid of the infection (Tonsillitis: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments, 2012).
In many cases ttonsillitis will end up scaring the tonsils, which lowers the potential of their function. If tonsils are not removed completely they have…
Tonsillitis. 2012. Web. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/tonsillitis/DS00273
Tonsillitis: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments. 2012. Web. Available at:
Discuss Throat Condition
A discussion of throat conditions: Tonsillitis and Quinsy
Tonsillitis and Tonsillectomy: Overview
The tonsils are described as being "…part of a ring of lymphoid tissue (Waldeyer's ring) that encircles the entrance to the food and air passages in the throat." (Jacoby and Youngson, 2005, p. 2235) The tonsils grow rapidly but regress to a great degree after puberty. They function as part of the human immune system. As such they are an integral part of the body's defense system against disease. "They are ideally situated to monitor ingested material and to react to those materials that could pose a threat to the well-being of the body." (Jacoby & Youngson, 2005, p. 2236) The tonsils also produce antibodies that combat local infection.
Tonsillitis is a fairly common infection of the throat which sometimes results from a dangerous bacterium, streptococcus which infects the tonsil. (Jacoby & Youngson,…
Asen, E Tomson, D Young, V & Tomson, P 2003, Ten Minutes for the Family: Systemic Interventions in Primary Care, Routledge, New York.
Bradley, E 1994, A Patient's Guide to Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Press. Philadelphia:
Harold C ( Ed.) 2005, Professional Guide to Diseases, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, N.Y.
Hecht, A 1985, Whatever the Cause, a Sore Throat Is Hard to Swallow. FDA Consumer," volume 19, pp.18+.
IMPACT AND ASSESSMENT
Psychosocial Impacts of the Surgery
The most immediate is the novelty of the experience itself. Amy has not had prior surgeries or hospital stay and has not been away from home. It has created apprehension in her and her parents who both work and must also take care of a younger son. Despite the demand for their presence, neither parent can stay with her overnight for the double surgery. At the same time, Amy misses school and fun with her classmates and friends. Her parents must endure and ask her also to endure the temporary separation it is costing them all. They cannot afford to lose income by omitting work. The impact on Amy includes a foreseen loss of control over the consequences of her surgery. The tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy proceeded and ended without significant problems. ut afterwards, she became distressed, disoriented, complained of a sore…
Dhiwakar, M. (2012). Antibiotics to reduce pain and improve recovery following tonsillectomy. Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews: The Cochrane Collaboration.
Retrieved on March 13, 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0013585
Goldstein, N.A. et al. (2000). Impact of tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy on child behavior. Vol 124 Archive of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery: American
Medical Association. Retrieved on March 14, 2013 from http://archotol.jamanetwork.com
Pathophysiology- Adaptive Response
The body has a natural adaptive response that allows it to cope with both internal and external environments. Adaptive responses in the medical and healthcare field are commonly referred to as signs and symptoms and they play a crucial role in that they help health practitioners to discern the underlying conditions, thus diagnose the disorder to be treated/managed (Huether, McCance & Parkinson, 2013). This paper is a discussion of pathophysiology based on three given case ill-health manifestations. The provided signs and symptoms will be used to determine the possible health disorder then discourse the pathogenesis in explaining the visible manifestations. The paper also presents a tonsillitis mind map that includes epidemiology, pathophysiology, associated risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and adaptive responses. It has been determined that the health condition for case one is tonsillitis, for case two it is contact dermatitis, and case three it is stress…
Ehlers, A., & Clark, D. M. (2000). A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour research and therapy, 38(4), 319-345.
Huether, S. E., McCance, K. L., & Parkinson, C. F. (2013). Study Guide for Understanding Pathophysiology-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Mammer, G. & McPhee, S.J. (2014). Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine Flash Cards. McGraw-Hill Professional.
Ueno, H., Banchereau, J., & Vinuesa, C. G. (2015). Pathophysiology of T follicular helper cells in humans and mice. Nature immunology, 16(2), 142.
espiratory tract infections are highly infectious diseases that involve the respiratory tract. They are divided into upper (UTI or UI) and lower respiratory tract infections (LTI or LI). LIs include pneumonia, bronchitis and influenza, and they tend to affect patients more seriously that UIs which include the common cold, tonsillitis, sinusitis and laryngitis. This research dwells on four respiratory infections which are bronchitis, bronchial asthma, exercise-induced bronchospasm and influenza and looks at their risk factors, etiology, pathology, differential diagnosis and treatment. Most of these respiratory infections present with similar symptoms and thus can be easily mistaken. This is why it is important to conduct research on the evidence that is present regarding each of these respiratory conditions.
Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi which are the main passages of air to the lungs. It may present as an acute or a chronic inflammation and…
Brownlee, G.G., & Fodor, E. (2001). The Predicted Antigenicity of the Haemagglutinin of the 1918 Spanish Influenza Pandemic Suggests an Avian Origin. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 356(1416), 1871-1876.
Cerveri, I., Bruschi, C., Ricciardi, M., Zocchi, L., Zoia, M.C., & Rampulla, C. (1987). Epidemiological Diagnosis of Asthma: Methodological Considerations of Prevalence Evaluation. European Journal of Epidemiology, 3(2), 202-205.
Chen, E., Schreier, H.M.C., Strunk, R.C., & Brauer, M. (2008). Chronic Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Stress Interact to Predict Biologic and Clinical Outcomes in Asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives, 116(7), 970-975.
Clark, N.M., Brown, R.W., Parker, E., Robins, T.G., Remick, D.G., Jr., Philbert, M.A., . . . Israel, B.A. (1999). Childhood Asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives, 107(ArticleType: research-article / Issue Title: Supplement 3 / Full publication date: Jun., 1999 / Copyright © 1999 The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)), 421-429.
Individual Impacts Genetic Diagnosis
Individual Impacts of Genetic Diagnosis
The number of inherited disorders and risk factors that can be detected through genetic testing is increasing rapidly, and genetic testing may soon become a common component of routine medical care. Is behavioural medicine ready? For the first time, a sophisticated understanding of gene-environment interactions as manifested in the interactions among an individual's genetic predispositions, behaviour, and environment seems within reach. Rather than diminishing the role of behavioural science, advances in molecular medicine highlight the centrality of behaviour both in disease etiology and in the translation of science into practice.
This paper is systematic review of the literature on the individual impacts of genetic diagnosis in behavioural and psychological terms. It draws from papers on these topics and cites their studies extensively. The upshot is that carrier and predictive testing may have effects on anxiety and depression, but that there is…
Charlie Davison, C., Macintyre, S. & Smith, G.D. (1994) The potential social impact of predictive genetic testing for susceptibility to common chronic diseases: a review and proposed research agenda. Sociology of Health & Illness 16.
Lerman, C., Tercyak, K.P., Croyle, R.T., & Hamann, H. (2002) Genetic Testing: Psychological Aspects and Implications. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 70: 784 -- 797.
Petersen, A. (2006) The best experts: The narratives of those who have a genetic condition. Journal of Genetic Counseling Vol. 14, No. 5.
Penicillins are antibiotics derived from the Penicillium mold. They are classified as beta-lactam antibiotics because of their fused beta-lactam structure. They also have a free carboxyl acid group, and one or more substituted amino acid side chains (Ophardt, 2003). Their primary mode of action is to inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis by preventing the cross linking of peptides on the mucosaccharide chains, thereby causing the bacterial cells to inundate with water and burst (Ophardt, 2003). Penicillin is not a singular compound, hence the term "penicillins," referring to compounds that share a ring-like structure, and which are derived from two amino acids (valine and cysteine) via a tripeptide intermediate," (The Microbial World, n.d.).
Some penicillins are relatively limited in their scope, are used to treat mild or moderate infections. The development of resistance in target microorganisms, coupled with the tendency for some patients to be allergic to penicillins, also renders…
Actavis (n.d.). Doxycycline capsules. http://www.medicines.org.uk/EMC/medicine/23949/SPC/Doxycycline+Capsules+BP+50mg/
Abou-Zeid AA, Eissa AI, Salem HM. (1978). Mode of action of gentamicin antibiotics produced by Micromonospora purpurea. Zentralbl Bakteriol Naturwiss. 1978;133(4):362-8.
"Azithromycin," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00207
"Cipro," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.rxlist.com/cipro-drug/clinical-pharmacology.htm
fever and palpable cervical nodes indicates an infection. Jennifer appears to have bacterial tonsillitis. However, in order to confirm, a throat culture must be taken. Although mononucleosis is uncommon in toddlers, it is a possible diagnosis and typically comes from contact in daycares (Yokoyama et al., 2013). To confirm the mononucleosis diagnosis, serology is needed. While the clinical manifestation points to possible mononucleosis diagnosis, younger children do not have as pronounced symptoms.
Bacterial or viral infections as well as other immunologic factors lead to development of tonsillitis. The majority of acute tonsillitis may be caused by viruses such as Herpes simplex virus (Babakurban, Erbek, Terzi, Arslan, & Sahin, 2014). Although because the symptoms are so pronounced, it could be caused by mononucleosis. This making the origins bacterial.
A possible treatment option is Augmentin. It is a broad spectrum penicillin antibiotic that has a combination of clauvulanate potassium and amoxicillin. However,…
Babakurban, S., Erbek, S., Terzi, Y., Arslan, F., & Sahin, F. (2014). Fractalkine receptor polymorphism and chronic tonsillitis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 271(7), 2045-2048. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-014-2908-7
HASLER, G. (2010). PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF DEPRESSION: DO WE HAVE ANY SOLID EVIDENCEOF INTEREST TO CLINICIANS?. World Psychiatry, 9(3), 155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28ISSN%292051-5545
Schindler, M., Drozdenko, G., Kuhl, A., & Worm, M. (2014). Immunomodulation in Patients with Chronic Hand Eczema Treated with Oral Alitretinoin. Int Arch Allergy Immunol, 165(1), 18-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000365659
Soost, S., Abdollahnia, M., Kostev, K., & Worm, M. (2012). Topical therapy of hand eczema - analysis of the prescription profile from dermatologists in private practice. JDDG: Journal Der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, 10(3), 180-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1610-0387.2011.07787.x
Review of History and Physical Findings
The client is a 56-year-old Caucasian female who presents with complaints of fatigue that reportedly began 2 to 3 months prior to her visit. She reports that the fatigue is generalized and constant in duration, and has been progressively worsening since onset. The client reports feeling tired all the time and lacking the energy to do anything‘she could normally do’despite sleeping eight hours per night. No relieving factors were identified, although the client reports exertion as a possible aggravating factor. The client is married, has two grown kids, and works as a full-time office manager in an internal medicine office. She reports missing a day of work two weeks ago because she ‘couldn’t get out of bed’. She denies pain, fever, chills, or recent illnesses, but has gained 5 pounds since the last visit 6 months ago.
The client denies visual changes, ear pain,…
FDA (2017). LEVO-T: Highlights of Prescribing Information. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved from https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/021342s023lbl.pdf
Lassale, C., Curtis, A., Abete, I., Van der Schouw, Y., Verschuren, M., Lu, Y., & Mesquita, B. (2018). Elements of the Complete Blood Count Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Incidence: Findings from the EPIC-NL Cohort Study. Scientific Reports, 8(1), doi: org/10.1038/s41598-018-21661-x
Samuels, M. H., Kolobova, I., Antosik, M., Niederhausen, M., Purnell, J., & Schuff, K. (2017). Thyroid Function Variation in the Normal Range, Energy Expenditure, and Body Composition in L-T4 Treated Subjects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 102(7), 2533-42.
Soh, S., & Aw, T. (2019). Laboratory Testing in Thyroid Conditions – Pitfalls and Clinical Utility. Annals of Laboratory Medicine, 39(1), 3-14.
Dunphy, L.M., Winland-Brown, J. E., Porter, B. O., & Thomas, D. J. (2019). Primary Care: The Art of Science of Advanced Practice Nursing (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A Davis Company