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Traumatic Stress Disorder Essays (Examples)

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Stress Disorders the Stress Is'so Great
Words: 909 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68682473
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Stress disorders, the stress is so great that it is debilitating and dominates the person and interferes with living one's life. Stress can be good or bad. A skiing champion described how stress helped him perform his best, but a Viet Nam War veteran describes how horrific things he had seen haunted him and intruded into his mind, while awake and while asleep.

Our bodies show clear responses to stress. We perspire, breath quicker, heartbeat rises, and muscles tense for action. WE may also turn pale, or get "goose bumps," or feel sick to the stomach. Stress can trigger anxiety problems. In stressful situations, the brain triggers a variety of body-function changes. The sympathetic nervous system rallies body functions for fight 0r flight; the parasympathetic nervous system restores us to normal functioning.

One of the most devastating of the stress disorders is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It makes sense to…

Treatments for PTSD Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress
Words: 1633 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 21309840
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Treatments for PTSD

Treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients has varied from one context to the other depending on the nature of the disorder. However, over the years, an increased number of research studies have been conducted to establish the best treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder patients. A number of findings have been made public as further research takes place. This study will critically evaluate three articles whilst comparing group treatment and CBT in the tackling of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This evaluation is valuable considering the increased number of victims of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the society today.

Sloan, Bovin, and Schnurr (2012) support the idea of using group treatment for PTSD as the best option given to patients. In the article, they advance the value of treating patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder as a group. The article gives an overview picture of the benefits accompanied…

References

Gilman, R., Schumm, J.A., & Chard, K.M. (2012). Hope as a Change Mechanism in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Psychological Trauma, vol. 4(3):

270-277

Mulick, P.S., Landes, S.J., & Kanter, J.W. (2012). Contextual Behavior Therapies in the Treatment of PTSD: A Review. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation & Therapy, vol. 7(1): 23-31

Sloan, D.M., Bovin, M.J. & Schnurr, P.P. (2012). Review of group treatment for PTSD.

Post-Traumatic Stress in Children
Words: 2753 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 19041717
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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Children

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is most commonly associated with war veterans. esearchers have, however, increasingly recognized this condition in women, children, and men from all backgrounds and for a variety of reasons. According to oberts et al. (2011), the condition results from the experience of an event that is traumatic, and that makes the individual feel helpless, horrified, or afraid. A common factor among sufferers of PTSD is persistence. The individual persistently avoids stimuli he or she associates with the event, for example. There is also a tendency to re-experience the event persistently. There are also several health consequences associated with the condition. These include a tendency towards suicide, substance abuse, impaired functioning and general health problems (oberts et al., 2011). When it occurs in children, post-traumatic stress disorder can have significant long-term consequences on their development. Several studies have investigated the demographic nature of…

References

Berkowitz, S.J., Stover, C.S., and Marans, S.R. (2011, Jun.). The Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention: Secondary Prevention for Youth at Risk of Developing PTSD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines. 52(6). Database: NBCI. Retrieved from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096712/ 

Fazel, M., Reed, R.V., Panter-Brick, C., and Stein, A. (2011, Aug. 10). Mental health of displaced and refugee children resettled in high-income countries: risk and protective factors. The Lancet. 379. Retrieved from: http://211.144.68.84:9998/91keshi/Public/File/36/379-9812/pdf/1-s2.0-S0140673611600512-main.pdf

Miller, G.E., Chen, E., and Parker, K.J. (2011, Nov.). Psychological Stress in Childhood and Susceptibility to the Chronic Diseases of Aging: Moving towards a model of behavioral and biological mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin. 137(6). Retrieved from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3202072/ 

Odenbach, J., Newton, A., Gokiert, R., Falconer, C., Courchesne, C., Campbell, S., and Curtis, S. (2014). Screening for post-traumatic stress disorder after injury in the pediatric emergency department -- a systematic review protocol. Systematic Reviews. 3(19). Database: BioMed Central. Retrieved from:  http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/2046-4053-3-19.pdf

Treating Child Abuse Related Posttraumatic Stress

Comorbid Substance Abuse in Adolescents

Judith a Cohen et.al

Strong empirical evidence based on previous research shows a clear association between child abuse and subsequent development of PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) and SUD (Substance Use Disorder). This article by Cohen et.al is a research review of several independent studies that show correlation between PTSD and SUD. The authors also discuss specific treatment modalities that are effective in treating child abuse related PTSD and SUD.

The Co-occurrence of child abuse and development of PTSD and SUD as co-morbid conditions implies the necessity of specific treatment methods that take into account the previous history of abuse.

Method

The authors performed a literature review of current treatment practices for adolescents with abuse related PTSD and SUD and synthesized the results. Empirical treatment methods for abuse related PSTD and SUD are discussed. Over a broad spectrum of…

Bibliography

Judith A Cohen, Anthony P. Mannarino, Aren C. Zhitova, Margery E. Capone, " Treating

Child Abuse Related Posttraumatic Stress and Comorbid Substance Abuse in Adolescents," Child Abuse & Neglect, 27 (2003) 1345-1365

Substance Abuse on Posttraumatic Stress
Words: 1466 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41842501
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The National Institute on Drug Abuse cautions that while no standardized, effective treatment has been identified for PTSD sufferers, researchers have determined that cognitive behavioral therapy, group therapy, or exposure therapy has shown some promise, with the latter technique being viewed as one of the more efficacious approaches available. In this regard, the National Institute on Drug Abuse reports that, "Exposure therapy is thought to be one of the most effective ways to manage PTSD. Recent studies suggest that some individuals with PTSD and comorbid cocaine addiction can be successfully treated with exposure therapy. Individuals in a recent study who suffered from both disorders showed significant reductions in all PTSD symptoms and in overall cocaine use" (quoted in the link between PTSD and substance abuse at p. 3). The use of cognitive behavioral therapies to treat substance-abusing PTSD patients is also reported by Tull (2008) who notes, "Alcohol and drug…

Janikowski, T.P., Donnelly, J.P. & Lawrence, J.C. (2007). The functional limitations of clients with coexisting disabilities. The Journal of Rehabilitation, 73(4), 15-16.

Mckelvey, T. (2008, July-August). Combat fatigue: As returning veterans suffer post-traumatic stress disorder in record numbers, a controversial new drug is being tested that would dampen their memories. The American Prospect, 19(7), 5-6.

Volpicelli, J., Balaraman, G., Hahn, J., Wallace, H. & Bux, D. (1999). The role of uncontrollable trauma in the development of PTSD and alcohol addiction. Alcohol Research & Health, 23(4), 256.

Stress Debriefing it Is Evident That Individuals
Words: 501 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75712252
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Stress Debriefing

It is evident that, individuals who are exposed to life-threatening events are at high risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as a result, critical incident stress debriefing does not necessarily reduce incidence of PTSD (Lewis, 2002). Due to societal costs of chronic PSTD, the mental health care professional manages to develop an early method for interventions (egel, 2010). Psychological stress debriefing was mainly designed to prevent and mitigate emotional distress among individuals (egel, 2010). In summary, the paper will discuss on how critical incident stress debriefing does not reduce the incidenceof post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as, discussing whether preventing an officer from developing PTSD should be the measure of success for a critical incident stress debriefing.

According to egel (2010), Psychological briefing refers to a brief crisis intervention, which is administered to a person during the days of traumatic event. Psychological stress debriefing is significant because…

Reference

Lewis, G. (2002). Post-crisis stress debriefings. Behavioral Health Management, 22, 4.

Regel, S. (2010). Psychological debriefing -- does it work? Health Care Counseling & Psychotherapy Journal, 10(2), 14-18.

Outsourcing Compassion: Debriefing Trauma Patients. (2013). Outsourcing Compassion: Debriefing Trauma Patients. Retrieved December 13, 2013, from  http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4842962

Stress the Definition of Stress
Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84822401
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The third type of response is the prolonged response also referred to as chronic stress which is a response to a trigger that is unrelenting or repetitive that can be caused by work related situation, the domestic stress, unsolved financial stress and such prolonged triggers.

Stress, if not checked can be harmful to the individual but also the immediate family or those living around the victim. Hence, there is absolute need to tackle stress as soon as it shows signs as discussed above. These responses may include though not restricted to; a) Talking about it, this should be encouraged. The victim should talk about it with the family members, friends, colleagues, counselor etc. b). Taking a break, which may include going to a place one rarely goes to or doing some activities they rarely do but enjoy, it may also involve indulging in picnics or long travel holidays, engaging in…

References

Stressfocus, (2009). Discover the Basics of Stress. Retrieved June 9, 2010 from  http://www.stressfocus.com/stress_focus_article/stress-and-its-causes.htm 

Thebreastcancersite, (2010). Ten ways to tackle stress. Retrieved June 9, 2010 from  http://www.thebreastcaresite.com/tbcs/Renewal/EmotionalRecovery/TenWaystoTackleStress.htm 

Gill T.S., (2009). Top 7 Tips to cure stress and anxiety revealed. Article snatch. Retrieved June

9, 2010 from http://www.articlesnatch.com/Article/Top-7-Tips-to-Cure-Stress-and-Anxiety-Revealed-/1163642

Traumatic Brain Injuries
Words: 1419 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90509481
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patients diagnosed with TBI cope better with counseling and outreach programs when dealing with new or abnormal behaviors?

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in social and emotional defects (such as delayed word recall) that result in frustrating and embarrassing moments for the victim. Of all counseling and intervention programs, rehabilitation therapy (CT) is the one that is commonly used and, therefore, this literature review will conduct a meta-analytic search (focusing on quantitative studies within the last five years) in order to assess the efficacy of CT in helping TBI individuals with their social and emotional skills and perceptions.

The essay identified and reviewed seven randomized trials of language, emotional and social communication cognitive rehabilitation. Inclusion terms were that participants had to possess sufficient cognitive capacity to be included in a group and impairment in emotional and social skills was evidenced either by a questionnaire or by the clinician's reference.…

Reference

Bell, K et al. (2011) Scheduled Telephone Intervention for Traumatic Brain Injury: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92, 1552 -- 1560

Bornhofen, C., and S. McDonald. 2008a. Treating deficits in emotion perception following traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 18(1): 22-44.

-- -- . 2008b. Comparing strategies for treating emotion perception deficits in traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 23(2): 103-115.

Chard, K et al. (2011) Exploring the efficacy of a residential treatment program incorporating cognitive processing therapy-cognitive for veterans with PTSD and traumatic brain injury, Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24, 347 -- 351,

Stress on Human Memory and Cognitive Capabilities
Words: 880 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 52861867
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Stress on Human Memory and Cognitive Capabilities

Types of Stresses on Short-Term Memory

Symptoms of Short-Term Memory

Stress weakens a human's ability to be able to pass proper chemicals through the blood-brain barrier. The blood-brain barrier is an assemblage of blood vessels that defends the brain from toxins that circulate through one's body (Franklin Institute, 2004).

Evidence of stress on the short-term memory includes difficulty to learn new things, dizziness, headaches, and nausea (Franklin Institute, 2004).

Effects of Stress on Short-Term Memory

When stress takes place in the human body, hormones are released that divert blood glucose from the brain's hippocampus (Franklin Institute, 2004).

The lack of energy that is provided by the lost glucose creates the hippocampus to become concerned about the lack of energy. This fright causes an inability to create accurate new memories (Franklin Institute, 2004).

This can be a result o a onetime traumatic event in…

References

Bower, B. (2005). Early stress in rats bites memory later on. Science News, 186(17), Retrieved

from  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=11&did=918673191&SrchMode=1&sid=4&Fmt  =3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1294957038&clientI d=77774

Franklin Institute. (2004). The human brain-stress. Retrieved January 13,2011 from  http://www.fi.edu/learn/brain/stress.html 

HelpGuide.org. (2010). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Symptoms, treatment, and self- help. Retrieved January 13, 2011 from  http://helpguide.org/mental/post_traumatic_stress_disorder_symptoms_treatment.htm

TBI and PTSD
Words: 2919 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 87152391
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Anthropologist working with the VA

Definitions / Interests / Key Problems and Issues

Previous Work Performed by Anthropologists in this Area

The Employment Situation, Current Salaries and Opportunities for Advancement

ibliography of the most important books, chapters and articles

Relevant professional organizations, ethics statements and newsletters

Names / locations of PAs and others working in the content area locally and elsewhere.

Relevant Laws and Regulations

Relevant international / domestic organizations, private and public

Other helpful information you think about on your own

The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan had a dramatic impact on the way someone sees themselves and the world around them. This is because many veterans have been forced to serve multiple tours and are still dealing with the lasting experiences from them. Two of primary injuries most are suffering from are post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TI). Anthropologists are seeking to understand the…

Bibliography of the most important books, chapters and articles.

2014. Summary. BLS. Electronic document,  http://www.bls.gov/ooh/life-physical-and-social-science/anthropologists-and-archeologists.htm . accessed April 3, 2012

Driscoll Patricia

2010. Hidden Battles on Unseen Fronts. Drexel Hill: Casemate.

Elliot Marta

Stress Caused by September 11th on the Children of America
Words: 1339 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4219763
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Post- Traumatic Stress as a Psychological Effect of the 9/11 ombings to Americans

On September 11, 2001, America and the whole world witnessed the most recent terrorist attack of a free, democratic country, wherein the World Trade Center Towers in New York City collapsed after two planes had crashed towards the two towers. The said incident was a terrorist attack by Osama bin Laden and his terrorist group Al Qaeda in Afghanistan, and the said terrorist attack resulted to thousands of deaths, which are mostly composed of people inside the building and within its perimeters. In addition to the numerous deaths and physical injuries that the attack had caused, great damage also resulted with the destruction of the World Trade Center Towers. Indeed, the terrorist attack in America had resulted to considerable material and human damage, and these dangerous results as caused by the attack had prompted that U.S. government…

Bibliography

Cowley, Geoffrey. "After the Trauma." 1 October 2001. Newsweek Magazine. p. 52-52B.

Gibbs, Nancy. "The Argument for Arguing." 15 October 2001. TIME Magazine. p. 72.

Willens, Kathy. "Warning Signs and Ways to Help." 1 October 2001. Newsweek Magazine. p. 52B.

Stress Management for Educators
Words: 3069 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72536131
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Assigned Reading II (20%)
1. (20%)
Briefly explain the following concepts with an example each:
i. Fight-or-flight response
Fight-or-flight response refers to the dynamics that encompass the physiological arousal of the body to survive a threat. In preparation for a threat, there are two immediate actions that one can take: either attack or fight for defense from the threat or opt to run and flee away from the threat. For example, when a person encounters a barking dog while running, the fight-or-flight response runs away or faces the dog (Seaward, 2015).
ii. Holistic medicine
Holistic medicine alludes to an approach of healing that honors the assimilation, counterbalance, and synchronization of mind, body, spirit, and emotions for encouraging internal peace. It is an attitudinal method to healthcare instead of a certain set of techniques (Gordon, 1982). Examples of holistic medicine comprise homeopathy, acupuncture, and also massage therapy.
iii. Stress reaction
The…

References
Awasthi, P. (2018). Stressful Experiences, Workplace Stress, and Type 2 Diabetes: Management of Diabetes. PURUSHARTHA-A journal of Management, Ethics, and Spirituality, 10(2), 82-89.
Carducci, B. J. (2009). The psychology of personality: Viewpoints, research, and applications. John Wiley & Sons.
Folkman, S. (2010). 22 Stress, Health, and Coping: Synthesis, Commentary, and Future Directions. The Oxford handbook of stress, health, and coping 453.
Gordon, J. S. (1982). Holistic medicine: advances and shortcomings. Western Journal of Medicine, 136(6), 546.
Harris, M. L., Oldmeadow, C., Hure, A., Luu, J., Loxton, D., & Attia, J. (2017). Stress increases the risk of type 2 diabetes onset in women: A 12-year longitudinal study using causal modeling. PloS one, 12(2), e0172126.
Hiriyappa, B. (2013). Stress Management: Leading To Success. Booktango.
Jordan, M., & Hinds, J. (2016). Ecotherapy: Theory, research, and practice. Macmillan International Higher Education.
Kurlansik, S. L., & Ibay, A. D. (2012). Seasonal affective disorder. American Family Physician, 86(11), 1037-1041.

PTSD and Substance Abuse on
Words: 1611 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99518156
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Professionals should treat African-American females with PTSD with utmost support and therapy that is beneficial to the victim. Further, the issue of substance abuse must be addressed in a manner that is acceptable to the victim.

Treatment of problems associated with substance abuse and PTSD must be designed in a consistent way that provides a solution to both substance abuse and PTSD altogether. Although the professionals are required to focus more on treating PTSD, they must incorporate treatment of alcohol and substance abuse.

Prevention for relapses is of utter importance because they prepare the victim to enter state of soberness and cope with symptoms of PTSD. These symptoms have been reported to become worse as African-American females attempt to abstain from substance abuse.

For many African-American females with PTSD and substance abuse disorder, it is recommended that they consult the membership directories. This is an international society for PTSD that…

References

Adams, R. & Boscarino, J. (2005). Differences in mental health outcomes among Whites and African-Americans. Washington, DC: Human Kinetics.

Adams, R. & Boscarino, J. (2006). Predictors of PTSD and delayed PTSD after disaster.

Virginia: Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Alcantara, C. & Gone J. (2007). Reviewing suicide in Native American communities. California:

Studies on PTSD
Words: 2580 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60167551
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PTSD

Developing and Supporting a esearch Question on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Various occupations expose practitioners to traumatized communities or victimized individuals. The exposure increases the risk of these groups to significant levels of stress that affect their health and health outcomes negatively. Empirical evidence shows that people such as clinicians working with those in pain, fear, and suffering have a high risk of developing cognitive, emotional, and physical consequences. Whether exposure to a traumatic event is a disaster or occupational hazards, the consequences of such exposure might present with symptoms of sleeplessness, nightmares, hopelessness, and other forms of stress traumatic disorders (Engel, Schutt, & Engel, 2010). However, exposure to extreme levels of such stress predisposes the individuals to post-traumatic stress the presents over time, unless a corrective action is taken. Therefore, it is at this level that the role of the social worker becomes apparent. The social workers provide services…

References

Corby, B. (2006). Applying research in social work practice. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Engel, R.J., Schutt, R.K., & Engel, R.J. (2010). Fundamentals of social work research. Los n Angeles: SAGE.

Engel, R.J., & Schutt, R.K. (2011). The practice of research in social work. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Epstein, I. (2010). Clinical data-mining: Integrating practice and research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

PTSD Treatment Effective PTSD Treatment
Words: 979 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Application Essay Paper #: 26672199
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The other principal difference between the sources reviewed is that the first included narratives authored by different clinicians and experts and incorporated their anecdotal professional experiences as well as their description of the manner in which their treatment approaches relies on empirical research in each of their different areas of clinical expertise. As a result, that work is an appropriate reference for the available treatment options for PTSD and for the optimal combination of different approaches in specific types of cases.

By contrast, the second source consists only of a literature review of previous research without any narrative contribution from experts apart from the conclusions in each of the studies reviewed. More importantly, this source does not address or consider any non-pharmacological PTSD interventions, much less any combinations of multiple modalities concurrently. In fact, the authors expressly reference the apparent absence in the available literature of any studies specifically investigating…

References

Davis L.L., Frazier E.C., Williford R .B., and Newell J.M. "Long-Term

Pharmacotherapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder." CNS Drugs, Vol. 20, No.

6 (2006): 465-476.

Foa E., Keane T.M., Friedman M.J., and Cohen J.A. (2008). Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress

CBT for PTSD Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
Words: 1516 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64914303
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Conclusion

Overall, the research suggests that CBT is an effective treatment for PTSD, though there definitely certain caveats that need to be raised. CBT is not entirely effective and is not necessarily more effective than certain other treatments, specifically EMD, while there is also a need for greater knowledge and understanding when it comes to PTSD and its treatment in general. As this more detailed and refined understanding is achieved, the research analyzed above and other related research will become more meaningful and more effectively situated.

eferences

Cohen, J., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, a. & Steer, . (2004). A Multi-Site, andomized Controlled Trial for Children With Abuse-elated PTSD Symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 43(4): 393-402.

Hinton, D., Pham, T., Tran, M., Safren, S., Otto, M. & Pollack, M. (2004). CBT for Vietnamese refugees with treatment-resistant PTSD and panic attacks: A pilot study. Journal of Traumatic…

References

Cohen, J., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, a. & Steer, R. (2004). A Multi-Site, Randomized Controlled Trial for Children With Abuse-Related PTSD Symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 43(4): 393-402.

Hinton, D., Pham, T., Tran, M., Safren, S., Otto, M. & Pollack, M. (2004). CBT for Vietnamese refugees with treatment-resistant PTSD and panic attacks: A pilot study. Journal of Traumatic Stress 17(5): 429-33.

Seidler, G. & Wagner, F. (2006). Comparing the efficacy of EMDR and trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of PTSD: a meta-analytic study. Psychological Medicine 36(11): 1515-22.

Zayfert, C. & DeViva, J. (2004). Residual insomnia following cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress 17(1): 69-73.

PTSD and Returning Veterans
Words: 2313 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Paper #: 34892204
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Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces has declared that the country should put in more effort to treat the occurrences of Post-traumatic stress disorder and suicides among soldiers. In just a span of one week, there were four Canadian military suicides (Fekete, 2013). These soldiers went on to commit suicide after returning from war. It is known that hundreds and thousands of men and women have lost their lives in numerous battles till date. Suffering even after war is over and not being able to take over one's nerves is just horrible. Countries like Canada and U.S. are quite concerned over the increasing rates of PTSD amongst veterans. This event shows that PTSD amongst veterans is a serious problem and is becoming quite common.

What is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder?

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a condition that develops after a person experiences one or more traumatic events. PTSD is…

References:

Douglas, J. (1993). Childhood physical abuse and combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam veterans. Am J. Psychiatry, 150 235 -- 239.

Fekete, J. (2013). Military's 'stiff upper lip' attitude over PTSD needs to stop, Governor-General David Johnston says. [online] Retrieved from:  http://news.nationalpost.com/2013/12/12/militarys-stiff-upper-lip-attitude-over-ptsd-needs-to-stop-governor-general-david-johnston-says  / [Accessed: 16 Dec 2013].

Kardiner, A. (1941). The traumatic neuroses of war.. Psychosomat Med Mono, 11 (111).

Effects of PTSD on the US Military
Words: 1573 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 16589724
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PTSD on the U.S. Military

In order to fully understand the issues with PTSD and the military, one must consider the idea that military service can have a serious impact on soldiers, even when they do not see combat. In the past, the argument has been that PTSD was a combat-related illness, and that only soldiers who were actively engaged in combat in the recent past struggled with the issues related to PTSD. Now, many studies have shown that most soldiers live with the thought of never knowing when their turn to die is next, and that constant agitation and anxiety can cause these soldiers to experience PTSD (Delahanty, 2011; Ehlers, et al., 2010; Feldner, Monson, & Friedman, 2007; van Zuiden, et al., 2009). This is even more pronounced for soldiers who have been on multiple deployments and, by extension, have been in harm's way and under stress more often…

References

American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Cahill, S.P., & Foa, E.B. (2004). A glass half empty or half full? Where we are and directions for future research in the treatment of PTSD. In S. Taylor (ed.), Advances in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Cognitive-behavioral perspectives (pp. 267-313) New York: Springer.

Delahanty, D.L. (2011). Toward the predeployment detection of risk for PTSD. American Psychiatric Association.

Ehlers, A., Bisson, J., & Clark, D.M., et al. (March 2010). Do all psychological treatments really work the same in posttraumatic stress disorder?. Clinical Psychology Review 30 (2): 269 -- 76.

Teenage Stress
Words: 1214 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 68814023
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Teen Stress

TEEENAGAE STRESS & DEPRESSSION

An Overview of Teenage Stress and Depression: Causes and Effects

The number and rate of teenagers or adolescents that deal with clinical levels of stress and/or depression are exceedingly high. Studies have shown that self-efficacy and perceived stress can be related to depression and can come from a range of sources in the modern age. This analysis will provide an overview of stress and depression during adolescent development and consider some of the causes and consequences that these demographics will have to bear by living with this issue. This issue is important because it largely goes unnoticed in the demographic and is often believed to just be a stage in development. However, research indicates that the issue could be far more severe and cause more damage to the individuals than previously believed.

Literature Review

Depression during adolescence has been shown to be highly prevalent…

Works Cited

Ghofranipour, F., Saffari, M., Mahmoudi, M., & Montazeri, A. (2013). Demographical and Psychological Determinants of Depression, Among a Sample of . International Journal of Preventitive Medicine, 1217-1223.

Hammen, C. (2009). Adolescent Depression. Current Psychological Science, 200-204.

Hollenstein, T., & Lougheed, J. (2013). Beyonde Storm and Stress. American Psychologist, 444-454.

Lau, N., & Hue, M. (2011). Preliminary outcomes of a mindfulness-based programme for Hong Kong adolescents in schools: well-being, stress and depressive symptoms. International Journal of Children's Spirtuality, 315-330.

Impact of Culture on PTSD in the Middle East
Words: 2929 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66306094
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PTSD in the Middle East

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common mental health or psychological disorders facing people in the Middle East region. This condition emerges from episodes of social upheaval, combat, and violence that have become common in the Middle East over the past few years. Some of the major areas in the Middle East that have been characterized by increased conflicts in recent years include Palestine, Iraq, and Lebanon. Given increased conflicts and combat in the Middle East, PTSD and other trauma-related mental health conditions are expected to become public health crisis in the Arab world (Suto, 2016). Therefore, public health professionals in the Middle East face the need to develop appropriate measures for diagnosis and treatment of PTSD and other trauma-related disorders. However, the treatment of this condition and other traumatic mental health disorders is significantly affected by culture. This paper examines how…

the diagnostic criteria and treatments for PTSD
Words: 1027 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34931392
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is classified under the rubric of Trauma and Stress related disorders in the fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The rubric of Trauma and Stress related disorders is itself relatively new, starting only with the DSM-5, with previous editions classifying the disorder as an anxiety disorder (Sascher & Goldbeck, 2016). Unlike anxiety disorders, all disorders classified under the Trauma and Stress umbrella are differentiated by the presence of a precipitating traumatic event (McGraw-Hill Education, 2012). In other words, one of the main diagnostic criteria of PTSD is exposure to a traumatic or stressful event: such as “death, threatened death,” violence or violation: witnessed or directly experienced (National Center for PTSD, n.d.). Military veterans are of course repeatedly exposed to such traumatic events, which is why the prevalence of PTSD is relatively high among this population cohort. In…

Questions About Pts Disorder
Words: 1559 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28425807
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DSM-5 Diagnostic Case Studies

Case Studies

Tom is a 30-year-old male who was near the orld Trade Center during the 9/11 attack. He witnessed horrific scenes, including people jumping from the orld Trade Center. Since that day, he has had nightmares. henever a plane flies overhead, he has the feeling that he needs to run to a secure place. He has thought of moving out of New York City because he finds himself reliving the event every time he is down in the area of the 9/11 attack.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) although a very complex disorder, is a well-known psychiatric consequence of trauma, which is likely what Tom is experiencing (Iribarren, Prolo, Neagos, & Chiappelli, 2005). The event that is responsible for the PTSD must be directly experienced as a threat to one's own integrity and associated with intense fear, helplessness, or horror; the patient also persistently re-experiences the…

Works Cited

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Arlington: American Psychiatric Association.

Gillespie, B. (2016). Substance or Medication Induced Psychotic Disorder DSM-5 (Alcohol-292.1, Drugs-292.9). Retrieved from Theravive:  http://www.theravive.com/therapedia/Substance-or-Medication-Induced-Psychotic-Disorder-DSM--5 -(Alcohol--292.1,-Drugs -- 292.9)

Hruska, B., Sledjeski, E., Fallon, W., Spponster, E., & Delahanty, D. (2011). Alcohol Use Disorder History Moderates the Relationship Between Avoidance Coping and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 405-411. doi:10.1037/a0022439

Iribarren, I., Prolo, P., Neagos, N., & Chiappelli, F. (2005). Post-traumatic stress disorder: Evidence-based research for the third millennium. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

PTSD Vignette
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vignette I have experienced a traumatic event and do have some symptoms; however, my presentation is not consistent with the diagnostic criteria in the DSM -- 5 (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). Therefore, I do not have PTSD; or at least at this point I do not qualify for a formal diagnosis of PTSD. There are a couple of reasons for this:

First, at this point I have experienced a traumatic event (criterion A). Following the event I have had a nightmare, some flashbacks, and some autonomic nervous system symptoms such as increased respiration and dizziness. So there are two intrusion symptoms (flashbacks and nightmares; criterion B), and some anxiety -- related type symptoms such as heavy breathing and feeling dizzy which appear to be best satisfied by criterion E (APA, 2013). Some of the diagnostic criteria for PTSD such as criterion C (avoidance), criterion D (negative alterations of cognition)…

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Ozer, E.J., Best, S.R., Lipsey, T.L., & Weiss, D.S. (2008). Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: A meta-analysis. Psychological trauma: Theory, research, practice, and policy, Vol S (1), 3-36

Resick, P.A., Monson, C.M., & Rizvi, S.L. (2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder. In DH

Barlow (Ed.), Clinical handbook of psychological disorders: A step-by-step treatment manual (pp. 65-122). New York: Guilford Press.

PTSD Treatments
Words: 1372 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 69290584
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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) on one's well being can be problematic if not successfully understood and incorporated within a person's psyche. The purpose of this essay is to critically review the literature on the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of PTSD from a "biopsychosocial" perspective. This approach is holistic in nature and is helpful in understanding that nature of disorders and their place within the medical profession. Disorders are important because they suggest a relative problem and not an objective problem. Order is subjective and the need to view PTSD from a more objective viewpoint is helpful in learning what its study can truly do for those who are suffering from the ill effects of trauma. While trauma is inherent in the human condition, successful ways of dealing with this issue of life development have not been adequately expressed in a cohesive manner. This essay attempts to bridge these gaps of…

References

Edwards, D. (2013). Responsive integrative treatment of clients with PTSD and trauma-related disorders: An expanded evidence-based model. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 23(1), 7- 19.

Haugen, P.T., Splaun, A.K., Evces, M.R., & Weiss, D.S. (2013). Integrative approach for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in 9/11 first responders: three core techniques. Psychotherapy, 50(3), 336.

Jakovljevi?, M., Brajkovi?, L., Jaksi?, N., Lon-ar, M., Aukst-Margeti?, B., & Lasi?, D. (2012). POSTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDERS (PTSD) FROM DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: A TRANSDISCIPLINARY INTEGRATIVE APPROACH. Psychiatria Danubina, 24(3.), 246-255.

Peri, T., & Gofman, M. (2014). Narrative Reconstruction: An integrative intervention module for intrusive symptoms in PTSD patients. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 6(2), 176.

Social Construction Relate Critical Incident Stress 2
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social construction relate critical incident stress? 2. Is CISM applicable emergency -emergency persons? Why ? 3. Why important distinguish CISM psychotherapy? Sources: Mitchell, J.

CISM: Questions

How does social construction relate to critical incident stress?

Stresses from critical incidents do not occur in a 'bubble.' Social pressures are critical components of interpersonal and environmental stress, spanning from the problems that arise from drug and alcohol abuse; emotional, physical, and sexual workplace violence; domestic violence and child abuse; post-traumatic stress disorder and suicide. Tensions between different groups can lead to divisiveness and violence if not appropriately managed. Different cultural standards regarding sexual or other interpersonal behaviors can create miscommunication and escalating tensions in the workplace. Gender assumptions can result in female and child victimization, if a man feels he has a 'right' to 'treat' his family according to standards of patriarchal dominance. The trauma of war, living in high-crime areas, deprivation,…

Eating Disorder Is Characterized by Abnormal Eating
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Eating disorder is characterized by abnormal eating habits involving excessive or insufficient intake of food which is detrimental to the individual's physical and mental well-being. There are two common types of eating disorders although there are other types of eating disorders. The first is bulimia nervosa which is excessive eating coupled with frequent vomiting. The second type is anorexia nervosa which is immoderate restriction of food which leads to irrational weight gaining. The other types of eating disorders include eating disorders not otherwise specified which are essentially where a person has anorexic and bulimic behaviors, binge eating disorder which is compulsive overeating without any kind of compensatory behavior, and pica which is craving for certain non-food items such as glue, plaster, paper. It is estimated that roughly 10-15% of cases of eating disorders occur in males and statistics show that women are at a higher risk of developing eating disorders…

References

Doll, H.A., Petersen, S.E., & Stewart-Brown, S.L. (2005). Eating Disorders and Emotional and Physical Well-Being: Associations between Student Self-Reports of Eating Disorders and Quality of Life as Measured by the SF-36. Quality of Life Research, 14(3), 705-717. doi: 10.2307/4038820

Kime, N. (2008). Children's Eating Behaviours: The Importance of the Family Setting. Area, 40(3), 315-322. doi: 10.2307/40346135

Krauth, C., Buser, K., & Vogel, H. (2002). How High Are the Costs of Eating Disorders - Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - for German Society? The European Journal of Health Economics, 3(4), 244-250. doi: 10.2307/3570016

Martin, A.R., Nieto, J.M.M., Jimenez, M.A.R., Ruiz, J.P.N., Vazquez, M.C.D., Fernandez, Y.C., . . . Fernandez, C.C. (1999). Unhealthy Eating Behaviour in Adolescents. European Journal of Epidemiology, 15(7), 643-648. doi: 10.2307/3582136

Critical Incident Stress Management CISM
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Stress and Drug Abuse

CISM

Discuss the relationship between stress and substance abuse following critical incidents

Sufferers of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and survivors of other forms of trauma exhibit far higher rates of substance abuse than the general population. They may suffer from "psychiatric disorders that are clearly reactive to the trauma of the crime to which anyone would be vulnerable….the horror and helplessness of being victimized [may] have somehow triggered a persistent pattern of distress which may be viewed as an exaggerated adaptive and protective response" (Chapter 21: Substance abuse and victimization, n.d, Tennessee Victim Assistance Manual: 776). Substance abuse can be one way to self-medicate from such exaggerated responses, particularly if the symptoms of PTSD are not identified and treated early on during the sufferer's illness.

Examples of critical incidents that can increase the likelihood of substance abuse include violent crimes like domestic violence: approximately 50% of…

References

Chapter 21: Substance abuse and victimization. (n.d). Tennessee Victim Assistance Manual.

Retrieved August 9, 2011 at www.utc.edu/.../documents/Chapter21SubstanceAbuse.doc

Miller, Lawrence. (2006). Law enforcement traumatic stress: Clinical syndromes and intervention strategies. The American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress.

Retrieved August 9, 2011 at  http://www.aaets.org/arts/art87.htm

Panic Disorder Current Research on
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(Book & andall, 2002, p. 130) Both of these lines of research are ripe for additional investigation, as they seem to clearly complicate and possibly exacerbate the social affect of the disorder to a large degree and are secondary problems shared by many who experience the disorder.

Other related disorders also give more clear insight into panic disorder, as post traumatic stress disorder has increased in severity as well as incidence, given the prolonged state of national crisis, war and other issues involving over stimulation in the fast paced society we share. One review work, demonstrates the conflicts and controversy that surrounds PTSD, often a precursor to panic disorder as the disorder leaves the individual with a cognitive reaction to normal events in an exaggerated panicked, fashion and in many ways correlates to panic disorder. The article states that victims in the past have been treated ineffectually due to preconceived…

References

Beamish, P.M., Granello, DH, & Belcastro, a.L. (2002). Treatment of Panic Disorder: Practical Guidelines. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24(3), 224.

Bogels, S.M., & Zigterman, D. (2000). Dysfunctional Cognitions in Children with Social Phobia, Separation Anxiety Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28(2), 205.

Book, S.W., & Randall, C.L. (2002). Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Use. Alcohol Research & Health, 26(2), 130.

Cook-Cottone, C. (2004). Childhood Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Diagnosis, Treatment, and School Reintegration. School Psychology Review, 33(1), 127.

Assorts of Disorder Terms and Diagnose
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Autism is a developmental disorder, as can be seen in the fact that Peter was first diagnosed when he failed to develop speech at the rate of a normal child. Autism is also a spectrum disorder, meaning that individuals will manifest the condition in different ways and different aspects of normal speech, movement, and social interactions may be inhibited depending on the child and the condition's severity. There is no 'cure' for autism or universally-accepted treatment for the disorder although behavioral interventions such as ABA "encourages positive behaviors and discourages negative behaviors in order to improve a variety of skills" through methods such as "Discrete Trial Training (DTT) DTT is a style of teaching that uses a series of trials to teach each step of a desired behavior or response. Lessons are broken down into their simplest parts and positive reinforcement is used to reward correct answers and behaviors." (Treatment,…

References

Additional treatments for ADHD. (2013). Psych Central. Retrieved from:

 http://psychcentral.com/lib/additional-treatments-for-adhd/0001205 

Depression. (2013). NIMH. Retrieved from:

 http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/depression/index.shtml

RAD Reactive Attachment Disorder Introduction
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Seriously, a reader cannot be certain that RAD is the key problem with T, who has had prenatal exposure to alcohol, marijuana and cocaine and has experienced "abuse and neglect" (Lyon p. 644). The article brings in the possibility that FASD or PTSD may be appropriate in describing "T" -- a 12-year-old Hispanic boy. But what stands out in the intervention of T. is the litany of medications given to T. while he was institutionalized due to wild and violent behaviors: Risperidone (3 mg); clozapine (200 mg); valproic acid (750 mg); guanfacine (4 mg); and desmopressin (0.6 mg).

In addition, T received chlorpromazine (50 mg every 2 hours) and Benadryl (50 mg every 4 hours) (Lyon p. 645) to curb his aggression. hat also stands out is the disclosure that Lyon received money from Eli Lilly to conduct this research on T. How much credibility does an author have in…

Works Cited

American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. (2008). Reactive Attachment Disorder.

Retrieved May 13, 2009, from  http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families//reactive_attachment_disorder .

Becker-Weidman, Arthur, and Hughes, Daniel. (2008). Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy:

An evidence-based treatment for children with complex trauma and disorders of attachment.

Panic Disorder Counseling Panic Disorder
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Apparent health can be generally positive or negative; in spite of how it links with the real health; it may be significant to comprehend its function in certain kinds of psychopathology. Negatively apparent health has been anticipated to symbolize a cognitive risk factor for panic disorder (PD), detached from elevated anxiety feeling. As a result, PD may be more likely to take place on a background of negative perceptions of one's health. A negatively perceived health may also have predictive implications for PD patients, bearing in mind that negatively perceived health has been found to be a considerable predictor of mortality in general and that individuals with panic-like anxiety indications, panic attacks, and PD have elevated mortality rates, mostly due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular illnesses (Starcevick, Berle, Fenech, Milicevic, Lamplugh and Hannan, 2009).

Psychological

Studies have suggested that panic attacks (PA) are widespread and connected with an augmented occurrence of…

References

Carrera, M.; Herran, a.; Ramirez, M.L.; Ayestaran, a.; Sierra-Biddle, D.; Hoyuela, F.;

Rodriguez-Cabo, B.; Vazquez-Barquero, J.L..(2006). Personality traits in early phases of panic disorder: implications on the presence of agoraphobia, clinical severity and short-

term outcome. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 114(6), p.417-425.

Craske, Michelle G., Kircanski, Katharina, Phil., C., Epstein, Alyssa, Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich,

Female Substance Use Disorder Gender
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..in their view, rather than promoting wholeness and recovery, the experience recreated the secrecy of abuse and fed the stigma associated with each of the three issues."

In the hopes of a more well-organized approach to providing these key services to women, the WELL project instituted a mechanism for promoting strategy and collaboration changes at the state, regional, and local levels. The WELL project also recommended an open dialogue between agencies as to better systems to put in place, and suggested giving individuals within each area of service "freedom to make change at any given moment" when a better approach can be taken by a trained professional healthcare provider.

Predominantly Female Caseloads: Identifying Organizational Correlates in Private Substance Abuse Treatment Centers, a piece in the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & esearch (Tinney, et al., 2004), speaks to the issue of the need for healthcare providers to be meeting "distinctive…

References

Conrad, Patricia J., Pihl, Robert O., Stewart, Sherry H., & Dongier, Maurice. (2000). Validation

Of a System of Classifying Female Substance Abusers on the Basis of Personality and Motivational Risk Factors for Substance Abuse. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14(3),

Markoff, Laurie S., Finkelstein, Norma, Kammerer, Nina, Kreiner, Peter, & Prost, Carol a.

2005). Relational Systems Change: Implementing a Model of Change in Integrating

Bipolar Psychiatric Disorder Bd -- Which Is
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Bipolar psychiatric disorder (BD) -- which is characterized by "…cycles of depression and mania" -- is a "euphoric, high-energy state" that can produce remarkable bursts of creativity or, on the other hand, can produce erratic behavioral events that are risky and provocative (Gardner, 2011). About 2.4% of the world's population has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder (at one time or another in their lifetime) but the rate in the United States (4.4% of the population) is the highest of any nation (Gardner, p. 1). The lowest rate on record is in India, 0.1%. This paper reviews various aspects and ramifications of the effects of bipolar disorder through nine peer-reviewed research articles.

Bipolar disorder and cigarette smoking

In the journal Bipolar Disorders the authors point out that adults suffering from bipolar disorder are "…two to three times more likely" have begun a serious smoking habit, which is a "devastating addiction" and…

Works Cited

Calkin, Cynthia, and Alda, Martin. (2012). Beyond the Guidelines for Bipolar Disorder: Practical

Issues in Long-Term Treatment with Lithium. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57(7), 437-

Gardner, Amanda. (2011). U.S. has highest bipolar rate in 11-nation study. CNN Health.

Retrieved March 27, 2013, from  http://www.cnn.com .

Psychology How Stress Affects the
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This occurs when people experience feelings of terror and helplessness during a trauma and then has recurrent flashbacks, nightmares, impaired concentration and emotional numbing afterwards. Some victims of this disorder turn to alcohol or other drugs which do nothing accept compound the problem. It is thought that approximately 10% of Americans have had or will have this disorder at some point in their lifetime (Carpenter and Huffman, 2008).

Since it seems evident that we can't escape stress, we need to learn how to effectively cope with it. There is not one single thing that must be done but a process that allows us to deal with various stressors. A person's level of stress depends on both their interpretation of and their reaction to stressors. Elimination of drug use and no more than moderate alcohol use are important in the successful management of stress. It is known that people, when stressed,…

References

Carpenter, Siri and Huffman, Karen. (2008).Visualizing Psychology. New Jersey: Wiley.

Stress. (2009). Retrieved July 31, 2009, from MedicineNet Web site:

 http://www.medicinenet.com/stress/article.htm

Attention Deficit HyperactivITY Disorder ADHD
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Swanson, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, CA 92715

Gender:

Age: ____ Grade:

Ethnicity (circle one which best applies): African-American Asian Caucasian Hispanic

Other

Completed by:____ Type of Class:

Class size:

For each item, check the column which best describes this child:

Not at Just a Quite

Bit

Much

1. Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork or tasks

2. Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities

3. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly

4. Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties

5. Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities

6. Often avoids, dislikes, or reluctantly engages in tasks requiring sustained mental effort

7. Often loses things necessary for activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, or books)

8. Often is distracted by extraneous stimuli

9. Often is forgetful in…

References

The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at  http://www.bartleby.com/66/3/33503.html 

Cloward, Janessa. "ADHD drugs pose heart risks, federal panel says," University Wire, February 15, 2006. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at  http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1118518952.html 

DeMarle, Daniel J.;Denk, Larry;Ernsthausen, Catherine S.. "Working with the family of a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.(Family Matters)," Pediatric Nursing, July 1, 2003. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at  http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1107215868.html 

Edwards, Jason H.. "Evidenced-based treatment for child ADHD: "real-world" practice implications." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, April 1, 2002. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at  http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-87015306.html