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Traumatic events can shape a persons life and cause untold stress and pain for long periods of time. Natural disasters occur and can affect a persons life in terms of losing their home, causing long-term injuries, and creating a sense of instability. Betty has experienced a powerful tornado that ravaged her home and led to her husband breaking his leg. This essay will focus on post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessment and treatment options for someone like Betty to enable her stabilize herself and find ways to positively cope with such trauma.
The first thing to understand is the difference between screening and assessment. Screening involves a typical yes or no answer and evaluation for possible existence of a specific problem. An assessment on the other hand is a process used to define the nature of an issue, determination of diagnosis, and development of specific treatment recommendations to help…
While there are approximately 5 million people suffering from the illness at any one time in America, women are twice as likely to develop PTS as compared to men. In relation to children and teens, more than 40% has endured at least a single traumatic incident contributing the development of the disorder. However, PTS has occurred in nearly 15% of girls as compared to the 6% of boys.
Causative Factors of the isorder:
As previously discussed, the main cause of post traumatic stress disorder is exposure to a life-threatening, hugely unsafe, and frightening traumatic experience. These experiences are likely to contribute to the development of the disorder if the victim feels a constant sense of danger and painful experiences (Smith & Segal, 2012). As a result of this constant feeling of painful and frightening experience, the individual remains relatively unable to overcome the incident or feel normal again. Some of…
Diagnosis of the Disorder:
While post traumatic stress disorder has existed for as long as human beings have endured trauma, the illness was only recognized as a formal diagnosis in the 1980s (Dryden-Edwards & Stoppler, 2010). The diagnosis of PTSD is often comorbid with eating disorders, depression and substance abuse, anxiety disorders, and manic depression. The assessment of PTSD sometimes involves the use of rating scale or controlled psychiatric interview to test the disease. Some of the standardized screening tools for diagnosis of the disease include Trauma Screening Questionnaire and PTSD Symptom Scale.
Based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria for diagnosing PTSD, there are several necessary factors in this process including the patient's view of the trauma and duration and effect of associated symptoms (Grinage, 2003, p.2401). For this diagnosis to be conducted, the symptoms must exist for a minimum of one month and disrupted normal activities considerably. During this process, clinicians look for three major types of symptoms i.e. re-experiencing, avoidant, and increased arousal symptoms. The re-experiencing ones are those associated with recurrence of the traumatic event while avoidant are means in which the patient attempts to avoid the event and increased arousal symptoms are those associated with panic or anxiety attacks. The identification of
The unstated biases are that each person has some kind of social problems and were forced to go through added amounts of therapy to address them. A large segment was selected from different gender groups, ethnic and racial backgrounds. In general, the study results are concentrating on understanding specific factors impacting the population sample. It is based upon the challenges impacting everyone and the way they are adjusting with them. (Dorrepaal, 2012) (Goodard, 2004) (Litwin, 1995)
The design of the study was clearly articulated. A randomized controlled sample was used. This achieved through concentrating on a number of factors in each module. The most notable are demonstrated in the below diagram:
The correct recognition of emotions Skills
Anger management Assertiveness Distrust Guilt
This is strong design for the research. It improves internal validity by illustrating how these factors are related to one another. The potential…
Dorrepaal, E. (2012). Stabilizing Group Treatment. Psychotherapy, 81, pp. 217 -- 225.
Goddard, W. (2004). Research Methodology. Lansdowne: Juta.
Litwin, M. (1995). How to Measure Survey Reliability and Validity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Computer games were also effective in the treatment of people who underwent automobile accidents. Apparently, something as simple as computer games can serve as a therapy method for people suffering from PTSD. hile some might believe that such therapy techniques are not effective, patients were reported to display intense physical responses to them. Still, because therapists were quick to react to such demonstrations, matters were rapidly resolved and patients were exhibiting fewer symptoms as a result. By adapting the Health Belief Model to the needs of PTSD sufferers therapists succeeded in treating them. The patients did not show reluctance in being subjected to such methods of treatment, as they trusted that it would assist their psychological condition (Burke, Degeneffe & Olney).
Both the Social Cognitive Theory and the Health Belief Model are effective in treating people suffering from PTST. They differ through the fact that the former is applied indirectly…
1. Bhagar, H.A. & Schmetzer A.D. (2007). Pharmacotherapy of Combat-Related Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association 10.4.
2. Burke, H.S. & Degeneffe, C.E. & Olney, M.F. (2009). A New Disability for Rehabilitation Counselors: Iraq War Veterans with Traumatic Brain Injury and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. The Journal of Rehabilitation 75.3.
3. Stein, D.J. & Hollander E. (2002). Anxiety Disorders Comorbid with Depression: Social Anxiety Disorder, Post-Traumatiac Stress Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. London: Martin Dunitz.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Following an unusual and an unexpected event, that is stressful, such as being diagnosed with cancer, one may develop characteristic symptoms that may differ slightly from person to person. This normal human response has been classified into two broad categories; adjustment disorder and post traumatic stress disorder. (Nicholas A., Nicki ., Brian ., and John A.A.)
Post traumatic stress disorder is a type of response, which has a delayed onset and is of a prolonged nature, to events that are particularly threatening in quality, for example, being part of, or witnessing an earthquake. Slightly differing from the novel definition, this disorder can also occur with events that may not be life threatening. According to the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, PTSD can occur due to an actual or even a threatened death or injury to oneself or to others. Needless to say,…
Nicholas A. Boon, Nicki R. Colledge, Brian R. Walker, John A.A. Hunter. Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine (2006). India, Elsevier.
Kirtland C., Peterson, Prout Maurice F., and Schwarz Robert A. Post Traumatic Disorder - A Clinician's Guide. 5th. New York: Plenum Press, 2006. 11-35
Paul B, Jacobson, Widows Michelle R., Hann Danette M., and Andrykowsi Michael A. "Post Traumatic Disorder symptoms after bone marrow transplantation for breast cancer." Psychosomatic Medicine 60. (1998): 366-367. Web. 13 May 2011.
Post=traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious psychiatric disorder caused by extreme stress under dangerous or potentially dangerous situations. People with PTSD may have been raped, or abused, sexually or otherwise in childhood, have witnessed or experienced some disaster, such as earthquake, fire or flood, or it may be acquired from wartime experiences. Although PTSD was first entered into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 1980 (Harbert, 2002), its effects on soldiers returning from war have been noted for many centuries before, often called "battle fatigue" or "shell shock." (Roswell, 2004)
Any traumatic event (wartime experience, a natural disaster, an accident, a life-threatening illness -- or an act of terrorism) can present a clear threat to the existing conceptual framework one relies on to understand the world. While the condition is a psychiatric one, often the person with PTSD responds with physical signs. They can include increased or irregular…
Elias, Marilyn. 2004. "Many Iraq veterans fighting an enemy within; Nearly 20% face mental disorders." USA Today, July 1.
Harbert, Kenneth. 2002. "Acute Traumatic Stress: Helping patients regain control." Clinician Reviews, January.
Roswell, Robert H., M.D. 2004. "V. A. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Programs." Congressional Testimony, March 11.
Focus of Paper:
Thus case studies are often used in cases of PTSD.
The first case study examined here was conducted by Mark Sichel. Here, the case study theory allows the research to explore the personal experiences of the subject, Karen, as a way to understand broader conceptions of the issue at hand, PTSD. Karen, the subject, is aloud to go into great detail of her personal experience as a way to allow the research to extrapolate particular issues that have flared her PTSD. The specifics of her experience with the police have created within her a state of anxiety and fear. The dialogue presented by the researchers allows the reader to make connections of those larger emotions associated with PTSD with her own personal experiences. Moreover, larger symptoms of the disorder are presented, heavily correlated with her own unique experiences. Overwhelming anxiety, stress, the presence of nightmares, and the constant re-living of…
Beall. Lisa S. (1997). Post-traumatic stress disorder: A bibliographic essay. CHOICE, 34(6), 917-930.
Sichel, Mark. (2004). Post traumatic stress disorder: A case study. Psyber Square. Web. http://www.psybersquare.com/anxiety/post_case_study.html
Although MacKenzie appears to overstep her boundaries -- arguing that 60,000 soldiers will be negatively impacted by this condition -- the evidence does support MacKenzie's call to action. Mental health providers, communities and families must consider the long-term implications of the current war in Iraq. This point seems to lie at the heart of the argument made by MacKenzie. If efforts are not made to address this issue before it has a negative impact on health, a substantial portion of the population could suffer needlessly.
Clearly, MacKenzie has selected research studies and articles that will sensationalize her claim and serve as the impetus for a call to action. Although MacKenzie appears to have a deep passion for motivating change in this area, the data that she reports does not represent a minority opinion. Throughout the medical community, there is a growing awareness that PTSD will have negative implications for physical…
Ginzburg, K. (2004). PTST and world assumptions following myocardial infarction: A longitudinal study. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 74(3), 286-292.
MacKenzie, D. (2005). Trauma of war hits troops years later. New Scientist. Accessed October 23, 2007 at http://www.newscientist.com/channel/health/mg18725143.800-trauma-of-war-hits-troops-years-later.html .
Martz, E., & Livneh, H. (2007). Do posttraumatic reactions predict future time perspective among people with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus? Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 50(2), 87-98.
Romanoff, M.R. (2006). Assessing military veterans for posttraumatic stress disorder. American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 18(9), 409-413.
Post traumatic stress disorder is given as psychological reaction which take place after one has gone through a stressful event .the characteristics of PTSD are anxiety, depression, recurrent nightmares, flashbacks and avoiding things that are a reminder of the event. There have been increased reports of mental health problems among soldiers who have been deployed in war zones like Afghanistan and Iraq. The paper will look at two articles that highlight the issue of mental health problems like PTSD among soldiers who are deployed to war zones. This will include an annotated bibliography of the two articles.
Posttraumatic stress disorder and government initiatives to relieve
The article gives an insight of what happens to the men and women who go fighting in Afghanistan and Iraq. Most of these men and women end up dead but there are thousands who come back with physical injuries that leave permanent scars in their…
Wiley, J. (2008).Deployment stressors and posttraumatic stress symptomatology: Comparing Active Duty and National Guard/Reserve personnel from Gulf War 1.Journal of Traumatic stress, Vol.21, No.1
Shea-porter, C. (2009).Posttraumatic stress Disorder and Government Initiatives to relieve it. Health and social work. Vol 34, No.3.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
In an era of American history which will likely be defined by the disastrous decision to launch two foreign wars simultaneously -- which resulted in the nation's volunteer military force suffering tens of thousands of casualties in a decade of continuous combat -- public health experts here at home have become increasingly aware that the battle never really ends for those who have suffered through episodes of extreme stress and trauma. The diagnosis rate of post-traumatic stress disorder has risen at a steady rate for several consecutive years, both because of the medical community's growing understanding of its underlying causes, and the active removal of social stigmas regarding mental illness. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV Text evision (DSM-IV T), "diagnostic criteria for PTSD include a history of exposure to a traumatic event that meets specific stipulations and symptoms from each…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
(4th ed., text rev.). Washington, D.C.
Bugental, D.B., Ellerson, P.C., Lin, E.K., Rainey, B., Kokotovic, A., & O'Hara, N. (2002). A
cognitive approach to child abuse prevention. The Journal of Family Psychology,
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction
Alcoholism and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Overview
PTSD and Co morbidity of Alcoholism: The ole of Trauma
Childhood Abuse and Gender Differences in PTSD
Association Between Alcoholism and Emotion
Genetic and Environmental Influences
Models of Assessment/Conclusions
Abstract TC "Abstract" f C l "1"
This study will examine the relationship between post traumatic stress disorder and alcoholism/addiction. The author proposes a quantitative correlation analysis of the relationship between PTSD and alcoholism be conducted to identify the influence of trauma on subsequent alcohol abuse in patients varying in age from 13-70.
A survey of the literature available on PTSD and alcohol/substance abuse on patients is conducted leading to a conclusion that a direct relationship does exist between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction. This conclusion coincides with a large body of evidence and prior studies which link the prevalence of traumatic disorders with alcohol and substance…
References" f C l "1":
Brady, S.; Rierdan, J. Penk, W; Losardo, M; Meschede, T. (2003). "Post traumatic stress disorder in adults with serious mental illness and substance abuse." Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 4(4): 77-90
Brown, P.J. (2001). "Outcome in female patients with both substance use and post-traumatic stress disorders." Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 18(3):127-135
Bulijan, D.; Vreek, D.; Cekic, A.A.; Karlovic, D.; Zoricic, Z; Golik-Gruber, V. (2002).
'Posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol dependence and somatic disorders in displaced persons." Alcoholism: Journal on Alcoholism and Related Addictions, 38(1-2)35-40
Similarly, researchers should be aware of the consequences of halo, prejudice to the leniency or seriousness of fundamental trend and position or propinquity of deviation from the pace that can artificially increase reliability of measure devoid of improving reaction correctness or validity. (Williams, and Poijula, 2002).
Limitations/Strength and Weaknesses
The following conditions might have affected the results of the present study:
1. The sample will not be random,
2. all demographic information will be self reported and not verified,
3. all the subjects for the study came from 3 local Kansas mental health facilities located in South Central Kansas,
4. all data for the BDI-II is self reported,
5. data is for individuals with specific DSM-IV diagnosis,
6. data is for individuals who are currently seeking treatment for the specified DSM-IV disorders (Schiraldi, 2000)
major strength is that respondents will be selected from ? number of different places for better…
Schiraldi, Glenn. (2000) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Sourcebook. McGraw-Hill; 1 edition p. 446
Williams, Mary Beth and Poijula, Soili (2002) the PTSD Workbook: Simple, Effective Techniques for Overcoming Traumatic Stress Symptoms. New Harbinger Publications; 1 edition. p. 237
Foa, Edna B. Keane, Terence and Friedman, M. Matthew J. (2000) Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. The Guilford Press; 1 edition. p. 388
Wilson, John P. And Keane, Terence M. (1996) Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD. The Guilford Press; 1st edition. p. 577
Treating Post Traumatic Stress Disorders
WHAT IS PTSD
Many adults suffer from the mental illness of Post Traumatic Stress Disorders, otherwise known as PTSD. PTSD is an extreme anxiety mental disorder that causes excessive concern, or worry over common problems, or problems that might happen, such as automobile not starting in the morning to get to work, although it has been running smoothly, the house catching on fire during the middle of the night with no apparent reason. Various treatments for PTSD have been experimented with, producing just as many different results, although a cure has not yet been discovered. In this essay, we will be discussing PTSD, how the drug Serzone has been used in treating this illness, and other possible cures for PTSD.
PTSD is a serious mental disorder, and the seriousness of this disease should not be underestimated, however, it is not to be confused…
GORMAN CHRISTINE, 2002
THE SCIENCE OF ANXIETY
In his book, Finley relates to the stories of four soldiers that suffered PTSD, including a U.S. Marine named Tony Sandoval "who can barely complete a full sentence about the horrors he saw" and by an Army soldier (Jesse Caldera) who "is haunted by fears he killed a child" (General OneFile).
An article in the journal Policy Review references an early example of PTSD, suffered by an Athenian warrior that was "struck blind 'without blow of sword or dart' when a soldier standing next to him was killed" (Satel, 2011, p. 41). That story was told by Herodotus, and Satel suggests it was an ancient example of PTSD, which in I it was also called "battle fatigue," "combat exhaustion," and "war stress," according to the author.
One of the pertinent questions raised in this article relates to the how the severity of PTSD is determined by healthcare professionals -- and…
Harvard Women' Health Watch. "Left Behind After Suicide." Retrieved April 6, 2011, from General OneFile.
Publishers Weekly. "Fields of combat: Understanding PTSD Among Veterans of Iraq
and Afghanistan." 258.13. Retrieved April 6, 2011, from General OneFile. 2011.
Satel, Sally. "PTSD's Diagnostic Trap." Policy Review. Vol. 165. Retrieved April 6, 2011,
..in an optimum range, between excessive denial and excessive intrusiveness of symptoms" (366); b) "normalizing the abnormal" (let the survivor know that it is perfectly normal to react emotionally to triggers that bring the trauma to mind; there is nothing wrong with the person, and indeed, the recurring symptoms are normal and just part of the healing process); c) "decreasing avoidance" (the person should be allowed to and encouraged to be open
PTSD - Dynamics & Treatments about the trauma, not to try to tuck it away or be in denial); d) "altering the attribution of meaning" (change the mindset of the victim from "passive victim" to "active survivor"); and e) "facilitating integration of the self" (371) (this is used primarily in coordination with hypnosis and "dissociation" in a strategy for "reintegrating" parts of the personality into the "self" - the theory being that PTSD tends to split apart components…
Another scholarly research article - published in the Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology (Reed, et al., 2006) weighs in on treatment strategies for spousal psychological abuse. The authors assert that presently there is a dearth of empirical evidence backing up the effectiveness for any existing treatments for the trauma a woman experiences when psychologically abused by her spouse or significant other. That said, the article suggests that "forgiveness therapy" (FT) is a "promising new area" (920) of treatment for this particular form of PTSD. The authors emphasize, however, that forgiveness therapy cannot be confused with "pardoning, forgetting...condoning or excusing" the wrongdoing that led to PTSD. The key concept in presenting FT is to have the woman examine "the injustice of the abuse," then give consideration to forgiveness as one possible option, and through compassion, make a choice to forgive or not to forgive. When a woman embraces FT, it certainly would be in sync with Christian values.
Finally, a recent article published in Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training (Heckman, et al., 2007), presents a literature review of existing empirical studies of treatments for incarcerated persons suffering PTSD. There are over 2 million people in U.S. prisons - 93% of them male and 100,000 juveniles - and of those inmates, some 21% of males are victims of PTSD, 48% of females prisoners are PTSD victims, and up
PTSD - Dynamics & Treatments to 65% of juveniles suffer due to PTSD. The authors believe that "cognitive treatments" (such as relaxation training, psycho education, art therapy, anger management) deserve more study. Also worthy of more research are "exposure and desensitization" treatments (clients simultaneously focus on traumatic material and an "external stimulus using saccadic eye movements of alternating bilateral stimulation"). Among the offshoots of exposure and desensitization treatments - seemingly effective in a correctional institution setting - is "traumatic incident reduction" (TIR); this entails the PTSD survivor / victim being exposed to repetitive "guided imagery" of the event that originally caused the trauma. Seeing that event over and over can reduce the depression, anxiety, avoidance and intrusive thoughts that are associated with PTSD, the authors explain.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and isk of Dementia among U.S. Veterans
According to Yaffe et al. (2010), Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a prevalent psychiatric syndrome linked to increased mortality and morbidity rates. This condition is among the most prevalent amid veterans returning from combat. Among veterans returning from Afghanistan and Iraq, the prevalence of post traumatic stress disorder is estimated to be about 17% (Seal et al., 2009). Veterans returning from Vietnam have a twenty to thirty percent rate. Past studies have confirmed that PTSD is linked to increased health care consumption and an augmented danger of developing a variety of other medical conditions among veterans such as dementia. The risk factors that link PTSD to increased rates of dementia include head injuries, depression or medical comorbidities.
This work highlights the findings of the study carried out by Yaffe et al. (2010). The project specifically focuses on the conclusions…
Bernadette M.M. & Ellen F.O. (2011). Evidence-based practice in nursing and health care: a guide to best practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Deurenberg, R. (2009). A practical guide to Pubmed/Druk 1/ING. London: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum.
Gerrish, K., & Lacy, A. (2013). The research process in nursing. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Glasziou, P.G., Mar, C.D. & Salisbury, J. (2009). Evidence-Based Practice Workbook. John Wiley & Sons.
17% of men and 13% of women have experienced more than three traumatic events in their lives, and the onset of PTSD is generally based on the degree and the extent of the trauma, and the duration, and the type. For example, when there is a rape, then there is a 49% chance that the women will experience PTSD, and when there is a physical assault, it would be 31.9%. For sexual assault, the percentage would be 23.7 and when the person has been in an accident, and then the percentage would be 16.8%. (What is PTSD?)
Other traumatic events may be a child's life threatening illness, or a natural disaster, or a witness or a victim of a shooting or a stabbing, and so on. (What is PTSD?) These people may also experience of several kinds of physical symptoms related to their traumatic experience, and some of them are:…
Gore, Allen. T; Richards, Georgeianna. (27 April, 2005) "Post Traumatic Stress
Disorder" Retrieved at http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic1900.htm . Accessed 6 November, 2005
Managing Traumatic Stress" American Psychological Association. Retrieved at http://www.apa.org/practice/traumaticstress.html. Accessed 6 November, 2005
What is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder?" A National Center for PTSD Fact Sheet.
g., when there are deaths of several soldiers or emergency workers of a unit). Combat is a stressor that is associated with a relatively high risk of PTSD, and those interventions that can potentially diminish this risk are very important. But what is not clear in the above is how much the debriefing provided is more a form of stress management for the ?critical incidents? that are very much part of warfare, as opposed to interventions for those psycho- logically traumatized and at risk of PTSD. People in the military are exposed to stressors other than combat, and these may be traumatic (Atwater, 2009). eports of soldiers who were involved in body recovery in the Gulf War provide important insights. This is a high-stress situation, linked to vulnerability to posttraumatic morbidity.
Asnis, et al. (2004) reported that soldiers of one group who had been debriefed were compared with another, which,…
Army News Service. (2007). Army launches chain teaching program for PTSD, TBI education.
Atwater, Alison. (2009). When is a Combat Veteran? The Evidentiary Stumbling Block for Veterans Seeking PTSD Disability Benefits, 41 ARIZ. St.
Asnis, G.M., Kohn, S.R., Henderson, M., & Brown, N.L. (2004). SSRIs vs. non-SSRIs in post traumatic stress disorder: an update with recommendations. Drugs, 64(4), 383-404.
Bergfeld, C. (2006). A dose of virtual reality: Doctors are drawing on video-game technology to treat post-traumatic stress disorder among Iraq war veterans. Business Week.
Overall each of the articles contribute significantly to the study of PTSD. The impact of memory and learning issues for those that have the disorder should not be downplayed as such issues can negatively impact the quality of life for those with the disorder.
Each of the articles provide answers to disqualify certain hypotheses and qualified others as worth further study Overall Assessment.
With each of the articles the medical and mental health community came one step closer to targeting and discovering exactly where the problem is in learning and memory issues for people with PTSD. Even when the answer is, "no" that is not where the problem is, it helps narrow down where in fact the problem does originate from.
ACHEL YEHUDA,1 JULIA a. GOLIE,1 LISA TISCHLE,1
KAINA STAVITSKY,1 and PHILIP D. HAVEY1
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 274 Taylor & Francis Taylor and Francis…
RACHEL YEHUDA,1 JULIA a. GOLIER,1 LISA TISCHLER,1
KARINA STAVITSKY,1 and PHILIP D. HARVEY1
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 274 Taylor & Francis Taylor and Francis 325 Chestnut StreetPhiladelphiaPA191 NCEN Taylor & Francis Ltd. 36370 10.1080/138033990520223 2005 126 R. Yehuda et al. Learning and Memory in Veterans with PTSD Learning and Memory in Aging Combat
Veterans with PTSD
The EMD technique is used in conjunction with psychotherapy and it has proven very effective for statistically significant numbers of patients in controlled studies (Breslau, Lucia, & Alvarado, 2006; Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).
Ethical Issues in Treating PTSD in eturning Combat Veterans with MDMA
A much more ethically controversial approach involves the use of low doses of MDMA in conjunction with traditional psychotherapy. That is because MDMA is an illicit drug with a very well-deserved reputation for being notoriously popular with recreational users and addiction. While their may be beneficial therapeutic uses of MDMA in certain patients, the population of U.S. armed services veterans suffering from PTSD are also, demographically and psychologically, at the greatest risk of drug addiction and to mental instability that could be worsened by non-therapeutic use of consciousness-altering substances, particularly in connection with unauthorized and unmonitored or controlled use.
It is not necessarily never appropriate to…
Breslau, N., Lucia, V., and Alvarado, G. "Intelligence and Other Predisposing Factors in Exposure to Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Follow-up Study at Age 17 Years."Arch Gen Psychiatry, Vol. 63; (2006):1238-1245.
Frain, M.P., Bishop, M., and Bethel, M. "A Roadmap for Rehabilitation Counseling to Serve Military Veterans with Disabilities." Journal of Rehabilitation, Vol 76,
No. 1; (2010): 13-21.
Gerrig, R, and Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than research that was compiled by Occupational Medicine. Where, they found that various factors can help trigger those who are suffering from PTSD including: a lack of support and traumatic disassociation with the events. (isson 399 -- 403) in the Death of all Turret Gunner, the author is experiencing a lack of support and is having their traumatic disassociation, replayed consistently in the person's mind.
This can help to increase understanding of the issue; by showing how once those vets who are exposed to PTSD, must have counseling. Then, this must be followed up by a cognitive approach of sympathetically listening to their issues. As a result, this underscores how some kind of proactive approach needs to be utilized, to reduce suffering.
When you compare the Death of all Turret Gunner to the Only Things They Carried and Dulce et…
Bisson, Jonathan. "Post Traumatic Stress Disorder." Organizational Medicine 2007: 399 -- 403. Web. http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/57/6/399
Hunsley, John. "Post Traumatic Stress Disorder." A Guide to Assessment that Works. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2008. 293 -- 298. Print.
Jarrell, Randall. "The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner." 1945.
Owen, Wilson. "Dulce et Decorrum."
This is also a symptom of ptsd, as people constantly try to find an answer for the horrors having happened. (Douillard)
In order to come up with effective treatment to combat the disorder, one first needs to understand it properly and to see what triggers it, its symptoms, and how individuals can be assisted in their attempt to fight the traumas in their past. It seems that the main part of the brain affected by ptsd is the ones influencing the states of nervousness and hopelessness. Its symptoms are basically the main thing in ptsd that prevent psychotherapists is efficiently doing their jobs.
Individuals feel either unable to understand what the therapist is trying to say, or they are simply reluctant to accept the therapy that is being provided to them. In some cases, the feelings experienced by people are very intense, and not even themselves can describe what they…
1. Beall, Lisa S. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Bibliographic Essay, CHOICE, 1997, 34(6), 917-930.
2. Douillard. Andy Do the Wounds Ever Heal-PTSD and Holocaust Survivors. Retrieved June 6, 2010, from the UCSD Department of History Web site: http://www.history.ucsb.edu/faculty/marcuse/classes/33d/projects/survivors/SurvivorPTSD_Andy05z.htm
3. Falsetti, Sherry a. And Resnick, Heidi S. "Treatment of Ptsd Using Cognitive and Cognitive Behavioral Therapies," Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy 14.3 (2000).
4. Meyers. David G. Psychology, Eighth Edition in Modules. (Worth Publishers, 2006)
Their experiences emphasize the importance of human contact. They enjoy such intimacy with their comrades in arms and expect the same respect and comradery form mental health and counseling professionals.
However, the literature review that was available in the article was more positive with regard to this. A 2009 study was referenced that used debriefing as a treatment regimen. In this program, the debrief uses a specific set of questions used to guide participants to acknowledge the events of combat they experienced and then review them, emphasizing the stressors involved (ibid, 725). Additionally, a 2007 survey polled individual contacts outside of a treatment clinic, of which the visits were in order to deal with PSTD or other psychiatric disorders (ibid, 723). Again, talking about the issues experienced in combat or in stressful situations seemed to this author to have provided the most tangible and effective results, at least in the…
Cognitive processing therapy. (2011, August 19). Retrieved from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/cognitive_processing_therapy.asp .
Hourani, L.L., Council, C.L., Hubal, R.C., & Strange, L.B. (2011). Approaches to the primary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder in the military: a review of the stress control literature. Military Machine, 176, 721-730.
Treatment of ptsd. (2010, October 5). Retrieved from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/treatment-ptsd.asp ,
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: The James a. Haley Veterans' Hospital's Solution to PSTD
The James A. Haley Veterans' Hospital (JAHVH) is dedicated to serving the nations veterans. It was activated in 1972 and provides patient care services, and also serves as a teaching hospital. According to the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs, VA (2014), JAHVH consists of five Veteran Health Administration (VHA) facilities located in Brooksville, Zephyrhills, New Port ichey, Lakeland and Tampa. Their primary mission is to provide America's military veterans with proper medical care and services, in line with their commitment to meet their changing surgical, medical, and quality of life needs (VA, 2014).
In particular, the Veterans' Hospital facilitates programs that help veterans deal with post traumatic stress disorder (PSTD). This is a disorder that is common among military veterans, which develops due to terrifying ordeals involving actual or the threat of physical harm (National Institute of…
Hinton, D.E & Fernandez, R.L. (2010). The Cross-Cultural Validity of Posttraumatic
Stress Disorder: Implications for Dsm-5. Review. Retrieved 14 April 2014 from http://www.researchgate.net/publictopics.PublicPostFileLoader.html?id=5473a258d11b8b88758b45d6&key=a9111768-a052-4cde-a93f-344bc3357ba3
The National Institute of Health (2009) PTSD: A Growing Epidemic. NIH Medline Plus. Vol. (4)1 10-14. Retrieved 15 April 2014 from http://www.nlm.nih.gov /medlineplus/magazine/issues/winter09/articles/winter09pg10-14.html
The U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs, VA (2014). VA History. Usa.gov. Retrieved 14 April 2014 from http://www.va.gov/about_va/vahistory.asp
The normative sample for the DAPS included 620 participants from a stratified random sampling from Department of Motor Vehicles registries and telephone listings (Smith). Of these 620 participants, 446 reported at least one DSM-IV-T experience in the past. Smith also reports that 70 university students were sampled as well. The assessment authors conducted another sample to measure reliability. The study included 257 undergraduate students, 191 clinical patients, and 58 participants recruited through flyers and newspaper advertisements (Smith). Both samples were primarily female, 74% in the university sample and 80% in the community sample, as well as Caucasian, 84% in the university sample and 77% in the community sample (Smith). The mean age was 19.6 in the university sample and 35 in the community sample.
Boothroyd reports the following reliability and validity data for the DAPS. The majority of the 13 scales have Cronbach coefficients above .8, and internal…
Axford, S.N.. (n.d.) Review the posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale. Mental Measurements Yearbook. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Boothroyd, R.A. (n.d.) Review of detailed assessment of posttraumatic stress. Mental Measurements Yearbook. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Courtois, C.A. (2008). Complex trauma, complex reactions: Assessment and treatment. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, (1), 86-100. doi:10.1037/1942-9681.S.1.86
Doll, B. (n.d.) Review the posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale. Mental Measurements Yearbook. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Stress disorders, the stress is so great that it is debilitating and dominates the person and interferes with living one's life. Stress can be good or bad. A skiing champion described how stress helped him perform his best, but a Viet Nam War veteran describes how horrific things he had seen haunted him and intruded into his mind, while awake and while asleep.
Our bodies show clear responses to stress. We perspire, breath quicker, heartbeat rises, and muscles tense for action. WE may also turn pale, or get "goose bumps," or feel sick to the stomach. Stress can trigger anxiety problems. In stressful situations, the brain triggers a variety of body-function changes. The sympathetic nervous system rallies body functions for fight 0r flight; the parasympathetic nervous system restores us to normal functioning.
One of the most devastating of the stress disorders is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It makes sense to…
Treatments for PTSD
Treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients has varied from one context to the other depending on the nature of the disorder. However, over the years, an increased number of research studies have been conducted to establish the best treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder patients. A number of findings have been made public as further research takes place. This study will critically evaluate three articles whilst comparing group treatment and CBT in the tackling of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This evaluation is valuable considering the increased number of victims of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the society today.
Sloan, Bovin, and Schnurr (2012) support the idea of using group treatment for PTSD as the best option given to patients. In the article, they advance the value of treating patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder as a group. The article gives an overview picture of the benefits accompanied…
Gilman, R., Schumm, J.A., & Chard, K.M. (2012). Hope as a Change Mechanism in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Psychological Trauma, vol. 4(3):
Mulick, P.S., Landes, S.J., & Kanter, J.W. (2012). Contextual Behavior Therapies in the Treatment of PTSD: A Review. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation & Therapy, vol. 7(1): 23-31
Sloan, D.M., Bovin, M.J. & Schnurr, P.P. (2012). Review of group treatment for PTSD.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Children
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is most commonly associated with war veterans. esearchers have, however, increasingly recognized this condition in women, children, and men from all backgrounds and for a variety of reasons. According to oberts et al. (2011), the condition results from the experience of an event that is traumatic, and that makes the individual feel helpless, horrified, or afraid. A common factor among sufferers of PTSD is persistence. The individual persistently avoids stimuli he or she associates with the event, for example. There is also a tendency to re-experience the event persistently. There are also several health consequences associated with the condition. These include a tendency towards suicide, substance abuse, impaired functioning and general health problems (oberts et al., 2011). When it occurs in children, post-traumatic stress disorder can have significant long-term consequences on their development. Several studies have investigated the demographic nature of…
Berkowitz, S.J., Stover, C.S., and Marans, S.R. (2011, Jun.). The Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention: Secondary Prevention for Youth at Risk of Developing PTSD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines. 52(6). Database: NBCI. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096712/
Fazel, M., Reed, R.V., Panter-Brick, C., and Stein, A. (2011, Aug. 10). Mental health of displaced and refugee children resettled in high-income countries: risk and protective factors. The Lancet. 379. Retrieved from: http://126.96.36.199:9998/91keshi/Public/File/36/379-9812/pdf/1-s2.0-S0140673611600512-main.pdf
Miller, G.E., Chen, E., and Parker, K.J. (2011, Nov.). Psychological Stress in Childhood and Susceptibility to the Chronic Diseases of Aging: Moving towards a model of behavioral and biological mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin. 137(6). Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3202072/
Odenbach, J., Newton, A., Gokiert, R., Falconer, C., Courchesne, C., Campbell, S., and Curtis, S. (2014). Screening for post-traumatic stress disorder after injury in the pediatric emergency department -- a systematic review protocol. Systematic Reviews. 3(19). Database: BioMed Central. Retrieved from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/2046-4053-3-19.pdf
Treating Child Abuse Related Posttraumatic Stress
Comorbid Substance Abuse in Adolescents
Judith a Cohen et.al
Strong empirical evidence based on previous research shows a clear association between child abuse and subsequent development of PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) and SUD (Substance Use Disorder). This article by Cohen et.al is a research review of several independent studies that show correlation between PTSD and SUD. The authors also discuss specific treatment modalities that are effective in treating child abuse related PTSD and SUD.
The Co-occurrence of child abuse and development of PTSD and SUD as co-morbid conditions implies the necessity of specific treatment methods that take into account the previous history of abuse.
The authors performed a literature review of current treatment practices for adolescents with abuse related PTSD and SUD and synthesized the results. Empirical treatment methods for abuse related PSTD and SUD are discussed. Over a broad spectrum of…
Judith A Cohen, Anthony P. Mannarino, Aren C. Zhitova, Margery E. Capone, " Treating
Child Abuse Related Posttraumatic Stress and Comorbid Substance Abuse in Adolescents," Child Abuse & Neglect, 27 (2003) 1345-1365
The National Institute on Drug Abuse cautions that while no standardized, effective treatment has been identified for PTSD sufferers, researchers have determined that cognitive behavioral therapy, group therapy, or exposure therapy has shown some promise, with the latter technique being viewed as one of the more efficacious approaches available. In this regard, the National Institute on Drug Abuse reports that, "Exposure therapy is thought to be one of the most effective ways to manage PTSD. Recent studies suggest that some individuals with PTSD and comorbid cocaine addiction can be successfully treated with exposure therapy. Individuals in a recent study who suffered from both disorders showed significant reductions in all PTSD symptoms and in overall cocaine use" (quoted in the link between PTSD and substance abuse at p. 3). The use of cognitive behavioral therapies to treat substance-abusing PTSD patients is also reported by Tull (2008) who notes, "Alcohol and drug…
Janikowski, T.P., Donnelly, J.P. & Lawrence, J.C. (2007). The functional limitations of clients with coexisting disabilities. The Journal of Rehabilitation, 73(4), 15-16.
Mckelvey, T. (2008, July-August). Combat fatigue: As returning veterans suffer post-traumatic stress disorder in record numbers, a controversial new drug is being tested that would dampen their memories. The American Prospect, 19(7), 5-6.
Volpicelli, J., Balaraman, G., Hahn, J., Wallace, H. & Bux, D. (1999). The role of uncontrollable trauma in the development of PTSD and alcohol addiction. Alcohol Research & Health, 23(4), 256.
It is evident that, individuals who are exposed to life-threatening events are at high risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as a result, critical incident stress debriefing does not necessarily reduce incidence of PTSD (Lewis, 2002). Due to societal costs of chronic PSTD, the mental health care professional manages to develop an early method for interventions (egel, 2010). Psychological stress debriefing was mainly designed to prevent and mitigate emotional distress among individuals (egel, 2010). In summary, the paper will discuss on how critical incident stress debriefing does not reduce the incidenceof post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as, discussing whether preventing an officer from developing PTSD should be the measure of success for a critical incident stress debriefing.
According to egel (2010), Psychological briefing refers to a brief crisis intervention, which is administered to a person during the days of traumatic event. Psychological stress debriefing is significant because…
Lewis, G. (2002). Post-crisis stress debriefings. Behavioral Health Management, 22, 4.
Regel, S. (2010). Psychological debriefing -- does it work? Health Care Counseling & Psychotherapy Journal, 10(2), 14-18.
Outsourcing Compassion: Debriefing Trauma Patients. (2013). Outsourcing Compassion: Debriefing Trauma Patients. Retrieved December 13, 2013, from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4842962
The third type of response is the prolonged response also referred to as chronic stress which is a response to a trigger that is unrelenting or repetitive that can be caused by work related situation, the domestic stress, unsolved financial stress and such prolonged triggers.
Stress, if not checked can be harmful to the individual but also the immediate family or those living around the victim. Hence, there is absolute need to tackle stress as soon as it shows signs as discussed above. These responses may include though not restricted to; a) Talking about it, this should be encouraged. The victim should talk about it with the family members, friends, colleagues, counselor etc. b). Taking a break, which may include going to a place one rarely goes to or doing some activities they rarely do but enjoy, it may also involve indulging in picnics or long travel holidays, engaging in…
Stressfocus, (2009). Discover the Basics of Stress. Retrieved June 9, 2010 from http://www.stressfocus.com/stress_focus_article/stress-and-its-causes.htm
Thebreastcancersite, (2010). Ten ways to tackle stress. Retrieved June 9, 2010 from http://www.thebreastcaresite.com/tbcs/Renewal/EmotionalRecovery/TenWaystoTackleStress.htm
Gill T.S., (2009). Top 7 Tips to cure stress and anxiety revealed. Article snatch. Retrieved June
9, 2010 from http://www.articlesnatch.com/Article/Top-7-Tips-to-Cure-Stress-and-Anxiety-Revealed-/1163642
patients diagnosed with TBI cope better with counseling and outreach programs when dealing with new or abnormal behaviors?
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in social and emotional defects (such as delayed word recall) that result in frustrating and embarrassing moments for the victim. Of all counseling and intervention programs, rehabilitation therapy (CT) is the one that is commonly used and, therefore, this literature review will conduct a meta-analytic search (focusing on quantitative studies within the last five years) in order to assess the efficacy of CT in helping TBI individuals with their social and emotional skills and perceptions.
The essay identified and reviewed seven randomized trials of language, emotional and social communication cognitive rehabilitation. Inclusion terms were that participants had to possess sufficient cognitive capacity to be included in a group and impairment in emotional and social skills was evidenced either by a questionnaire or by the clinician's reference.…
Bell, K et al. (2011) Scheduled Telephone Intervention for Traumatic Brain Injury: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92, 1552 -- 1560
Bornhofen, C., and S. McDonald. 2008a. Treating deficits in emotion perception following traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 18(1): 22-44.
-- -- . 2008b. Comparing strategies for treating emotion perception deficits in traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 23(2): 103-115.
Chard, K et al. (2011) Exploring the efficacy of a residential treatment program incorporating cognitive processing therapy-cognitive for veterans with PTSD and traumatic brain injury, Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24, 347 -- 351,
Stress on Human Memory and Cognitive Capabilities
Types of Stresses on Short-Term Memory
Symptoms of Short-Term Memory
Stress weakens a human's ability to be able to pass proper chemicals through the blood-brain barrier. The blood-brain barrier is an assemblage of blood vessels that defends the brain from toxins that circulate through one's body (Franklin Institute, 2004).
Evidence of stress on the short-term memory includes difficulty to learn new things, dizziness, headaches, and nausea (Franklin Institute, 2004).
Effects of Stress on Short-Term Memory
When stress takes place in the human body, hormones are released that divert blood glucose from the brain's hippocampus (Franklin Institute, 2004).
The lack of energy that is provided by the lost glucose creates the hippocampus to become concerned about the lack of energy. This fright causes an inability to create accurate new memories (Franklin Institute, 2004).
This can be a result o a onetime traumatic event in…
Bower, B. (2005). Early stress in rats bites memory later on. Science News, 186(17), Retrieved
from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=11&did=918673191&SrchMode=1&sid=4&Fmt =3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1294957038&clientI d=77774
Franklin Institute. (2004). The human brain-stress. Retrieved January 13,2011 from http://www.fi.edu/learn/brain/stress.html
HelpGuide.org. (2010). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Symptoms, treatment, and self- help. Retrieved January 13, 2011 from http://helpguide.org/mental/post_traumatic_stress_disorder_symptoms_treatment.htm
Anthropologist working with the VA
Definitions / Interests / Key Problems and Issues
Previous Work Performed by Anthropologists in this Area
The Employment Situation, Current Salaries and Opportunities for Advancement
ibliography of the most important books, chapters and articles
Relevant professional organizations, ethics statements and newsletters
Names / locations of PAs and others working in the content area locally and elsewhere.
Relevant Laws and Regulations
Relevant international / domestic organizations, private and public
Other helpful information you think about on your own
The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan had a dramatic impact on the way someone sees themselves and the world around them. This is because many veterans have been forced to serve multiple tours and are still dealing with the lasting experiences from them. Two of primary injuries most are suffering from are post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TI). Anthropologists are seeking to understand the…
Bibliography of the most important books, chapters and articles.
2014. Summary. BLS. Electronic document, http://www.bls.gov/ooh/life-physical-and-social-science/anthropologists-and-archeologists.htm . accessed April 3, 2012
2010. Hidden Battles on Unseen Fronts. Drexel Hill: Casemate.
Post- Traumatic Stress as a Psychological Effect of the 9/11 ombings to Americans
On September 11, 2001, America and the whole world witnessed the most recent terrorist attack of a free, democratic country, wherein the World Trade Center Towers in New York City collapsed after two planes had crashed towards the two towers. The said incident was a terrorist attack by Osama bin Laden and his terrorist group Al Qaeda in Afghanistan, and the said terrorist attack resulted to thousands of deaths, which are mostly composed of people inside the building and within its perimeters. In addition to the numerous deaths and physical injuries that the attack had caused, great damage also resulted with the destruction of the World Trade Center Towers. Indeed, the terrorist attack in America had resulted to considerable material and human damage, and these dangerous results as caused by the attack had prompted that U.S. government…
Cowley, Geoffrey. "After the Trauma." 1 October 2001. Newsweek Magazine. p. 52-52B.
Gibbs, Nancy. "The Argument for Arguing." 15 October 2001. TIME Magazine. p. 72.
Willens, Kathy. "Warning Signs and Ways to Help." 1 October 2001. Newsweek Magazine. p. 52B.
Assigned Reading II (20%)
Briefly explain the following concepts with an example each:
i. Fight-or-flight response
Fight-or-flight response refers to the dynamics that encompass the physiological arousal of the body to survive a threat. In preparation for a threat, there are two immediate actions that one can take: either attack or fight for defense from the threat or opt to run and flee away from the threat. For example, when a person encounters a barking dog while running, the fight-or-flight response runs away or faces the dog (Seaward, 2015).
ii. Holistic medicine
Holistic medicine alludes to an approach of healing that honors the assimilation, counterbalance, and synchronization of mind, body, spirit, and emotions for encouraging internal peace. It is an attitudinal method to healthcare instead of a certain set of techniques (Gordon, 1982). Examples of holistic medicine comprise homeopathy, acupuncture, and also massage therapy.
iii. Stress reaction
Awasthi, P. (2018). Stressful Experiences, Workplace Stress, and Type 2 Diabetes: Management of Diabetes. PURUSHARTHA-A journal of Management, Ethics, and Spirituality, 10(2), 82-89.
Carducci, B. J. (2009). The psychology of personality: Viewpoints, research, and applications. John Wiley & Sons.
Folkman, S. (2010). 22 Stress, Health, and Coping: Synthesis, Commentary, and Future Directions. The Oxford handbook of stress, health, and coping 453.
Gordon, J. S. (1982). Holistic medicine: advances and shortcomings. Western Journal of Medicine, 136(6), 546.
Harris, M. L., Oldmeadow, C., Hure, A., Luu, J., Loxton, D., & Attia, J. (2017). Stress increases the risk of type 2 diabetes onset in women: A 12-year longitudinal study using causal modeling. PloS one, 12(2), e0172126.
Hiriyappa, B. (2013). Stress Management: Leading To Success. Booktango.
Jordan, M., & Hinds, J. (2016). Ecotherapy: Theory, research, and practice. Macmillan International Higher Education.
Kurlansik, S. L., & Ibay, A. D. (2012). Seasonal affective disorder. American Family Physician, 86(11), 1037-1041.
Professionals should treat African-American females with PTSD with utmost support and therapy that is beneficial to the victim. Further, the issue of substance abuse must be addressed in a manner that is acceptable to the victim.
Treatment of problems associated with substance abuse and PTSD must be designed in a consistent way that provides a solution to both substance abuse and PTSD altogether. Although the professionals are required to focus more on treating PTSD, they must incorporate treatment of alcohol and substance abuse.
Prevention for relapses is of utter importance because they prepare the victim to enter state of soberness and cope with symptoms of PTSD. These symptoms have been reported to become worse as African-American females attempt to abstain from substance abuse.
For many African-American females with PTSD and substance abuse disorder, it is recommended that they consult the membership directories. This is an international society for PTSD that…
Adams, R. & Boscarino, J. (2005). Differences in mental health outcomes among Whites and African-Americans. Washington, DC: Human Kinetics.
Adams, R. & Boscarino, J. (2006). Predictors of PTSD and delayed PTSD after disaster.
Virginia: Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall.
Alcantara, C. & Gone J. (2007). Reviewing suicide in Native American communities. California:
Developing and Supporting a esearch Question on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Various occupations expose practitioners to traumatized communities or victimized individuals. The exposure increases the risk of these groups to significant levels of stress that affect their health and health outcomes negatively. Empirical evidence shows that people such as clinicians working with those in pain, fear, and suffering have a high risk of developing cognitive, emotional, and physical consequences. Whether exposure to a traumatic event is a disaster or occupational hazards, the consequences of such exposure might present with symptoms of sleeplessness, nightmares, hopelessness, and other forms of stress traumatic disorders (Engel, Schutt, & Engel, 2010). However, exposure to extreme levels of such stress predisposes the individuals to post-traumatic stress the presents over time, unless a corrective action is taken. Therefore, it is at this level that the role of the social worker becomes apparent. The social workers provide services…
Corby, B. (2006). Applying research in social work practice. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Engel, R.J., Schutt, R.K., & Engel, R.J. (2010). Fundamentals of social work research. Los n Angeles: SAGE.
Engel, R.J., & Schutt, R.K. (2011). The practice of research in social work. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Epstein, I. (2010). Clinical data-mining: Integrating practice and research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The other principal difference between the sources reviewed is that the first included narratives authored by different clinicians and experts and incorporated their anecdotal professional experiences as well as their description of the manner in which their treatment approaches relies on empirical research in each of their different areas of clinical expertise. As a result, that work is an appropriate reference for the available treatment options for PTSD and for the optimal combination of different approaches in specific types of cases.
By contrast, the second source consists only of a literature review of previous research without any narrative contribution from experts apart from the conclusions in each of the studies reviewed. More importantly, this source does not address or consider any non-pharmacological PTSD interventions, much less any combinations of multiple modalities concurrently. In fact, the authors expressly reference the apparent absence in the available literature of any studies specifically investigating…
Davis L.L., Frazier E.C., Williford R .B., and Newell J.M. "Long-Term
Pharmacotherapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder." CNS Drugs, Vol. 20, No.
6 (2006): 465-476.
Foa E., Keane T.M., Friedman M.J., and Cohen J.A. (2008). Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress
Overall, the research suggests that CBT is an effective treatment for PTSD, though there definitely certain caveats that need to be raised. CBT is not entirely effective and is not necessarily more effective than certain other treatments, specifically EMD, while there is also a need for greater knowledge and understanding when it comes to PTSD and its treatment in general. As this more detailed and refined understanding is achieved, the research analyzed above and other related research will become more meaningful and more effectively situated.
Cohen, J., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, a. & Steer, . (2004). A Multi-Site, andomized Controlled Trial for Children With Abuse-elated PTSD Symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 43(4): 393-402.
Hinton, D., Pham, T., Tran, M., Safren, S., Otto, M. & Pollack, M. (2004). CBT for Vietnamese refugees with treatment-resistant PTSD and panic attacks: A pilot study. Journal of Traumatic…
Cohen, J., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, a. & Steer, R. (2004). A Multi-Site, Randomized Controlled Trial for Children With Abuse-Related PTSD Symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 43(4): 393-402.
Hinton, D., Pham, T., Tran, M., Safren, S., Otto, M. & Pollack, M. (2004). CBT for Vietnamese refugees with treatment-resistant PTSD and panic attacks: A pilot study. Journal of Traumatic Stress 17(5): 429-33.
Seidler, G. & Wagner, F. (2006). Comparing the efficacy of EMDR and trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of PTSD: a meta-analytic study. Psychological Medicine 36(11): 1515-22.
Zayfert, C. & DeViva, J. (2004). Residual insomnia following cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress 17(1): 69-73.
Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces has declared that the country should put in more effort to treat the occurrences of Post-traumatic stress disorder and suicides among soldiers. In just a span of one week, there were four Canadian military suicides (Fekete, 2013). These soldiers went on to commit suicide after returning from war. It is known that hundreds and thousands of men and women have lost their lives in numerous battles till date. Suffering even after war is over and not being able to take over one's nerves is just horrible. Countries like Canada and U.S. are quite concerned over the increasing rates of PTSD amongst veterans. This event shows that PTSD amongst veterans is a serious problem and is becoming quite common.
What is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder?
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a condition that develops after a person experiences one or more traumatic events. PTSD is…
Douglas, J. (1993). Childhood physical abuse and combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam veterans. Am J. Psychiatry, 150 235 -- 239.
Fekete, J. (2013). Military's 'stiff upper lip' attitude over PTSD needs to stop, Governor-General David Johnston says. [online] Retrieved from: http://news.nationalpost.com/2013/12/12/militarys-stiff-upper-lip-attitude-over-ptsd-needs-to-stop-governor-general-david-johnston-says / [Accessed: 16 Dec 2013].
Kardiner, A. (1941). The traumatic neuroses of war.. Psychosomat Med Mono, 11 (111).
PTSD on the U.S. Military
In order to fully understand the issues with PTSD and the military, one must consider the idea that military service can have a serious impact on soldiers, even when they do not see combat. In the past, the argument has been that PTSD was a combat-related illness, and that only soldiers who were actively engaged in combat in the recent past struggled with the issues related to PTSD. Now, many studies have shown that most soldiers live with the thought of never knowing when their turn to die is next, and that constant agitation and anxiety can cause these soldiers to experience PTSD (Delahanty, 2011; Ehlers, et al., 2010; Feldner, Monson, & Friedman, 2007; van Zuiden, et al., 2009). This is even more pronounced for soldiers who have been on multiple deployments and, by extension, have been in harm's way and under stress more often…
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Cahill, S.P., & Foa, E.B. (2004). A glass half empty or half full? Where we are and directions for future research in the treatment of PTSD. In S. Taylor (ed.), Advances in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Cognitive-behavioral perspectives (pp. 267-313) New York: Springer.
Delahanty, D.L. (2011). Toward the predeployment detection of risk for PTSD. American Psychiatric Association.
Ehlers, A., Bisson, J., & Clark, D.M., et al. (March 2010). Do all psychological treatments really work the same in posttraumatic stress disorder?. Clinical Psychology Review 30 (2): 269 -- 76.
TEEENAGAE STRESS & DEPRESSSION
An Overview of Teenage Stress and Depression: Causes and Effects
The number and rate of teenagers or adolescents that deal with clinical levels of stress and/or depression are exceedingly high. Studies have shown that self-efficacy and perceived stress can be related to depression and can come from a range of sources in the modern age. This analysis will provide an overview of stress and depression during adolescent development and consider some of the causes and consequences that these demographics will have to bear by living with this issue. This issue is important because it largely goes unnoticed in the demographic and is often believed to just be a stage in development. However, research indicates that the issue could be far more severe and cause more damage to the individuals than previously believed.
Depression during adolescence has been shown to be highly prevalent…
Ghofranipour, F., Saffari, M., Mahmoudi, M., & Montazeri, A. (2013). Demographical and Psychological Determinants of Depression, Among a Sample of . International Journal of Preventitive Medicine, 1217-1223.
Hammen, C. (2009). Adolescent Depression. Current Psychological Science, 200-204.
Hollenstein, T., & Lougheed, J. (2013). Beyonde Storm and Stress. American Psychologist, 444-454.
Lau, N., & Hue, M. (2011). Preliminary outcomes of a mindfulness-based programme for Hong Kong adolescents in schools: well-being, stress and depressive symptoms. International Journal of Children's Spirtuality, 315-330.
PTSD in the Middle East
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common mental health or psychological disorders facing people in the Middle East region. This condition emerges from episodes of social upheaval, combat, and violence that have become common in the Middle East over the past few years. Some of the major areas in the Middle East that have been characterized by increased conflicts in recent years include Palestine, Iraq, and Lebanon. Given increased conflicts and combat in the Middle East, PTSD and other trauma-related mental health conditions are expected to become public health crisis in the Arab world (Suto, 2016). Therefore, public health professionals in the Middle East face the need to develop appropriate measures for diagnosis and treatment of PTSD and other trauma-related disorders. However, the treatment of this condition and other traumatic mental health disorders is significantly affected by culture. This paper examines how…
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is classified under the rubric of Trauma and Stress related disorders in the fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The rubric of Trauma and Stress related disorders is itself relatively new, starting only with the DSM-5, with previous editions classifying the disorder as an anxiety disorder (Sascher & Goldbeck, 2016). Unlike anxiety disorders, all disorders classified under the Trauma and Stress umbrella are differentiated by the presence of a precipitating traumatic event (McGraw-Hill Education, 2012). In other words, one of the main diagnostic criteria of PTSD is exposure to a traumatic or stressful event: such as “death, threatened death,” violence or violation: witnessed or directly experienced (National Center for PTSD, n.d.). Military veterans are of course repeatedly exposed to such traumatic events, which is why the prevalence of PTSD is relatively high among this population cohort. In…
DSM-5 Diagnostic Case Studies
Tom is a 30-year-old male who was near the orld Trade Center during the 9/11 attack. He witnessed horrific scenes, including people jumping from the orld Trade Center. Since that day, he has had nightmares. henever a plane flies overhead, he has the feeling that he needs to run to a secure place. He has thought of moving out of New York City because he finds himself reliving the event every time he is down in the area of the 9/11 attack.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) although a very complex disorder, is a well-known psychiatric consequence of trauma, which is likely what Tom is experiencing (Iribarren, Prolo, Neagos, & Chiappelli, 2005). The event that is responsible for the PTSD must be directly experienced as a threat to one's own integrity and associated with intense fear, helplessness, or horror; the patient also persistently re-experiences the…
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Arlington: American Psychiatric Association.
Gillespie, B. (2016). Substance or Medication Induced Psychotic Disorder DSM-5 (Alcohol-292.1, Drugs-292.9). Retrieved from Theravive: http://www.theravive.com/therapedia/Substance-or-Medication-Induced-Psychotic-Disorder-DSM--5 -(Alcohol--292.1,-Drugs -- 292.9)
Hruska, B., Sledjeski, E., Fallon, W., Spponster, E., & Delahanty, D. (2011). Alcohol Use Disorder History Moderates the Relationship Between Avoidance Coping and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 405-411. doi:10.1037/a0022439
Iribarren, I., Prolo, P., Neagos, N., & Chiappelli, F. (2005). Post-traumatic stress disorder: Evidence-based research for the third millennium. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
vignette I have experienced a traumatic event and do have some symptoms; however, my presentation is not consistent with the diagnostic criteria in the DSM -- 5 (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). Therefore, I do not have PTSD; or at least at this point I do not qualify for a formal diagnosis of PTSD. There are a couple of reasons for this:
First, at this point I have experienced a traumatic event (criterion A). Following the event I have had a nightmare, some flashbacks, and some autonomic nervous system symptoms such as increased respiration and dizziness. So there are two intrusion symptoms (flashbacks and nightmares; criterion B), and some anxiety -- related type symptoms such as heavy breathing and feeling dizzy which appear to be best satisfied by criterion E (APA, 2013). Some of the diagnostic criteria for PTSD such as criterion C (avoidance), criterion D (negative alterations of cognition)…
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Ozer, E.J., Best, S.R., Lipsey, T.L., & Weiss, D.S. (2008). Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: A meta-analysis. Psychological trauma: Theory, research, practice, and policy, Vol S (1), 3-36
Resick, P.A., Monson, C.M., & Rizvi, S.L. (2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder. In DH
Barlow (Ed.), Clinical handbook of psychological disorders: A step-by-step treatment manual (pp. 65-122). New York: Guilford Press.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) on one's well being can be problematic if not successfully understood and incorporated within a person's psyche. The purpose of this essay is to critically review the literature on the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of PTSD from a "biopsychosocial" perspective. This approach is holistic in nature and is helpful in understanding that nature of disorders and their place within the medical profession. Disorders are important because they suggest a relative problem and not an objective problem. Order is subjective and the need to view PTSD from a more objective viewpoint is helpful in learning what its study can truly do for those who are suffering from the ill effects of trauma. While trauma is inherent in the human condition, successful ways of dealing with this issue of life development have not been adequately expressed in a cohesive manner. This essay attempts to bridge these gaps of…
Edwards, D. (2013). Responsive integrative treatment of clients with PTSD and trauma-related disorders: An expanded evidence-based model. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 23(1), 7- 19.
Haugen, P.T., Splaun, A.K., Evces, M.R., & Weiss, D.S. (2013). Integrative approach for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in 9/11 first responders: three core techniques. Psychotherapy, 50(3), 336.
Jakovljevi?, M., Brajkovi?, L., Jaksi?, N., Lon-ar, M., Aukst-Margeti?, B., & Lasi?, D. (2012). POSTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDERS (PTSD) FROM DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: A TRANSDISCIPLINARY INTEGRATIVE APPROACH. Psychiatria Danubina, 24(3.), 246-255.
Peri, T., & Gofman, M. (2014). Narrative Reconstruction: An integrative intervention module for intrusive symptoms in PTSD patients. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 6(2), 176.
social construction relate critical incident stress? 2. Is CISM applicable emergency -emergency persons? Why ? 3. Why important distinguish CISM psychotherapy? Sources: Mitchell, J.
How does social construction relate to critical incident stress?
Stresses from critical incidents do not occur in a 'bubble.' Social pressures are critical components of interpersonal and environmental stress, spanning from the problems that arise from drug and alcohol abuse; emotional, physical, and sexual workplace violence; domestic violence and child abuse; post-traumatic stress disorder and suicide. Tensions between different groups can lead to divisiveness and violence if not appropriately managed. Different cultural standards regarding sexual or other interpersonal behaviors can create miscommunication and escalating tensions in the workplace. Gender assumptions can result in female and child victimization, if a man feels he has a 'right' to 'treat' his family according to standards of patriarchal dominance. The trauma of war, living in high-crime areas, deprivation,…
Eating disorder is characterized by abnormal eating habits involving excessive or insufficient intake of food which is detrimental to the individual's physical and mental well-being. There are two common types of eating disorders although there are other types of eating disorders. The first is bulimia nervosa which is excessive eating coupled with frequent vomiting. The second type is anorexia nervosa which is immoderate restriction of food which leads to irrational weight gaining. The other types of eating disorders include eating disorders not otherwise specified which are essentially where a person has anorexic and bulimic behaviors, binge eating disorder which is compulsive overeating without any kind of compensatory behavior, and pica which is craving for certain non-food items such as glue, plaster, paper. It is estimated that roughly 10-15% of cases of eating disorders occur in males and statistics show that women are at a higher risk of developing eating disorders…
Doll, H.A., Petersen, S.E., & Stewart-Brown, S.L. (2005). Eating Disorders and Emotional and Physical Well-Being: Associations between Student Self-Reports of Eating Disorders and Quality of Life as Measured by the SF-36. Quality of Life Research, 14(3), 705-717. doi: 10.2307/4038820
Kime, N. (2008). Children's Eating Behaviours: The Importance of the Family Setting. Area, 40(3), 315-322. doi: 10.2307/40346135
Krauth, C., Buser, K., & Vogel, H. (2002). How High Are the Costs of Eating Disorders - Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - for German Society? The European Journal of Health Economics, 3(4), 244-250. doi: 10.2307/3570016
Martin, A.R., Nieto, J.M.M., Jimenez, M.A.R., Ruiz, J.P.N., Vazquez, M.C.D., Fernandez, Y.C., . . . Fernandez, C.C. (1999). Unhealthy Eating Behaviour in Adolescents. European Journal of Epidemiology, 15(7), 643-648. doi: 10.2307/3582136
Stress and Drug Abuse
Discuss the relationship between stress and substance abuse following critical incidents
Sufferers of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and survivors of other forms of trauma exhibit far higher rates of substance abuse than the general population. They may suffer from "psychiatric disorders that are clearly reactive to the trauma of the crime to which anyone would be vulnerable….the horror and helplessness of being victimized [may] have somehow triggered a persistent pattern of distress which may be viewed as an exaggerated adaptive and protective response" (Chapter 21: Substance abuse and victimization, n.d, Tennessee Victim Assistance Manual: 776). Substance abuse can be one way to self-medicate from such exaggerated responses, particularly if the symptoms of PTSD are not identified and treated early on during the sufferer's illness.
Examples of critical incidents that can increase the likelihood of substance abuse include violent crimes like domestic violence: approximately 50% of…
Chapter 21: Substance abuse and victimization. (n.d). Tennessee Victim Assistance Manual.
Retrieved August 9, 2011 at www.utc.edu/.../documents/Chapter21SubstanceAbuse.doc
Miller, Lawrence. (2006). Law enforcement traumatic stress: Clinical syndromes and intervention strategies. The American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress.
Retrieved August 9, 2011 at http://www.aaets.org/arts/art87.htm
(Book & andall, 2002, p. 130) Both of these lines of research are ripe for additional investigation, as they seem to clearly complicate and possibly exacerbate the social affect of the disorder to a large degree and are secondary problems shared by many who experience the disorder.
Other related disorders also give more clear insight into panic disorder, as post traumatic stress disorder has increased in severity as well as incidence, given the prolonged state of national crisis, war and other issues involving over stimulation in the fast paced society we share. One review work, demonstrates the conflicts and controversy that surrounds PTSD, often a precursor to panic disorder as the disorder leaves the individual with a cognitive reaction to normal events in an exaggerated panicked, fashion and in many ways correlates to panic disorder. The article states that victims in the past have been treated ineffectually due to preconceived…
Beamish, P.M., Granello, DH, & Belcastro, a.L. (2002). Treatment of Panic Disorder: Practical Guidelines. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24(3), 224.
Bogels, S.M., & Zigterman, D. (2000). Dysfunctional Cognitions in Children with Social Phobia, Separation Anxiety Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28(2), 205.
Book, S.W., & Randall, C.L. (2002). Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Use. Alcohol Research & Health, 26(2), 130.
Cook-Cottone, C. (2004). Childhood Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Diagnosis, Treatment, and School Reintegration. School Psychology Review, 33(1), 127.
Autism is a developmental disorder, as can be seen in the fact that Peter was first diagnosed when he failed to develop speech at the rate of a normal child. Autism is also a spectrum disorder, meaning that individuals will manifest the condition in different ways and different aspects of normal speech, movement, and social interactions may be inhibited depending on the child and the condition's severity. There is no 'cure' for autism or universally-accepted treatment for the disorder although behavioral interventions such as ABA "encourages positive behaviors and discourages negative behaviors in order to improve a variety of skills" through methods such as "Discrete Trial Training (DTT) DTT is a style of teaching that uses a series of trials to teach each step of a desired behavior or response. Lessons are broken down into their simplest parts and positive reinforcement is used to reward correct answers and behaviors." (Treatment,…
Additional treatments for ADHD. (2013). Psych Central. Retrieved from:
Depression. (2013). NIMH. Retrieved from:
Seriously, a reader cannot be certain that RAD is the key problem with T, who has had prenatal exposure to alcohol, marijuana and cocaine and has experienced "abuse and neglect" (Lyon p. 644). The article brings in the possibility that FASD or PTSD may be appropriate in describing "T" -- a 12-year-old Hispanic boy. But what stands out in the intervention of T. is the litany of medications given to T. while he was institutionalized due to wild and violent behaviors: Risperidone (3 mg); clozapine (200 mg); valproic acid (750 mg); guanfacine (4 mg); and desmopressin (0.6 mg).
In addition, T received chlorpromazine (50 mg every 2 hours) and Benadryl (50 mg every 4 hours) (Lyon p. 645) to curb his aggression. hat also stands out is the disclosure that Lyon received money from Eli Lilly to conduct this research on T. How much credibility does an author have in…
American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. (2008). Reactive Attachment Disorder.
Retrieved May 13, 2009, from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families//reactive_attachment_disorder .
Becker-Weidman, Arthur, and Hughes, Daniel. (2008). Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy:
An evidence-based treatment for children with complex trauma and disorders of attachment.
Apparent health can be generally positive or negative; in spite of how it links with the real health; it may be significant to comprehend its function in certain kinds of psychopathology. Negatively apparent health has been anticipated to symbolize a cognitive risk factor for panic disorder (PD), detached from elevated anxiety feeling. As a result, PD may be more likely to take place on a background of negative perceptions of one's health. A negatively perceived health may also have predictive implications for PD patients, bearing in mind that negatively perceived health has been found to be a considerable predictor of mortality in general and that individuals with panic-like anxiety indications, panic attacks, and PD have elevated mortality rates, mostly due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular illnesses (Starcevick, Berle, Fenech, Milicevic, Lamplugh and Hannan, 2009).
Studies have suggested that panic attacks (PA) are widespread and connected with an augmented occurrence of…
Carrera, M.; Herran, a.; Ramirez, M.L.; Ayestaran, a.; Sierra-Biddle, D.; Hoyuela, F.;
Rodriguez-Cabo, B.; Vazquez-Barquero, J.L..(2006). Personality traits in early phases of panic disorder: implications on the presence of agoraphobia, clinical severity and short-
term outcome. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 114(6), p.417-425.
Craske, Michelle G., Kircanski, Katharina, Phil., C., Epstein, Alyssa, Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich,
..in their view, rather than promoting wholeness and recovery, the experience recreated the secrecy of abuse and fed the stigma associated with each of the three issues."
In the hopes of a more well-organized approach to providing these key services to women, the WELL project instituted a mechanism for promoting strategy and collaboration changes at the state, regional, and local levels. The WELL project also recommended an open dialogue between agencies as to better systems to put in place, and suggested giving individuals within each area of service "freedom to make change at any given moment" when a better approach can be taken by a trained professional healthcare provider.
Predominantly Female Caseloads: Identifying Organizational Correlates in Private Substance Abuse Treatment Centers, a piece in the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & esearch (Tinney, et al., 2004), speaks to the issue of the need for healthcare providers to be meeting "distinctive…
Conrad, Patricia J., Pihl, Robert O., Stewart, Sherry H., & Dongier, Maurice. (2000). Validation
Of a System of Classifying Female Substance Abusers on the Basis of Personality and Motivational Risk Factors for Substance Abuse. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14(3),
Markoff, Laurie S., Finkelstein, Norma, Kammerer, Nina, Kreiner, Peter, & Prost, Carol a.
2005). Relational Systems Change: Implementing a Model of Change in Integrating
Bipolar psychiatric disorder (BD) -- which is characterized by "…cycles of depression and mania" -- is a "euphoric, high-energy state" that can produce remarkable bursts of creativity or, on the other hand, can produce erratic behavioral events that are risky and provocative (Gardner, 2011). About 2.4% of the world's population has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder (at one time or another in their lifetime) but the rate in the United States (4.4% of the population) is the highest of any nation (Gardner, p. 1). The lowest rate on record is in India, 0.1%. This paper reviews various aspects and ramifications of the effects of bipolar disorder through nine peer-reviewed research articles.
Bipolar disorder and cigarette smoking
In the journal Bipolar Disorders the authors point out that adults suffering from bipolar disorder are "…two to three times more likely" have begun a serious smoking habit, which is a "devastating addiction" and…
Calkin, Cynthia, and Alda, Martin. (2012). Beyond the Guidelines for Bipolar Disorder: Practical
Issues in Long-Term Treatment with Lithium. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57(7), 437-
Gardner, Amanda. (2011). U.S. has highest bipolar rate in 11-nation study. CNN Health.
Retrieved March 27, 2013, from http://www.cnn.com .
This occurs when people experience feelings of terror and helplessness during a trauma and then has recurrent flashbacks, nightmares, impaired concentration and emotional numbing afterwards. Some victims of this disorder turn to alcohol or other drugs which do nothing accept compound the problem. It is thought that approximately 10% of Americans have had or will have this disorder at some point in their lifetime (Carpenter and Huffman, 2008).
Since it seems evident that we can't escape stress, we need to learn how to effectively cope with it. There is not one single thing that must be done but a process that allows us to deal with various stressors. A person's level of stress depends on both their interpretation of and their reaction to stressors. Elimination of drug use and no more than moderate alcohol use are important in the successful management of stress. It is known that people, when stressed,…
Carpenter, Siri and Huffman, Karen. (2008).Visualizing Psychology. New Jersey: Wiley.
Stress. (2009). Retrieved July 31, 2009, from MedicineNet Web site:
Swanson, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, CA 92715
Age: ____ Grade:
Ethnicity (circle one which best applies): African-American Asian Caucasian Hispanic
Completed by:____ Type of Class:
For each item, check the column which best describes this child:
Not at Just a Quite
1. Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork or tasks
2. Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
3. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
4. Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties
5. Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
6. Often avoids, dislikes, or reluctantly engages in tasks requiring sustained mental effort
7. Often loses things necessary for activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, or books)
8. Often is distracted by extraneous stimuli
9. Often is forgetful in…
The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.bartleby.com/66/3/33503.html
Cloward, Janessa. "ADHD drugs pose heart risks, federal panel says," University Wire, February 15, 2006. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1118518952.html
DeMarle, Daniel J.;Denk, Larry;Ernsthausen, Catherine S.. "Working with the family of a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.(Family Matters)," Pediatric Nursing, July 1, 2003. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1107215868.html
Edwards, Jason H.. "Evidenced-based treatment for child ADHD: "real-world" practice implications." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, April 1, 2002. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-87015306.html