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Juvenile ehabilitation Programs
Prevention and Intervention Treatment Programs
ehabilitation of juveniles: Four critical factors
Two of the universal characteristics of successful juvenile rehabilitation programs include beginning early (i.e., offering services while the child is still young and has only committed his or her first offense) and dealing with multiple settings and systems (i.e., incorporating the family and school instead of merely focusing on the individual) (Bartol & Bartol 2010: 153-156). This is the aim of one evolving approach to counseling juveniles which focuses on giving juveniles important communication skills. This enables them to better cope with life stressors and is an important part of rehabilitation. According to Sanger & Spilker (2006), social skills training (SST) is an important part of any rehabilitation program and may encompass story-telling, guided conversation, and instruction in how to use language effectively.
Learning these skills can also enhance teens' future vocational prospects and enable them…
Bartol, Curt & Bartol, Anne. (2010). Criminal Behavior: A Psychological approach. Prentice Hall.
Sanger, D., Maag, J.W., & Spilker, A. (2006). Communication and behavioral considerations in planning programs for female juvenile delinquents. Journal of Correctional Education, 57(2), 108-125.
During the assessment the participant will be asked to disclose how often and how many incidences of substance abuse he or she has participated in during the last week. He or she will also be asked to disclose what substances have been used in that time frame.
In addition the participant will participate in an interview in which he or she will provide a life history and a description of when they first began using and why and how much they currently spend on drugs or alcohol.
One element of the assessment will be specifically to ascertain what type of support system the participant has at home and at work if he or she holds a job.
When the assessment is completed the counselor will make a recommendation for treatment depending on the assessment outcome.
The recommendation will be for inpatient, intensive outpatient or low outpatient services depending on the…
Evaluating substance abuse treatment process models: I. changes on proximal outcome variables during 12-step and cognitive-behavioral treatment.
From: Journal of Studies on Alcohol | Date: July 1, 1998 | Author: Moos, Rudolf H. | More results for: substance abuse treatment
Predictors of participation in aftercare sessions and self-help groups following completion of intensive outpatient treatment for substance abuse.
From: Journal of Studies on Alcohol | Date: March 1, 1998 | Author: O'Brien, Charles P. | More results for: substance abuse treatment
juvenile treatment program. Evaluate the "best practices" it exhibits and note which areas of the program might need improvement. In addition to this week's Learning Resources, support your evaluation by citing an academic journal article.
Juvenile treatment programs: Useful programs
According to Mincey (et al. 2008) as well as supportive family members and positive strategies, rehabilitative programs that are successful also enhance the connection of offenders to their school environment. his sets the stage for positive future interactions with academic authority figures and gives young offenders a positive outlook upon the future. Effective school relationships also support vocational advancement in the near and far future. Juvenile offenders on average read at a fourth grade level (the median age of juvenile detainees is fifteen and 1/3 read below the 4th grade level) Learning disabilities and conduct disorder compound their problems and without appropriate academic support, reintegrating into a law-abiding community and…
To build more positive connections between youth and university environments, Evergreen State College has fostered a program called Gateways for Incarcerated Youth with the juvenile detention centers at Green Hill and Maple Lane. Evergreen students work as co-learners and learning assistants with the juveniles. They discuss college-level texts, assist the juveniles in writing assignments, and act as mentors (Gateway, 2011, Prison Studies Project). What is so noteworthy about this program is the positive mutual relationships it fosters, ones which are social as well as academic. Academic aspirations are nurtured and fostered with positive peer role modeling. For juveniles with longstanding negative issues in their relationship with adults, the program is particularly valuable. Rather than acting in a judgmental way, the program conveys to the juvenile detainees that they can have a future if they work hard and commit to their education. It also shows the juveniles that they can lead a different way of life, demonstrating to them that college is a very real possibility, and 'real people' go to college.
The unconditional positive regard conveyed by the program is designed to also rehabilitate the self-esteem of the juvenile offenders. Rather than breaking them down, the program seeks to build up the offenders' sense of positive self-worth. Although the appropriate emphasis of juvenile programs will vary in terms of the type of offenders the programs focuses upon, overall the aim of the juvenile justice system is rehabilitation not punishment. Concentrating upon education and worthwhile activities is a critical component of honoring the rehabilitative aspect of juvenile detention. However, this rehabilitation is not without some demands upon the incarcerated students. They are asked to study, to devote themselves to their classes and are held to high standards in terms of their achievement and efforts. The high expectations communicate the need for and the possibility of change; the educational environment creates a new community for the juveniles and enables them to envision a world beyond the one which they currently inhabit. It also connects them to an environment outside of the prison walls -- m any of the incarcerated juveniles keep up the friendship with the Evergreen students even after they have been released.
Making positive demands upon students and encouraging them to change rather than punishing students
I would recommend the D.A.R.E. program due to the success we just mentioned as a result of the study done on the students at various stages in their education. And there are many other studies as well that indicate success (D.A.R.E., n.d.). That, to me, is the proof that the program works.
Not having known a great deal about this program, I was impressed when I reviewed the various research studies and the basics of the program. Particularly, I think the fact that it has reached so many classrooms across the country with practical information is valuable.
D.A.R.E. (n.d.). Research, resources, evaluations. Retrieved July 2, 2009, from dare.com: http://www.dare.com/home/Resources/Default5647.asp?N=Resources&M=16&S=0
Darnell, A., & Emshoff, J. (2008, July 24). Findings from the evaluation of the D.A.R.E. prescription and over-the-counter drug curriculum. Retrieved July 2, 2009, from dare.com: http://www.dare.com/home/Resources/documents/DAREReport0821_final.pdf
D.A.R.E. (n.d.). Research, resources, evaluations. Retrieved July 2, 2009, from dare.com: http://www.dare.com/home/Resources/Default5647.asp?N=Resources&M=16&S=0
Darnell, A., & Emshoff, J. (2008, July 24). Findings from the evaluation of the D.A.R.E. prescription and over-the-counter drug curriculum. Retrieved July 2, 2009, from dare.com: http://www.dare.com/home/Resources/documents/DAREReport0821_final.pdf
CAEFS takes the position that women with mental health problems do not belong in prisons and that the treatment, support and assistance they need should be provided to them in the community, rather than in prison.
The above statement clearly outlines central problem areas that should be the focus of investigation. As this study and others emphasize, women who enter prison with mental issues and problems require intensive support. However, this is at present not the case and many women prisoners who suffer from mental problems are not afforded the necessary support and adequate intensive therapy. Some critics also suggest that alternatives be investigated for women with mental issues. "... The public need for the appearance of retribution may deter government from considering alternatives to sentencing persons with mental disabilities to imprisonment." www.elizabethfry.ca/submissn/dawn/17.htm" (ibid)
Another factor which relates to mental and psychological issues is that women experience stress…
Bilchik, Shay, Cyntha Seymour, and Kristen Kreisher. "Parents in Prison." Corrections Today Dec. 2001: 108+. Questia. 17 Feb. 2005 http://www.questia.com/ .
Bjorhus, Jennifer. "Getting into Prison." Columbia Journalism Review July-Aug. 1994: 14+. Questia. 17 Feb. 2005
When one looks at the occurrence of recidivism in offenders who have partaken in treatment programs varying from organic programs to those geared to more social and emotional support programs, it becomes clear that recidivism of sexual re-offense is relatively low, compared to those who undergo no treatment program. However, there is still an issue with non-sexual re-offense. In addition, there is evidence that the contributing factors for adult and juvenile offenders are different.
As such, it is suggested that not all offenders should receive the same treatment. Correctional literature indicates that high-risk offender require the greatest use of resource, while lower risk offenders require the lowest level of resources (Andrews & Bonta, 2003).
As such, blanket policies that deem all offenders as 'high risk' are neither effective nor efficient. In addition, it may take away resources from those who truly need it, such as juvenile offenders who require longterm…
Abracen, J., Looman, J., DiFazio, R., Kelly, T., & Stirpe, T. (Mar 2006). Patterns of attachment and alcohol abuse in sexual and violent non-sexual offenders. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 12(1). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
Andrews, D. & Bonta, J. (2003). The psychology of criminal conduct. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.
Bates, a., Saunders, R., & Wilson, C. (Spring 2007). Doing something about it: A follow-up study of sex offenders participating in Thames Valley Circles of Support and Accountability. British Journal of Community Justice, 5(1). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from SocINDEX database.
Calley, N. (Spring 2007). Integrating theory and research: The development of a research-based treatment program for juvenile male sex offenders. Counseling & Development, 85(2). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
S. Census Bureau) It is clear after having reviewed this information that this area is quite needy in provision of alcoholism treatment and intervention.
VI. Treatment Program Community Marketing Process
In the initiative of reaching the community both through media and public relations as tools to raise awareness the organization will be enabled to alert members of the community about the services available. Promotions, marketing, public relations and media advocacy are all critical specifically as these are all integrated with the business sector and as well adapted by nonprofit organizations. In the attempt to market or advertise to the community the available services all venues of the media should be sought and the mass media in the form of newspaper and magazines and other printed material as well as media through television and radio broadcast communications and finally through the Internet's provision of electronic media. Communication with the media should…
Ervin, N.E. (2002). Advanced community health nursing practice: Population-focused care. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall. ISBN# 0-8053-7364-0.
Bensley, R.J., & Brookins-Fisher, J. (EDs). (2003). Community health education method: a practitioners guide. (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett. ISBN# 0-7637-1801-7
Andreasen, A.R. (1995). Marketing social change: Changing behavior to promote health, social development, and the environment. San Francisco CA: Jossey-Bass. ISBN# 0-7879-0137-7
Medicaid EPSDT and AOD Treatment Services Policy Brief entitled Resources for Recovery: State Practices that Expand Treatment Opportunities" Medicaid EPSDT and AOD Treatment Services" (O'Brien, et al., 2005) National Program Office, Technical Assistance Collaborative, Inc. Online located at: www.resourcesforrecovery.org
Treatment History Of Cystic Fibrosis
The field of pediatric nursing is a particularly large one in which its members may find themselves having to counsel both young patients and their families suffering from a myriad of diseases. Cystic fibrosis (CF), in particular, is a debilitating disease that strikes many young people. In the first years following its discovery, many children could not expect to make it to their teen years. Today, with advances in the management and care of this disease, patients are living into their 40s. It is even possible that there will one day be a cure.
This paper will look at CF from a historical perspective. The timeline of its discovery and research will be briefly presented, as will a few of the significant "milestones" in the history of the treatment of CF and what these mean for people battling this disease.
References to cystic fibrosis were…
Author not available. (1994). Genetic Therapy Possible Cure for Several Diseases. Morning Edition (NPR).
Baroni, M.A., Anderson, Y.E., and Mischler, E. (1997). Cystic fibrosis newborn screening: Impact of early screening results on parenting stress. Pediatric Nursing. 23, 143(9).
Hopkin, Karen. (1998). Understanding Cystic Fibrosis. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.
Orenstein, David M. (1997). Cystic Fibrosis: A Guide for Patient and Family. 2nd ed., Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven.
Substance Abuse Programs in Prison
The work of Harrison (nd) reports that the 'Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) for State Prisoners Formula Grant Program was created by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 in response to the increasing number of incarcerated individuals in the United States with substance abuse problems." (p.vi) It is reported that RSAT grants may be used to "implement or expand treatment programs for inmates in residential treatment facilities operated by State and local correctional agencies that provide individual and group treatment activities for inmates." (Harrison, nd, p. 2) The RSAT programs must be in a six to twelve month length, provide residential treatment facilities that are apart from the general prison population, be focused at the substance abuse problems of inmates, work in developing the cognitive, social, behavioral, vocational in addition to other skills that serve to bring about resolution to the…
Frantz, M. (2009) What You Need to Know…Before You Go To Federal Prison. Dog Ear Publishing. 2009.
Harrison, LD (nd) Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners Implementation Lessons Learned. Google Books. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=bbE6-erVr98C&dq=SUBSTANCE+ABUSE+PROGRAMS+IN+PRISON&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Alcohol and drug abuse is not limited to any socioeconomic category, race, religion, or gender. Finding the right drug, the right type of support group, and the right type of intervention can be a long and difficult process. For example, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) offers special resources for recently-deployed combat officers, teens, and even obese individuals, all of which are tailored to meet the different challenges that life circumstances, age of life, or biology can pose that predispose an individual to addictive behaviors or affect an addict's treatment plan.
However, improving opportunities for jobs and treating communities as well as individuals seems essential to aiding those who are disproportionately affected by addiction. All addicts feel the effects of tolerance and physiological and psychological dependency to some degree, depending on the nature of the drug and their biology (Oakley & Ksir, 2003, pp45-46). But while social…
Adrian, Manuella. (2001). Do treatments and other interventions work? Some critical issues.
Substance Use & Misuse, 36 (13): 1759-1780
NIAAA. Alcoholism. Getting the Facts. Retrieved October 8. 2010 at http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/
Oakley S. Ray & Charles Ksir. (2003). Drugs, society, and human behavior. New York:
Treatment and Management of Cancer
Obligations of community health nurse in providing healthcare
The high demand for healthcare services, especially to those managing dreadful illnesses such as cancer, there is a dire need to understand the health promotion strategies and also ensure quality lives. Here, is a discussion assisting to analyze how best to improve health and better management of dreaded conditions like diseases such as cancer. Those affected will learn to adopt the right measures that will help to improve functional abilities, and what to practice in case self-care is not an option. The mandate of community health nurses will be scrutinized, to help acquire general knowledge on efficient management of diseases.
Cancer is a disease, which has characteristics of growths that cannot be controlled, and also the abnormality of how rapidly the cells are spread to other organs. Cancers vary in their areas of…
Treatment of Heart Failure in Nursing Home Residents
Heart failure (HF) symptoms may occur because of systemic and pulmonary congestion, structural defects arising on account of HF, structural defects leading to HF, or from treatment complications. At first, studies addressing the issue of heart failure focused on HF patients and decreased left ventricular contraction. As a result, therapies were tested within this patient cluster. This patient cluster's agreed description is HF with LVSD (left ventricular systolic dysfunction) (NCGC, 2010).
In order to treat chronic HF, non-pharmacological as well as pharmacological therapy ought to be utilized for patients. While this condition is quite frequently witnessed among patients living in nursing homes, whether the suggestions put forward in the pharmacological therapy guidelines are implemented within this cluster of patients is unclear (Daamen, et al., 2016).
Owing to the lack of awareness of the precise prevalence of chronic HF, this phenomenon is…
Barents, M., Horst, V., Voors, A., Hillege, J., & Jongste, M. (2008). Prevalence and misdiagnosis of chronic heart failure in nursing home residents: the role of B-type natriuretic peptides. Neth Heart J., 123 -- 128.
Davidson PM, Cockburn J, Newton PJ, et al. (2010). Can a heart failure-specific cardiac rehabilitation program decrease hospitalizations and improve outcomes in high-risk patients? Eur J. Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2010;17:393 -- 402
Dinkelaker S. (1999) Can A Nurse-Managed Medication Discharge Planning and Follow-Up Program Affect Readmission Rates of Patients with a Diagnosis of congestive Heart Failure?
Daamen, M., Hamers, J., Gorgels, A., Tan, F., Schols, J., & Rocca, H. (2016). Treatment of heart failure in nursing home residents. J Geriatr Cardiol., 44 -- 50.
Treating Juvenile Delinquency
Delinquency treatment program:
Peer mentoring program for African-American male juveniles
A brief description of your community
African-American males are disproportionately represented in the incarcerated juvenile population, relative to their percentage of the general population. The reasons for this have been hotly debated amongst criminal justice professionals and laypersons. Possible reasons include racism within the police and justice systems, the ways laws are written, and also a lack of vocational opportunities. According to one study conducted by the U.S. Department of Justice in New Jersey, while 10% of white juveniles were adjudicated and sentenced for their first-degree offenses, more than 31% of African-American juveniles received sentences for the same crimes; white juvenile offenders were similarly found to receive lesser sentences than African-Americans in the state of Florida (Drakeford & Garfinkle 2000). Dealing with the unique problems of African-Americans within juvenile detention centers is clearly an essential…
Black male dropouts lead nation in incarceration. (2012). PR News wire. Retrieved:
Drakeford, Will & Garfinkle, Lili Frank. (2000). Differential treatment of African-American
The National Center on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice. Retrieved:
This punishment program is a middle ground between incarceration and traditional probation and parole. The individuals participating in this program are released into the community, however, they are subject to very strict guidelines and conditions; failure to meet the requirements leads to a jail term in one of the state's jails to serve their sentence. The punishment program is divided into three types; house arrest, day reporting and intensive reporting. Individuals on house arrest are required to wear ankle bracelets along with a tracking device at all times, which electronically monitors their whereabouts. Any eligible individual can be placed on house arrest, however, those individuals serving mandatory D.U.I. sentences are by law, required to be on house arrest with electronic monitoring. In addition, individuals on day reporting are required to report in person to the respective I.P.P. office on a daily basis. Once at the office, all individuals…
For many, this is program of last resort. The author explains that To be admitted, clients must also have a substance abuse problem and a history of unsuccessful completion of other programs (Program Procedures Manual 1993). Therefore, all of the program's clients have received services in various inpatient and outpatient mental health units and clinics in the past, where the primary focus was on their psychiatric disorders. Only 17% have received services in substance abuse programs for the general population, and only 3% have been in other MICA programs (Freeman 2001).
Another community-based program is designed specifically for the treatment of young adults at an outpatient facility. In their study Easton et al., (2003) describes a large community based out patient facility in New Haven, Connecticut (the name of the facility is not given). The study evaluated 434 participants who were divided into two groups; young adults (18-25) and older…
Andersen, M., Paliwoda, J., Kaczynski, R., Schoener, E., Harris, C., Madeja, C., et al. (2003). Integrating Medical and Substance Abuse Treatment for Addicts Living with HIV / AIDS: Evidence-Based Nursing Practice Model. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(4), 847+.
Easton, C., Sinha, R., & Kemp, K. (2003). Substance Abuse Treatment Characteristics of Probation-Referred Young Adults in a Community-Based Outpatient Program. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(3), 585+.
Freeman, E.M. (2001). Substance Abuse Intervention, Prevention, Rehabilitation, and Systems Change Strategies: Helping Individuals, Families, and Groups to Empower Themselves. New York: Columbia University Press.
Michigan Department of Community Health HIV / AIDS Surveillance Section (MDCH) Quarterly HIV / AIDS Analysis, January 1, 2003. State of Michigan Department of Health: Lansing, MI, 2003.
For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local mental institutions on a long-term basis. Most had been involuntarily committed by orders from courts or physicians, and the discharge rate was very low. Before the 1950s and 1960s, there were few effective treatments for mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia, which were commonly considered incurable. Only with the psycho-pharmacological revolution in recent decades and new anti-depressant and anti-psychotic medications has it been possible for the severely mentally ill to be treated on an outpatient basis through community mental health centers. Of course, as the old state hospitals have emptied many of the mentally ill have ended up homeless, since they are unable to hold maintain regular employment or continue on a medication regimen without supervision. According to present-day…
Bacon. H. "Book Review: Jonathan Willows, Moving On after Childhood Sexual Abuse: Understanding the Effects and Preparing for Therapy in Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. (15)1 January 2010, pp. 141-42.
Bartels, S.J., A.D. van Citters and T. Crenshaw (2010). "Older Adults" in Levin, B.L., J. Petrila and K. Hennessy Mental Health Services: A Public Health Perspective. Oxford University Presss: 261-82.
Behar, E.S. And T.D. Borkovec. (2003). "Psychotherapy Outcome Research" in I.B. Weiner et al., eds. Handbook of Psychology: Research Methods in Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Carron, V.G. And K. Hull. (2009). "Treatment Manual for Trauma-Exposed Youth: Case Studies." Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 15(1) 13 November 2009, pp. 27-38.
Offender Reentry Program Proposal
The concept of offender "reentry" is beginning to take the corrections world by storm -- a much overdue storm. Reentry is the process of prisoners reentering society after a period of incarceration in a prison, jail, or detention facility. But it doesn't signify just "letting them go." It connotes that offenders are "prepared" to be released. It means that they are much better off at the time of release than at the time of their admission. (Anderson, S)
It suggests that their period of community supervision will contribute to their crime-free lifestyle. An estimated 100,000 youth are released from secure and residential facilities every year and because the length of incarceration for juveniles is shorter than for adults, a relatively greater percentage of juveniles return to the community each year. In addition, research indicates that a small percentage of juvenile offenders commit the overwhelming majority of…
Wilkinson, R. (1998). The impact of community service work on adult state prisoners using a restorative justice framework. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati.
Wilkinson, R. (2000). Sex offender risk reduction center. In R. Wilkinson (Ed.), Correctional best practices. Directors' perspectives. Middleton, CT: The Association of State Correctional Administrators.
Wilson, D., Gallagher, C., & MacKenzie, D. (2000). A meta-analysis of corrections-based education vocation, and work programs for adult offenders. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 37, 347-368.
According to Greenwood (2008), researchers have recognized 12 "established" delinquency-prevention programs that have shown remarkable improvement in their participants. They also identified an additional 20-30 that demonstrated promise. Shifting towards evidence-based practices derived from information gathered from successful programs can help increase the likelihood of success in other programs through implementation of effective standardized practice. Evidence from school-based programs show remarkable prevention in many areas. "Successful school-based programs can prevent drug use, delinquency, anti-social behavior, and early school drop-out" (Greenwood, 2008, pp. 185).
Greenwood also highlights community-based programs, much like school-based programs, can deter first-time delinquents from added happenstances with the justice system by providing skill development and personal development. As evidence suggests, the most effective community programs stress family communications and provide services and incentive to the adults who oversee and instruct the child. Much like St. Leo University, whose core beliefs include acquiring and learning skills, interconnectedness, and…
Borduin, C.M., Mann, B.J., Cone, L.T., Henggeler, S.W., & Al, E. (1995). Multisystemic treatment of serious juvenile offenders: Long-term prevention of criminality and violence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63(4), 569-578.
Connor, D.F., Saxena, K., Ferziger, R., Daniolos, P.T., Chang, K.D., Carlson, G.A., et al. (2006). Juvenile maladaptive aggression: a Review of Prevention, Treatment, and Service Configuration and a Proposed Research Agenda. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67(05), 808-820.
Greenwood, P. (2008). Prevention and Intervention Programs for Juvenile Offenders. The Future of Children, 18(2), 185-210.
These facts do not even address the personal bias that may exist among employers who are more likely to hire welfare recipients than ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
The problems ex-offenders face do not stop with employment. Male ex-offenders unable to hold steady or appealing jobs are often less appealing to potential partners as they are perceived as unable to "Contribute economically" and many carry a stigma associated with a past conviction (Western, 54).
All of these facts support the need for better rehabilitation programs to prevent increased recidivism among ex-offenders (Western, 2003). May have likened parole to law enforcement processes than social work, suggesting that parole officers are more surveillance oriented than supportive in their roles toward ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
Many groups that do support the needs of ex-offenders including nonprofit agencies often lack the resources necessary to help ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
Significance of the Study
Every year more than 600,000…
Etters, K. (2002 - Dec). "Job-readiness training program at the Wayne County Jail prepares offenders for success." Corrections Today, 64(7): 112.
Fischer, M., Geiger, B. & Toch, H. (1991). "Reform through community: Resocializing offenders in the Kibbutz." New York: Greenwood Press.
Lattimore, P. & Witte, A.D. (1985). "Programs to aid ex-offenders: We don't know nothing works." Monthly Labor Review, 108(4): 46.
Lemieux, C.M. (2002). "Social support among offenders with substance abuse problems:
Once inmates were encouraged to complete an education while in prison and gain skills to get a paying job so they could be self-supporting once they got out, but that is no longer so. The public attitude was, "Why should criminals get a free education? Law abiding citizens have to pay for college." The overcrowded conditions, caused by long mandated sentences for non-violent drug offenses put an end to social programs in the prisons aimed at preparing prisoners to live as law-abiding citizens when they got out.
Privatization of prisons, which makes them cheaper to run, has had negative effects. Some researchers contend that by putting private companies in charge of prisons, we have created a market economy for crime with a market demand for prisoners. More people in prison provide more business for these companies. These companies have strong lobbies that pressure for harsher and longer sentences. For example,…
Beaudoin, Jack. "Does the U.S.Abuse Human Rights," Scholastic Update. 8 Dec. 1997.
Bohm, Robert. "Crime, Criminals, and Crime Control Policy Myths," Justice Quarterly,
Chavez, Linda. "One of the Keys to Reducing Crime is Ridding our Prisons of the Crimes Committed There," Enterprise/Salt Lake City, May 15, Vol 29, Iss. 46,
Green, Bonnie L.; Miranda, Jeanne; Daroowalla, Anahita; and Juned Siddique. "Trauma
The main values that are apparent in this article are first, an empirical adherence and promotion of objectivity in dealing with a topic that is highly fraught with many emotions, and secondly a true desire to bring about the betterment of society and the individuals within it. The authors stress at one point that it is understood that sex offenders can never be "cured' of their impulses, and that an acceptance of this fact is precisely what allows them to be able to learn how to control these impulses and desires in order to refrain from being a danger to society or anyone else in it. That is, it is through bringing objectivity to bear on the issue that the issue can actually be successfully addressed, and the research that is presented in this article certainly backs this perspective up. Objectivity and empirical examination, in other words, are some of…
Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner Program
A critical component of nursing is treating a patient's psychological as well as physical needs. I have seen this again and again in my work for an intensive care unit. Every day, more and more patients who are HIV positive come through our doors. HIV can take a tremendous psychological as well as physical toll upon the individual. Additionally, although HIV and AIDS can be contained, the drug regime prescribed must be carefully followed. For patients with ambivalence, shame or guilt about their illness, they may unconsciously sabotage themselves; for patients with deep and entrenched mental health problems outside of their HIV status, following a recommended program of drug therapy and counseling can be even more arduous.
Of course, the failures of HIV treatment are not the patient's 'fault.' There is also the problem of providers who themselves are ill-equipped to deal with the psychological challenges…
This has been the traditionally used mode of treatment for non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas, but the fact remains that there have not been many clinical trials conducted that would reveal the benefits of CHOP in comparison to various other chemotherapy options for the treatment of CLL, which is a very slowly growing form of cancer and is therefore conversely very difficult to treat and cure because of the fact that all the traditional methods of treatment, whether chemotherapy or radiation, are meant to quickly and rapidly destroy the fast growing cancerous cells. (Cancer Treatment and Prevention)
Curing a patient with the CLL or SLL forms of cancer is considered to be highly unusual, but it is true that these patients will b able to lead productive lives even after 6 to 10 years after the cancer have been diagnosed for them. A patient when he is making the choice of treatment for…
Bischof, Delaloye a. (2003) "The role of nuclear medicine in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)" Leuk Lymphoma. Volume: 44 Suppl 4; pp: S29-36
Cancer Treatment and Prevention" Retrieved at http://patient.cancerconsultants.com/treatment.aspx?id=782Accessed on 26 December, 2004
CHOP - complementary considerations. Lymphoma-tion" (2 October, 2004) Retrieved at http://www.lymphomation.org/chemo-CHOP.htm . Accessed on 26 December, 2004
CHOP Patient Information Sheet" Newcastle General Hospital, Northern Center for Cancer treatment. (June, 2005) Retrieved at http://www.newcastle-hospitals.org.uk/v2/PDF/patientleaflets/NCCT/Standard/CHOP.PDFAccessed on 26 December, 2004
Policing Services and Programs:
Even as policing services and programs are being restructured across the globe, understanding this change in customary terms is rather difficult. In these new policing services and programs, the difference between public and private domains of policing is also problematic. However, understanding the ongoing changes is dependent on distinguishing between the authorization of policing and the way these services are provided. This is because of the fact that those who authorize policing services and programs may differ from those who provide these services (Bayley & Shearing, 2001). The restructuring of policing incorporates the weaknesses of the public police and is due to increases in crime, social structure, ideas and culture, character of government and the nature of economic systems. Due to the ongoing restructuring of policing, the role of the public police is significantly changing adopting a governmental rather than individual agenda. Furthermore, policing services and…
Bayley, DH & Shearing, C.D. (2001, July). The New Structure of Policing: Description,
Conceptualization and Research Agenda. Retrieved from National Institute of Justice -- U.S. Department of Justice website: http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles1/nij/187083.txt
Cohen, B. & Leinen, S.H. (2009). Research On Criminal Justice Organizations: The Sentencing
Process. Retrieved May 4, 2011, from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reports/2009/R2018.pdf
Few other public health issues have drawn as much attention, and garnered as much support for policy and programming as obesity. Obesity programs have been initiated and implemented at the federal and state levels, and all fifty states currently have early childhood education physical activity and healthy eating regulations and policies (The State of Obesity, 2018). All the major national public health research organizations, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health likewise inform and promote obesity-related policies and programs. Government agencies like the Food and Drug Administration and the USDA also have distinct policies and programs. In spite of the abundance of both private and public funding for anti-obesity research, policy development, and programming, the majority—two-thirds—of American adults are overweight or obese, and more than a fourth of all healthcare costs in the nation are consumed by obesity-related issues (Levi, Vinter, Richardson, et…
Treatment of Criminal Offenders
As a clinician, how can you apply the knowledge you gained from this course to more effectively serve your clients?
A connection has been established by researchers between brutal and violent susceptibility to impair a particular area of the brain. Till date, several evidence, have assisted to bring into limelight the shady aspect of human attitude and might pave the way for important interference. For instance, several types of spontaneous aggression might be a result of defective balancing of emotion within the prefrontal cortex of the brain, the centre of superior intellectual activities like judgment, analysis and substantial control of impulses. The degree of malfunctions in the core circuits of the brain related to aggressive behavior and if these circuits are capable of being repaired is of course debatable. esearchers have mentioned that individuals inclined to violence have structured blueprints in the brain that can be…
Allen, Harry E; Simonsen, C.E. (1998) "Corrections in America" New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Gendreau, P & Goggin, C. (1996) "Principles of Effective Programming with Offenders" Forum on Corrections Research, Volume: 8; No: 3, pp: 38-40.
Hoge, R.D. & Andrews, D.A. (1996) "Assessing the Youthful Offender: Issues and Techniques" New York: Plenum.
Jacobs, B. L; Azmitia, E.C. (1992) "Structure and function of the brain serotonin system" Physiological Reviews. Volume: 72; pp:165-229.
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.
Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.
Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…
Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.
Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.
Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.
Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.
The inclusion of alcohol and drug education is a vital component of most drug and alcohol abuse interventions, for both the users and non-user. (Montagne et al., 1992). This education can be offered as a preventive measure to beginners of abuse of substances of to the vulnerable group to save the future generations from the menace and the whole society from the drug's association with crime. Alternatively, it should be offered to be taught as part of the educational curriculum in schools
ecent literature reviews have not found enough evidence to convince many researchers that drug and alcohol awareness programs have great impact on changing substance and drug use, attitude and behavior (Eliany et al., 1993). Although it is of great effort, it has been observed that education alone is not enough to change the actual behavior of alcohol and drug use (Tobler et al1976), in the actual examination of…
ADAM (1998) Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program):1998 Annual Report on Adult and Juvenile Arrestees. Addiction Research Foundation ( 1994). Alcohol and Drug Treatment in Ontario, Toronto:
BUREAU of JUSTICE STATISTICS (1998). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Burrell, N. And K. English. 2006. "Successful completion rates from Community Corrections in Colorado decreased for the first time in many years." Elements of Change: Highlighting Trends & Issues in the Criminal Justice System. Colorado Division of Criminal Justice, Office of Research and Statistics. Vol. 10, No.1. Viewed December 26, 2007 at http://dcj.state.co.us/ors/pdf/docs/EOC_No1_071906.pdf .
Bloom, B.E., and Covington, S.S. (2001) "Effective gender-responsive interventions in juvenile
Drug Treatment of Counseling Program
The District of Columbia has decided to implement a drug treatment program or a counseling program for adults incarcerated in jail. The decision is influenced by the need to enhance rehabilitation services that the district provides to its adult prisoners. Moreover, the District of Columbia has decided to implement such as program in order to help lessen the recidivism rates among adults upon release from incarceration facilities. However, the implementation of this program requires conducting an extensive research on the effectiveness of such a program in order to enhance its overall success. Conducting an extensive research will help in assessing the effectiveness of the program prior to implementation and ensure best practices are adopted in designing the program. This paper provides a research proposal for measuring the effectiveness of the drug treatment program to be implemented in the district.
The research question that…
Office of Research Integrity. (n.d.). Research Design -- Experimental Studies. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services website: http://ori.hhs.gov/education/products/sdsu/res_des2.htm
White, M. (2007). Maps of narrative practice. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.
Addiction does not have an assigned definition. This effectively means that there are various definitions to drug and alcohol addiction that have been explored in the past. For purposes of this discussion, addiction will be defined as “a chronic, relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking, continued use despite harmful consequences, and long-lasting changes in the brain” (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2019). In addition to evaluating the effectiveness of group therapy aid in the treatment of alcohol addiction, this paper will, amongst other things, highlight various aspects of the formations designed to assist alcohol addicts as well as those affected by the alcohol addiction problems/behaviors of loved ones.
It is important to note, from the onset, that the relevance of group therapy in the treatment of alcohol addiction cannot be overstated. In essence, “the natural propensity of human beings to congregate makes group therapy a powerful therapeutic…
Autism: Home-Based Treatment of Young Children
Over time, research findings have shown that behavioral intervention (intensive) instituted early enough impacts significantly on the trajectory (developmental) of children having autism. In a big way, such findings have informed quite a number of treatment programs targeting youngsters with autism. Some of the main approaches that have been adopted as far as the treatment of autism is concerned include the school-based approach, the center-based approach and the home-based approach. In this text, I concern myself with treatment (home-based) of children with autism.
According to Sheinkopf and Siegel (1998), parents and professionals have often encountered difficulties formulating appropriate treatment approaches for youngsters with autism. This is mainly as a result of the variations that exist when it comes to the treatment of the condition. Indeed, Sheinkopf and Siegel (1998) note that many children with autism end up receiving a cocktail of modalities in regard…
Schopler, E. & Mesibov, G.B. (1984). The Effects of Autism on the Family. Springer.
Sheinkopf, S.J. & Siegel, B. (1998). Home-Based Behavioral Treatment of Young Children with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28 (1), 15-16, 22.
Volkmar, F.R., Paul, R., Klin, A. & Cohen, D.J. (2005). Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Assessment, Interventions, and Policy. John Wiley and Sons.
For example, Leventhal (2001) analyzed different intervention methodology and implementation of home-based services aimed at preventing abuse and neglect as well as promoting the health and development of the infant and mother, by specifically looking at the Healthy Families Olds' models.
Kass and colleagues (2003) from Fight Crime: Invest in Kids argue that the cycle of violence can be prevented with intervention methods including parenting education. oberts, Wolman and Harris-Looby (2004, p. 101) state that "teaching students parenting skills may be the most cost-effective way to reduce violent and abusive behaviors and prevent the transfer of violent behaviors from generation to generation." They found that for less than $1,000, Project Baby Care, a parental training program developed for adolescents proved successful in improving parental knowledge and skills and attitudes toward caring for an infant.
Another study (Hughs & Gottlieb, 2004), regarding the effects of the Webster-Stratton parenting program on parenting…
Belsky, J. & Vondra, J. (1989), 'Lessons from child abuse: The determinants of parenting', in D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds), Child Maltreatment: Theory and Research on the Causes and Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect, New York: Cambridge University Press, 153-202.
Chalk, R. & King, P.A. (Eds) (1998), Violence in Families: Assessing Prevention and Treatment Programs, Washington DC: National Academy Press,
Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) (U.S.), Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACF). Child maltreatment 2003. Washington (DC): Government Printing Office; 2005. Website retrieved May 10, 2007 www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/pubs/cm03/index.htm.
Fine, M.J. (1980), Handbook on Parent Education, Academic Press, New York.
Treatment Approach to Adolescent Substance Disorders
All over the world, the issue of substance abuse among adolescents is worrying many parents and governments. Substance abuse not only has long-term negative effects on an adolescent's brain but it may also interfere with the individual's school performance, and the relationships they have with their families and friends. The good news is no matter what one is addicted to, he or she can be helped through a substance abuse intervention. Each intervention is tweaked to the specific needs of each adolescent. Prior to the commencement of treatment, there is need for a thorough evaluation to identify an individual's strengths and weaknesses and what needs to be done. A proper intervention will look into an adolescent's: behavioural issues; physical issues; ethnic and cultural factors; their relationships with parents, friends, loved ones and community members; their gender; and degree of psychological development (National Institute on…
Barnett, E., Sussman, S., Smith, C., Rohrbach, L. A., & Spruijt-Metz, D. (2012). Motivational
Interviewing for adolescent substance use: a review of the literature. Addictive behaviors, 37(12), 1325-1334.
Dennis, M., Godley, S. H., Diamond, G., Tims, F. M., Babor, T., Donaldson, J., ... & Hamilton,
N. (2004). The Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Study: main findings from two randomized trials. Journal of substance abuse treatment, 27(3), 197-213.
S ome aromas even affect us physiologically" (p. 38). esearchers exploring human olfaction have determined that:
faint trace of lemon significantly increases people's perception of their own health.
Lavender incense contributes to a pleasant mood -- but it lowers volunteers' mathematical abilities.
A whiff of lavender and eucalyptus increases people's respiratory rate and alertness.
The scent of phenethyl alcohol (a constituent of rose oil) reduces blood pressure.
These findings have contributed to the explosive growth in the aromatherapy industry; according to Furlow (1996), "Aromatherapists point to scientific findings that smell can dramatically affect our moods as evidence that therapy with aromatic oils can help buyers manage their emotional lives" (p. 38). According to Ornstein and Sobel, one recent experiment to determine the effect, if any, of fragrances on mind/body involved subjects being wired to physiological monitoring equipment, and then being interrogated with stress-provoking questions, such as "What kind of person…
Anderson, B.J., Manheimer, E. & Stein, M.D. (2003). Use and Assessment of Complementary and Alternative Therapies by Intravenous Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(2), 401.
Aromatherapy Therapy Chart of Essential Oils by Therapeutic Effect. (2004). MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart. Available: http://www.moondragon.org/aromatherapy/aromatherapychart.html .
Ba, T.R.D.N. (Ed). (2003). An Introduction to Complementary Medicine. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Battista, J.R., Chinen, A.B. & Scotton, B.W. (1996). Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology.
JC5 Research Articl2: Draft
Combined treatment with the mood stabilizers lithium and valproate produces multiple beneficial effects in transgenic mouse models of Huntington's disease.
rief Summary In Your Own Words: Goal, Experimental Design, Results, Conclusion
This research analyzes impacts of mixed-drug therapy on DNF (rain Derived Neurotrophic Factor) protein levels among transgenic and wild mice indicated under Huntington's Disease (HD's) N171-82Q mouse mutation. The mice's diet was chow, lithium and chow, valproate and chow, or a valproate-lithium mixture and chow. These test mice were surrendered following 14, 28, and 56 days of treatment in order to match DNF protein levels in the cortex between different treatment time intervals. rain cortex samples were acquired for assessment through the Western lotting method of analysis. Investigation-specified mutual treatment using valproate and lithium proved most effective in cumulative DNF protein stages during every treatment period.…
BIBLIOGRAPHY: At Least 7 Sources, Numbered. Articles in Harvard Format. Others in APA Format.
1. Chiu, C, Liu, G, Leeds, P, & Chuang, D 2011, 'Combined treatment with the mood stabilizers lithium and valproate produces multiple beneficial effects in transgenic mouse models of Huntington's disease', Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication Of The American College Of Neuropsychopharmacology, 36, 12, pp. 2406-2421, MEDLINE with Full Text, EBSCOhost, viewed 10 October 2015.
1. Huntington's disease. (2015). Retrieved 2015, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/huntingtons-disease/basics/definition/con-20030685
1. Cloe, A., (2015). How a Western Blot Test Works. Retrieved 2015, from http://www.livestrong.com/article/83858-western-blot-test-works/
1. Kramer, D., (2013, December 6). Western blotting (immunoblot): Gel electrophoresis for proteins. Retrieved October 28, 2015, from Kramer, D. (2013, December 6). Western blotting (immunoblot): Gel electrophoresis for proteins. Retrieved October 28, 2015, from http://www.antibodies-online.com/resources/17/1224/Western blotting immunoblot Gel electrophoresis for proteins/
gathered using a number of key word searches and combinations of terms, such as "adolescent," "substance abuse," "treatment," "drug," "outcome," "drug abuse, "juvenile drug abusers," juvenile drug use," "juvenile drug treatment," "adolescent drug treatment," and "adolescent drug use." These key word searches were conducted in online databases such as PsychInfo, PubMed, NCBI, JSTO, National Institute of Mental Health, National Criminal Justice eference Service, and Google Scholar. These searches resulted in a number of studies that appeared useful for this analysis. The five chosen were chosen because of common key words and their relevance to this study's focus on if adolescent males with substance disorder are given inpatient treatment instead of outpatient treatment whether they will have a greater chance of maintaining their sobriety.
Description and Technique
Branson, Clemmey, and Mukherjee (2013). This study is a sample size 48 adolescents with roughly half Latino and half African-American, male and female.…
Branson, C., Clemmey, P., Mukherjee, P. (2013). Text message reminders to improve outpatient therapy attendance among adolescents: a pilot study. Psychol Serv, 10(3): 298-303.
Esposito-Smythers, C., Spirito, A., Kahler, C., Hunt, J., Monti, P. (2011). Treatment of Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Suicidality among Adolescents: A Randomized Trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(6): 728-739.
Friedman, A, Terras, A., Ali, A. (1998). Differences in characteristics of adolescent drug abuse clients that predict to improvement: for inpatient treatment versus outpatient treatment. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 7(3): 97-119.
Waldron, H., Slesnick, N., Brody, J. (2001). Treatment outcomes for adolescent substance abuse at 4 and 7-month assessments. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(5): 802-813.
Gangs in Prisons in the United States and the Affect Rehabilitation Programs to Help Inmates Upon Release
Prison Gangs are one of the most challenging entities that have to be tackled by the authorities. Their growing influence in the prison setting concerns not just the inside of the prisons, but also the outside world, as when they are released, the members continue causing problems for the society. A lot of rehabilitation programs have been formed in order to provide guidance and a fresh start to the inmates who are released, which helps them overcome their criminal life and lead a normal one. This paper discusses the phenomenon and existence of criminal gangs and how the rehabilitation programs affect them after their release.
According to Lyman (1989), a prison gang is a criminal entity made up of special group of chosen prisoners that is governed with some sort of code…
Fleisher, M., & Decker, S. (2001). An Overview of the Challenge of Prison Gangs. Corrections Management Quarterly, 1-9.
Gilligan, J. (2012, December 10). Punishment Fails. Rehabilitation Works. Retrieved from New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2012/12/18/prison-could-be-productive/punishment-fails-rehabilitation-works
Lyman, M.D. (1989). Gangland. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
Miceli, V. (2009). Analyzing the Effectiveness of Rehabilitation Programs. Senior Honors Project, 1.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a commonly occurring mental health problem facing military personnel and veterans. The constant problems that plague those with PTSD can cause them to lead a lower quality of life with potential development of depression and anxiety commonly prevalent in those with the mental disorder. This qualitative study aims to research ways to provide positive pathways to care for members of the UK Armed Forces receiving treatment for PTSD by examining United States PTSD programs and studies performed on efficacy of these programs. This study will show what has worked in American PTSD programs under the Department of Veterans Affairs and what can be applied for the UK Armed Forces.
The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs has various programs available to help military personnel and veterans cope with PTSD. Information collected from studies assessing these programs' effectiveness will be used to provide more effective…
Khusid, M. A., & Vythilingam, M. (2016). The Emerging Role of Mindfulness Meditation as Effective Self-Management Strategy, Part 1: Clinical Implications for Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety. Military Medicine, 181(9), 961-968. doi:10.7205/milmed-d-14-00677
Murphy, D., Hunt, E., Luzon, O., & Greenberg, N. (2014). Exploring positive pathways to care for members of the UK Armed Forces receiving treatment for PTSD: a qualitative study. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 5(1), 21759. doi:10.3402/ejpt.v5.21759
Petticrew, M., & Roberts, H. (2009). Systematic reviews in the social sciences: A practical guide. Malden, Mass. [etc.: Blackwell Publishing.
Saini, M., & Shlonsky, A. (2012). Systematic synthesis of qualitative research. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Trauma-elated Disorders and ecommended Treatment
Clinical Presentation of Trauma-elated Disorders and ecommended Treatments
On January 13, 2015, Andrew Brannan, a 66-year-old Vietnam veteran was executed in Georgia for killing police officer Kyle Dinkheller in 1998 (Hoffman, 2015). At the time, Brannan had been living in a bunker on his mother's property without water or electricity and had stopped taking his medications. According to the Veterans Administration (VA), he was 100% disabled due to combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). He also suffered from bipolar disorder, had lost two brothers to a military plane crash and suicide, and lost a father to cancer. Veterans groups, death penalty critics, and mental health advocates, all petitioned the Georgia Supreme Court for a stay of execution unsuccessfully. The veterans groups were particularly interested in preventing the death of yet another veteran who developed severe psychiatric problems while serving his or her country.
Trauma in general…
APA (American Psychiatric Association). (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
Cook, J.M., Dinnen, S., Simiola, V., Bernardy, N., Rosenheck, R., & Hoff, R. (2014). Residential treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in the Department of Veterans Affairs: A national perspective on perceived effective ingredients. Traumatology, 20(1), 43-9.
Dursa, E.K., Reinhard, M.J., Barth, S.K., & Schneiderman, A.I. (2014). Prevalence of a positive screen for PTSD among OEF/OIF and OEF/OIF-era veterans in a large population-based cohort. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27, 542-549.
Ehring, T., Welboren, R., Morina, N., Wicherts, J.M., Freitag, J., & Emmelkamp, P.M. (2014). Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Clinical Psychology Review, 34(8), 645-57.
An Analysis of the Effectiveness of Psychological and Critical Incident Stress Debriefings
The world in which we live today is an ever-changing, precarious environment. Many individuals, for these very reasons, experience stressful, life-altering incidents much more often than in the past. These experiences, transmitted more rapidly than ever thanks to newly discovered technologies, can harm an individual greatly, especially if hidden from expert analysis, and can provoke long-lasting psychological, emotional and even physical damage to an individual. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), for instance, is an umbrella term given to those individuals who have experienced traumatic or stress-inducing incidents, be they from military experiences or simply from a death in the family through some traumatic means. PTSD has been diagnosed as a disorder only recently, however, and many of the treatments that have been suggested as a means through which to deal with PTSD are still being tested. The…
1. Foa, E. & Keane, T.M. & Friedman, M.J. & Cohen, J.A. (2008). Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. New York: The Guilford Press.
2. Davis, L.L. & Frazier, E.C. & Williford, R .B. & Newell, J.M. (2006). Long-Term Pharmacotherapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. CNS Drugs, 20(6). Pp. 465-476.
IPT have distinct roles, and different patients may be referred to one of these treatment modalities yet resist treatment in some way. Rather than viewing these patients as categorically "difficult," therapists would be better off repositioning and rebranding ACT and IPT to better sell their respective models. It is also helpful to understand patient reservations, recognize there may be cross-cultural variables at stake in the communication process, or other patient-centric variables impacting their attitudes toward the particular modality. Many patients naturally mistrust a treatment modality that is new or unfamiliar to them, or which they have never heard of before in the media. Therefore, therapists of either ACT or IPT need to use a variety of communications strategies to encourage patient compliance when necessary. It may be helpful to describe examples of noncompliant or resistant patients in order to better grasp the types of techniques used to educate and inform,…
Five thousand flyers will be distributed to local synagogues and churches. Another major distribution channel is through the public education system, Brooklyn College is located within the Midwood community, it has now become a strong community meeting point for both students and adults. Pamphlets distributed through the school will be able to attract large audiences. ADA provides a series of seminar and workshops called the "Diabetes Awareness Program." Using the DAP as the basis for creating local interest; this series will be launched through the community as a public forum for understanding diabetes. Such a forum will be targeted to two distinct audiences. The first will be public speaking engagements for local health care professionals to increase their awareness of diabetes within their community and prepare for the flood of questions to come. Information sessions for the general public will take the form of public rallies or seminars staged through…
Program for the Mentally Ill Homeless Population
This research project is an attempt to determine if a community-based program serving the mentally ill homeless population has met its goal of reducing hospitalizations for acute psychiatric episodes. An attempt to identify the elements that define the difference in this program will be identified and evaluated. The literature shows that treating the mentally ill homeless population is especially difficult in terms of building lasting relationships based on trust. The population tends to move from one area to another within the city and become elusive when they are looked for. This program will be evaluated for its effectiveness in preventing hospitalizations for acute psychiatric episodes, the usefulness of case managing, including ensuring clients have and are taking their medications and whether this program has been more successful than traditional programs in finding permanent housing for it's clients.
Problem and Purpose
Homelessness is on…
Aday, L. (1993), At risk in America: the health and health care needs of vulnerable populations in the Unites States. San Francisco, California.
Alter, C., Hage, J. (1993), Organizations working together. Newbury Park, California, Sage.
American Journal of Psychiatry. (1993), Treatment of homeless men who are mentally ill.
Bolland, J., Wilson, J. (1994), Three faces of integrative coordination: a model of in interorganizational relations in community-based health and human services. Health Services Res.
programs within institutions that can adversely affect the life of a given section of the community or student population. The 'zero tolerance' approach to fighting drugs in institutions is a well intentioned course that is meant to see a minimization of the use of drugs from academic institutions. It is widely argued that the program has however targeted the minority, hence predisposing them to higher punitive measures than their majority counterparts. This may not have kits origins from the program itself but from the historical data and frequency of proven cases of drug use or handling among the minorities. Whether these statistics are relative to the entire population or in a case by case consideration is still argued out there, but one fact for sure is that the minority have over time had higher encounters with the law enforcement agencies in line with drug related cases (Human ights Watch, 2009).…
Abigail Thernstrom (2011-03-29). "America in black and white: one nation indivisible." pp. 273.
Catherine S., (2013). Zimmerman juror to ABC: He 'got away with murder'. Retrieved July 25, 2013 from http://edition.cnn.com/2013/07/25/justice/zimmerman-juror-b29-interview
Human Rights Watch, (2009). Race, Drugs, and Law Enforcement in the United States. Retrieved July 25, 2013 from http://www.hrw.org/news/2009/06/19/race-drugs-and-law-enforcement-united-states
Homeless Mental Health
Mental health is an issue that is deemed to be very under-treated and very under-diagnosed within the United States. Beyond that, there are populations that are much more at risk than others. A good example would be the prison population where drug use and mental health issues are both rampant. However, there is another group that is highly stricken and very vexing and difficult to treat and that would be the homeless. Indeed, many people that are homeless are in that position due to mental health issues. Mental health is often not the only issue involved as comorbidity can exist with substance abuse. However, mental health will be the focus of this report. Facets of the homeless with mental health that will be focused upon within this report will include issues like diversity, ethics, values, social justice, diagnosing of patients, initiation/termination of care, aftercare, and the broader…
Belcher, J. R. (1988). Rights vs. Needs of Homeless Mentally Ill Persons. Social Work, 33(5), 398.
Chambers, C., Chiu, S., Scott, A., Tolomiczenko, G., Redelmeier, D., Levinson, W., & Hwang,
S. (2014). Factors Associated with Poor Mental Health Status Among Homeless Women
With and Without Dependent Children. Community Mental Health Journal, 50(5), 553-
As cellular phone usage has increased the emergency response systems in rural areas has found itself being jammed with over use while the traditional wired trunk lines go unused. Unfortunately, balancing the cost of adding new wireless trunks line in order to meet the new demand has to be balanced against the cost of maintaining the old wired trunk lines. Due to the fact that cell phone coverage is not universally available in rural areas, traditional wired phone access is still needed so rural areas must still adequately meet the needs of both technologies, the old and the new. (Kurtis)
The new E-911 system is an enhanced version of the old 911 system. The advance of wireless technology has allowed the transmission of more information in a much more efficient manner. Under the E-911 system, the 911 operator can easily identify the telephone number of the person calling and any…
Chapman, S. a. (1998). Emergency Use of Cellular (mobile) telephones.
Federal Communications Commission. (2010). Wireless 911 Services. Washington D.C.: FCC.
Habib, I.M. (20007). Wireless technologies advances for emergency and rural communications. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing .
Kurtis, M. (2004). Deploying E-911 Phase II in Rural America. Business Source Complete .
Treatment Programs for Sex Offenders
esults of studies are inconclusive as to how often convicted sex offenders re-offend once released from prison. A Canadian study suggested the number is as high as 88%. (Bialik, 2008) However, Wisconsin psychologist Dennis Doren states, "There is no research support for that view, period." (Bialik, 2008) Another widely publicized report indicates the rate of re-offense to be 52%. (Bialik, 2008) If even half of the convicted sex offenders are likely to commit a similar crime once released, the number is too high.
One way to reduce the number of repeat offenders is to mandate participation in a treatment program. Once an offender is convicted of a crime, their Constitutional rights should be suspended. They should lose the free will that they enjoyed as a free member of society. As such, they should be required to undergo treatment for sexual assault. It should not even…
Alaska Department of Corrections and Alaska Justice Statistical Analysis Unit. (1996). Sex Offender Treatment Program: Initial Recidivism Study -- Executive Summary. Anchorage, AK: Offender Programs, Alaska Department of Corrections; and Alaska Justice Statistical Analysis Unit, Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage.
Bialik, Carl. (January 24, 2008). How Likely Are Sex Offenders to Repeat Their Crimes? Retrieved from http://blogs.wsj.com/numbersguy/how-likely-are-sex-offenders-to-repeat-their-crimes-258/
Prentky, R. & Burgess, A.W. (1990). Rehabilitation of child molesters: A cost-benefit analysis. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 60, 108-117.
These strategies should focus on parolees' risks and need and conducted in a way that would motivate change. Aware of these realities, States continue to innovate and evolve reentry strategies towards this end (Yahner et al.).
The RI was a particularly ambitious correctional program in that it targeted the most difficult offenders for rehabilitation and incorporation into the community. These are young offenders with violent criminal histories, who are likeliest to be excluded from reentry assistance. The RI develops and implements individual plans to reintegrate chosen offenders back into society. This was the Controlling Violent Offenders Program.
Efforts begin during their incarceration and continue when they are released into the community through a focused approach by a mentor. Case workers and mentors conduct varied programs to support their transition. These include social services in substance abuse and mental health disorders and vocational services for training, education and resume development for…
Braga, A.A. et al. (2008). Controlling violent offenders released to the community.
Rappaport Institute for Greater Boston: Harvard Kennedy School. Retrieved on March 19, 2013 from http://www.hks.harvard.edu/var/ezp_site/storage/fckeditor/file/pdfs/centers-programs/centers/rappaport/workingpapers/braga_BRI_final.pdf
James, N. (2011). Offender reentry: correctional statistics reintegration into the community and recidivism. CRS Report for Congress: Congressional Research
Service. Retrieved on March 19, 2013 from http://www.nationalcia.org/wp-content/uploads/correctional-statistics-Reintegration-into-the-Community.pdf
Mobile Crisis Program:
Effectiveness, Efficiency and Consumer Satisfaction, Questions
What are the goals of the Mobile Crisis Program?
The mobile crisis program of DeKalb County, Georgia is a component of the DeKalb Community Service Board, a comprehensive mental health service agency aimed at treating and reducing the threat of lash-outs from mentally ill persons throughout the county. The goals of the program are to provide community-based psychiatric services to stabilize persons experiencing psychiatric emergencies in the least restrictive environment, to decrease arrests of mentally ill people in crisis, and to reduce police officers' time handling psychiatric emergency situations throughout the county, thus freeing them to return to their regular duty serving and protecting their respective communities.
In allowing for this type of program within its communities, DeKalb county's overarching goal of achieving stability within its borders has the ability to come to fruition. Additionally, as the mobile crisis program's goal…
he most common progressive chronic lung situations that would require the rehabilitation include interstitial lung disease, chest wall disease, bronchiectasis, and pre and post thoracic surgery. he fourth category of patients to offered pulmonary rehabilitation is those with recent exacerbation of COPD requiring hospitalization, without the anticipated recovery path, and whose functional baseline has changed significantly ("Service Specification," 2012).
Chronic lung diseases have developed to become one of the most common respiratory illnesses across the country. As the diseases have become one of the major reasons for hospitalizations of patients, they usually affect individuals at the age of 35 years and above despite of the fact that these individuals are usually not diagnosed until they are 50 years and above. he growth and rapid increase of chronic diseases is attributed to the tendency of many people with the disease not to get medical assistance. While the conditions continue…
The most common progressive respiratory disease is the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), which is a name that is also used to refer to a collection of lung diseases ("Introduction," 2012). The other common chronic lung diseases include emphysema, chronic bronchitis, chest wall disease, interstitial lung disease, chronic asthma, and obstructive airways disease. These chronic lung diseases usually involve a combination of three major factors i.e. airway diseases, lung circulation diseases, and lung tissue diseases. As the name suggests, the airway diseases affect the airways or tubes that transport oxygen and other gases to and from the lungs. In contrast, the lung tissues diseases affect the lung tissue structure through inflammation or scarring of the tissue. Lung circulation diseases affect the blood vessels in the lungs through scarring, clotting, or inflammation of these vessels. As a result, these diseases contribute to difficulties of the lungs to receive oxygen and release carbon dioxide. The severity of chronic lung diseases is basically dependent on the combination of these three conditions. However, most of the chronic lung diseases are attributed to the narrowing or blockage of the airways. For instance, emphysema, COPD, and chronic bronchitis are conditions that inhibit the ability of the tubes or airways to carry oxygen and other gases to and from the lungs. Generally, patients with chronic lung diseases such as COPD always have difficulties breathing because of airflow obstruction or narrowing of the airways.
As previously mentioned, these diseases account for a huge number of hospital emergency room visits and hospitalizations, although they are largely preventable. Despite being preventable, these diseases have become some of the major causes of death and key factors in the ever-increasing huge human and economic burden because of the tendency of patients to ignore their symptoms ('Emergency Department Support Fund Application," n.d). The major symptoms of these diseases include rising breathlessness, frequent chest infections, and constant cough with phlegm ("Introduction," 2012). The tendency to ignore these symptoms contributes to the many incidents of recidivism to acute care facilities.
The main cause of chronic lung diseases, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is smoking. An individual enhances the risk of developing these diseases when he/she smokes more and for long periods of time. Smoking results in scarring that increases the risk of chronic lung diseases, through irritating or inflaming the lungs. The inflammation in turn results in permanent lung changes over many years. During this period, the walls of the tubes or airways thicken as more mucus is generated. In addition to making the lungs lose their normal elasticity, the damage or harm to the delicate walls of the air sacs in the lungs results in the development of emphysema. Moreover, the smaller airways or tubes become narrowed or scarred. The combination of these permanent changes to the lungs contributes to symptoms of cough, breathlessness, and phlegm linked to chronic obstructive pulmonary
Genzyme Sanofi enasssit Program.
One of the major and overwhelming changes that has occurred within a real life case of the Genzyme Sanofi enassist Program is the marked increase in applications for this program. In May, we received 87 applications for patients that were in their 90D Waiting Period. That is a 32% increase over the number of applications received in May 2012. In May of 2012 only a total of 66 applications were received (66 applications). Helping patients is nothing new to enassist. According to their official website, "the enassist® team has been helping patients with and without prescription drug coverage identify the envela® (sevelamer carbonate) reimbursement solution that is right for them…" (renassist.com, 2013). To be clear, the enal Patient Assistance Program (PAP) was designed specifically for patients who had significant financial needs but were not covered for envela under and specific prescription drug plan or cmmerical insurance,…
Healthit.gov. (n.d.). The business imperative for Compliance. Retrieved from Healthit.gov: http://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/us_lshc_icd-10implementationforhealthcareproviders_0810.pdf
Oregon.gov. (2008). Healthcare Payment Reform & Provider Reimbursement. Retrieved from Oregon.gov: http://www.oregon.gov/OHA/OHPR/hfb/delivery/payment_reform_provider_reimbursement_paper.pdf
Renassist.com. (2013, January). Patient assistance programs. Retrieved from Renassist.com: http://www.renassist.com/Patient-Assistance-Programs/Renal-Patient-Assistance-Program
Renassist.com/partd. (2013, Janaury). Part D Assistance Program (PDAP). Retrieved from Renassist.com: http://www.renassist.com/Patient-Assistance-Programs/Part-D-Assistance-Program
D.A.R.E. program teaches kids how to recognize and resist the direct and subtle pressures that influence them to experiment with alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and other drugs. Did you or anyone you know go through the D.A.R.E. curriculum? hat do you have to say about the program? ould you like to see the D.A.R.E. program continued in our nation's schools? hy or why not?
(Drug Abuse Resistance Education) administers a school-based substance abuse, gang, and violence prevention program in 75% of U.S. school districts and in 48 countries (as of 2013); since 1983, 70,000 police officers have taught the D.A.R.E. program to over 200 million K-12 students worldwide -- approximately 114 million in the United States alone (ProCon, N.d.). The effectiveness of the program is a heavily debated subject. There is more evidence, peer-reviewed studies, which point to the program being effective in reducing the number of youth involved in drug…
Gorman, D., & Huber, C. (2009). The Social Construction of "Evidence-Based" Drug Prevention Programs. Social Sciences, 396-414.
ProCon. (N.d.). Is the D.A.R.E. Program Good for America's Kids (K-12)? Retrieved from ProCon: http://dare.procon.org/
Riskind, J. (2002, June 30). Programs cost soars past $1 billion with little accounting. Retrieved from The Center for Educational Research & Development: http://www.cerd.org/press/d-a-r-e-s-programs-cost-soars-past-1-billion-with-little-accounting
Sloboda, Z., Stephens, R., Stephens, P., Grey, S., Teasdale, B., Hawthorne, R., . . . Marquette, J. (2009). The Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study: A randomized field trial of a universal substance abuse prevention program. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 1-10. Retrieved from Drug and Alchohol Dependence.
Why/How to create an Information Assurance
Just as paramount as the availability and access to information is significant in every company or business outfit, certain concerns always come to the fore: the kind of information is to be made. How the information is going to be organized? How will it be possible to ensure that the information released represents the judgment of the management of the company and gives assurance that the very information required is available?
This document contains the solutions to the concerns mentioned above; an Information Assurance Program is necessary in every organization. This project explains why information assurance program is needed in every viable company and also explores ways it can be affected, integrated into the organization and organized. The program encompasses different models which span through finding the reason why such program is needed to analyzing whether the finding is practicable. This takes…
Harwood, I.A. (2006). Confidentiality constraints within mergers and acquisitions: gaining insights through a 'bubble' metaphor, British Journal of Management, Vol. 17, Issue 4., 347 -- 359.
Parker, Donn B.] (2002). "Toward a New Framework for Information Security." New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0471412589.
Elsayed, E. (1996) Reliability Engineering, Addison Wesley, Reading, California: USA.
SACA (2006). CISA Review Manual 2006. Information Systems Audit and Control Association. pp. 85. ISBN 1-933284-15-3.
This research considered this by looking at a key constituent of low self-control which is the risk seeking tendency in order to decide its constancy and change throughout early childhood, its influences on changes in criminal behavior, and its receptiveness to a complete delinquency lessening program. These matters were looked at with information from the Children at isk (CA) program, an arbitrarily allocated interference that looked at early youth. The examination exposed considerable reliability in risk seeking, but there was proof of change as well, and these alterations were connected with contemporary alterations in delinquency. isk seeking alterations were not a consequence of contribution in the CA program, in spite of that program's achievement at dropping some appearance of delinquency (Hay, Meldrum, Forrest and Ciaravolo, 2010).
Part II: Assessment of the main strengths of the reading with particular emphasis on its utility for understanding adolescent development or social work intervention.…
Arthur, Michael W., Hawkins, J. David, Brown, Eric C, Briney, John S., Oesterle, Sabrina and Abbott, Robert D. (2010). Implementation of the Communities that Care Prevention
System by Coalitions in the Community Youth Development Study. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(2), p. 245 -- 258.
Hay, Carter, Meldrum, Ryan, Forrest, Walter and Ciaravolo, Emily. (2010). Stability and Change
in Risk Seeking: Investigating the Effects of an Intervention Program. Retrieved December 6, 2010, from http://yvj.sagepub.com/content/8/2/91
The sources provided background and reviews of published literature: Holmstrom (1996); Marcus-Mendoza (1995); and Osler (1991). Finally, three reports took on a narrower focus in investigating boot camps: Clark and Kellam (2001); Mueller (1996); and Souryal, Layton & MacKenzie (1994).
Burns and Vito (1995) examined the effectiveness of Alabama boot camps. In Alabama, overcrowded prisons brought on interest at the state level for prison boot camps. State prison boot camps incorporated marching, discipline, physical training, work, classes, and drug and alcohol abuse treatment in three phases. In the first phase, inmates confront their crime and take responsibility for it, ridding themselves of excuses. In the second phase, inmates focus on "self-discovery" by learning about themselves, goal planning, and improving themselves for future release. In the third phase, pre-release, inmates focus on problem solving as the key to their own future success as a lawful citizen upon release. Entry and participation…
Ashcroft, J., Daniels, D.J., & Hart, S.V. (2003, June). Correctional boot camps: Lessons from a decade of research. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.
Burns, J.C., & Vito, G.F. (1995, March). An impact analysis of the Alabama boot camp program. Federal Probation, 59(1), 63-67.
Burton Jr., V.S., & Marquart, J.W. (1993, September). A study of attitudinal change among boot camp participants. Federal Probation, 57(3), 46-52.
Christenberry, N.J., Burns, J.L., & Dickinson, G.B. (1994, September). Gains in educational achievement by inmates during the Arkansas Prison Boot Camp program. Journal of Correvtional Education, 45(3), 128-132.
This is discussed at length by Fusick and ordeau (2004) "...school-based counselors need to be aware of the disturbing inequities that exist in predominantly Afro-American urban school districts, where nearly 40% of Afro-American students attend school in the United States" (Fusick and ordeau, 2004) This again places emphasis on the need for mental health programs in these areas of concern. This is also related to findings from a study by McDavis et al. (1995) Counseling African-Americans, which refers to research that stresses the "...widening achievement gap between Afro-American and Euro-American students." (McDavis, et al. 1995)
An important study Laura a. Nabors, Evaluation of Outcomes for Adolescents Receiving School-ased Mental Health Services (2002) refers to the particular issue and problems experience at inner-city schools. The author states that, "School mental health (SMH) programs are an important setting for providing mental health services to adolescents, especially urban youth who typically face in-…
Smith, P.B., Buzi, R.S., & Weinman, M.L. (2001). Mental Health Problems and Symptoms among Male Adolescents Attending a Teen Health Clinic. Adolescence, 36(142), 323. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5001042308' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Public Program Quality Evaluation
Overview of the Program and the Program ationale
In 2011, approximately 23% of all children in the United States were children of immigrants. Many of these children have come from countries where the educational systems have not prepared them with competitive skills that will support a good standard of living. Various policies to address this issue have been proposed. Of the feasible options, the policy most likely to achieve popular approval is the provision of preschool education to all low-immigrant children. In part, the basis for this support is the historical national approval of programs such as Head Start. ecently, the nation has seen an upswing in state-funded pre-K programs that focus on preparing low-income 4-year-old children for kindergarten and elementary school. Head Start programs continue in a parallel manner, and necessarily so, as only a handful of states offer pubic school-based pre-K programs to all…
Haskins, R. & Tienda, M. (2011). The future of immigrant children. The Future of Children. Princeton University and the Brookings Institution.
Lawrence L. Martin, L.L. & Kettner, P.M. (1996). Measuring the performance of human service programs. Sage Publications.
Neuman, W.L. (2012). Basics of social research: qualitative and quantitative approaches (3rd ed.).
Puma, M. Bell, S., Cook, R., & Heid, C. (2010, January). Head Start Impact Study Final Report, Executive Summary. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. Washington, DC.
category or type of treatment or services does your program or facility provide?
The program was one for Sex and Love Addiction (SLAA). It uses the 12-step format to address the addiction
Is there a well-defined structure used for the type(s) of treatment provided?
Two qualified facilitators lead the group. They use the manual of the 12 steps for general addiction and apply it to the group. Approximately 12-15 people attend. The group starts off by facilitators welcoming the members and describing the objectives of the group as well as asking new members if they wish to introduce themselves. They pass around a paper that briefly describes their group. They then say what they hope to achieve in this session and ask members whether anyone has any success that they wish to report about related to the last. Each member then takes a turn in reading an excerpt of the…
Mental Health Recovery Program
Why does evaluation matter so much counseling programs? When one evaluates a program, they can be more certain that what is being done is making a difference. Practitioners have a professional responsibility to show that what they are doing is effective. Evaluation results demonstrate the impact and value of the work to key stakeholders which can help justify the resources that are available for different programs (Dimmitt, 2009).
Although mental health programs have become a global concern, one of the barriers to progress is the amount of evidence about effectiveness and cost effectiveness of these programs. Although it is known that there are effective treatments, there is less evidence about how to effectively the delivery of these programs is. It has been observed that there is variation in the symptoms and severity of the treatment needs of people utilizing mental health programs. This makes evaluation…