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Twin Towers Essays (Examples)

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Songs for Twin Tower
Words: 1444 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30441672
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Songs for win ower

For the United States, the events of September 11, 2001, and the post-9/11 developments arc full of historical drama. In he 9/11 Commission Report, the summary of the drama is stark: 'On September 11, the nation suffered the largest loss of life-2,973-- on its soil as a result of hostile attack in its history.' his description is usually accompanied by countless stories and mini- histories involving persons, families, workers. Citizens of the U.S. And of other nations too, near and far from New York and Washington, DC, found their comings and goings full of new meaning.

Union Square had become a public site for families and friends of the dead, grieving their losses or seeking the missing by posting photos, laments, poems, prayers. hey also scrawled their epithets of rage. he unity of work and remembrance, forged amid unfolding trauma, reminded me of the families of…

The late King of Pop also contributed to this catalog of songs we are reviewing today.

What More Can I Give was originally written to bring peace to the Korean Peninsula and the never-ending war-like crisis there. But the sudden intrusion of terror on September 11th threw a wrench at the project. Plans were quickly arranged for the urgent. On October 21st, 2001 Michael hosted United We Stand: What More Can I Give.

The benefit concert included the performance of "What More Can I Give." A song exclusively written and produced by Michael Jackson. And so he invited a total of 35 artists for an all-star tribute. Tom Petty, Carlos Santana, N'SYNC, were among many who attended. Including Ricky Martin, Celine Dion, Beyonce Knowles, Usher, Maria Carey, The Hanson's, and fragments of The Backstreet Boys, and Boyz to Men.

Redefined the Dubai Skyline in
Words: 2013 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 76686089
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The project site for the twin towers consists of approximately 200,000 square meters, an area that also includes low-level retail and parking podium areas (Poulos & Davids 2005). Like the Burj Dubai (Poulos & Bunce 2008), the foundation system for each of the towers in the Emirates Twin Towers complex buildings consists of a piled raft, founded on deep deposits of calcareous soils and rocks (Poulos & Davids 2005).

Based on what was determined to be relatively good conditions near the ground surface, a piled raft system was identified as being most suitable for the foundation of each tower based on the series of analyses conducted by the foundation project engineers (Poulos & Davids 2005). In each case, project engineers evaluated 18 different load combinations to assess loading as follows:

1. One loading set for the ultimate dead and live loading only;

2. Four groups of 4 loading sets for…


'Dubai Spire: The Mantle of the World's Tallest Building Will Soon Pass to the Burj Dubai, Now

Rising Up over the Gulf.' (2008, October). The Architectural Review, vol. 224, no. 1340,

pp. 81-83.

Elsheshtawy, Y. (2004). Planning Middle Eastern Cities: An Urban Kaleidoscope in a Globalizing World. New York: Routledge.

Firefighters Structural Analysis and Design
Words: 3088 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82621562
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Obvious concerns, such as when a firefighter entering a high-rise building loses communications with his team because tall buildings are not conducive to radio wave transmission and therefore do not allow firefighters' radios to work properly has not been addressed during the recent trend of building higher and higher.

Even something as simple as an external fire on a high-rise cannot be defended with the conventional firefighting techniques used throughout history. Unless helicopters or airplanes are deployed, a simple fire on say the 75th floor could wreak havoc. These concerns regarding safety and building size were logged from fire service representatives long before September 11th. As early as 1995, retired Fire Chief of the FNY, Vincent unn wrote that the World Trade Centers were lacking proper evacuation avenues and that if the buildings ever encountered a serious fire, existing procedures would be useless and that people above a certain threshold…

Dragon Tower,

Harbin, China 2000 336 1,103 (Infoplease, 2004)

Global Business

Violence Against Non-Combatant Populations to Increase the
Words: 660 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62387067
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violence against non-combatant populations to increase the psychological effects of warfare has been a mainstay of human aggression for millennia. As Russian revolutionist eon Tolstoy once said: "kill one, intimidate one thousand." In the modern world, the idea of terrorism has moved from the overt spark that caused World War I to the events of September 11, 2001. Just after 9am Eastern Standard Time, most of the world watched in horror as the global media replayed the events surrounding four passenger planes that were high jacked in the United States. Two of these aircraft were flown into New York's Twin Towers, one into the Pentagon in Washington, D.C., and the final one crashed into a field in Pennsylvania. Even though the damage was confined to the physical and geographic area of the United States, the image and aftermath of the attacks were global. American conservative columnist George Will, never a…

Looking at the photographs or reviewing the footage, of the Twin Towers is highly emotional and symbolic; likely exactly the point of using them as targets. The Twin Towers represented not just New York or America, but capitalism, international business, the human spirit in almost defying gravity and using human ingenuity to build something grand. However, grand though it may have been, just like December 7, 1945 and Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, the very soul of modernity was ripped away, making individuals feel vulnerable, unsafe, and quite frankly -- terrified in a hostile world.

Whatever motives the al-Qaida sect might have had are less important than the capability of adapting to such an evil and nefarious purpose. This of course, is the great conundrum that 9/11 reminds us: we are a species capable of the most ardent dichotomies imagined. Even examining only the 20th century, we find that humans have produced some of the most beautiful works of art imaginable: the sublime works of T.S. Eliot, the controversial yet intriguing works of Aaron Copland and Igor Stravinsky, the disturbingly emotional Salvador Dali, and architectural masterpieces that dwarf anything built, and more technological advances than can be adequately chronicled here. Then, we have also had the Holocaust, Stalin's Purges, the excesses of Pol Pot and Idi Amin; vast populations starved, displaced, and several disease vectors that have wiped out significant populations. From the perspective of an extraterrestrial anthropologist, we would seem a confusing species at best; a clear dichotomy of values, morals, and actions.

Yet the images of 9/11 also remind us that while a dichotomy exists, it is that very capacity for evil that allows us to rise above and produce good. New York City is certainly a different place than it was on September 10, 2011; and the world has grown even closer since the attacks -- partially due to technology, but also due to a true desire and vision that when all external trappings are gone, the kernel of the individual is indeed the human spirit.

Shanghai Development Shanghai Entrepreneurial Real Estate Development
Words: 858 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Business Plan Paper #: 50717071
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Shanghai Development

Shanghai Entrepreneurial Real Estate Development Project

Shanghai is a city located on the Eastern Coast of China that has grown to be one the financial powerhouses of the industrialized world. The urban population growth trend can be explained by the fact that much of the rural population is increasingly migrating to the urban centers in search of economic opportunities. The Pudong are has also been responsible for an extraordinary share of the population growth in Shanghai. For example, there was a fifty six percent increase in the population from a little over three million in 2001 to roughly five million in 2011. This real estate development project consists of a structure that will be composed of twin towers that will reach the planned height of 250m and be attached by a podium. The project's financial calculations estimate an internal rate of return would be nearly thirty percent (26.88%)…

Works Cited

Subbotin, S. (2010, August 07). Shanghai population to jump by some 17% over next decade. Retrieved from Ria Novosti: 

The Economists. (2012, June 16). Analects. Retrieved from The Economist: 


Employment Application Statement as a
Words: 304 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19558335
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I completely understand the agency's chain of command, rules, and protocols. Frankly, I also appreciated the camaraderie that I enjoyed at the LCSD because it made it an absolute pleasure to come to work everyday and I look forward greatly to the opportunity to rejoin the team. Naturally, I missed the annual picnic provided by Director Strout, as well.

It would be my most sincere pleasure to have another opportunity to work for Director Dean Strout, Lou Mackoler, John Carillo, Tray Strout, and Ruben Verillo again and I am confident that they will be able to confirm my suitability for the advertised position. I look forward tremendously for the opportunity of an interview and genuinely appreciate the chance to return to the Los ngeles County Sheriff's Department as an electrician because my previous employment in that same capacity has been my career highlight to date.

As a former (laid off temporary) employee of the Los Angles Sheriff's Department in the same capacity as this job opening from 2006-2010, I am already thoroughly familiar with the requirements and responsibilities of the Electrician position. During my previous tenure in this same position, I became familiar with and knowledgeable about all of the agency's facilities, including Twin Towers, Men's Central Jail, Pitches, CRDF, Mira Loma. FSB Headquarters, and Crime Lab. Additionally, I have already worked at the Lancaster, Palmdale, East Los Angeles, Lennox, Pico Rivera, San Dimas, Temple, Walnut/Diamond Bar, and West Hollywood stations.

Most importantly, I learned how to perform all of the positional responsibilities and tasks described in the job announcement in my previous LACSD position under the tutelage of my supervisors and Lou Mackoler and John Carillo. Also, I have already received the necessary training and have considerable experience interacting with and working safely around inmates and sworn personnel alike. I completely understand the agency's chain of command, rules, and protocols. Frankly, I also appreciated the camaraderie that I enjoyed at the LACSD because it made it an absolute pleasure to come to work everyday and I look forward greatly to the opportunity to rejoin the team. Naturally, I missed the annual picnic provided by Director Strout, as well.

It would be my most sincere pleasure to have another opportunity to work for Director Dean Strout, Lou Mackoler, John Carillo, Tray Strout, and Ruben Verillo again and I am confident that they will be able to confirm my suitability for the advertised position. I look forward tremendously for the opportunity of an interview and genuinely appreciate the chance to return to the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department as an electrician because my previous employment in that same capacity has been my career highlight to date.

Human Factors According to Health
Words: 590 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80718987
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S. National Institute of Standards and Technology, ineffective fireproofing and a shortage of staircases are highlighted in a preliminary federal safety report into the attacks on the World Trade Center, issued by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology, report concludes that a combination of factors caused both buildings to collapse.

The Ladbroke Grove ail Inquiry, for example, if management had applied the lessons of past SPADs (Signal Passed at Danger), and if signallers had been adequately instructed and trained in how to react to a SPAD, it may well be the case that the signaller would have been able to send the emergency message in time to enable the (Thames) Turbo to be brought to a halt before reaching a point at which it fouled the path of the high speed train.

According to the France-Stanford Conference on risk, the collapse of the Twin Towers was not surprising…


Delage, Pierre. France-Stanford Conference on Risk issues in contemporary science and engineering. 4-6 April 2003. 1 March, 2007. 

Health and Safety Executive. 2 March 2007.

Thames Tunnel Was Originally Created
Words: 6088 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48745324
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As such, the original construction for the building was completed between 1911 and 1913, after which point the factory underwent significant reconstruction resulting in an expansion that was largely different than its original design. The construction effort was largely financed by enscheidt, who worked in conjunction with foreign investors raise the necessary funding. The building's foundation was achieved by mixing compressed concrete and pebble dashing. While the majority of the rising structure was erected with brick, the floors were laid down with reinforced wood planks. The ceilings were constructed with a formwork shell (Gotz 138).

The glass windows that the Fagus Factory is noted for were erected upon steel frames and cover the building's entire exterior. What is of interest about this fact is that the corners of the building were constructed without supports, in much the same way that the Turbine factory was (Jaeggi 43-44). The glass was placed…


Driscoll, Molly. "Ludwig Mies van der Rohe: Father of 'less is more' architecture." The Christian Science Monitor. 2012. Web. 

Filler, Martin. "Mies and the Mastodon." The New Republic. 2001. Web. 

Harris, Neil. "Mies on Lake Shore Drive." Architecture Week. 2004. Web. 

Puente, Moises. Conversations with Mies van der Rohe. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. 2008. Print.

Spiegelman and Miller in Dark
Words: 1626 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45303215
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e like to make believe in some kind of happy ending, even to an overwhelmingly gloomy story. Even the hero of Miller's The Dark Night Returns is hardly the hero that any of us would want to follow. Miller's Batman is an unapologetic reactionary who in the process of an interrogation of a prisoner, he threatened a man he had put in a neck brace and crutches and mocked him when he claimed, "I got rights (Miller 45)." The new Batman seems to be an even bigger reactionary than the person who trained him (ibid 199). The darkness of the Bat Cave brings the tale full circle as the heroes have become like what they are fighting, dark and corrupt without any inherent light. Only outside and artificial light illuminates imaginary Gotham of Miller's dark knight as it does the New York City of Spiegelman's mouse man as he sees…

Works Cited

Miller, Art. The Dark Knight Returns. New York, NY: DC Comics, 1997. 1-224. Print.

Spiegelman, Art. In the Shadow of No Towers. New York: Pantheon, 2004. 1-42.


Rebuilding of Ground Zero
Words: 3594 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19752335
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rebuilding the World Trade Center. Specifically it will discuss the rebuilding of Ground Zero after the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks of September 11, 2001, including who are the decision makers, what is the process, and who has involvement in the process. It will also look at the cost, who is paying, the timeline, current status, what the final project will look like, who will benefit, the effect on New York City, surrounding boroughs, and the state. Almost as soon as cleanup began at the World Trade Center after the terrorist attacks, there was speculation on what kind of building or memorial could possibly replace the Twin Towers. Today, designs for a new office complex and memorial have been chosen, and some expect construction on at least one of the buildings replacing the WTC could be complete by 2009. As with any large project, the plans have faced adversity, controversy,…


Bloomberg, Michael. "Mayor Bloomberg's Vision for Lower Manhattan." 12 Dec. 2002. 11 May 2005.


Chandler, Dahna M. "World Trade Recovery: Black CPA Firm Snares Post-9/11 Contract to Help Rebuild New York's Ground Zero Area." Black Enterprise Mar. 2004: 28.

Chermak, Steven, Frankie Y. Bailey, and Michelle Brown, eds. Media Representations of September 11. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.

911 Terrorism and EMS
Words: 1949 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94679590
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9/11 Terrorism and EMS

On 11th September, 2001, a total of nineteen al-Qaeda terrorists took control of four sky-borne airplanes, using them to carry out suicide attacks aimed at American targets. Two planes were guided directly towards the New York World Trade Center's twin towers, one struck the U.S. defense department's headquarters (the Pentagon), and one crashed into a Pennsylvanian field. Known worldwide as the 9/11 terror attacks, this day's events led to large-scale destruction and death, sparking numerous important projects on the federal government's part, aimed at battling terrorism; these efforts defined George Bush's presidential term. More than 3,000 individuals lost their lives to the Pentagon and Twin Towers attacks. Of these, over 400 were firefighters and law enforcement officials.

The invaders were identified as Arab (chiefly Saudi Arabian) Islamic terrorists said to be funded by Saudi Arabian runaway bin Laden's terror group, al-Qaeda. The attacks were apparently retribution…


Dwyer, J., & Flynn, K. (2005). "Prologue." 102 Minutes. Times Books.

Eisner, H. (2002, April). "Terrorist Attack At New York World Trade Center." Retrieved from Firehouse Magazine: 

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. (2016, October 14). Al-Qaeda Islamic Militant Organization. Retrieved from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.: (2010). 9/11 Attacks. Retrieved from

History of Construction of 10
Words: 7023 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 9752980
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The earliest divisions of the temple still standing are the barque chapels, just in the rear the first pylon. They were constructed by Hatshepsut, and appropriated by Tuthmosis III. The central division of the temple, the colonnade and the sun court were constructed by Amenhotep III, and a later on addition by Rameses II, who constructed the entry pylon, and the two obelisks connected the Hatshepsut structures with the core temple. To the back of the temple are chapels constructed by Tuthmosis III, and Alexander. During the Roman age, the temple and its environment were a legionary fortress and the residence of the Roman government in the region (Johnson, 1988).

There was a girdle wall constructed around the temple that was made up of self-sufficient massifs of sun-dried brick adjoining at their ends, constructed of courses set on a triple arrangement that ran concave horizontal concave. The gate through which…

Works Cited

"Ancient Babylonia - the Ishtar Gate."n.d., viewed 14 November 2010,

"Ancient Egypt Brought to Life With Virtual Model of Historic Temple Complex." 2009, viewed 14 November 2010,

"Babylon and the Ishtar Gate." 2010, viewed 14 November,

Andrews, Mark. 2010. "Luxor Temple of Thebes in Egypt," viewed 14 November 2010,

Attacks on the World Trade
Words: 3951 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9666752
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Emergency management is also a vital part to the planning for a disaster. Training will have to be conducted at periodic intervals to maintain the preparedness of the emergency response team and to evaluate the condition and the operational difficulties if any that may arise due to the equipment being used. The procedures will have to be critiqued and constantly evaluated to determine if a better, safer or more efficient method can be used in the procedure. A clean up task force will also have to be set up to help clean and restore the area to as near as possible, its pre-disaster state. Sufficient funds will have to be allocated to keep the emergency response team properly outfitted. An emergency fund may also be required to be set up to take care of the clean up activities that may be required. This fund would have to be very liquid…


Sykes, L., Richards, P., Kim W-Y., Armitage, J., Jacob, K., & Lerner-Lam, Art. (2001) Seismograms recorded by LCSN Station PAL (Palisades, NY) New York, Columbia University. Retrieved February 18, 2008 at 

TRADE. (2008). The Training Resources and Data Exchange Washington, D.C., FEMA. Retrieved February 18, 2008, at 

LLIS. (2008) Lessons Learned Information Shared Washington, D.C., Department of Homeland Security, Retrieved February 18, 2008, from

RKB. (2008) Responder Knowledge Base. Washington, D.C., Department of Homeland Security, Retrieved February 18, 2008, from

Man on a Wire Suspended
Words: 413 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 92694840
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The same argument could be made about the towers themselves, that they were testimonies to human folly. At the end of the documentary, the question of why build the massive twin structures at all seems as inexplicable and unanswerable a query as why climb them -- the answer to both questions may be as simple as 'because it could be done.'

There are other, unspoken resonances with 9/11 -- because climbing the towers was illegal, Petit had to act as if he was planning a 'caper,' a drive that gives the film its plot structure but also recalls the 'caper' to cause the tower's destruction. However, as uncomfortable as the film may make the viewer at times, particularly if he or she has a particular emotional connection to the events of that day, Petit, for all of his foolish bravado, meant his ultimately successful fear to be a tribute to…

Works Cited

"Man on a Wire." Directed by James Marsh. 2008.

British Television and Journalism War on Terrorism
Words: 3194 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66274085
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The writer of this article, Victor David Hanson, states that since earlier times, this sort of disparity in power has been in evidence, and it is a fact that the others have been attempting to build up their innate strength and power by merely imitating the West. This is sometimes referred to as a type of 'military parasitism', wherein those who were weak would often try to steal or buy or clone those weapons of the West that they found to be powerful. One example of this phenomenon is that of Japan. This country had no munitions manufacturing unit, no organized naval fleet, yet she managed to defeat a ussian Armada during 1905. (Post-Modern War)

The main reason for this success was that Japan had been sending thousands of her students to foreign universities and to military academies to study, and this resulted in the gaining of certain knowledge in…


Best of Counter terrorism and Security" Counter Terrorism and Security International. Retrieved at . Accessed on 17 January, 2005

Clements, Kevin. (2002) "The War on Terrorism and its Aftermath" The Second eSymposium on Conflict Prevention Dialogue Session 2. February. Retrieved at  on 17 January, 2005

Corera, Gordon. (2004). "War on Terror vanishes from agenda" 24 November. Retrieved at .uk/1/hi/world/americas/4034833.stm. Accessed on 17 January, 2005

Hanson, Victor Davis. (2005) "Post-Modern War." Free Republic. 10 January. Retrieved at  on 17 January, 2005

Michel De Certeau's Walking in the City
Words: 1816 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79776902
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Michel de Certeau's "alking in the City" provides a clear and appropriate lens with which to view and re-view the 17th century play, "alking Girl." Although the two pieces are completely different in terms of their style and content, they both reflect the way people subvert established social codes and structures. Leaders and powerful men of Certeau's modern age had stood on the top floor of Manhattan's Twin Tower, observing a strategized a network of rules. These rules symbolize the social norms that govern human conduct, which are the rules that Middleton and Dekker describe in their play "The Roaring Girl."

In his essay "alking in the City," Michel de Certeau's paints a unique portrait of city life that can be applied to personal social interactions. Certeau's thesis is that leaders and influential people draft rules regulating social interactions and social norms. These hierarchically generated rules serve to maintain an…

Works Cited

Certeau, Michel De. "Walking in the City."

Middleton, Thomas and Dekker, Thomas. "Roaring Girl."

Jamer Hunt Offers a Critique
Words: 459 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 42023992
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The following photograph illustrates the trend of modern McDonalds restaurant design:

If the golden arches were not displayed proudly on the screens, viewers would scarcely know they were in a fast food restaurant. Instead, the decor looks like a typical corporate lounge or a waiting area at an airport. Gone are the old fashioned swivel chairs and welcome are comfortable-looking and colorful cushioned seats with personal tables.

The design overhaul attempts to accomplish the bottom line of attracting new consumers to the fast food chain. However, Hunt would point out that it is not possible to eradicate the everyday from such a consumer-oriented place. Even this new and improved McDonalds has a sterile, impersonal, cookie-cutter feel to it. While the McDonalds looks better than its predecessors, it remains the ubiquitous restaurant with the predictable menu.

It is possible, however, to create the illusion that one is seated in a more…

Terrorism Encyclopedias and Dictionaries Define
Words: 4573 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21286311
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At times terrorist succeed and at times they fail. Some times they have larger and long-term goal and some times they have short-term aims. For example, a group hijacking a plane wanted some immediate results like release of the prisoners or financial gain but blowing a plane into a building would definitely mean that terrorists wanted something big out of it. Sometimes terrorists want to just cause panic and fear. They attack to make people realize that they are vulnerable. They just want people to become fearful & terrified to go about their usual and routine activities.

War on Terror

War on Terror' is the phrase that has been used and abused since Americans were attacked on their soil on September 11 in New York's Twin Towers. Today America's foreign policy is defined by the term 'War on Terror'. The attack on twin towers made America vulnerable and they had…


The Washington Times. 2006. Defining Terrorism at the U.N. March 23.

The Washington Times. 2005. Defining Terrorism; Conferences Produce Meager Results. December 2,

Palti, L. December 2004. Combating Terrorism While Protecting Human Rights. UN Chronicle. 41 (4): 27+.

Leader, S. April 1997. The Rise of Terrorism. Security Management. 41(4).

Loose Change 9-11 an American Coup
Words: 589 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 19641317
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Loose Change: An American Coup and Its Critics

Loose Change: An American Coup is a documentary film directed by Dylan Avery that challenges the official version of what happened on September 11, 2001. The film alleges that the official explanation provided by the government is untenable and full of contradictions. The film describes 9/11 as a false flag operation, an inside job disguised as an act carried out by foreign terrorists. The film also alleges that the Twin Towers in New York could not have collapsed because of an airplane explosion and thus must have been brought down by a controlled demolition and that the Pentagon was hit by a cruise missile rather than an airplane. The film claims that 9/11 was a conspiracy used by the Bush Administration to justify imperial goals in the Middle East.

Many journalists have criticized Loose Change, including George Monbiot who was also critical…

Works Cited

Avery, Dylan. Loose Change: An American Coup (2009).

Monbiot, George. "A 9/11 Conspiracy Virus is Sweeping the World, But it has No Basis in Fact." The Guardian, 5 Feb. 2007. Web. 10 Oct. 2011.

Smith, Patrick. "Ask the Pilot." Salon, 19 May 2006, Web. 10 Oct. 2011.

America at War 1865-Present a Survey of
Words: 2692 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12649879
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America at War 1865-Present

A Survey of America at War from 1865 to Present

Since the Civil War, America has seldom seen a generation of peace. In fact, a nonstop succession of wars has kept what Eisenhower termed "the military industrial complex" in lucrative business. From the Indian Wars to the World Wars to the Cold War to the war on Terror, Americana has expanded its foothold as an imperial power every step of the way -- even when isolationism appeared to be momentarily in vogue following World War I. This paper will look at the history of the progression of war in America from 1865 to present, showing how that history -- through social, economic, literary, political, and religious changes -- has both shaped and been shaped by American foreign and domestic policy.

Unit Once: 1865-1876

The Civil War had just ended on the home front, but that did…

Reference List

Boyd, J.P. (2000). Indian Wars. Scituate, MA: Digital Scanning, Inc.

Jarecki, E. (2008). The American Way of War. NY: Free Press.

Jones, E.M. (2000). Libido Dominandi. South Bend, IN: St. Augustine's Press.

Morehouse, M. (2007). Fighting in the Jim Crow Army: Black Men and Women

September 11 2001 Terrorists Staged an Attack
Words: 1466 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 4228386
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September 11, 2001, terrorists staged an attack on the United States. There were several areas affected, but the Twin Towers in New York City were - and still remain - the most notable. They are what everyone thinks of, when 9/11 is mentioned. On that day many lives were lost. Among them were 37 officers and one K-9 officer from the Port Authority Police Department (PAPD) (Damico & Quay, 2010). That department works jointly for New York and New Jersey, and was housed in the World Trade Center complex. The quick thinking of the PAPD, along with other law enforcement agencies, reduced the loss of life. While still tragic, the 9/11 events could have been significantly more devastating if it were not for the quick thinking of a number of police officers, firefighters, and other individuals. One of the reasons the PAPD performed so well on 9/11, however, likely came…


Bolton, M.K. (2006). U.S. National Security and Foreign Policymaking After 9/11: Present at the Re-creation. New York: Rowman & Littlefield

Caraley, D. (2002). September 11, terrorist attacks, and U.S. foreign policy. New York: Academy of Political Science

Chernick, H. (2005). Resilient city: the economic impact of 9/11. New York: Russell Sage Foundation

Damico, A.M., & Quay, S.E. (2010). September 11 in Popular Culture: A Guide. New York: Greenwood

September 11 Many Different Alternative
Words: 2756 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52619842
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In her article, "Aftermath of Aftermath- Unanswered Questions from 9-11 -from an organizer's point-of-view" the military could have done more. In particular the author asserts that General Myers who controlled such military operations, couls have done more to prevent the attacks (Brouillet). Instead the general was awarded one of the highest military honors for his inaction prior to 9/11 (Brouillet). The author also explain that she organized rallies and showecd people a film entitled "The Great Deception" which was the first televised show that contradicted the claims that were being made by the mainstream media in the aftermath of 9/11.

Mark Dunlea is one of the most outspoken voices on the events of September 11 and the lack of cooperation from the Bush administration in reference to a bipartisan review of the terrorist attacks. Dunlea is a member of the Green Party of New York city. In fact, Mark Dunlea…


Brouillet, Carol Aftermath of Aftermath- Unanswered Questions from 9-11

from an organizer's point-of-view. Retrieved January 2, 2005 from; 

Dunlea, Mark. Madame President: The Unauthorized Biography of the First Green Party President. Big Toad Books: New York.

Terrorism and Democracy Terrorism Is by Its
Words: 1546 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69258397
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Terrorism and Democracy

Terrorism is by its very nature is anti-democratic as it seeks to achieve political ends by violence. It has no interest in any of the bedrocks of democracy such as building consensus, stimulating debate or protecting the rights and interests of minorities. In the wake of the 9/11 attacks on the TC twin towers, the 'clear and present' danger to democracy, freedom and liberties has become even more pronounced. There is consensus among all those who cherish democracy that urgent steps are necessary to counter the threat of terrorism. The key question is: how to accomplish this? In this essay we shall examine how terrorism undermines democracy and whether setting up an international committee can help to fight terrorism. e shall also look at short definitions of democracy and terrorism.

Definition of Democracy

Democracy (Greek demos, "the people"; kratein, "to rule") is a political system in which…

Works Cited

Amnesty International's concerns regarding post September 11 detentions in the U.S.A." AI Web-site. April 6, 2003.

Carothers, Thomas. "Promoting Democracy and Fighting Terror." Source: Foreign Affairs v. 82 no1 (Jan./Feb. 2003) p. 84-97

Hoffmann, Bruce. "Terrorism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2003

Pious, Richard M. "Democracy." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2003

Homeland Security and Emergency Management
Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 46569250
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Longest War

Homeland Security & Emergency Management

M6A1: Book Review

Bergen, Peter. (2011). The longest war: The enduring conflict between America and al-Qaeda.

New York: Free Press.

As its title suggests, Peter Bergen's book, The longest war: The enduring conflict between America and al-Qaeda, is a chronicle of a war that defies the traditional conventions and definitions of warfare. The war of terror has no clear beginning and no clear end and has challenged many of the assumptions of how warfare is viewed and waged within the United States. It is a long war, an unending war, and even though the book was written before the killing of Osama bin Laden, the orchestrator of the attacks on the Twin Towers and the Pentagon, the war will continue to rage on so long as there are state and non-state enemies willing to attack the U.S. using the mechanisms of terrorism. The…

Dangerous Mismanagement
Words: 6133 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 99577375
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Intelligence Failures

In an ever increasingly complex governmental infrastructure, the importance of communication, mission and strategy are of the utmost importance. The Department of Defense (DOD) and all of its law enforcement agencies are in a pervasive struggle to attain both accurate and actionable intelligence in order to perform their duties to the best of their capabilities and intentions.

The purpose of this research paper is to explore the failure of the intelligence process due to extraneous levels of bureaucratic organization. This essay will attempt to explain the many failures of the Department of Defense law enforcement entities as a result of this type of organization.

In order to understand this argument, this essay will first look at the problem itself and try to identify the root cause of these failures. Past failures of intelligence gathering will be examined to help contextualize the argument and give credence to the idea…


Chesney, R. (2011). Military-Intelligence Convergence and the Law of Title 10/Title 50 Debate. J. Nat'l Sec. L. & Pol'y, 5, 539.

Clapper, J. (2011). How 9/11 Transformed the Intelligence Community. The Wall Street Journal 7 Sep 2011. Retrieved from 

Foust, J. (2013). Throwing the Intelligence Community Under the Bus. Beacon Journal 29 Oct 2013. Retrieved from

Gusterson, H. (2011). Atomic Escapism? American Scientist, Jan -- Feb 2011. Retrieved from

Ten Items That Reflect Life in 2015
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Exemplifying Life in 2015 in a Small Time Capsule

One of the fundamental aspects of the human condition is the desire to leave future generations with some indication concerning how people lived, worked and recreated during their lifetimes, and many individuals, groups and communities have used time capsules of varying sizes for this purpose (Hart & ollins, 2011). Given the dynamism of the early 21st century, though, accurately reflecting what life is like in 2015 is a challenging enterprise, particularly when faced with a 3-foot cubic space limitation when some time capsules are as large as living rooms (Smith, 2008). Therefore, the selection of representative items and articles to include in such a time capsule requires careful consideration and a variety of opinions in order to accurately reflect the most salient aspects of American culture and lifestyles.

To this end, this paper proposes 10 items that can be placed in…


Hart, R. & Rollins, J. (2011). Therapeutic activities for children and teens coping with health issues. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Smith, B. (2008, September 26). Keeping time capsules preserve today's culture for tomorrow's historians. St. Louis Post-Dispatch (MO), 1C.

Thompson, C. N. & Brommer, D. M. (2012, Fall). Pet ownership and the spatial and temporal dimensions of evacuation decisions. Southeastern Geographer, 52(3), 253-255.

11th of September 2001 Two
Words: 3265 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35421423
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Department of Education:

The Education Authority provided $5 million for ehabilitation Services Administration of those individuals who suffered from physical or mental disabilities as a result of collapse of WTC. The department also provided funds to help those disabled Americans who lost their jobs, rehabilitation or other support structures sue to this tragedy.

The department also provided assistance to the state schools for counseling and mental therapy of affected children. The department established 'Loan Forgiveness Scheme', under which individuals living or working in New York were provided temporary relief from student loan payments.

Department of Justice:

Legislation was introduced for expeditious payments of compensation to the families of those who lost their relatives as a result of 9/11 terrorist attacks. The program launched in this regard was 'Victims Compensation Benefit Program'.

Legislation was introduced for speedy payment of compensation to the families of the police officers, firefighters and rescuer, who…


Government Accounts Officer Report, 2002. .

Henderson, DA. Defense against the bio-terrorist threat (lecture). 75th annual meeting, American Epidemiological Society, March 21-22, 2000, New York, NY. .

The New York Times, 12/Sept 2001. .

Dr Dennis Charney, Journal of National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Sept 2006 edition.

Response to the 9-11 Attack
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911 Attack

Communication is among the highest critical success factors in the event of an emergency. Some forms of communication are more effective than others in certain scenarios. Furthermore, technology plays a vital role in the ability to communicate with stakeholders. Some technologies are adequate to serve as the framework for communication between individuals, agencies, and the public while others are not as functional. After the events of September 11th, 2001, there were significant communication challenges that hindered the effectiveness of the first responders.

As volume of different communications increased drastically with people trying to reach out to loved ones and acquire relevant news of the events. However, this acted to overwhelm the system and max out its capacity. There were even come response teams that had to send messengers to other in order to communicate between various groups. This paper will analyze some of the communication failures that were…

Works Cited

AP. (2007, December 5). Communication Breakdown on 9/11. Retrieved from CBS News: 

Harwood, M. (2011, August 17). Former DHS Chief Calls Interoperable Communications Failure "a National Disgrace." Retrieved from Security Management: 

Margolin, J. (2011, March 7). Radio problems from 9/11 not fixed, could strike again. Retrieved from NY Post: 

Mittelsadt, M. (2004, May 19). Panel: Communication problems hampered 9/11 response. Retrieved from The Battalion:

Patient Perceptions the Literature Review
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Most of the literature deals with healthcare issues experienced in the United States or Europe. hat small amount of literature there is available on healthcare in Malaysia seldom has anything to do with the clinic(s) in specific. This study could help, in some small measure, to alleviate that problem.

orks Cited

Chowdhury, N., (1999) the Power of Towers, Fortune, Vol. 139, No. 7, pp. 110-112

Kurokawa, I., Takami, M., Cheriex, H., (1999) Futuristic flight plan - the Kuala Lumpur International Airport was designed for the new millennium, Lighting Design + Application, Vol. 29, No. 8, pp. 42-45

Manson, L.A., Baptist, a.J., (2002) Assessing the cost-effectiveness of provider-based status, Healthcare Financial Management, Vol. 56, No. 8, pp. 52-59

Romano, M., (2006) Physicians in pain, Modern Healthcare, Vol. 36, No. 4, p. 40

Shameen, a., (2004) Malaysia: Coining it in Kuala Lumpure - Start-up ECM Libra has capitalized on strong markets, hard…

Works Cited

Chowdhury, N., (1999) the Power of Towers, Fortune, Vol. 139, No. 7, pp. 110-112

Kurokawa, I., Takami, M., Cheriex, H., (1999) Futuristic flight plan - the Kuala Lumpur International Airport was designed for the new millennium, Lighting Design + Application, Vol. 29, No. 8, pp. 42-45

Manson, L.A., Baptist, a.J., (2002) Assessing the cost-effectiveness of provider-based status, Healthcare Financial Management, Vol. 56, No. 8, pp. 52-59

Romano, M., (2006) Physicians in pain, Modern Healthcare, Vol. 36, No. 4, p. 40

Romanesque Construction
Words: 5446 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12545741
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The advantages in efficiency were evident, as are the ways of apprenticing younger members slowly into the family trade.

The more probable model is that the skilled labour was taken from the guilds, whose power was on the rise throughout Europe after AD 1100. Artistic and trade guilds selected their members. Such pooled labour provided training, experience, a career trajectory, and security for the craftsman, who could eventually work through the stage of journeyman to master craftsman. This system allowed for the concentration of skilled labour and guaranteed quality controls. Non-members were excluded from building projects. It was an early form of labour union. At times these guilds had a monopoly on trade labour. Out of some system like this it is likely that the labour came to work on buildings like Pisa Cathedral. The master builders themselves would have been influenced by knowledge generated in the intellectual revival at…

Against Patriot Act of 2001
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Against the Patriot Act of 2001

What is the Patriot Act of 2001? The Act was passed in order to unite and strengthen the United States of America by providing all the appropriate and the necessary tools with which to fight terrorism. The President George W. Bush signed the Act on October 26th in 2001, after the devastating terrorist attacks that occurred on the nerve center of the United States of America, the World Trade Center, on September 11, 2001. (USA Patriot Act) These terrorist acts were a cleverly coordinated series of attacks on the Pentagon, which is the Headquarters of the Department of Defense of the United States of America and holds more than 23,000 civilian as well as military employees, and also more than 3,000 non-defense personnel, and on the World Trade Center, which is the center of global commerce that is responsible for providing network access to…


Bergen, Jennifer Van. "The U.S.A. Patriot Act Was Planned Before 9/11" Truth out Editorial. (20 May, 2002) Retrieved From  Accessed on 25 November, 2004

Dinh, Viet. E. (1 June, 2004) "How the U.S.A. Patriot Act defends Democracy" A White Paper. Retrieved From 

Accessed on 25 November, 2004

Pruitt-Igoe St Louis 'Technology' &
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(The case history of a failure)

St. Louis Place is near Northside neighborhood and surrounded by Palm Street on the North, Cass Avenue on the South, North Florissant on the East and North Jefferson on the West. St. Louis Place a portion of the Union Addition was designed out by John O'Fallon and others in the year 1850. St. Louis neighborhood is renowned for the fashionable nineteenth-century residential district surrounding part. Even at present the large Victorian houses around the part is still standing and also old mansions along St. Louis Avenue, an area once recognized as 'millionaire's row'. The vicinity towards the south originally was 'Kerry Patch' built up as poorer immigrant communities having more modest residents and multifamily units. Kerry Patch at present a portion of the Carr Square neighborhood and the south-easternmost section of the St. Louis Place district became the construction site of Pruitt-Igoe. (St. Louis…


An anniversary of sorts. 2 June, 2005. Retrieved at . Accessed on 30 July, 2005

Evolution of the concept: Pruitt-Igoe and Carr Square Village. Retrieved at Accessed on 30 July, 2005

Hoffman, Alexander von. Why They Built the Pruitt-Igoe Project. Retrieved at . Accessed on 30 July, 2005

Pruitt-Igoe. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved at  on 30 July, 2005

Sociology Comprehending September 11 Attacks Through the
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Comprehending September 11 attacks through the eyes of Emile Durkheim

This research paper discusses a current event through the eyes of a social theorist. The orks Cited five sources in MLA format.

Societies form individuals and social orders of different kinds produce different individuals. Hence our research paper will revolve around the following thesis statement:

An individual is the product of his/her own society therefore those who take extreme measures to become what they grow to expect themselves to be and those who strive hard to cooperate with certain groups even at the cost of their own lives, do so as a result of the social external forces that are at work. Both social as well as political elements, primarily cultural components play a pivotal role in forming various groups including the main example of terrorist groups and suicide commandos including those that made the orlds' skyscrapers disintegrate into…

Works Cited

Social Problems. Retrieved April 7, 2003 at 

Arthur & Kroker. Terrorism of Viral Power. CTHEORY THEORY, TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE VOL 24, NO 3.

Achenbach J. THE CLASH; Two professors, two academic theories, one big difference. depending on which is right, September 11 may mark a brief battle against terrorism, or an endless struggle between Islam and the., The Washington Post, 12-16-2001, pp W17.

Goska D. Islam & Terror. Retrieved April 7, 2003 from:

Skyscraper and the Airplane Humanity
Words: 1259 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31330761
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Goodheart does this by including early reactions to the elevator. Although most now take the contraptions for granted, humans are still "required to entrust their lives, on a daily basis, to technologies whose inner workings [remain] a mystery" (190). By including this segment, Goodheart has established the skyscraper as something far more than a cold, mechanical tower of glass and steel. Instead, he associates the building with humanity, not only physiological and sexual humanity, but also spiritual humanity. Established as a location where one must entrust one's life to technology, the building has the spiritual consistency of a cathedral or burial ground instead of the cold, emotionless consistency of a modern, mechanical building. Seen in this vein, the Twin Towers are now seen as additional casualties of the September 11th attacks, symbols of the passions of humanity rather than technological milestones. This interpretation of Goodheart's work is similar to Stein's…

Works Cited

Stein, Howard F. "Days of Awe: September 11, 2001 and its Cultural Psychodynamics."

Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society. 8.2. (2003): 187-199.

Goodheart, Adam. "The Skyscraper and the Airplane." The Norton Reader. Ed. Linda

Peterson and John Prereton. New York: Norton, 2008. 187-193.

Monadnock Building Prototypical Melding of
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"The north half is often called a fountainhead of modern architecture because of its total absence of exterior ornament. Root evidently felt that all that was needed here was graceful form for the structure itself. The south half of the building, on the other hand, is a masterful early application of classical architectural principles to the design of a tall building" ("History," Monadnock Building, 2008).

The early death of Root was not the only problem to plague the office complex -- when the building was finally finished and built, it was "so heavy that it sank into the ground after....requiring [reinforcement]...and steps to be installed at the entrances" to support the massive weight and to enable people to enter the structure ("Monadnock Building," Archinform, 2008). There was also some contention about what style of windows to use: "Chief developer Peter Brooks originally ruled out any projecting bay windows, but he…

Works Cited

The Building." Monadnock Building. Accessed 21 Apr 2008.

History." Monadnock Building. Accessed 21 Apr 2008.

Monadnock Building." Archinform. . Accessed 21 Apr 2008.

Monadnock Building." . Accessed 21 Apr 2008.

Boston Photographs Nora Ephron's Boston Photographs Do
Words: 3579 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14623586
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Boston Photographs

Nora Ephron's Boston Photographs:

Do Pictures Tell the Most Important Part of the Story?

In "Boston Photographs," writer Nora Ephron makes a case supporting the decision by newspaper editors to print a photo trilogy showing the tragic moments leading up to the death of a young mother. At the time the photos were printed, in over four hundred newspapers across the nation, there was great controversy. eaders expressed in phone calls and letters to the editor. Some editors chose not to print the photos at all.

Ephron argued that since death is part of life, readers should not be sheltered from it. She asked why photos from fatal car accidents show the wrecked vehicles and not the victims. Mangled steel is worthless; a human life is priceless. Why not capture on film the loss of that which is truly precious?

The so-named "Boston Photographs" were taken in 1975…


BBC News. (2005). Picture power: Vietnam napalm attack. 


Ephron, N. (2005). The Boston Photographs, reprinted in Chris Anderson and Lex Runciman, eds., Open Questions; Readings for Critical Thinking and Writing (Boston: Bedford/St.

Martin's, 2005). Retrieved from

Risk Minimization and Loss Prevention
Words: 16256 Length: 59 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44399316
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Small usiness' Need for a CPA

One of the critical investments a small business can make to mitigate loss and risk is hiring a CPA and putting that CPA on the 'management team.' As Wells notes in his groundbreaking research, "Denise, a bookkeeper for a small trucking firm in irmingham, Alabama, wishes she had never heard of Ralph Summerford, CPA. ecause of his thoroughness, Denise is facing several years in prison for embezzling $550,000 from her employer. At least she will look good standing before the sentencing judge: Denise spent a great deal of her illegal loot on head-to-toe cosmetic surgery. She blew the rest on a shiny new Lexus, luxury vacations, clothing and jewelry. And, of course, Denise had to have a big house to store all of her finery." (Wells, 2003)

Surprisingly, it was not at all the fancy standard of living that made her employer suspicious. "The…


Wells, Joseph. 2003. Protect small business: small companies without adequate internal controls need CPAs to help them minimize fraud risk. Journal of Accountancy.

Small Business Administration. 2005.

Federal Reserve Bank. 2004.

AICPA. 2005. At

Sustainable Tourism Development the Aim of the
Words: 4350 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64428472
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Sustainable Tourism Development

The aim of the essay is to gain an understanding of the rational and different approaches to tourism planning and development, sustainable tourism, current issues and impacts of tourism.

The aim is to increase awareness of the need to plan and manage tourism destinations within an international, national, regional, and local framework. Investigate current trends in planning for tourism development in a range of destinations. The stages in the planning process are discussed and apply theoretical models to practical case studies and site visits.

Understand the differing approaches to tourism planning and development and understand the rationale for planning in the travel and tourism industry (1000+ words)

Using the EBSCO article: The effectiveness of public policies and structural funds in enhancing tourism development.The case of Romania.

a) Discuss, using appropriate references, why a long-term approach is beneficial to destinations like Romania, and state the advantages to stakeholders…

Hence, the conflict for the London Olympics 2012 surface when the choice between the two developments had to be made. There was no denying that the city needed development but the choice was made to prepare and finish the Canary Wharf development first so as to have a good, sustainable and efficient mode of transportation that would lead the Olympic grounds to the main city. Once, the Canary Wharf was completed, the focus then turned towards the docklands. It was far more important to have the Canary Wharf structure up and ready for clear and trouble-free transportation structure during the London Olympics 2012.

Task 3B - Explain the implications of balancing supply and demand which will need to be considered in the Olympics development. You need to state why there is a need to balance the supply and suggest possible consequences if this is not considered by the planners:

Evaluation of the Canary Wharf advancement has actually been extremely polarized. A brand-new monetary center has actually been built and analyses recommend that 'every a-g 1 million of public sector expense produced net extra advantages in the Urban Advancement Location of 23 tasks, 8300 sq m of workplace flooring area, 7.8 real estate devices plus numerous various other varied perks' (Rhodes and Tyler, 1998:32 estimated in Hamnett 2003:242). However, criticism has actually concentrated upon the elimination of neighborhood democratic controls and the replacement of the existing populace by a brand-new, more thriving team of young experts. In between 1981 and 1991 Tower

Is There Pride in Serving Our Military
Words: 1112 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15973932
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Pride in Serving Military

Compare the job of serving in the military to the regular day by day job of working in the office with briefcase and cellular phone heading meetings, but more likely listening to the boss, whilst sitting down by the desk and filing paper after paper trying not to yawn. In this scenario, there is the office gossip, the attempts not to yawn, the stress, and the doldrums, and over and again the knowledge (lurking at the back of one's mind that Businessman is constantly trying to suppress) that he is working for another, not for himself. Now compare that to jumping out of a plane; to landing in some new, foreign, interesting Argentinian or Afghanistan village; to striding down those streets with a gun knowing that one is protecting the people from harm and that one is protecting the world from tyrants such as Ibn Laden.…


Sandifer, S. (July 02, 2010). The Pride of Military Service. Syndication

Cyber Terrorism
Words: 4455 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 88428814
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Cyber Terrorism

The Internet that we know today and use in our everyday lives was founded in the early 1970s. But all through the Cold War, the apprehension of data theft led to the Internet becoming a decentralized system. But it was not until the late 1980s when the Internet, after years and years of research was made available to public. This was a big change because now anyone in the public could gain access of huge amount of data from anywhere in the world. The following list tells us how Internet can be used to spread evil, and assist terrorist organizations to apply more danger and fear to the world. According to Weimann (2004), the Internet has:

- easily approachable

- no single controller or regulator to control or censor information

- the makings for widespread spectators all round the globe

- the power for the user to remain…


Army, U. (2005). Cyber Operations and Cyber Terrorism. In U. Army, U.S. Army Training Doctrine Command, Handbook No. 1.02

Bridis, T. (2005, May 26). USA Today. Retrieved September 14, 2011, from "Silent Horizon" war games wrap up for The CIA: 

Coleman, K. (2003, October 10 ). Cyber Terrorism. Retrieved September 14, 2011, from Cyber Terrorism Article:

Why Did the US-Led Coalition Invade Iraq in 2003
Words: 3425 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29133185
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U.S. Invasion of Iraq- easons

US Invasion of Iraq: easons

The epublic of Iraq is located in South West Asia. Baghdad is its capital and Kuwait, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the Persian Gulf, Iran and Turkey are its neighboring countries. More than 95% of the population in Iraq is Muslim. The members of Shiites sect are the main inhabitants of the country (The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2009).

Saddam Hussein Takriti came in power after the resignation of President Bakr in 1979. It was immediately after his presumptuous control that a fight with Iran began which continued for eight years. The war ended in 1988 with a cessation of hostilities by the United Nations. Although Iraq was supported by the United States in Iran-Iraq war but it strongly criticized Hussein's tyrannical strategies and unrelenting arms increase. In 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait. International trade sanctions were established on Iraq by the…


The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth ed., s.v. "Iraq." New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.  (accessed June 25, 2011).

Deaver, Michael V. . Disarming Iraq: Monitoring Power and Resistance. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.  (accessed June 25, 2011)

Zunes, Stephen. "The U.S. Invasion of Iraq: The Military Side of Globalization?." Common Dreams. (accessed June 25, 2011).

Enemark, Christian, and Christopher Michaelsen. " Just War Doctrine and the Invasion of Iraq." The Australian Journal Of Politics and History 51, no. 4 (2005): 545+.  (accessed June 25, 2011).

Changes in America Since September 11 2001
Words: 958 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32771509
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alarm woke me up. Crawling from bed to bathroom and back to bed, I lay there wishing I didn't have to go to school or work. I crept to the desk and turned on my computer before even thinking about getting dressed, eyes still half shut and glazed from a lack of sleep. Internet Explorer launched, automatically loading the Yahoo! Portal, where I half-heartedly read a handful of top news headlines, a brief local weather report, and checked e-mail, as I liked to do first thing in the morning. I thought nothing much of the odd yet typically newsworthy photo of a plane hitting the first World Trade Center tower. Must be an accident, I thought. Some small private jet veered off-course, its pilot perhaps drunk. "Plane hits building,' the headline read. "Terrorism suspected." Nothing surprising there; terrorism was a household word far before September of 2001. Terrorists bomb boats…

Media's Role in the War
Words: 2402 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 15757235
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The attorney general also made sure that the mainstream media had plenty of scary stuff about terrorists to cover in a dramatic fashion. For instance, Dettmer notes that, "The manner of the announcement by a live TV linkup for Ashcroft in Moscow and a star-studded news conference at the Justice Department added massive drama. With the surprising exception of Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, aides and officials appeared determined to talk up the dirty-bomb threat" (2002, p. 47). With the terrorist alert standing at orange today, and riveted up to red tomorrow, who knows where it will be next Tuesday? Indeed, anum (2004) emphasizes that, "The media, of course, doesn't really want definitive answers to the problems of homeland security. In fact, the media is probably happier with unanswered or unanswerable questions since these make for better stories and provide a good forum for endless pundits to discuss endless…


Allan, S. & Zelizer, B. (2004). Reporting war: Journalism in wartime. New York: Routledge.

Beale, S.S. (2006). The news media's influence on criminal justice policy: How market-driven news promotes punitiveness. William and Mary Law Review, 48(2), 397-399.

Billeaudeaux, A., Domke, D., Hutcheson, J.S. & Garland, P. (2003). Newspaper editorials follow lead of Bush administration. Newspaper Research Journal, 24(1), 166-167.

Crockatt, R. (2003). America embattled: September 11, anti-Americanism, and the global order.

Function The Implications as Seen
Words: 628 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 9130683
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nd with respect to the eschewing of modesty, the new World Trade Center which is currently under construction in New York City proposes soon to be the tallest building in the United States. This is a demonstration of a form which follows a complex set of functions, both philosophically and practically. To the latter, there is an interest in housing a significant population of businesses, agencies, organizations and priorities. s it replaces the Twin Towers felled by a terrorist attack in 2001, 1 World Trade Center must serve functions of usage that are quite diverse and implicating many people. Philosophically, the enormity of form may be regarded as following the function of patriotism, with the structure also designed to make a statement of determination and resilience for an merica previously humbled by attack. Its function is to reassert the persistence of modernity.

No further a divergence from this could be…

And with respect to the eschewing of modesty, the new World Trade Center which is currently under construction in New York City proposes soon to be the tallest building in the United States. This is a demonstration of a form which follows a complex set of functions, both philosophically and practically. To the latter, there is an interest in housing a significant population of businesses, agencies, organizations and priorities. As it replaces the Twin Towers felled by a terrorist attack in 2001, 1 World Trade Center must serve functions of usage that are quite diverse and implicating many people. Philosophically, the enormity of form may be regarded as following the function of patriotism, with the structure also designed to make a statement of determination and resilience for an America previously humbled by attack. Its function is to reassert the persistence of modernity.

No further a divergence from this could be made than Fallingwater in Fayette County, Pennsylvania. A mere few hours from the rising 1 World Trade Center by turnpike drive, the stately forest residence conceived by Frank Lloyd Wright in 1934 stands as one of the finest achievements in integrative architecture. Here, the function of residential living within the context of an utterly natural and non-disruptive form is met with stunning precision. A reaction to the industrialization of previously rural settings, Wright's work serves the dual purposes of natural preservation and human compatibility, suggesting perhaps one of the finest examples available to us of environmental form and function interceding.

Likewise, it serves as a compelling place to close this discussion, revealing the height of possibilities where function does not alone shape form but where function is seen as a target which can be met by innovative and previously unimagined mutations of form.

Long-Term Economic Repercussions to the
Words: 2419 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 37020903
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While some states agreed with the approach decided by President at the time George Bush, other states would have opted for a more peaceful approach. Otherwise put, the seed of these international political conflicts was represented by the War on Terrorism, or the violent response of the Bush Administration to the terrorist attacks on September 11. The national opinions were also diverse, with some groups voicing their concern that the WOT was merely a pretense to invade the rich-in-oil Afghanistan and Iraq (Shah, 2007), whilst others sought refuge, peace, security or even revenge in the endeavor. egardless of the stand taken by each individual, fact remains that the War on Terror has generated numerous effects upon the national economy.

Gary North (2006) is rather cynical relative to the War on Terror and argues that it is being led by the same organization which ran the unsuccessful war on drugs --…


Dolfman, M.L., Wasser, S.F., June 2004, 9/11 and the New York City Economy: A Borough-to-Borough Analysis, Monthly Labor Review

Makinen, G., 2002, Report for Congress: The Economic Effects of 9/11: A Retrospective Assessment, Federation of American Scientists, Retrieved from on April 22, 2009

North, G., April 1, 2006, War on Terrorism's Economic Effects, Economic Edge,  / last accessed on April 23, 2009

O'Rourke, M., Spring 2005, The Impact of the "War on Terrorism" on Internal Conflicts, The Ploughshares Monitor,  last accessed on April 23, 2009

Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal He
Words: 1144 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 72769061
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Alwaleed also donated $500,000 to the George Herbert Walker ush Scholarship Fund in 2002. In December 2005, he donated $20 million each to Harvard University and Georgetown University to finance new initiatives aimed at enhancing the study of Islam in the Western academy and to foster understanding between Muslims and Christians. (Mujtaba 2008)

The Weill Medical College of Cornell University also received a donation $10 million in 2006 to establish the Institute for Computational efforts in wake of the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan. He also gave $2 million dollars for the development of the remote regions of Pakistan that include Kahuta, Jhelum valley, and the mountainside region of the Swat River valley. Alwaleed financed the building of the headquarters of the Fondation Pour l'Enfance, an organization dedicated to improving the living conditions of Malian and African children in Mali. (Mujtaba 2008)

Princely Lifestyle

The billionaire prince has a colorful life…

Bibliography Alwaleed bin Talal. 2008. - talal (Accessed November 24, 2008).

Khan, Riz. 2008 Time 100: Prince Alwaleed bin Talal. November 24, 2008.,28804,1733748_1733758_1735846,00.html  (Accessed November 24, 2008).

Alwaleed: Businessman Billionaire Prince. New York: HarperCollins, 2005.

Mujtaba, Syed Ali. Alalweed: Billionaire, Businessman, Prince. April 8, 2008.  (Accessed November

English Legal System the Law
Words: 2141 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 96673053
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For example, the Parliament passed the "Year and a Day ule" Act in 1996 that changed the previous murder and manslaughter law that specified that a person could be charged with murder or manslaughter if the victim died within a year and a day of receiving his injuries. The change was made to reflect modern development in medical science, which enabled injured people to remain alive for longer periods.

Changes in the UK laws have also reflected the growing strength of the egalitarian ideal over the last two centuries. It has led to changes in laws that have encouraged the gradual emancipation of married women and the prohibition of discrimination based on race or sex. For instance, an old law applicable until recently did not allow married women to refuse sex with her husband. However, in . v (1991), the House of Lords decided that if a wife did not…


Atiyah, P.S. (1995). Law and Modern Society (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press

Harris, P. (2007). An Introduction to Law (7th ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

Martin, J (2005). The English Legal System (4th ed.). London, UK: Hodder Arnold

Lord Justice Coke described customs as "one of the main triangles of the laws of England" (Martin, 14). Others dispute this theory and contend most of the "customs" were in fact invented by the judges themselves.

Diversity Is a Term That
Words: 2411 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32631063
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" (Kanani, 2006)

If this can be the case for one city it is evident that by taking up such an ambitious education program nationwide, it is possible to bring about a better understanding in all police forces. The success of the Chicago and the New York police has egged the other states to create such training and induction into their own forces. There are training academies that impart diversity training to its officers. Austin Police Department in Texas has a "Cadet Community Immersion" program which helps officers deal with diverse Austin communities (Kanani, 2006) the greatest effort on record is probably from New York. The department has a strength of 35,000and is the country's largest police force. It has become diverse. The enlisted officers came from various backgrounds from Burma, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Venezuela, and Albania. Earlier the officers were of German, Irish, and Italian backgrounds. (Hays, 2007)

The department…


Hemphill, Hellen; Haines, Ray. (1997) "Discrimination, Harassment, and the Failure of Diversity Training: What to Do Now" Quorum Books. Westport, CT.

Kenney, Dennis Jay; McNamara, Robert P. (1999) "Police and Policing: Contemporary

Issues" Praeger. Westport, CT.

National Research Council; Research on Police Committee to Review. (2004) "Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence" National Academy Press.

U S Interventions in Afghanistan and
Words: 2550 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62701561
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The Taliban have many sympathizers in the tribal areas of Pakistan and it is suspected that bin Laden and his lieutenant, and his lieutenant, Ayman al-Zawahiri, may well be in Pakistan (Ibid.) it has also been alleged that the powerful ISI (the Pakistan army's intelligence wing) still has links with the Taliban and elements within the agency are sympathizers of Islamic extremists, who may be surreptitiously helping the Taliban. The U.S. has also been accused of carrying out attacks on alleged hideouts of militants across the Pakistan side of the border by drone and missile attacks that have caused a number of civilian deaths. This has further inflamed anti-American sentiment in Pakistan, where the majority of public opinion was never in favor of the United States, in any case. The U.S. support for Musharraf has also emboldened him to perpetuate his rule as he has recently imposed Emergency, suspended the…

Works Cited

Analysis: Who are the Taleban?" BBC News. December 20, 2000. November 23, 2007.  

Building High-Rise Buildings in Any
Words: 1245 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44261065
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In the United States over 1,000 tornadoes occur annually (Grazulis 1993), but they are difficult to predict, and average warning lead times are only 10-15 minutes, meaning that, unlike with hurricanes, many people are unable to leave their homes in the tornado paths"(Simmons and Sutter 2005). Just think, if the homes of these poor people were in the 20th floor of a high-rise building it would likely take them more than the fifteen to twenty minutes warning time just to traverse the stairs in their building. Such a scenario would put many individuals in undue precarious situations with no rescue in sight, and it would not necessarily only affect those people who lived in the building, but would affect those that were attempting to rescue those individuals as well. This type of situation would be inherently dangerous to the firemen and policemen, much like the televised horror experienced by millions…

Works Cited

Grazulis, T.P., (1993) Significant tornadoes: 1680-1991, Environmental Films, p. 1326

Monikowski, F., Woodcok, C., (2007) the challenge of high-rise fire sprinkler retrofits, Buildings, Vol. 101, No. 5, p. 30

Qi, Y., (2002) a study on the reliability of fire water supply system in high-rise buildings, Fire Technology, Vol. 38, p. 71-79

Simmons, K.M., Sutter, D. (2005) WSR-88D radar, tornado warnings, and tornado casualties, Weather Forecasting, Vol. 20, pp. 301-310.

Terrorism Has Become the Bane
Words: 1681 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68488425
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He had an engineering degree from the university of Swansea in ritain. He too participated in the afghan war and was a friend of in laden since the late eighties. He was the emissary of bin laden in Philippines and trained the Muslim fundamentalists there. He made his way into the U.S. without a visa and continued his stay there by seeking political asylum. He was a skilled expert in making chemical bombs. In 1995, Yousef was arrested by Pakistani authorities and in the next year he was sentenced to 240 years of imprisonment in the U.S. For his role in the WTO bombing.

Rex a. Hudson]


Terrorism has expanded into every nook and corner of the world today. A terrorist today, does not appear with a distinctive personality but rather blends with the society leaving security experts with little clue. While organized crimes are mostly economically motivated, terrorism…


Rex a. Hudson, "The sociology and psychology of terrorism: Who Becomes a terrorist and why?," Sept 1999, Library of Congress, Accessed 19th November 2007, available at 

BBC, "Profile: Mullah Mohammed Omar," Accessed 19th November 2007, available at  

Warren Cohen's Assessment of U S
Words: 775 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17062035
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They were against NAFTA and free trade, since workers would lose jobs at home, but were heartened by ush's decisions to not extend war into aghdad and to remove Saddam Hussein from power.

ill Clinton was ush's successor and rode into power upon the back of his promises to balance the federal budget and reduce the deficit, which he accomplished through raising taxes and cutting the defense budget. He paid little attention to foreign policy and Colin Powell, his chairman of the Joint Chiefs, succeeded in undermining Clinton's validity, as did a few of the other foreign policy staff. Clinton proved poor in matters of foreign policy and paid little attention to the advice of his foreign policy team.

A go along with Warren Cohen's assessment of George Walker ush, who is the subject of his most stringent criticism. Called a Vulcan (the god of Fire), ush acted in ignorance…

Bill Clinton was Bush's successor and rode into power upon the back of his promises to balance the federal budget and reduce the deficit, which he accomplished through raising taxes and cutting the defense budget. He paid little attention to foreign policy and Colin Powell, his chairman of the Joint Chiefs, succeeded in undermining Clinton's validity, as did a few of the other foreign policy staff. Clinton proved poor in matters of foreign policy and paid little attention to the advice of his foreign policy team.

A go along with Warren Cohen's assessment of George Walker Bush, who is the subject of his most stringent criticism. Called a Vulcan (the god of Fire), Bush acted in ignorance of foreign affairs in general; yet he sought to inspire confidence by putting into place the best and the worst of his father's advisors. George W. Bush made it his goal to (1)ensure Russia and Communism will never again equal Democracy, (2) ensure no superpower can arise in Asia, such as China, Japan or North Korea (3) ensure that the oil source countries of the earth come under and remain under U.S. control. The resulting mix of ignorance and aggression has led the nation to the present crisis. The leaders of his father's team, "James Baker, Brent Scowcroft and Larry Eagle-burger" have consistently opposed the younger Bush's policies. He lost whatever had been gained in peace strategies between Israel and the Palestinians. He used 9-11 to turn what everyone expected to simply be a temporary invasion to overthrow a tyrant into an extended war. The 9-11 attack on the U.S. has had the result of revealing U.S. weaknesses, as well as fueling the fears of those who have resisted draw downs of defense, in effect encouraging the war-mongers. As a result of George W. Bush's extended and ill-advised response to 9-11, other nations now see the U.S. As a less wise, less admirable superpower, and in some instances as a power they want to see defeated.

Cohen, Warren I. America's Failing Empire. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. 2005.

American Flag After the Terrorist
Words: 642 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78127813
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When it is flown at half-staff because of a death or series of deaths, it should be first hoisted to the top of the pole for an instant and then lowered to halfway. The flag should be again raised to the peak before it is lowered for the day. "Half-staff" means lowering the flag to one-half the distance between the top and bottom of the staff. Crepe streamers may be affixed to spear heads or flagstaffs in a parade only by order of the President of the United States.

Here's one of the procedures least followed: When the flag is displayed in a way besides being flown from a staff, it should be displayed flat, whether indoors or out. When shown either horizontally or vertically against a wall, the union should be uppermost and to the flag's own right, that is, to the observer's left. When displayed in a window…

Islamic Philosophies on September 11
Words: 1195 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14070700
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Abdal-Hakim Murad, in his "Bin Laden's Violence is a Heresy Against Islam," generally makes the point that violence against civilians and innocents is not in accordance with Islamic scholarship or tradition. According to Murad, it was a 19th century Iranian reformer called "the Bab" who "ignored the accumulated discussion of the centuries and wrote a Koranic commentary based on his own direct understanding of scripture." (Murad) Over time, Murad asserts that this led to many Muslim groups ignoring Islamic tradition and making their own pronouncements on what the Koran means. One of these groups were the ahhabi Muslims of Saudi Arabia, who traditionally have been considered "heretics" by mainstream Islamic scholars, but with the influx of oil money in the 1960's, began to export this extreme view of Islam around the world. Because of their seeming ability to decide the meaning of the Koran, Muslims who follow this type of…

Works Cited

"Al Qaeda in its Own Words." (2008). ed. By Kepel, Gilles and Jean-Pierre Milelli. Cambridge Mass: Harvard UP. Print.

Murad, Abdal-Hakim. "Bin Laden's Violence is a Heresy Against Islam." Islam For Today. Retrieved from

Qutb, Sayyid. Milestones. Indianapolis: American Trust, 1990. Print.

Padilla V Hanft Case Brief
Words: 792 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 18417733
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Padilla's counsel subsequently filed a petition for certiorari with the United States Supreme Court, which was again denied in April of 2006. Meantime, Padilla had been transferred to civilian custody, essentially rendering the petition for a writ of certiorari in the highest court in the land a moot point.

The question before the Court of Appeals was whether the President of the United States had the constitutional authority to detain a United States citizen who was allegedly associated with al Qaeda, a known terrorist organization that the United States was at war with.

The Judge who ultimately penned the Court of Appeals' opinion, Luttig, was joined by Judges Michael and Traxler (2005) and wrote:

The detention of petitioner being fully authorized by Act of Congress, the judgment of the district court that the detention of petitioner by the President of the United States is without support in law is…


American Civil Liberties Union of Virginia. (2006). Padilla v. Hanft.

Retrieved from .

Judge Luttig, and Judges Michael and Traxler. (2005). Padilla v. Hanft, 423 F. 3d 386 - Court of Appeals, 4th Circuit. Google Scholar. Retrieved from,+423+F.3d&hl=en&as_sdt=2,44&scilh=0 

Rumsfeld v Padilla. (2004). Rehnquist, William, C.J., Sandra Day O' Connor, Antonin Scalia, Anthony Kennedy and Clarence Thomas. Google Scholar. Retrieved from,+542+U.S.+426+ (2004)&hl=en&as_sdt=2,44.

Recovery Plan Biological Attack in the U S
Words: 2773 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17134066
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ecovery Plan: Biological Attack in the U.S. Congress

The havoc and deaths caused by the weaponized anthrax spores that were mailed to members of the U.S. Congress following the attacks of September 11, 2001 and the repeated attempted uses of botulinum toxin on U.S. Naval bases make it abundantly clear that governmental offices are vulnerable to biological pathogens. These agents have been and likely will be used by terrorists again to achieve their goals of bringing harm to the United States and it interests at home and abroad. The hypothetical comprehensive recovery plan developed in this project is in response to this type of food-borne pathogen attack and takes place in the cafeteria situated in the ayburn House Office Building in the U.S. Congressional complex in Washington, D.C. which serves members of Congress, staff members and visitors. The scenario begins with the telephonic notification to the Capital Police that all…


Botulinum toxin. (2011). State of Delaware Health and Social Services. Retrieved from http://

Dando, M. (2001). The new biological weapons: Threat, proliferation, and control. Boulder,

CO: Lynne Rienner.

Historical Evolution of Cbrne Incidents
Words: 718 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 48274102
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Evolution of CBNE Incidents

Weapons that were out of the ordinary, such as chemical, biological, nuclear, radiological, and explosive (CBNE), have been used since nearly the beginning of warfare. People sent infected individuals into the midst of enemy camps in attempts to harm the soldiers with biological weaponry. Nuclear weapons are owned by many countries, and have been tested to the point that all it would take is one ruler of one country deciding to do something drastic and the entire world could potentially be wiped out. Terror plots have been foiled that have included chemical and radiological weapons (Eldridge, 2006). Explosives, of course, are often used. Bombs and dynamite have been used in the past, but terrorists can also use larger-scale explosives to damage buildings and to create fear and worry in the hearts of people throughout a country or a region of the world. This was done, for…


Eldridge, J. (ed.). (2006). Jane's nuclear, biological and chemical defense 2006 -- 2007 (19th ed.). Coulsdon, Surrey, UK; Alexandria, Va: Jane's Information Group.

Morel, B. & Olson, K. (1992). Shadows and substance: The chemical weapons convention New York: Westview Press.

Media and Terrorism Mass Media
Words: 599 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 64912324
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However, this is not a reason to treat the entire religion as a terrorist organization itself. After 9/11, many Americans and media outlets have begun to treat all Muslims, and even the concept of Islam as a terrorist organization. No other controversies show this strong enough as the controversy concerning the building of the mosque near the site of 9/11. In this case, there is a lot of public outcry regarding a huge mosque that was being proposed to be built beginning in 2009. he film here highlights both media sources and individual survivors of 9/11 and how they are threatened with the presence of the mosque being so close to the site of the twin towers of the World rade Building. o many survivors it is a really emotional time still because the deaths of loved ones and friends are still very real in their minds. Yet, these individuals…

There are a number of things the media can do when being threatened by terrorist threats in order to stop the wave of fear the terrorists are looking to spread within American society. First, removing terrorists' access to the media will help decrease the media's relationship with spreading terror. Media outlets should refuse to print or highlight the terrorists own explanations of attacks and threats, as many terrorists often accompany threats with tapes or other sorts of verbal statements. This decreased attention will not continue to increase public fear as much, therefore not serving the terrorists on a silver platter.

Yes, there have been some radical Muslims that have taken extreme terrorist acts against the United States. However, this is not a reason to treat the entire religion as a terrorist organization itself. After 9/11, many Americans and media outlets have begun to treat all Muslims, and even the concept of Islam as a terrorist organization. No other controversies show this strong enough as the controversy concerning the building of the mosque near the site of 9/11. In this case, there is a lot of public outcry regarding a huge mosque that was being proposed to be built beginning in 2009. The film here highlights both media sources and individual survivors of 9/11 and how they are threatened with the presence of the mosque being so close to the site of the twin towers of the World Trade Building. To many survivors it is a really emotional time still because the deaths of loved ones and friends are still very real in their minds. Yet, these individuals are making the mistake of assuming all Muslims are anti-American, and even terrorists.

Many people are directly correlating Islam with the terrorists that were responsible for 9/11. Yet, this is simply not true. The terrorists who were responsible were a small fraction of fundamentalist radicals, not representatives of larger Islam itself. Those who were responsible for the extreme violence and pain that was 9/11 were not representative of the Islamic world as a whole. They were an extremist group that harbored political differences with the United States that had been building for generations. Thus, the act of terrorism was not necessarily religiously based. In this sense, blaming the religion for the act of terror would be a huge mistake. Muslims living in this country are still Americans. Therefore, they need to be able to experience the same rights to freedom of religion as other members of religious faiths do.