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Further, many home owners lost their homes due to foreclosure and this impacted the society in a negative way.
The stock markets were no exception to this problem and most companies saw their stock prices dive down. This prevented them from accessing the required capital for expansion and at the same time, many individual investors lost heavily. A good percentage of Americans saw the erosion of their 401K and this placed further financial difficulties in their personal lives.
In short, the unethical practices used by the banks in a wide array of activities including lending had a big impact on the economy. They used many tactics such as shadow banking, creating complex instruments, predatory lending, fraudulent mortgage contracts and sub-prime lending to bring the financial industry on the brink of disaster. It is hoped that regulators, financial executives and the people would be more wary in the future to…
Levin, Carl; Coburn, Tom.(April 13, 2011). Wall Street and the Financial Crisis: Anatomy of a financial collapse. Retrieved from: http://hsgac.senate.gov/public/_files/Financial_Crisis/FinancialCrisisReport.pdf
No Author. (August 3, 2010). Countrywide Financial agrees to pay $600 million to settle class-action lawsuits. The Canadian Press. P20.
Sanders, Bob. (September 1, 2006). Ameriquest tops foreclosure list. New Hampshire Business Review. Vol 28 (19). pp20-20.
Maggs, John. (May 2, 2009). Do we have to kill the shadow banking system? National Journal. P7-7
unethical practices and behavior in Accounting. Review the effect of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 on financial statements.
Identify situations that might lead to unethical practices and behavior in Accounting
The company may distort its accounts in order to make its situation more attractive to current and prospective investors. It may distort its accounts believing that economic conditions will be more promising in the future or equivocating one account with another.
Other situations that may result in unethical practices may be the situation of hiring accountants who, even though they are from an external agency, are paid a bonus to audit the financial records of the organization in a biased way. The organization, too, may reward these auditors in other manners, and so, even if not done overtly, the bribery induces the auditors to lean towards the organization and distort the accounts.
Furthermore, organizational behavior is modeled and influenced by…
Hatch, Larry (2010) Justifications for Unethical Behavior.
Lasher, William R. (2008). Practical Financial Management (5th ed.). Thomson South-Western.
casts light upon the unethical practices carried out in the domain of marketing strategy. The paper identifies basic ethical issues explaining how customers are trapped and they lose confidence in the organizations and their marketing campaigns.
Marketing is considered as the backbone of a business organization which enables it to communicate with the customers. It is an unquestioned fact that business is driven by the customers who are primary revenue generators and no business can survive without customers (Kotler). The core objective behind establishment of a business is to earn profit and the customer is the sole body driving the process of profit generation.
Profit generation is the function of increasing gap between cost and price of item sold or increasing the number of items sold. The former option is difficult to practice in every industry and it may be a temporary approach. Hence the business practitioners tend to focus…
Harvard Business Review. Harvard Business Review of Increasing Customer Loyalty. USA: Harvard Business Press, 2011. Print.
Kotler, Philip. Principles of Marketing. New Delhi: Pearson, 2010. Print.
Rosenau, Milton. Successful Product Development. USA: Wiley, 1999. Print.
Self, Bill and Roche, Greg. Customer Satisfaction Measurement for ISO 9000: 2000. USA: Routledge, 2012. Print.
Vioxx demonstrates the unethical practice perpetuated within the business community. Typically, the pharmaceutical companies often put their financial interests above the health and safety of drug users. The paper also highlighted the unethical drug approval process implemented by FDA. The paper suggests that the government should introduce tougher drug approval process to ensure that FDA approves only the ethical products into the market.
The case provides the overview of a controversy that involves Vioxx, a drug produced by the U.S. based Merck (Merck & Company), a leading global pharmaceutical company in the United States. Vioxx is an anti-inflammatory drug used for the treatment of acute pain and arthritis without irritation. Merck launched Vioxx in 1999 for the treatment of the acute pain and arthritis and ever since the drug was launched, medical experts had written series of reports about the cardiovascular risks associated with the long usage of Vioxx. Years…
Appleby, J, Krantz, M. (2004). Merck estimates $2.5B impact from pulling Vioxx plug. USA Today 2004 Sept 30.
Mancinelli, S.M. (2006).Placing Blame for the Vioxx Debacle. Harvard University's DASH repository.
Phua, K.L. (2008). "Vioxx and the other Cases of Approved Pharmaceutical Products Withdrawals from the Market: Ethical Issues in Ensuring the Integrity of Drug and Medical Device Research, Development and Commercialization." International Medical University .Kuala Lumpur.
Presley, H. (2005). Vioxx and the Merck Team Effort . The Kenan Institute for Ethics at Duke University.
Through the development and implementation of a customized plan, the parties could attain a series of objectives. These results, the main supporters of the importance of a program, refer to the following:
eduction in the joint costs
Identification of complex supply issues
Opportunities for operational integrations
Sustained and continuous benchmarking
Support for strategic decisions
Improved collaborations and Improved value for both company and supplier (the Office of Government Commerce, 2010).
12. Supplier management and unethical suppliers
At a general level, the development and implementation of a high quality supplier management program allows the company to create the benefits above stated. All of these perceived outcomes, such as increased trust, collaboration and communications, have the eventual outcome of improving the relationship between the company and its providers. At an ethical concerns level, this materializes in the following:
The firm is better able to identify and assess any ethical concerns…
Crystal, G., 2011, What is business ethics? Wise Geek, http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-business-ethics.htm last accessed on February 21, 2011
Ferrell, O.C., Fraedrich, J., Ferrell, L., 2009, Business ethics: ethical decision making and cases, 7th edition, Cengage Learning
Rahim, M.A., 2010, Managing conflict in organizations, 4th edition, Transaction Publishers
2010, Supplier relationship management, the Office of Government Commerce, http://www.ogc.gov.uk/process_supplier_performance_and_contract_management.asp last accessed on February 21, 2011
Offshoring an Ethical Business Practice?
The practice of offshoring jobs is one that has been discussed at length by both by critics and proponents. Proponents argue that it is an unavoidable outcome of trade agreements that are both necessary and helpful to the global economy. Critics disagree and find offshoring to be destructive to the economy. As Sir James Goldsmith has pointed out in his argument against the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), offshoring wrecks the domestic infrastructure by removing jobs from American cities, which negatively impacts American families. The North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) serves as another example: nearly one million American jobs were lost within the first five years of the trade deal taking effect (Muhho, 2014). From the standpoint of of Buddhist Ethics, refraining from harming living things is a precept that one should follow. This same idea has been perpetuated by numerous other…
Cahn, Steven; Markie, Peter. Ethics: History, Theory and Contemporary Issues (Fifth
Edition). UK: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Dudlicek, J. (2014). Kroger Feted for Owning Health and Wellness. Progressive Grocer. Retrieved from http://www.progressivegrocer.com/departments/pharmacy-wellness-bpc/kroger-feted-owning-health-and-wellness?nopaging=1
Friedman, M. (1970). The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits.
Over 100 of that group will be allowed to participate in a special training session that both teaches and tests medical preparation and fire suppression skills, and which will allow those who pass to gain entrance into the department (eese 2011). Those who are not selected will be eligible to partkae in a $30 million dollar monetary award that was largely facilitated by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. The fact that such a venerable organization had to become involved with this particualr grievance of African-American firefighters is largely indicative of the fact that such unethical practices of hiring -- which directly influence the amount of those promoted -- are based upon discriminatory measures against African-Americans.
In conclusion, it has been conclusively demonstrated that there is a history of unethical practices in regards to the promotion of African-American firefighters that continues throughout contemporary times. In some respects,…
Cosgrove, Maurenn. (2011). "Federal appeals court reinstates African-American firefighter discrimination suit." Paper Chase News Burst. Retrieved from http://jurist.org/paperchase/2011/08/federal-appeals-court-reinstates-african-american-firefighter-suit.php
Moran, C. (2011). "HFD exam lawsuit settled for 7 black firefighter." Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/news/houston-texas/article/HFD-exam-lawsuit-settled-for-7-black-firefighters-1687065.php
No author. (2011). "Organization History." Stentorians of L.A. County. Retrieved from http://lacostentorians.org/about.htm
No author. (No date). "African-American Firefighters: Our Brothers Under Fire." Wisconsin Black Historical Society. Retrieved from http://wbhsm.homestead.com/brothers_under_fire.html
Unethical Business esearch Practices
What unethical research behavior was involved?
The antitrust case brought by Wal-Mart and other retailers against Visa and MasterCard in the U.S. Eastern District court, was settled in 2003 for $3 billion and primarily involved a dispute concerning the efficient pricing of access to payment information, including security data that confirmed or refuted the transactional identities of cardholders (oberds & Schreft, 2009). In their pleadings, Wal-Mart and other class action litigants argued that third-party providers such as Visa and MasterCard required them to accept both debit and credit cards issued by MasterCard but the interchange fees were higher for debit cards (Ulzheimer, 2012). In sum, the suit filed by Wal-Mart and other large retailers claimed that Visa and MasterCard "required all merchants who accept their credit cards to also accept their signature debit cards [which] constitutes an illegal tie-in in violation of antitrust law" (Peterson, 2002,…
An introduction to ISO 27001. (2012). The ISO2700 Directory. Retrieved from http://www.
Azola, M. (2011). The Reconciliation Project: Separation and integration in business ethics research. Journal of Business Ethics, 99, 19 -- 36.
Binning, D. (2012). Top five cloud computing security issues. ComputerWeekly. Retrieved from:
These benefit the local company as well as the entire region.
Leverage financial and other investments in the community. ecause nonprofit organizations mobilize vast reserves of goodwill, corporate investment in the community can have tremendous reach in building a better corporate profile and in strengthening public support of the private sector. (Kanaga, 1998)
The work of Nae and Grigore (nd) entitled: "An Overview of European Multinational Corporations" the social and political changes brought about by globalization have raised new questions as well as expectations about governance and social responsibilities. More and more companies of all sizes and sectors are recognizing the importance of their role in society and the real benefits of adopting a proactive approach to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)." (Nae and Grigore, nd)
V. FIDUCIARY DUTIES as a GUIDE to ETHICS
The work of Young (2007) entitled: "Fiduciary Duties as a Helpful Guide to Ethical Decision-Making in usiness"…
Charoenpong, Kittiyaporn (nd0 Technology Effect on Ethics in the Workplace. Dusit Thani College Academic Resource Center. Web Opac. Online available at http://lib.dtc.ac.th/article/dtc/0007.pdf
Okpara, J.L. (2003) Can Corporate Ethical Codes of Conduct Influence Behavior? (an Exploratory Study of Financial Managers in a Developing Economy. XI International Conference Brussels, Belgium July 11-13, 2003)
Kanga, W.S. (2004) Corporations Must Act Ethically CIPE's Board of Directors, delivered in Bucharest in 1998 at a conference on the "Role of the Corporation in Today's Society. Economic Reform Today. No. 1 19999. Economic Reform Today. http://www.cipe.org/publications/ert/e31/e31_1.pdf
Fiduciary Duties as a Helpful Guide to Ethical Decision-Making in Business (2007) Journal of Business Ethics 74:1-15 DOI 10.1007/s10. Springer 2007.
Unethical Business esearch Conduct
Business research is conducted for many reasons that are dependent on intended recipient of the research. For business marketers, research might include customer surveys of focus groups. When the research is for the development of a product, it can have a scientific basis and when it comes to stakeholders the research may include financial projections. This paper will therefore look at an article that focuses on some of the unethical business research conduct. The paper will clearly highlight some of the unethical research behavior that is involved and the people who are affected by these unethical research behaviors. The paper will further highlight how the unethical behavior has affected the organization, individuals and society at large. Finally a conclusion will be made on how the unethical behavior can be avoided or resolved.
The article "The case of Neurontin; Skewed esearch in service selling" is an example…
Ramirez de Arellano, A.B. (2009). The Case of Neurontin: Skewed Research in the Service of Selling. Retrieved November 27, 2012 from http://www.citizen.org/Page.aspx?pid=2887
Leadership is not an inherited gift or a family heritage. Becoming a leader is a deliberate and planned process of personal and professional development that must be carried out experientially. It requires one to have the courage to say both "yes" and "no' to an everlasting chain of large and small tests. In order to become a true leader, one must be prepared to define his/her values, character, and leadership style. The resilient, tough leaders make this process a way of life, not only in business, but within their families, communities, and the world (Chandler, 2009).
Leadership can be described as "a process of social influence through which an environment is provided where personal, professional, and/or organizational goals can be successfully achieved" (Bahreinian, Ahi & Soltani, 2012). In today's rapidly-growing and spirited industry, efficient management is the major cause of making an organization superior to the other. If…
Atkins, P.W., & Parker, S.K. (2012). Understanding Individual Compassion in Organizations: The Role of Appraisals and Psychological Flexibility. Academy of Management Review, 37(4), 524-546.
Bahreinian, M.R., Ahi, M.A., & Soltani, F. (2012). The Relationship between Personality Type and Leadership Style of Managers: A Case Study. Mustang Journal of Business & Ethics, 3, 94-111.
Brown, M.E., & Mitchell, M.S. (2010). Ethical and Unethical Leadership: Exploring New Avenues for Future Research. Business Ethics Quarterly, 20(4), 583-616.
Chandler, D.J. (2009). The Perfect Storm of Leaders' Unethical Behavior: A Conceptual Framework. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 5(1), 69-93. Retrieved January 9, 2013, from http://www.regent.edu/acad/global/publica
Globalizing clinical research has reportedly proven to be one solution for America's pharmaceutical paradox. Doctors prescribe more than 10 prescriptions for the average American each year. Only one person in 350, however, will submit themselves to be a participant in experimental drug testing. On the other side of the globe, however a profusion of under-treated, poor, physician-trusting patients who live in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia provide the rapid, positive results needed for new drugs to receive quick approval. One review noted that 99% of controlled trials published in China netted positive results upon the drug/treatment being investigated. (Shah 23) In Nigeria during 2002, thirty Nigerian families filed a class-action suit against Pfizer, who allegedly violated the Nuremberg Code in 1996 as they presided over an experiment on Nigerian children suffering with meningitis. esearchers reportedly forced a risky, unapproved, experiment on unsuspecting subjects who, as a…
Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+.
Chapter 14: The Federal Policy for Human Subject Protections (The Common Rule)." Retrieved 28 November 2006 at http://www. the.doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/achre/chap14_2.html.
Embryonic stem cell research fails in many ways to reader," The Times Leader, October 27, 2006.
Fence Post." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 27 Aug. 2005: 16.
Unethical 'Best Practices'
Corporate Governance Case Study: Enron
Enron, the seventh-largest American corporation, collapsed in December 2001 in what most people refer to as the 'New Economy's first major failure'. Following its collapse, Congressional committees immediately embarked on inquiries to determine the cause(s) of its bankruptcy. Once investigations were complete, it was evident that the corporate governance mechanisms employed by the company had contributed to its downfall. The company employed the Anglo-American model of corporate governance, which places substantial emphasis on shareholder rights as opposed to stakeholder rights, and which, in addition, is management-dominated and has a unitary board structure with a single powerful leader. Driven by an urge to keep shareholders appeased by paying them more even when the company's resources were strained, Enron's managers employed off-balance sheet transactions with SPEs, and were able to hide huge amounts of debt that was often collaterized with the company's stock. The…
Hartman, L.P., DesJardins, J.R., & MacDonald, C. (2013). Business Ethics: Decision-Making for Personal Integrity & Social Responsibility (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Pies, I., Beckmann, M. & Hielscher, S. (2010). Value Creation, Management Competencies, and Global Corporate Citizenship: An Ordonomic Approach to Business Ethics in the Age of Globalization. Journal of Business Ethics, 94(1), 265-278.
Rhode, D.L. (Ed.). (2006). Moral Leadership: The Theory and Practice of Power, Judgment, and Policy. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
NHS Corporate Social esponsibility Practice
In a contemporary business environment, organizations are struggling with the new roles to meet the needs of present generation without compromising the needs of future generation. Within a business environment, stakeholders are calling upon corporate organizations to implement operations that will meet the societal values and the natural environment. Organizations are also being called upon to apply principles of corpo-rate social responsibility (CS) in the business operations. Corpo-rate social responsibility (CS) is the process where corporate organizations demonstrate the inclusion of social responsibility and environmental concerns in their business activities. (D'Amato, Henderson, & Henderson, 2009). It is no longer acceptable for a firm to conduct business without demonstrating societal concern.
The objective of this report is to evaluate the current Corporate Social esponsibility practice of National Health Service (NHS). The report uses Carroll's pyramid models to demonstrate the effectiveness of NHS Corporate Social esponsibility practice,…
Bowie, N.E. (1999). Business Ethics and Normative Theories. Black well Publishing. UK.
Burton, B.K., Farh, J.L. & Hegarty, W.H. (2000). Comparison of a Cross-Cultural Corporate Social Responsibility Orientation: Hong Kong vs. United States Students. Teaching Business Ethics, 4(2):151-167.
Carroll, A.B. (1999). Evolution of a Definitional Construct of Corporate social responsibility Business and Society, 38(3): 268-295.
D'Amato, A. Henderson, S. & Henderson, S.(2009).Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Business. CCL Press. USA.
Ethical Practices ithin Business
BP Struggles to Resolve Sustainability Disaster
Over the past 20th century and in the 21st century, ethics has neither been an option nor a luxury. It has not only become a moral or legal responsibility, but has also been an organizational priority within all sets of work groups, including both public and private institutions, organizations and companies. Ethical practices have also become the only strategy to combat the growing impatience within the society, as well as their responsible competitions and/or actions. These ill and unethical acts may in the long run impoverish a section of the regional economy through various organizations while enriching the crafty economies. Organizational leaders must thereby keep abreast of the rapidly changing technological advancements together with their possible effects on globalization, competitor products and services, opportunities, and threats that their organizations may face. Over a century, BP, the formerly Anglo-Persian Oil Company…
Carl, Safina. BP Struggles to Resolve Sustainability Disaster. Annual Report and Form- Case
4, 32:2, (2012),342-352.
King Jewels: Ethical Leadership Case
Leadership style may have contributed to unethical behavior because:
a) There was no leader providing guidance and keeping a watchful eye on employees for last three years.
b) Andy Wong had been busy travelling and expanding business and hence failing to provide the much-needed guidance and supervision
c) Company had become overly ambitious and leadership was more interested in excessive expansion and big plans than in checking quality,
d) Ho like most other Chinese and Hong Kong leaders mainly had a dictatorial style of leadership. He would dictate terms without engaging in meaningful dialogue with his key personnel
e) Setting huge sale targets without consulting employees had led to this unethical behavior by Clement Tam
Excessive meshing of duties and responsibilities was one of the key reasons for generating such wrongful behavior. Proper segregation of duties could have prevented this problem. This is because division…
A Utilitarianism Analysis of the Practice of Dumping
Coined by Mother Jones magazine, the term “dumping” is used to describe the practice of selling products in other countries, typically developing nations, after they have been banned for sale in the United States. Although still widely practiced, dumping has been criticized as an immoral business practices that inevitably causes harm to others, usually for profit or to avoid the financial losses that would be caused by being forced to withdraw products from the marketplace. To determine the validity of these criticisms, this paper provides a review of Case 1.1, “Made in the U.S.A. – Dumped in Brazil, Africa, Iraq” from a utilitarianism perspective, followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
Review and Analysis
The history of dumping unsafe or otherwise banned products in other countries by U.S. companies is lengthy and…
Ethics can be defined as standards employed by people to make a determination of what is the right course of action to undertake in a given situation. Ethics are reliant on a logical and rational set of principles to come to a decision, which in essence, is a cognitive procedure or practice. Ethical dilemmas come about pretty much on a daily basis. It is imperative to take note that situations or circumstances that are uncomfortable or tough, but that do not necessitate a choice are not considered ethical dilemmas (Allen, 2013).
The first aspect for an ethical dilemma is that there has to be an agent or person who has to make a decision on which the best or ideal course of action is to undertake. Secondly, there has to be numerous courses of action that one can select from. Finally, regardless of what course of action is undertaken, there…
Allen, K. (2013). What Is an Ethical Dilemma? The New Social Worker. Retrieved 17 September, 2015 from: http://www.socialworker.com/feature-articles/ethics-articles/What_Is_an_Ethical_Dilemma%3F/
Robison, W. L., & Reeser, L. C. (2000). Ethical decision making in social work. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
The unethical research behavior discussed was conducted by yeth, and is symptomatic of the systemic issues that the pharmaceutical industry has with respect to research. The article details a case involving yeth that resulted in class action litigation. The ethical issue in this case is fraudulent research. The allegation is that yeth fabricated research by using "vendors to produce ghostwritten manuscripts and place them into medical journals." The research produced was therefore entirely fraudulent, but passed off in medical journals as legitimate research. The objective of placing this research in the journals was to legitimize the new drug that yeth was about launch, Prempro, a menopausal hormone therapy.
The larger issue is publication planning, described by Fugh-Berman (2010) as "the process by which pharmaceutical, biotech and medical device companies produce and release articles in medical journals and posters at meetings to establish key marketing messages." These companies use…
Fugh-Berman, A. (2010). The haunting of medical journals: How ghostwriting sold "HRT." PLOS Medicine. Vol. 7 (9) Retrieved October 31, 2012 from http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1000335
Criminal Justice Policy Practice Determine Morality
Higher Than Utilitarianism
The passing and reformation of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act, also known as the so-called "crack law," is one of the most controversial pieces of legislation to be considered within the criminal justice system and its policy during the past two years. There are several aspects of this legal mandate that present a plethora of interesting situations and questions in regards to the morality of this particular issue, which has been at the forefront of mass media outlets ever since there were significant amendments passed to it in 2010. Interestingly enough, a fair amount of those changes may be attributed to the notion of morality revolving around this legal code, which was largely responsible for the rapid and prolonged imprisonment of minorities -- particularly African-Americans and Latino offenders. One of the most efficacious means of determining whether such a law may be…
Bentham, Jeremy. "Offenses Against One's Self: Paederasty Part 1." Journal of Homosexuality. Volume 3 (4). 389-406. 1978. Print.
Benthan, Jeremy. An Introduction To The Principles Of Morals And Legislation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Kosman, Maxwell Alie Halpern. "Falling Through The Crack: How Courts Have Struggled to Apply The Crack Amendment To "Nominal Career" And "Plea Bargain" Defendants." Michigan Law Review. Volume 109. 785-812. 2011. Web. http://www.michiganlawreview.org/assets/pdfs/109/5/kosman.pdf
Hartley, Richard., Maddan, Sean., Spahn, Cassia. "Prosecutorial Discretion: An Examination of Substantial Assistance Departures in Federal Crack-Cocaine and Powder-Cocaine Cases." Volume 23. Issue 3 382-407. 2007. Web. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418820701485379
Ethical Practices in Mentoring/Coaching
Effective mentoring and coaching are strengthened through nine major principles. The nine principles inform and guide the mentoring and coaching practice. Ethical practice is one of the nine principles of effective mentoring and coaching, and it enhances and safeguards mentoring and coaching. When ethical principles guide and inform the practice of mentoring and coaching, the client is safeguarded. Ethical principles include faithfulness, respect for the autonomy of the client, acting in a manner that is advantageous to the client, acting fairly and preventing harm. When these values are employed in mentoring and coaching, transparency and openness is achieved. Ethical mentoring and coaching are guided through professional practice codes and legal requirements.
Operating within agreed boundaries and limits makes the client to feel secure. Sheena requires upholding ethical principles while mentoring the new teachers in her school (Connor and (Pokora, 2012, p.226). However, she finds…
Connor, M., & Pokora, J (2012). Coaching and mentoring at work: Developing effective practice. London: McGraw-Hill International.
Crawnwell, J. (2004). Mentoring: A Henley review of best practice. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Hawkins, P., & Smith, N. (2007). Coaching, mentoring and organizational consultancy: Supervision and development. London: McGraw-Hill International, Jan 1, 2007
Moberg, D., & Vekasquez, M. (2004). The Ethics of mentoring. Business Ethics Quarterly, 14 (1), 95-122.
Ethics: Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
The main thrust of the readings
The readings focus on the U.S. statutes prohibiting U.S. companies, citizens, and employees from issuing any valuable thing to foreign government executives for securing business benefits. The underlying thrust of the readings is twofold: first, that corruption must be deterred and second that government officials must promote economic relationships between their companies and foreign firms through the promotion of ethical foreign investment.
The rigid enactment of the FCPA has placed these two thrusts in a state of tension. Law enforcers and courts could interpret the readings broadly. For instance, any valuable thing includes not just payments in cash but also meals, gifts, entertainment and drinks. This element is not associated with any de minimis value and makes companies uncertain when they are expected to comply with the FCPA. From the readings, the FCPA has been enforced and institutes criminal…
Brenkert, G.G., & Beauchamp, T.L. (2010). The Oxford handbook of business ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cory, J. (2005). Business ethics: The ethical revolution of minority shareholders. New York: Springer.
Kumar, B.N., & Steinmann, H. (2008). Ethics in international management. Berlin, Ge: Walter de Gruyter.
Pastin, M., & Hooker, M. (1980). Ethics and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Business Horizons, 23(6), 43
Internet Has Changed the Practice of Public Relationships
The objective of this study is to examine how the Internet has changed the practice of public relationships.
The Internet is reported to have made it "easier to find media contacts and form relationships with journalists, but more importantly the rise of social media and online PR has meant by passing the media and going directly to your audience." (Thaeler, 2012) Online PR is reported by Thaeler to have "changed the PR industry" and according to Thaeler "it's not going back." (2012)
Ways that Online PR Has Changed the Role of the PR Person
The work of Thaeler (2012) reports that there are several ways that online PR has changed the PR person's role including those as follows:
(1) The Line etween PR and SEO Continues to lur -- and the question presented is who should handle PR, the online marketing company,…
Malikpr, Abby (2012) In a Nutshell: How the Internet Has Influenced PR. Retrieved from: http://abbymalikpr.com/tag/how-internet-has-changed-pr/
Mulvihill, Kathy (2007) Changes in Public Relations Work (nd) Universal Accreditation Board. The Practice Analysis of the Public Relations Profession. 27 Aug, 2007. Retrieved from:
Red Bull Website (2012) Retrieved from: http://www.redbullusa.com
Swallow, Erica (2010) The Future of Public Relations and Social Media. Mashable Social Media. Retrieved from: http://mashable.com/2010/08/16/pr-social-media-future/
Military Orders That May be Unethical
Military orders are seen as non-optional when they are given. In other words, they cannot be ignored or discarded by those they are given to if the person does not want to follow them for any reason at all. They are not negotiable in any way, under any circumstances. But, are these orders always ethical? In some cases, it would seem as though these orders are not ethical. However, that depends on the person who has been asked to follow those orders and what he or she sees as being ethical. People have very different opinions about ethics, and they are more guidelines than rules when they are looked at by the majority of people. Because ethics are not completely static across a lifetime and because they can change from person to person, it is important to realize that ethics, as a concept, can…
Baghramian, M. (2004). Relativism, London: Routledge.
Crisp, R. & Slote, M. (1997). Virtue Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Darwall, S. (2003). Virtue Ethics. Oxford: B. Blackwell.
Devettere, R.J. (2002). Introduction to Virtue Ethics. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
ethical or unethical ground rules manifested in the situation (ethical theory that is broken) as well as which ethics theories should be applied to remedy the situation.
The Murdoch incident involved various leading British newspapers, specifically the 'News of the World' but also other tabloids all published by News International, all of which were a subsidiary of News corporation .The owner of News corporation was upert Murdoch hence the alias The Murdoch phone hacking scandal. Essentially, employees of the corporation were accused of employing improper means in their endeavor to gain new stories such as telephone hacking and bribing police officers during the years 2005-2007, and their targets for these stories almost always involved celebrities, members of the oyal family, and politicians. On 6 July, British prime minister David Cameron announced that a special investigation commission would investigate the incident. Lord Justice Levesonas named chairman of the inquiry on 13…
Davies, N. (8 July 2009). Trail of hacking and deceit under nose of Tory PR chief. The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2009/jul/08/murdoch-newspapers-phone-hacking . Retrieved 8/23/2011
O'Carroll, L. (20 July 2011). Phone-hacking inquiry extended to include broadcasters and social media. The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2011/jul/20/phone-hacking-inquiry-broadcasters-social-media .
Straubhaar, Joseph, LaRose, R., & Davenpor, Lt. (2010). Media Now: Understanding Media, Culture, and Technology. 6th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth
Heawood, J. (13 July 2011). A new manifesto for media ethics.. The Guardian. UK. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/jul/13/media-ethics-investigation-david-cameron .
bribing" unethical and illegal or just a cost of doing business?
Bribery is unethical and illegal in some societies and a regular part of business in others. Whether or not an activity is unethical is largely dependent on the culture, customs, norms, values, and laws of the country where the activity takes place. It's a matter of perspective. When you consider that the act of bribery is intended to supplement the income of underpaid officials or increase the power of a nation's governments, the outcome of the bribe is a negative one. Most economists and ethicists agree that bribery's effects are largely detrimental (Weber and Getz, 2004). If the effect of the act is detrimental, then it can be argued that it is unethical to engage in bribery even if it is only a cost of doing business.
There are different types of corruption: bureaucratic corruption where officials take bribes;…
ABC News Productions (2002, November 20). Inside the Kingdom: Saudia Arabia. [Television broadcast]. New York: Nightline.
Gerasimova Ksenia. (2008). Can corruption and economic crime be controlled in developing countries and if so, is it cost-effective? Journal of Financial Crime, 15(2), 223-233. Retrieved January 13, 2011, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1472787421).
Daniels, John, Radebaugh, Lee, Sulliven, Daniel (2010) International Business: Environments and Operations (13th Edition). Place of Publication needs to be inserted here: Prentice Hall.
Weber, J., & Getz, K. (2004). BUY BRIBES OR BYE-BYE BRIBES: THE FUTURE STATUS OF BRIBERY IN INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE. Business Ethics Quarterly, 14(4), 695-711. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
As employees have expertise in manufacturing products, they should be paid for that expertise. Low labor figures for manufacturing can question the quality of the products the company is selling to consumers. Not to mention that if Nike has recalls of products, consumers may view this as bad management practices that produce low quality products for high prices.
here marketing takes a big portion of expense dollars, manufacturing labor expense should be balanced with the marketing expense. Unbalancing in these areas can bring questions of integrity and quality of products. It could also place a bad taste with investors in determining the ethics of the company's management team. Nike should spend less on marketing and more on manufacturing labor costs to show a higher quality of products manufactured. Nike should also evaluate the marketing expenses and ensure that waste is eliminated in the process. These changes in the business processes…
Boggan, Steve. Nike Admits to Mistakes Over Child Labor. 20 Oct 2001. Article. 13 June 2013.
Brown, Carolyn M. How to Successfully Rebrand Your Business. 2013. Article. 13 June 2013.
Goldberg, Eleanor. On World Day Against child Labor 2013, Activists fight to Keep Kids in School and Out of Factories (What You Can Do). 12 June 2013. Article. 13 June 2013.
McKenna, Luke. Child Labor Is Making Disturbing Resurgence Around the World. 6 Jan 2012. Article. 13 June 2013.
hostile takeovers unethical? Why ? 2. What strategies turbulent, high-Velocity markets?
Do you think hostile takeovers are unethical? Why or why not?
A hostile takeover, unlike a willing merger or acquisition, is a takeover of one company by another company that is openly resisted by the board of directors of the targeted firm (Hostile takeover definition, 2011, Investopedia). The problematic ethics of hostile takeovers can be seen in the recent war between the American-based Kraft Foods and old, stalwart British chocolate manufacturing company Cadbury. Cadbury's chief executive criticized Kraft's takeover bid, citing the lack of ethics of "large, heavily indebted firms" like Kraft that were in stark contrast to Cadbury's independent spirit (Carrell 2010). Cadbury's CEO said "principled capitalism [was] woven into the very fabric" of his company, in contrast to Kraft (Carrell 2011). Without upholding long-standing corporate principles "you risk destroying what makes Cadbury a great company" (Carrell 2011).…
Carrell, Severin. (2010, January 20). Cadbury takeover raises doubts over Kraft's business ethics.
The Guardian. Retrieved January 29, 2011 at http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2010/jan/20/cadbury-kraft-takeover-fair-trade
Hostile takeover definition. (2011). Investopedia. Retrieved January 29, 2011 at http://www.investopedia.com/terms/h/hostiletakeover.asp
Kuzmicki, Jana F. (2011). Tailoring strategy to fit specific industry and company situations
At which point, the attorney could face ethics charges because of this ethical conflict. To prevent such situations from occurring, it is advisable that all attorneys become passionately involved in their clients cases. This will ensure that they are always following the most ethical standards, by looking out for their client's best interests first. These points are significant, because the literature that was reviewed highlights the challenges that all attorneys are constantly grappling with, in regards to the issue of ethics. In some cases, the attorney may not be aware that they are in violation of an ethical standard, because of the delusion of impunity that exists. As a result, those attorneys who are constantly aware of the role that their ethics will play in this field will avoid such issues. This is why it is imperative that all attorneys understand their ethics, so that they can augment them to…
Graham, R. (2004 ). Legal Ethics. Toronto, on: Montgomery.
Luban, D. (1999). Reason and Passion in Legal Ethics. Stanford Law Review. 51 (9), 122 -- 129.
Rhode, D. (2000). Ethics in Practice. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Rubin, P. (1994). The Changing Role of Lawyers in Changing the Law. Journal of Legal Studies, 23 (2), 807 -- 831.
The foundational ideas of the limits of science and medical ethics goes back a very long way and as it has evolved over the centuries, certain laws, rules, regulations and taboos have been put in place to protect the human race from that sometimes blurred line between scientific discovery and human existence. Medical ethics created a system, bound by the ideals of many that came before them to control this blurring and attempt to stand between sciences desire to discover and the public and individual's desire to remain safe and in control of one's own body. A long time medical ethicist discusses the history of medical ethics as one that was founded on the principles of the ancients, but that has now become one where medical ethicists are demanding concrete answers, even laws to guide and demand decisions regarding medical ethics be enforced. "My new colleagues were polite enough, to…
Adler, Robert E. Medical Firsts: From Hippocrates to the Human Genome. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2004.
Harvey, William. Lectures on the Whole of Anatomy: An Annotated Translation of Prelectiones Anatomiae Universalis. Trans C.D. O'Malley, F.N.L. Poynter, and K.F. Russell. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1961.
Jecker, Nancy S. "Knowing When to Stop: The Limits of Medicine." The Hastings Center Report 21.3 (1991): 5.
Marble, Annie Russell. The Nobel Prize Winners in Literature. New York: D. Appleton, 1925.
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: How this affects U.S. business interests overseas
Simply because United States corporations do business in nations with different ethical standards does not mean that U.S. companies get a free legal 'pass' regarding how they comport themselves abroad. "The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, 15 U.S.C. § 78dd-1, et seq. ('FCPA'), was enacted for the purpose of making it unlawful for certain classes of persons and entities to make payments to foreign government officials to assist in obtaining or retaining business" (FCPA, 2012, DOJ). Even if bribery is an accepted aspect of doing business in the developing world, a U.S. business will still run afoul of the FCPA if it complies with this type of 'cultural tradition.' The "payment of money or anything of value to any person, while knowing that all or a portion of such money or…
Adkins, Robb & Segal, Dina. (2012). Is FCPA Enforcement in Russia the Next China? Law.com.
Barstow, David. (2012). Vast Mexico bribery case hushed up by Wal-Mart after top-level struggle. The New York Times. Retrieved:
There are a couple of reasons for this. One is that outcomes are what the public sees. Therefore, it is the potential outcomes that should be the guiding ethical principles. Ethics are mainly a problem in business when a company is perceived as unethical. Monsanto is a great example - few people have any ethical problems with this company, so their lack of ethics does not impact their business prospects.
The other reason why outcomes should be the guiding principle is because one of the most significant sources of ethical problems for companies is front-line managers. These low-level managers face strong pressure from above, but are generally not the firm's best decision-makers. As a result, they make poor decisions in response to pressure. If these managers were guided by duty as their main ethical principle, they would respond to pressure by doing whatever they feel senior management wants them to…
The captions read "2 Months Later" and, of course, to ensure that the copy was not untruthful, Viator added the advertised product to his regimen in-between the two photographs (Lightsey 2006).
Since the Tryptophan disaster of the 1980s, the Ephedra incidents, and then the steroid scandals among Olympic athletes and well-known American professional sports figures in the late 90s, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has increased regulation of health food products, such as by prohibiting the outright claims to treat or cure any human disease without classification of the product as a drug subject to lengthy clinical trials and proof of safety and efficacy (Halbert & Ingulli 2000).
As a result, all supplement products sold (legally) in health food stores now bear a statement ensuring that "This product is not intended to treat or cure any disease." The problem is, everything else on the label purposely contradicts that…
Belch, G, Belch, M. (1998) Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated
Marketing Communications Perspective. New York: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.
Friedman, L. (2005) a History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
Halbert, T., Ingulli, E. (2000) Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati: West Legal Studies. Lightsey, D. (2006) Muscles, Speed & Lies: What the Sport Supplement Industry Does Not Want Athletes or Consumers to Know. Guilford, CT: Lyons
Unethical/Criminal Conduct following the Equities Market Crash 2000 to 2002
This paper is a discussion of the identification and analysis of unethical and criminal conduct following the equities market crash from 2000 to 2002. The paper begins with an Introduction to the problem in Chapter One that also contains the hypothesis for the paper, the definition of terms section, and other valuable information. This information sets up the rest of the paper and gives rise to the belief that there was a great deal of unethical and criminal conduct in this country following this event.
A review of the literature follows in Chapter Two where information available about the issue will be presented and discussed. At least 60 sources will be analyzed in order to receive a complete picture of the issue. Chapter Three will then set up the methodology for analyzing this literature and determining what, if any, decision…
Arkes, R. 1991. Costs and Benefits of Judgment Errors." Implications for Debiasing, 110 PSYCHOL. BULL. 486, 486-87
Arlen, J. 1998. The Future of Behavioral Economic Analysis of Law, 51 VAND. L. REV. 1765, 1769
Arlen, J., Spitzer, M. & Talley, E. (2002). Endowment Effects Within Corporate Agency Relationships, 31 J. LEG. STUD. 1, 31
Bainbridge, SM. (2000)Mandatory Disclosure: A Behavioral Analysis, 68 U. CINN. L. REV. 1023, 1027
Upholding Ethical Business Practices in an Organization
The Volkswagen emissions scandal has been dubbed the "diesel dupe" and the corporation may face charges of manslaughter over their rigged tests of diesel emission. This charge will be applied if the legal advice suggests could be successful. It has been raised that thousands of people who die from diesel vehicles as the main cause is air pollution due to the release of nitrogen oxide (NOx). The lab tests produced dramatically less NOx pollution of Volkswagen and the management admitted that it added "defeat devices" to millions of its vehicles (Saarinen). The latest news about the scandal confirms that the vehicles fitted with EA288 engines of Euro 5 and Euro 6 were not affected by the scandal emissions.
The report of Germans suggests that older versions of 1.6-litre and 2.0-litre with EA288 engines, which is a derivative of EA189 affected engine, were built…
Anand, Vikas, Ashforth Blake and Joshi, Mahendra. "Business as Usual: The Acceptance and Perpetuation of Corruption in Organizations." Academy Of Management Executive, 2005. Vol. 19 (4):9-23
Bazerman, Max and Tenbrunsel Ann. Stumbling Into Bad Behavior. The New York Times, 2011. Print.
Carter, Stephen. The Insufficiency of Honesty
Hotten, Russell. "Volkswagen: The Scandal Explained." BBC News, 7 Oct. 2015. Web. 28 October 2015.
Use of information technology has also led to job replacement in many businesses. This has led to unethical dilemmas by some companies who are forced to employ less man power and hence reducing their workforce. This has also led to other companies giving their employees more roles hence bringing about an increase in the work pressure to the employees. The forcing of employees out of their work or even giving them more tasks with no extra benefits tied to them is an unethical business practice. Incase the employees have lost their jobs they should be compensated adequately but this is quite difficult for small businesses since they lack the sufficient resources and funds to compensate them.
Software Piracy is another ethical dilemma that is posed by use of information systems in businesses. This especially comes in when it affects small scale producers of software's as they will incur big losses…
Williams, R. (2012). Ethical Dilemma in the Use of Information Technology. Retrieved December 3,2012 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/ethical-dilemma-use-information-technology-18366.html
There are too many factors that cannot be controlled. Children may develop inferiority feelings regarding their own specialness due to the choices of their parents. Many people who may be able to make contributions to society will more than likely be aborted. There is also the possibility that just because someone has a genetic trait for a malady, they may not even manifest such a condition. Additionally, the lack of clear boundaries in this field leaves the potential for catastrophes, such as that which happened during orld ar II.
Abraham, Carolyn. "Unnatural Selection: Is Evolving Reproductive Technology Ushering in a New Age of Eugenics?" The Globe and Mail, 7 January 2012.
Appel, Jacob M. "Toward an Ethical Eugenics: The Case for Mandatory Preimplantation Genetic Selection." JONA's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 14:1, 2012, 7-14.
Gattaca. Dir. Andre Niccol. Perf. Ethan Hawke, Uma Thurman, Jude Law. Columbia, 1997. Film.…
Abraham, Carolyn. "Unnatural Selection: Is Evolving Reproductive Technology Ushering in a New Age of Eugenics?" The Globe and Mail, 7 January 2012.
Appel, Jacob M. "Toward an Ethical Eugenics: The Case for Mandatory Preimplantation Genetic Selection." JONA's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 14:1, 2012, 7-14.
Gattaca. Dir. Andre Niccol. Perf. Ethan Hawke, Uma Thurman, Jude Law. Columbia, 1997. Film.
King, David S. "Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and the 'New' Eugenics." Journal of Medical Ethics, 25, 1999, 176 -- ?182
Student 1: A matter that I consider to be of ethical importance in nursing is the use of evidence-based practice. This is an ethical issue in the sense that it is unethical not to utilize evidence in determining how to perform the duties of a nurse. The historical nurse theories, if they are not substantiated by evidence, are little more than pseudoscientific hokum. Ultimately, nursing is about helping people. You can have different approaches and philosophies, but the only approach that is truly ethical is the approach that truly works, and has been proven to do so. If you use some approach that has not been proven to work, then how are you helping?
Student 2: Are there not issues with evidence-based nursing? Is it not the case that evidence-based nursing relies heavily on randomized clinical trials, to the exclusion of all other forms of evidence, as in Ingersoll…
Ethics in Technology
There has been a rapidly increasing use of technology in the workplace, but while some technological advances have benefitted companies, other technologies have raised serious concerns about employee privacy.
Consequentialism and Privacy Abuses
One of the issues that arises often in the workplace when it comes to employee privacy and employer technological overreach is when employers use certain electronic surveillance practices (monitoring personal phone calls and voice messages) to basically eavesdrop on their employees (Findlaw). In fact personal privacy laws affirm that an employer may not monitor an employee's personal phone calls; albeit the company can monitor a personal call if the employee knows it is being monitored and agrees (Findlaw). One ethical theory that applies to this situation is the consequentialism, which posits that the consequence of an action determines its moral value.
One complicating aspect of this is that a manager may believe that it…
FindLaw. (2010). Privacy in the Workplace: Overview. Retrieved February 8, 2015, from http://employment.findlaw.com .
Velasquez, M., Andre, C., Shanks, T., and Meyer, M.J. (2000). Ethical Relativism. Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, Santa Clara University, Retrieved February 8, 2015, from http://www.scu.edu .
companies operating inside the United States attempt to conduct this business legally have become far and few between. The issues that will be investigated will include outsourcing the work offshore by these to places such as Pakistan, the Ukraine and the Philippines, the legal and ethical issues facing the students who use the service and the mechanics of the term paper writing industry. Frankly, due to these legal and cost issues, it is becoming less and less profitable for stateside companies to exist and this as much as legal pressure is propelling the offshore exodus. hile the laws may have not been totally effective, the lure for these companies for cheaper operating costs overseas is making the decision to leave the borders of the U.S. easier and making student term-paper cheating an international phenomenon.
Simple cut and paste plagiarism is an issue that technology has dealt with…
Costello, Carol, perf. CNN American College Students Outsource Their Essays to India, Pakistan and the Philippines . You Tube, 2009. Film. .
"The Plagiarism Checker." Dustball. Dustball.com, 2010. Web. 13 Dec 2011. .
"S1940-2011: Relates to the Unlawful Sale of Dissertations, Theses and Term Papers ." New York Senate. Nysenate.gov, 02 March 2011. Web. 13 Dec 2011. .
Shvartsman, Shulamit. "Term Papers for Sale Text Size:." Lawyers.com. Education-law.lawyers.com, 2011. Web. 13 Dec 2011. .
Ethics to Practice: Analysis of 'end of life' decision making
The foregoing discussion is an incursion into nursing ethics. Implication(s) to 'omission' of information as a customary practice within our healthcare institution is reviewed in relation to best practices pertaining to 'informed consent,' and hospital policy is not definitive. Directed at the evolution of ethical decision making, the general query to the study focuses on the parameters of informed consent where individual practice is concerned.
In the nation of Canada where I am a nurse the number of situations where patient informed consent decisions might be subject to our national code of nursing ethics is many. e face critical ethical dilemmas every day, as emergency procedures and critical care interventions are standard practice. Complexity in decision making is furthered in the conduct and approaches made by international colleagues on contract in our institution by way of exchange.
The primacy of…
Bullough, B. ed. The Law and the expanding nursing role. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1980.
Callahan, Joan, ed. Ethical Issues in Profesional Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Canadian Medical Protection Association (CMPA), 2010. Web.
Finlay and Fernandez. Failure to report and provide commentary on research ethics board approval and informed consent in medical journals is discussed Journal of Medical Ethics, 34.10 (2008), 761-764. doi:10.1136/jme.2007.023325.
Ethics, Values and Decision-Making in Nursing Practice
RIGHT FROM WRONG
A nurse's primary tasks are monitoring the patient's vital signs, administering medications, and helping doctors treat and perform procedures (Williams, 2012). Oftentimes and in many cases, these technical skills must be guided by certain and pertinent moral and ethical principles. This ethical and moral component of her overall responsibility is so important and critical that a code of ethics was created by the American Nurses Association to guide her in inevitable ethical dilemmas (Williams). These ethical dilemmas can include the clash between the principle of confidentiality and the concept of reasonable limits, between two or more ethical principles involving confidentiality, and the influence of culture on values.
. Importance of Ethical Theory to Nursing
In 1991, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations or JCAHO expressed the mandate that institutions shall address ethical issues in patient care and requires…
Badzek, L.A. et al. (1998). Administrative ethics and confidentiality/privacy issues. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing: American Nurses Association. Retrieved on June 14, 2012 from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/tableofContents/Vol131998/NO3Dec1998/PrivacyIssues.aspx
Kotak, D and Lawson, a. (2008). Patient confidentiality and the intensivist. Vol 9 # 2
Journal of the Intensive Care Society: the Intensive Case Society. Retrieved on June
15, 2012 from http://www.journal.ICS.ac.uk/pdf/0902178.pdf
Is Current Business Immoral?
Current business is immoral in one way or another. It is clear that the top rich people in the society strive as much as they can to avoid situations where regulations or laws are applicable (Lippencott, 2011). This means that they use their financial power to make sure that decisions are made to favor them and not against them. Tax evasion is one of the major issues that make the current business immoral because such corporations find ways of circumventing the system. Large corporations across the globe do not want to pay the taxes that they should. This makes the tax burden to be taken or carried by the rest of the small companies in a specific country. The effect of this is that most of the nations end up losing a lot of money that would have been paid in the form of taxes.
Nursing is a challenging profession where nurses take care of patients dealing with mental or physical illness. Nurses are the primary contact points for the patients since they are the ones who check patients' vital signs before giving them appointments to the physician or professional doctor. In this paper, the healthcare stressor would be discussed in detail so that its competing needs are determined, and a policy should be recommended to reduce the stressor. Moreover, the ethical considerations would also be debated for the policy application and its strengths and issues.
The two competing needs that impact nurse's burnout are increased demand for patient care and administrative procedures. The physical health problems in the form of anxiety, depression, insomnia, etc., adversely affect the nurse's health and cause burnout (Salyers et al., 2017). Nurses' functioning is negatively affected as they are forced to take frequent breaks due to tiredness, lethargy, staying…
American Nurse. (2016, April 7). A conversation about the ethics of staffing. Retrieved from https://www.myamericannurse.com/conversation-ethics-staffing/
Chen, Y., Guo, Y., Chin, W., Cheng, N., Ho, J. & Shiao, J. (2019). Patient-nurse ratio is related to nurses\\\\' intention to leave their job through mediating factors of burnout and job dissatisfaction. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(23), 4801. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16234801
Griffiths, P.D., Ball, J.E., Drennan, J., Dall\\\\'Ora, C., Jones, J., Maruotti, A., Pope, C., Recio, A. & Simon, M. (2016). Nurse staffing and patient outcomes: Strengths and limitations of the evidence to inform policy and practice. A review and discussion paper based on evidence reviewed for National Institute for Health and Care Excellence safe staffing guideline development. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 63. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2016.03.012
Salyers, M.P., Bonfils, K.A., Luther, L., Firmin, R.L., White, D.A., Adams, E.L. & Rollins, A.L. (2017). The relationship between professional burnout and quality and safety in healthcare: A meta-analysis. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 32(4), 475-482. DOI: 10.1007/s11606-016-3886-9
Scott, P.A., Harvey, C., Felzmann, H., Suhonen, R., Habermann, M., Halvorsen, K., Christiansen, K., Toffoli, L. & Ppastavrou, E. (2018). Resource allocation and rationing in nursing care: A discussion paper. Nursing Ethics, 26(5), 1528-1539. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733018759831
Improper Foreclosure and Mortgage Practices in the Banking Industry
Efficient Market Hypothesis
Real Estate Bubble
Overview on the Value of Banks
Arguments against Financial Intermediaries
This research paper aims to shed light into what led to the global financial collapse that, for the most part, began in the U.S. housing market and the ethical implications that followed. Many researchers agree that the primary drivers that led to the real estate crisis was the lifting of the Glass Steagall Act, the fostering of sub-prime lending, and the creation of derivatives and credit default swaps which were used as complex financial instruments. This offered the big five banks an entire new range of operating opportunities. All of these financial tools were justified by the efficient market hypothesis and as a consequence provide evidence for the lack of a truly efficient market. As a result of the financial…
Ball, R. "The Global Financial Crisis and the Efficient Market Hypothesis." CFA Digest (2010): 44-45. Web.
Bauman, S., M. Conover and R. Miller. "Growth vs. value and large-cap vs. small-cap stocks in international markets." Financial Analysis Journal 54.2 (1998): 75-89.
Beers, B. "End the Fed, Save the Dollar: Ron Paul." 7 September 2009. CNBC. Web. 19 March 2012.
Chen, B. And F. Kaboub. The Repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act and the Subprime Mortgage Crisis. 8 February 2012. Web. 19 March 2012.
Climate change is something affecting all countries, with particular relevance to low-lying coastal regions. Island nations in the Indian Ocean, for example, and the dozens of nations in the Caribbean are at risk of inundation not just from the constantly rising sea levels from melting glacial ice in polar regions. Climate change leads to warming ocean waters, which in turn lead to more frequent and more severe storms. In addition to island nations, low-lying coastal regions on mainland continents will also become increasingly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Climate change does impact other regions of the globe and other countries, as weather patterns impact precipitation levels, which could lead to some regions experiencing more severe drought conditions and others more flooding; some regions might incur greater damage from forest fires too, due to the persistent lack of precipitation. Therefore, the risks of climate change are genuinely…
Ethics and Morals
Measures of validating morals and ethics
Comment by Sabina:
Measures of Validating Morals and Ethics
Ethics and morals are essential parts of our society. We rely on members of our society to practice and provide service with an adequate level of moral and ethical values. Ethics is the conviction within each individual that determines good or evil, it is not always a matter of legal or illegal, it is a matter of right and wrong. Morals is a set level of standard that we hold for ourselves, it helps us to make decisions about good and bad, right and wrong and helps us to differentiate the difference between right and wrong. Every different profession in today's world is governed by different ethical bodies that help to regulate professional ethics. Scholars and researches utilize different methods of validating ethics and morals in their profession. In this paper I…
Arnold, D.G., Audi, R. & Zwolinski, M. (2010). Recent work in ethical theory and its implications for business ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly. 20 (4) 559-581.
Bannigan, K., Watson, R. (2009). Reliability and validity in a nutshell. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 18 (23) 3237-3243.
Fisher, C.B. (2003). Decoding the ethics code: A practical guide for psychologists. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Shao, R., Aquino, K. & Freeman, D. (2008). Beyond moral reasoning: A review of moral identity research and its implications for business ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly. 18 (4) 513-540
Poject Management at Boxe Pumps Limited
Poject management is a cucial undetaking in evey oganization. It implies the application of methods, pocesses, expeiences, skills and knowledge in a bid to achieve the objectives of the poject. A poject is intentional and geaed towads the achievement of cetain specifications. A poject efes to a tansient and unique endeavo that is done to meet the planned objectives. These objectives ae definitive and could be in the fom of outputs, benefits, outcomes, all with figuative measuements. While seeking to achieve these meits, the poject has to be put into diffeent sections in the fom of depatments, which will wok hand-in-hand like a system since simila objectives bind them. All the depatments have to meet the equiements that compise a poject like a scope, the costs of poduction, the time, and the quality of the pocesses and poducts. This study has exploed on the…
references of the customers while lowering the costs under control. Second, the company should create a modern, supply chain organization that is end-to-end (Bolstorff & Rosenbaum 2007).
The company should not manage the supply chain in separate tiers as it has been doing. Instead, it should use sophisticated data analysis in real time. For instance, the company should appoint one person to carry out end-to-end performance for delivering improvements for the projects between different tiers and its traditional functions like procurement, marketing, and manufacturing. Finally, (Pei et al. 2016) has stated explained that Boxer Pumps Limited needs to set standards of performance. With this strategy, it should allocate incentives to the supply chain to deliver the most value for the business while checking on the risks involved. In such a case, the company should learn how to use not just capital, service and cost, but should include the needs of the business, the market segments, and the product.
Allen, M, Herring, K, Moody, J, & Williams, C 2015, 'Project Procurement: Impact of Contract Incentives and Penalties', International Journal Of Global Business, 8, 2, pp. 1-26
Bolstorff, P., & Rosenbaum, R. 2007. Supply Chain Excellence a Handbook for Dramatic Improvement Using the SCOR model. New York, AMACOM.
American Psychological Association citation standard. The first question is how the author of this report would improve the author's APA skills and the covered concepts. The other main question asks the author the main sources that will be used as a means to learn these important topics. Another topic that will be covered heavily, by necessity, will be the subject of plagiarism because there is a fine line between research and plagiarism. While many people think that plagiarism is about intent, people that mean no ill will can still plagiarize.
As far as a strategy that the author of this report would use to avoid any appearances of plagiarism and write in a scholarly way, it would include a few things. First of all, there needs to be a definition of what "common knowledge" is and what "accepted knowledge" is. There is also the need to define what needs to…
Bartzis, O.L., & Hayner, A. (2009, April). 'Cheating' or 'sharing'? Academic ethics across cultures. Slides presented at the AACRAO Conference, Chicago, IL.
Retrieved from http://handouts.aacrao.org/am09/finished/
Di Maria, D.L. (2009). Plagiarism from a cross-cultural perspective. Retrieved from http://www.al-jamiat.com/college-lifestyle/plagiarism-crosscultural-perspective/# iParadigms, LLC. (2014). Plagiarism.org. Retrieved from http://www.plagiarism.org
Dr. Paul Hunter's efusal
The Case of Dr. Lukwiya
Justification of the Pressure of health Care
Dr. Paul Hunter's efusal:
Dr Hunter was very straightforward about admitting that he was afraid to treat the patient with monleypox. He did not mince words in saying that he was concerned that if he touched the patient he might get infected with the disease and in turn would end up infecting his children who were under the age 11. He was in fact happy that when the patient tasked himself to be transferred. The doctor tried and stayed away from the patient as much as possible and hence he did not even touch the patient even though he made regular visits to the isolation ward of the hospital. His primary concern was the safety and the life of his children because being doctor he very well knew the threat to life that…
Boylan, Michael. Basic Ethics. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2000.
Boylan, Michael. Medical Ethics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000.
Edward Freeman, R., Gianfranco Rusconi, Silvana Signori, and Alan Strudler. 'Stakeholder Theory(Ies): Ethical Ideas And Managerial Action'. J Bus Ethics 109, no. 1 (2012): 1-2.
Graham, Gordon. Eight Theories Of Ethics. London: Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group, 2004.
Arthur Anderson: Questionable Accounting Parctices
Arthur Anderson: Questionable Accounting Practices
Arthur Andersen LLP was founded in 1913, and for over 90 years, the company would have become one of the "Big Five" largest accounting and auditing firms in the United States with the same standard comparable to PricewaterhouseCoopers, Deloitte & Touche, KPMG and Ernst & Young. In the 80s, Arthur Anderson name was synonymous with integrity, trust, and ethics. Such values are critical to the success of firms charged with auditing and firms confirming a company's financial statement, whose accuracy of a company's financial statements generally influence investor's investment decision. (Ferrell, Linda, 2012).
In the 1990s, Arthur Anderson became one of the fastest growing accounting and auditing firms in the United States with huge financial success during the period. However, starting from 2001, the company faced several lawsuits for accounting irregularities. In May 2001, "the company paid $110 million to…
Ferrell, O.C. Linda, J.F. (2012). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making and Cases: 2009 Update. Cengage Learning
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McGlynn, M (2010). Arthur Andersen Case Studies in Business Ethics. Carnegie Mellon Temper School of Business.
On the other hand, applicable laws do have authority and under the concept of moral relativism, it may be justified that any duly passed law be complied with (Svensson & Wood, 2008).
One lesson from this case might be that laws between entities in different sovereign nations can be much harder to enforce than laws between entities within the same nation. In the future, Pakistan and other nations might want to make sure that their contractual agreements contain mechanisms that make them enforceable across international borders. On a broader level, another lesson might be that ill-gotten gains should not be promoted by governments in the first place. Those who believe in the supremacy of divine law might consider the position in which Pakistan found herself to be an example of God's reminding us of the obligation to conduct ourselves ethically toward our fellow man.
Creffield, Lisa. "Why you can't…
Creffield, Lisa. "Why you can't block Skype." (August 14 -- 2006).
Halbert, Terry and Ingulli, Elaine. (2009). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Cincinnati: West Legal Studies.
Business Ethics 9224
The Waiter ule: What Makes for a Good CEO?
Is character an essential ingredient in ethical leadership? Is it especially important in managers? In leadership, especially among CEOs, is character important?
Character: An essential Ingredient in Ethical Leadership:
Character is an essential component in an employee's personality. It shows integrity, honesty, and loyalty of that employee with the organization. When it comes to top leadership, the need to have a sound character in the personality of top managers, CEO's, and directors is highly essential for the success of the organization. In addition to performing their assigned duties and responsibilities, it is also expected from these higher officials that they would exert full efforts in achieving the organizational goals without taking any undue advantage from its public image or resources. In the past, numerous ethical scandals have been pointed which have made the organizations think twice while hiring…
Carroll, A.B. & Buchholtz, A.K. (2012). Business Ethics, 1st Edition. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Del, J. (2006). "CEO Vouch for Waiter Rule: Watch How People Treat Staff." USA Today, B1.
Morrow, R. (2011, 01, 04). A Critical Analysis of the U.S. Causes of the Global Financial Crisis of 2007-2008. Retrieved on October 31st, 2013, from
Shaw, W.H. (2011). Business Ethics, 7th Edition. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Managers may engage in fraudulent activities by selling company information or details of customers. The manager improperly accesses the company's it system to alter values for citation issued. raud is an illegal activity, and the manager that is choosing the bribing vendor over the other vendors is just very wrong. "Most commonly used types of bribes are cash, travel and entertainment rewards," as noted by Dillon (2008, p. 37). Once the it managers are affiliated with the unscrupulous vendors, the vendors do not need to be concerned about remaining competitive because they will be almost certain to be awarded new contracts or continuations of existing contracts, and they may even raise the prices that are charged to the organization in order to cover the costs of paying off the managers, a practice that is particularly commonplace in larger organizations. In this regard, Dillon (2008) adds that, "In very large firm…
Financial crisis pertaining outsourcing it projects
Fraud can affect organizations in a number of negative ways, including diminished bottom-line profits, negative publicity and the erosion of customer goodwill and shareholder confidence (Neural Technologies- the Home of Risk Management, 2010). An increasingly prevalent practice involves so-called "phantom vendors" that persuade purchasing managers that they offer they most competitive prices for superior products and services. Phantom vendors may even convince purchasing managers that they are already working with other large it firms and have a proven track record of reliability and trustworthiness. Without exercising due diligence early on, purchasing managers may be swayed by such presentations and award a bid (Podgor & Ellen, 1999). Once the bid is approved, the phantom vendors demand a hefty down payment and then simply disappear with their profits. Another version of phantom vendor fraud that can have enormous financial implications for it firms involves the purchasing managers themselves. In some cases, purchasing managers have fabricated vendors on paper and awarded contracts to these firms. Thereafter, invoices are processed as normal but the purchasing manager pockets the profits and the organization never receives the contracted goods or services (Podgor & Ellen, 1999).
Yet another way purchase managers can become involved in fraudulent practices involved product substitution. In those cases where vendors have paid bribes to purchasing managers to secure a contract, they may attempt to cover their costs by providing organizations with inferior goods or services that do not meet the contract specifications. In the case of software vendors, they may provide software that is replete with errors and technical difficulties to the extent that it is unusable. A vendor that involves in fraudulent activity means his business is also not in
Unethical Practices in Marketing: Deceptive Marketing
Business ethics requires that business organizations should act in a manner that is morally and ethically upright. One of the areas where ethical behavior is crucial is marketing. Marketing is one of the major functions within an organization. It is basically concerned with communicating and reaching out to customers in an attempt to promote products, services, and/or brands. Nonetheless, unethical behavior in marketing is not a rare phenomenon. There are often instances of misleading or deceptive advertising, exaggerated claims, using fear tactics, spamming, exploitation, and other practices that fit the unethical tag. If not addressed, these practices can in the long run affect an organization's reputation. Deceptive marketing is one of the common forms of unethical behavior within the marketing realm. This paper discusses this practice. Following a definition of deceptive marketing, the paper pays attention to regulations for deceptive marketing and…
Competition Bureau. (2015). False or misleading representations and deceptive marketing practices. Retrieved from http://www.competitionbureau.gc.ca/eic/site/cb - bc.nsf/eng/03133.html
DeMers, J. (2017, May 17). 5 common unethical marketing practices: are you guilty. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/jaysondemers/2017/05/17/5-common- unethical-marketing-practices-are-you-guilty/#385ba03c2f27
Federal Trade Commission (FTC). (n.d.). Truth in advertising. Retrieved from https://www.ftc.gov/news-events/media-resources/truth-advertising
Ferrell, O., & Hartline, M. (2014). Marketing strategy: text and cases. 6th ed. Boston: Cengage Learning.
Ethics in Technology
Business - Management
The purpose of this paper is to highlight and present the ethical issues that are involved in using modern technology. The paper highlights some of the current ethical issues faced by computer users that are due to unethical practice and lack of proper ethical policies by different businesses. The paper pinpoints the causes and gives recommendation on how the current issues can be minimized. A portion of this paper also consists of lawsuits that have recently occurred due to unethical practices adopted by businesses.
Ethics in Technology
We live in a modern era, the era of modern technology and innovation. Our lives are encircled by modern creations. These technology and advancement have surely brought comfort and ease in our life but unfortunately, the use of modern technology has also given rise to many ethical problems out of which few are a topic of discussion…
Anderman, E.M., & Burton Murdock, E. (2007). Psychology of academic cheating. (p. 1). California, USA: Elsevier Academic Press.
Morley, D., & Parker, C.S. (2009). Understanding computers: Today and tomorrow, comprehensive. (12th ed., p. 712). Boston, USA: Course Technology Cengage Learning.
Rogozea, L. (2009). Towards ethical aspects on artificial intelligence. Manuscript submitted for publication, Transylvania University of Brasov, Romania. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/1044129
A corporate ethics officer is a relatively new position in terms of modern corporate structure. However, in an age of such ethical uncertainty, this position is becoming more necessary than ever thought of. Overall, the ethics officer has three major roles in the corporation: company security, counselor, and compliance officer.
First and foremost, ethics officers are a major part of any corporation's security force. Essentially, "an ethics officer is the first line of defense for the firm as it relates to company security" (Stanwick & Stanwick, 2013, p 243). From this position, ethics officers must have both technical and business experience to be able to understand security issues as they arise and respond with swift and efficient actions. Breaches in security and ethics are thus tied in the modern work environment. Thus, "the ethics officer is responsible for making sure that appropriate actions are taken if unethical activity…
Stanwick, Peter & Stanwick, Sarah. (2013). Understanding Business Ethics. SAGE Publications.
British American Tobacco Company: Business Ethics
The British American Tobacco company is a multinational company with over 200 brands that they have developed under the guidance; the company is staggeringly successful, selling 694 billion cigarettes in 2012 (bat.com). The worldwide company sees itself, and many would argue, rightfully so, as a powerful forces that has stimulated economies all over the globe in lasting and measurable ways: in 2012, the company's "subsidiaries enabled governments worldwide to gather more than £30 billion in duty, excise and sales taxes on our products, more than seven times the Group's profit after tax" (bat.com). Being a stimulus to the economy and a pillar of economic stability is something that company prides itself on: British American Tobacco has 44 factories in 39 countries, employing 55,000 people worldwide in a massive multicultural workforce (bat.com).
The company claims that it gives each local factory a tremendous amount of…
Bat.com. (n.d.). Homepage. Retrieved from http://www.bat.com/servlet/SPMerge?mainurl=/group/sites/UK__3MNFEN.nsf/vwPages
BBC. (2000, September 20). Uk tobacco firm targets african youth. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/933430.stm
Irin. (2007, November 9). Nigeria: Govt hits tobacco companies with whopping law suit.
In their examination of whistle-blowing practices -- i.e. instances where the code of silence was willingly and voluntarily broken -- in law enforcement agencies, othwell & Baldwin (2007) identified several factors that appear to have a large effect on individual officers' adherence to the code of silence. Surprisingly, tenured officers are more likely to report misconduct to superiors and others, largely because they have less to fear in the way of occupational and career-affecting reprisals (othwell & Baldwin 2007).
At first, this appears to be an encouraging sign -- officers that hold higher positions within the various law enforcement agencies are more likely to ensure that their peers and the officers underneath them adhere to the ethical practices expected of them. Yet these findings also show that younger or less tenured officers still perceive the code of silence as a way of getting ahead, suggesting that this code still provides…
Fletcher, C. (1995). Breaking and entering: Women cops break the code of silence to tell their stories from the inside. New York: Pocket Books.
Rothwell, G. & Baldwin, J. (2007). "Whistle-blowing and the code of silence in police agencies." Crime & delinquency 53, pp. 605-32.
Smith, B. & Yarussi, J. (2007). Breaking the code of silence. Washington, D.C.: American University College of Law.
accounting industry has been facing increasing amounts of scrutiny. This is because a number of high profile scandals (i.e. Enron and World Com) were brought to attention of regulators (based upon the need for increasing oversight in this area). As a result, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 was implemented. However, since this law was first enforced, a number of firms are claiming that its restrictions are an added burden (for large multinational corporations). This is creating situations where individuals could still engage in unethical practices. To fully understand what is happening requires looking at potential conflicts. Once this takes place, is when it will highlight the impact of these activities on firms.
The Effect of Sarbanes-Oxley on Financial Statements
The effect of Sarbanes-Oxley on financial statements is that it is forcing firms to provided added disclosures to investors. This occurs with the CEO and CFO certifying under oath that the…
Sarbanes-Oxley Act 2002. (2006). SOX Law. Retrieved from: http://www.soxlaw.com/
Frankel, A. (2012). Wal Mar's Sarbanes-Oxley Problem. Reuters. Retrieved from: http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/04/23/us-frankel-walmart-idUSBRE83M1GQ20120423