Urban Design Essays (Examples)

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Urban Areas

Words: 1059 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9462953

Urban Area

Globalization has created a profound impact on society. Through globalization, emerging markets continue to grow and develop. New and innovative products are created that provide solutions to societal problems. As such, wealth is created that is distributed to nations that provide services to humanity. As wealth is distributed, urban areas are created and cultivated. These cities, over time, become populated with the new inhabitants, and continue to thrive. The development of cities and urban areas correlates directly with economic growth and development. With an economic system that continues to innovate, produce product and provide jobs, urban areas cannot be properly developed. The documentary, Urbanized is a testament to the merits of a market economy and how the city of the future may be fundamentally different from the city of today (Kolb, 1972).

To begin Urbanized provides enlightening insights into which the colonies or social formations, in which we…… [Read More]

References:

1) Kolb, Frank (1984). Die Stadt im Altertum. Munchen: Verlag C.H. Beck. pp. 51-141: Morris, A.E.J. (1972). History of Urban Form. Prehistory to the Renaissance. London. pp. 22-23

2) Taylor, Nigel, (2007), Urban Planning Theory since 1945, London, Sage.

3) Wheeler, Stephen (2004). "Planning Sustainable and Livable Cities," Routledge; 3rd edition
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Urban Drainage System Sustainable Urban

Words: 3018 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12969064

If there is an aggregate sub-base, these can provide water quality treatment. There should be good compaction and appropriate geo-textiles especially for areas accessible to heavy vehicles.

Permeable pavements reduce the need for deep excavations thereby providing a cost benefit. This system reduces the run-off rates and peak flow. The overall benefit is that it removes pollutants and holds water so that it does enter the main drainage. A lot of water in the main drainage would either need pumping or treating thereby using energy (Wild et al. 2002).

4.5. Swales

They are continuous vegetated drainage systems which convey or store water while allowing filtration when appropriate. Usually, they are the equivalent of roadside gullies or drainage pipes in conventional drainage systems. However, swales have gentle gradient so that water moves at low velocity. The sediments in storm water run-off can, therefore, settle out.

The advantage of swales is that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Apostolaki, S., Jefferies, C., Smith, M. & Woods-Ballard B. 2002, Social Acceptability of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems. Proc. 5th Symposium of the International Planning and Environmental Association. Oxford, September.

Apostolaki, S, Jefferies, C. & Smith, M. 2003, the Perception and Social Acceptability of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems. Proc. 1st International Conference on Sustainable Development & Management of the Subsurface. 5-7 Nov. Utrech, the Netherlands

Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) 2000, Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems -- design manual for Scotland and Northern Ireland. Report No. 521

Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) 2002, Source Control Using Constructed Pervious Surfaces. Report No. 582
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Urban Sprawl Is a Problem That Can

Words: 1286 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65687421

Urban Sprawl is a problem that can have severe consequences for all life if the continuing expansion of developed landscape is left unrestricted. The unrestricted development of the United States and the world is rapidly contributing to the degradation of our ecosystem. Moreover, if over development continues there will be massive human suffering. Air and water quality are in jeopardy and topsoil is being lost at an alarming rate. If something isn't done soon to curtail rampant development there may be no way to prevent its destructive consequences. In order to understand Urban Sprawl it is imperative to understand the history and origin of cities.

As the nation shifted from agricultural society to a manufacturing, and then a technology driven social culture, workers incresingly left the rural life and homestead to find work and social support in the manufacturing centers. This development was based on the marketplace and was designed…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baker, Linda. "The Fast-Moving Fight To Stop Urban Sprawl." E. May 2000 v11 i3 p26

Binkley, Clark, Bert Collins, Lois Kanter, Michael Alford, Michael Shapiro, Richard Tabors. Interceptor Sewers and Urban Sprawl. D.C.: Heath and Company, 1975

Brecher, Jeremy, & Tim Costello. Global Village or Global Pillage, Economic Reconstruction from the Ground Up. Cambridge, Ma. South End Press, 1998

Gordon, John Steele. "The American environment: the big picture is more heartening than all the little ones." American Heritage, Oct 1993 v44 n6 p30
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Urban Outfitters Case Study Urban Outfitters Has

Words: 1592 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30575146

Urban Outfitters Case Study

Urban Outfitters has defined a highly differentiated and unique shopping experience, supported by the eclectic and highly varied store layouts and merchandise strategy. This approach to retailing appeals to the individuality and uniqueness every consumer also sees in themselves, allowing the consumers to define themselves by what they like. INA actuality, Urban Outfitters is more aligned to key marketing concepts and strategies than its much larger and less differentiated competitors including Sears and Wal-Mart. Appearing non-conformist and counter-culture within its image, Urban Outfitters is actually providing an escape for consumers to use their purchases to define who they really are and what they actually care out. etailing that appeals to the values and individuality of a consumers are highly effective in creating loyalty and continued repurchase (Puccinelli, Goodstein, Grewal, Price, aghubir, Stewart, 2009). The intent of this analysis is to explain why Urban Outfitters continues to…… [Read More]

References

Arndt, M.. (2010, March). Urban Outfitters' Grow-Slow Strategy in Europe. Business Week,1.

Grewal, D., Levy, M., & Kumar, V.. (2009). Customer Experience Management in Retailing: An Organizing Framework. Journal of Retailing: Enhancing the Retail Customer Experience, 85(1), 1-14.

Patton, P.. (2008, February). URBAN OUTFITTERS. Fast Company,(122), 53,56.

Puccinelli, N., Goodstein, R., Grewal, D., Price, R., Raghubir, P., & Stewart, D.. (2009). Customer Experience Management in Retailing: Understanding the Buying Process. Journal of Retailing: Enhancing the Retail Customer Experience, 85(1), 15-30.
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Urban Outfitters Sears or Wal-Mart

Words: 926 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39888039

Exclusivity for these groups signals uniqueness. In a creative and individualistic society such as America's, uniqueness has cachet and value to the consumer, so any fashion item that can convey this uniqueness will also have value.

Exclusivity also has value because of its scarcity. This is a simple supply and demand equation. The price of a good (its value) is related to the demand for it and the supply of it. When demand is higher than supply, the price increases. Thus, by managing the scarcity of items in the stores, any popular or high quality items will be subject to supply constraints. The consumers of Urban Outfitters know this, and respond by assuming scarcity. They purchase the product quickly, knowing that they may otherwise lose out on the opportunity to do so.

The third reason why exclusivity is valuable is because of the thrill of the hunt. This psychological characteristic…… [Read More]

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Urban Its Services and Rnp Parameters

Words: 974 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7587661

Urban ITS Services on oad Transport:

Urban public transport services have attracted considerable attention in relation to the interaction between general traffic and public transport modes. These transportation services have been characterized with issues regarding the costs of operations and the quality of service across public transportation modes. Given the need for smooth traffic flow, there have been various initiatives geared towards the improvement of urban public transport services. One of the major initiatives that have been adopted in the recent past is the introduction of new systems or Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals. These systems have had tremendous impact on positioning, navigation, and timing for Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) in urban areas. These systems have been introduced as part of the constant new technology, practices, and research for management of traffic, which is increasingly becoming a complex process and exercise. Intelligent Transport Systems assist in increasing mobility and…… [Read More]

References:

Cheon, S n.d., An Overview of Automated Highway Systems (AHS) and the Social and Institutional Challenges they Face, UC Transportation Center, viewed 17 August 2014,

Ochieng, W.Y, Turhan, B.E, Fox, J & Johnston, G 2000, Road Transport Navigation

Requirements in Urban Areas: Assessment of the Performance of GPS and the Design of a LAAS, The Institute of Navigation, viewed 17 August 2014,

Vahidi, A & Eskandarian, A 2003, Research Advances in Intelligent Collision Avoidance and Adaptive Cruise Control, IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 4, no. 3, pp.143-153.
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Urban Political Science

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43127570

Urban Political Science: Questions and Answers

MIAMI-DADE EHICS COMMISSION:

Miami-Dade County is seeking a new chief for its ethics board.

What is the primary purpose of this ethics board?

he ethics committee was first enacted to change the Miami home rule charter. It was set up as an committee that has semi-judicial powers and it is independent of all other government offices in the county for the purpose of maintaining its ability to look into the ethical practices of government offices with an unbiased view (Miami Dade.gov).

What issues has the Commission handled that do NO relate to the member of the Board itself?

Since the board is now just conducting the search for a new boss (Hiaasen, 2011) it is not doing any business save that. It has recently worked to create a new ordinance on conflict of interest standard because it has had an issue with the county…… [Read More]

The budget for the entire county is $3 billion, and that has been cut from a previous proposal. The center itself also is going to be operated at an expenditure which was reduced from previous estimates, but specific numbers were not given (Varian, 2011). The articles did say that a community room would cost a group $850 per night which makes it unreasonable for most groups.

4: Was this an appropriate use of government funds? (A: No)

No it was not. The term community center cannot be adequately applied to this center because the entire community will not be able to access it. Also, the cost to tax payers was very high. The people who are supposed to be able to use the center cannot because of the high cost and they cannot afford the taxes
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Urban Problems and Solutions

Words: 2150 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69794811

Urban Problems and Solutions

In the 1990's, the United States exhibited a decreasing trend in the rates of pre-marital sex and teen pregnancies. However, the rate of teenage pregnancy in United States is yet considered to be alarming in comparison to that of other developed countries of the world. It has been estimated that about 1 million teenage girls in the U.S. are being victims of teenage pregnancy every year.

Due to the fact that teen mothers and babies are vulnerable to health hazards, the considerable birth rates among teens have become alarming. The ignorance of pregnant youngsters deprives them of taking appropriate medical attention, making them vulnerable to medical complexities. The teenage pregnancies have tremendous emotional impact on the adolescents. Under feeding, negligence in taking nutrients, habits of smoking, alcoholism, drug abuse etc. which are common among most of the youngsters make their newly born babies prone to health…… [Read More]

References

Arthur, Shirley. 1996. Surviving teen pregnancy: Your choices, dreams, and decisions. Buena park, CA: Morning Glory Press.

Johns, M. J; Moncloa, F & Gong, E.J. 2000. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs: Linking Research and Practice. Journal of Extension. Volume. 38; Number: 4, pp.42-47

Wong, J. & Checkland, D. 1999. Teen Pregnancy and Parenting: Social and Ethical issues. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
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Urban Sprawl the Area Northeast of Madison

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46920671

Urban Sprawl

The area northeast of Madison, Wisconsin between the city and the area of Interstate 90 and Cottage Grove oad contains a large swath of viable and as of yet undeveloped land. This proposal to develop this target plot follows a sustainable policy of sprawl. The goal is to develop the land as an extension of the Madison metropolitan area rather than as a suburb, providing urban residents with green space while providing those living near the target area with recreational activities as well. Land use policies will be progressive and focused on social justice and ethical development. The proposal for development includes the potential for ethical and sustainable business development, which encourages small business owners to establish a presence in the new space. The new area will be known as Park 420.

Park 420 will be divided into quadrants including one quarter set aside for urban farmland. Grown…… [Read More]

References

"Urban Sprawl." Almanac of Policy Issues. Retrieved online:  http://www.policyalmanac.org/environment/archive/urban_sprawl.shtml 

Wolch, J.R., Pastor, M. & Drier, P. (2004). Up Against the Sprawl: Public Policy and the Making of California. University of Minnesota Press.

Wood, H. (1998). How Government Highway Policy Encourages Sprawl. CATO Institute. Retrieved online: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=5837
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Urban Ecology on the Ground

Words: 2818 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48027290

Therefore, strong educational campaigns are absolutely essential in the successful execution of urban ecological advocacy programs. One of the most fundamental efforts that come from NOAA funding is that of educational campaigns. Along with sponsoring coastal cleanups, NOAA is a prime example of a government agency focusing on recycling education campaigns within Miami-Dade's most populated areas, like the area surrounding Brickell Ave. Educating the public in terms of recycling has been one of NOAA and it's affiliates' most powerful tools in implementing successful urban conservation programs. With such a large population so close to natural wonders, the Brickell Ave area needs effective educational campaigns to curb littering on beaches and in parks, as well as lightening the impact of the local trash supply in the city's landfills. NOAA allocates federal funds for this very purpose within a localized sphere, once again proving the synergetic collaboration between local advocacy groups and…… [Read More]

References

City of Miami. (2010). City of Miami tree master plan. Miami Green Commission. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from  http://miami-dade.ifas.ufl.edu/pdfs/disaster/Hurricane%20Preparation%20files/City%20of%20Miami%20Master%20Plan.pdf 

Devuyst, Dimitri. (2001). Introduction to sustainability assessment at the local level: a human ecological perspective. How Green is the City? Sustainability Assessment and the Management of Urban Environments. New York: Columbia University Press. 1-36.

Gonzalez, George a. (2005). Urban sprawl, global warming and the limits of ecological modernization. Environmental Politics. 14(3):344-362.

Hold the Line. (2010). Supporters. UBD Line. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from  http://www.udbline.com/organizations.htm
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Urban Studies Stimulus Bill the

Words: 1709 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19799766

The more jobs that can be created with this money, the more people that can get back to work and the money people that can get on with their lives. And that is exactly what the people of New York City want to do.

orks Cited

Hill, Jeffery. "hat the Stimulus Bill Really Means for Cities." 2009. Next American City. 7

June 2009 http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citmla.htm

"House Passes Stimulus Package; Rep. Michael E. McMahon Secures Tax Cuts and Funding for Critical Investments in Staten Island and Brooklyn." 2009. Congressman Michael E.

McMahon, 7 June 2009 < http://mcmahon.house.gov/2009/02/house-passes-stimulus-package-rep-michael-e-mcmahon-secures-tax-cuts-and-funding-for-critical-invest.shtml>

Light, Larry. "Stimulus Package Offers a Break for Mass-Transit Commuters." 2009. The all

Street Journal, 7 June 2009, http://blogs.wsj.com/wallet/2009/03/11/stimulus-package-offers-a-break-for-mass-transit-commuters/

Mason, J.. "Federal Stimulus and Medicaid: How Big a Savings for the City?" 2009. IBO

eblog, 7 June 2009, http://www.ibo.nyc.ny.us/cgi-park/?p=7

Meckler, Laura. "Obama Signs Stimulus Into Law." 2009. The all Street Journal, 7 June 2009,

<…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hill, Jeffery. "What the Stimulus Bill Really Means for Cities." 2009. Next American City. 7

June 2009 http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citmla.htm

"House Passes Stimulus Package; Rep. Michael E. McMahon Secures Tax Cuts and Funding for Critical Investments in Staten Island and Brooklyn." 2009. Congressman Michael E.

McMahon, 7 June 2009 < http://mcmahon.house.gov/2009/02/house-passes-stimulus-package-rep-michael-e-mcmahon-secures-tax-cuts-and-funding-for-critical-invest.shtml>
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Racism and America's Urban Cycle

Words: 1303 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87201027

Essentially, those in the lower tiers of the urban
socioeconomic hierarchy, rather than having been drawn out of despair, have
been thrust to the periphery of America's 'revitalizing' cities.

Question 2:
One of the most important points raised by the course reading
material would be that underscoring a clear proclivity toward urban design
and planning in those who would first colonize the new lands. Though
massive and ripe with natural resources and incredible frontiers, the new
land was also flowing with inherently profitable waterways, brimming with
commercial trade prospects and inhabited by a native population which,
though Chudacoff reports it to have been significantly underestimated as an
city-dwelling peoples as well, would appear ripe for exploitation. More
importantly though to this discussion would be the text's consideration of
the inherency of the European urban culture to America's development.
Indeed, according to Chudacoff's (2005) account, "the Europeans who
colonized North America…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Chudacoff H. & J.E. Smith. (2005) The Evolution of American Society,
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0-13-189824

Jacobs, Jane. (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New
York, Vintage Books. ISBN:067974195X

Massey, D. and N. Denton. (1998). American Apartheid: Segregation and the
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Architecture Urban Space and Architecture

Words: 1013 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21189776

Ecological urbanism is, as Mostafavi describes it, a "sense of sensibilities' that specifically influence urban design and development in a way that will more effectively address the growing number and diversity of urban community needs.

Ecological urbanism is thus a conscious architectural and design trend that addresses the issues exposed more spontaneously by practices classified as everyday urbanism.

Le Parc de la Villette

The Parc de la Villette in Paris, France was designed by Bernard Tschumi and constructed in the 1980s and early 1990s, and can in many ways be seen as an early example of the trends of ecological urbanism and even everyday urbanism to various degrees.

Located at the edge of the city on land that was formerly occupied by slaughterhouses and other industrial structures, the park was part of a very deliberately designed urban renewal project meant to provide public space that was culturally relevant and accessible…… [Read More]

Galinsky. (2006). "Le Parc de la Villette."  http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/villette/ 

Galinsky. (2006). "Le Parc de la Villette."
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Biomimicry in Product Design

Words: 1075 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83277867

Science

Biomimicry in Design

There is a set of trends in the 21st century regarding urban design, product design, and organizational studies. One of these trends is the act of biomimicry. Biomimicry is a design philosophy or perspective that mimics design patterns in nature. Products inspired by biomimicry are ecologically sound in design, production, and distribution processes, as well as solve human problems. Products reflecting biomimcry do not simply mimic the models, systems, processes, systems, and elements of nature for inspiration. These products mimic nature not only in design, but also in function as products of biomimicry solve problems. The design of nature avoids, anticipates, and solves problems. Thus the products inspired by nature do not mimic nature on a superficial level but on deeper levels of utility and sustainability. This paper will focus upon products that biomimic sharks. Using primary and secondary sources, the paper will evaluate the efficacy…… [Read More]

References:

Benyus, Janine. "Janine Benyus shares nature designs." Web, lecture, Ted.com, April 2005. Available from: http://www.ted.com/talks/janine_benyus_shares_nature_s_designs.html. 2012 March 08.

Biomimicry Institute. "Biomimicking Sharks." Web, 2012. Available from http://biomimicryinstitute.org/home-page-content/home-page-content/biomimicking-sharks.html. 2012 March 10.

Purt, Jenny. "Live Discussion: What is Biomimicry?" The Guardian, Article, Web, 2011 September 29, 2011 October 02 -- 2011 October 04. Available from http://www.guardian.co.uk/sustainable-business/guardian-live-discussion-biomimicry-sustainable-green-design. 2012 March 09.
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Toilet Design in Modern Society Public Toilets

Words: 3355 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7778469

Toilet Design

In modern society, public toilets has become a fixture wherever human activities take place; shopping malls, restaurants and filling stations all provide these places of convenience for travelers, diners and shoppers. However, when considering the nature and function of public toilets, many question their cleanliness and safety for public use. In addition, cultural and gender issues have also played a role in these debates. Women, for example, are obliged to make physical contact with public toilets, while this is not necessarily the case for men. In terms of cultural issues and sanitary concern, critics such as Isbit (2001) have suggested a toilet design whereby the human skin does not need to make any contact with the abode, but where both men and women squat to relieve themselves. To take these concerns into account, the history, background, and design of the public toilet should be considered in detail.

Historical…… [Read More]

References

A to Z. Of Manners & Etiquette. (2010) Toilet Etiquette. Retrieved from:  http://www.a-to-z-of-manners-and-etiquette.com/toilet-etiquette.html 

Biddle, S. (2010, Aug 27). The Long, Unglamorous History of the Toilet. Gizmodo. Retrieved from:  http://gizmodo.com/5622088/the-long-unglamorous-history-of-the-toilet 

Brain, M. (2011). How Toilets Work. How Stuff Works, Inc. Retrieved from:  http://home.howstuffworks.com/toilet4.htm 

Clark, E. (2011) 3 Serious Concerns About Hygiene in Public Restrooms Revealed in Survey. Ezine Articles. Retrieved from: http://ezinearticles.com/?3-Serious-Concerns-About-Hygiene-in-Public-Restrooms-Revealed-in-Survey&id=46579
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Urban Sprawl and How States Are Dealing With the Issue

Words: 5621 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59571043

Land Use Planning Policies and Urban Sprawl

IMPORTANCE

Land planning for distribution has progressed manifolds in the past century. Increase in the number of communities in the country raises the demand for urban development. Developments are often referred as revolutionary plans meant for better living. However, by the end of the 20th century perception of better living means away from the mainstream urbanism. Communities shifted to new areas with open space, tranquility and yet with almost the same kind of amenities as those in the urban areas [illiams, 2000].

Urban spread has become a major concern for various reasons. According to some urban sprawl should be controlled through extensive planning campaigns. Proponents of this group argue that the open spaces for farmland, once considered an off-limits arena for the urban commuters, today with the help of developers has slowly encroached on farm designated land. Opponents to sprawl are quick to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Jacobs, Harvey M. Fighting Over Land America's Legacy... America's Future? Vol. 65 no, Journal of the American Planning Association, 04-15-1999.

Oliver, Charles. "Regulations Are Crimping the Suburbs," Investor's Business Daily, June 23, 1998.

Kaiser, Edward J.; Godschalk, David R., Twentieth century land use planning: a stalwart family tree... Vol. 61, Journal of the American Planning Association, 06-22-1995, pp 365(21).

Gordon, Peter; Richardson, Harry W., Are compact cities a desirable planning goal? Vol. 63, Journal of the American Planning Association, 01-01-1997, pp 95(12).
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Design Future

Words: 662 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70793321

Future

Food lust advertising design: Applying the concepts of 'luxuria' and 'chastity'

hen comparing cars such as Hummer and the Prius, the contrast between the two brand identities seems obvious. One is a large, gas-guzzling vehicle that denotes the purchaser's wealth. The Prius is a small, snub-nosed vehicle that apparently proclaims the user's interest in environmental sustainability. However, beneath the surface, there are even more complex issues about how the vehicles convey the user's class. The Prius is also an expensive car, after all. Chastity is not about low price -- it is an attitude.

hat constitutes 'luxuria' versus 'chastity' in marketing is even more complex with the marketing of items that have a very wide price range like food. Some products marketed as objects of 'luxuria' may be low-priced; some may be high-price. Some products marketed upon their 'chastity' may be more expensive than their 'luxuria' counterparts. The endy's…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Baconater." Wendy's. [9 Mar 2010]

http://wendys.com/food/Product.jsp?family=1&product=4

Hsu, Tiffany. "Wendy's reenters Japan with $16 foie-gras-and-truffle burger." The LA Times

28 Dec 2011. [9 Mar 2010]
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American Industrialization Urban Systems the

Words: 1167 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37404261

Individuals could not grow their own food, given the space and land constraints and therefore were dependant upon the city infrastructure to provide it. This then creates additional industry, and the story goes on to build whole insular and expansive systems within the city to meet the needs of labor and industry. Agricultural support systems, in outlying areas, transportation systems to make logistics of such provision possible as well as markets to bring the goods to consumers and of course the restaurant industry all grew with the population.

Housing, is another example. Housing in newly forming cities is often substandard, as it was in most U.S. cities, and where it existed in this manner, city planning, codes and standards had to be created to respond to concerns regarding safety and other issues. This became substantially more important as industry introduced thinks like electricity, running water and waste removal systems to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hommann, Mary. City Planning in America: Between Promise and Despair. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1993.

Kantor, Paul, and Stephen David. The Changing Political Economy of Urban America. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1988.

Walton, John. "Urban Sociology: The Contribution and Limits of Political Economy." Annual Review of Sociology (1993): 301.

Watts, Sheldon. "The Deadly Truth: A History of Disease in America." Journal of Social History 38.1 (2004): 267.
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Sustainable Design Biomimicry Is the Use of

Words: 560 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63004679

Sustainable Design

Biomimicry

Biomimicry is the use of the natural environment as a model for the built environment (Goss, 2009). This term was first used by Janine Benyus in 1997, in her book Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature. As a biologist, she was ideally suited to notice how nature 'invents' solutions to challenges presented by the natural environment and how humans do the same. The major difference between the two solutions is that the first is sustainable and the latter is too often not.

Goss (2009) provides several examples of how architects and engineers have tried to mimic natural systems to provide more sustainable solutions for human needs. Architect Mick Pearce entered into collaboration with Arup Associates, an engineering firm, to design a large commercial building based the methods that termites use to maintain an even indoor temperature (Biomimicry Institute, 2013). Termite mounds in Zimbabwe are capable of maintaining an…… [Read More]

References

Biomimicry Institute. (2013). Termite-inspired air conditioning. BiomimicryInstitute.org. Retrieved 9 Sep. 2013 from http://biomimicryinstitute.org/case-studies/case-studies/termite-inspired-air-conditioning.html.

Goss, Julie. (2009). Biomimicry: Looking to Nature for Design Solutions. Corcoran College of Art & Design. ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing.

Pim, Linda and Ornoy, Joel. (2005). A Smart Future for Ontario. How to Create Greenways and Curb Urban Sprawl in Your Community. Ontario Nature, Federation of Ontario Naturalists. Retrieved 9 Sep. 2013 from www.ontarionature.org/protect/PDFs/smartfuture.ON.pdf.

TERMES Project. (2008). The TERMES Project. Self-Organizing Systems Research Group, Harvard University. Retrieved 9 Sep. 2013 from  http://www.eecs.harvard.edu/ssr/projects/cons/termes.html .
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Higher Ed Course Design 20th Century History

Words: 1481 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38918687

Higher Ed Course

Course Design: 20th Century History and Popular Music

Course Description:

For many students, popular music is scene as being disposable and readily replaceable. The nature of the modern media cycle means that much of what dominates the sphere of popular music is inherently designed to achieve vast commercial appeal with a short shelf-life. However, there are also ways in which popular music has figured critically into moments in history. This is the premise that underscores the proposed higher education course, which would be couched within the broader discipline of History.

The proposed course is intended to draw parallels between important moments in history and the way that the culture of popular music connected to these moments or in some powerful instances such as the British Invasion, oodstock and the Hip Hop movement, even came to define some of these important historical moments. Using different eras in history…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Hiebert, J. & Morris, A.K. (2012). Teaching, Rather Than Teachers, As a Path Toward Improving Classroom Instruction. Journal of Teacher Education, 63(2), 92-102.

Hurtado, S.; Milem, J.; Clayton-Pederson, A. & Allen, W. (1999). Enacting Diverse Learning Environments: Improving the Climate for Racial/Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

Shaw, K. (2012). Leadership Through Instructional Design in Higher Education. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 12(3).
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Layout and Design of My

Words: 590 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16171923

The formal living room would be in the front of the house with a stairway area separating it from the kitchen and family room.

I would decorate the main floor in a manner that is somewhat modern but I would stay away from anything trendy that could become outdated. In general, color and textural coordination is more important to me than adhering to any of the specific interior design styles per se. To the extent I chose to express any specific thematic decor, I would include a modern high-tech treatment featuring metallic treatments and accents throughout the home. The upstairs bedrooms would match the overall tone of the main floor. Because I like to walk around barefoot, I would carpet the entire home except for the kitchen floor. Strictly for practical considerations such as wear and tear or accidental spills, I might not carpet the family room but use a…… [Read More]

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Network Design Network Engineers Together

Words: 995 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74690008

During the PDIOO procedure one has to define main deliverables and related actions with a direct connection to the additional value and advantage for the customer network. For instance, understanding business objectives, usage features, and network necessitieshelps a person avoid pointlesselevations and network redesigns, thus reducing the time taken to introduce fresh services in the network.

Planning Phase

During the planning period one can test the significance of the design for future complications. Planning assists in avoiding repeating a logical faultwhen dealing with a network design that a might person uses as a template in various locations.The planning phase concentrates on technical and financial criteria and considers all the necessities and constraints discussed (Asakura & Kashiwadani 2003).During this stage, it is significant to recognize all the stakeholders to make theprocedure a success. The stakeholders are individuals or organizations who have entrusted interest in the environment, enactment, and result of the…… [Read More]

References

O'Kelly, M.E., & Miller, H.J. (January 01, 1994). The hub network design problem: A review and synthesis. Journal of Transport Geography, 2, 1.)

Nes, R. . (January 01, 2003). Multiuser-class urban transit network design. Transportation Research Record, 1835, 25-33.

Asakura, Y., Hato, E., & Kashiwadani, M. (January 01, 2003). Stochastic network design problem: An optimal link investment model for reliable network. Network Reliability of Transport: Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Transportation Network

Reliability, 245-259.
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Port and Harbor Planning Within Urban Areas as They Pertain to Coast Guard Facilities

Words: 3032 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49652369

Integrated Urban Port and Harbor Planning With Environmental Assessment and Coast Guard Facilities

Port planning is a multifaceted project that involves technical, operational, economic, social, and environmental aspects. The projects may range from terminal rehabilitation until altering the whole area into a communal park, involving several different aspects in economic, social, cultural, ethical, and environmental goals.

Every area has unique resources, which need to be incorporated into the whole planning process based on the local legal regulation. As with differences in geographical characteristics, it is necessary to find particular approach to the short- and long-term goals of the port, and every detailed construction or facilities provided. The port and harbor must meet the need on how to convert the urban area into a beneficial site as well as to maintain its original characteristics of the landscape including - and without overlooking - the resident people's objectives for the future. It…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Leverburgh Waterfront Planning Brief. 2001. European and Development Services. http://www.w-isles.gov.uk/lever00.htm.(Apr1, 2002).

Management Measurement For Marina and Recreational Boating. 1997. Guidance Specifying Management Measures for Sources of Nonpoint Pollution in Coastal Waters. EPA-840-B-93-001c January 1993. http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/MMGI/Chapter5/index.html.(Apr1, 2002)

Nicholas, Francis W. In Christian Charles M. And Harper, Robert A. 1982. Managing the Urban Physical Environment. Modern Metropolitan System. Charles E. Merrill Pub. Pp. 332-359.

Port of San Francisco Strategic Plan. http://sfgov.org/sfport/PortMissionFY01_02.pdf.(Apr1, 2002)
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Stigma of Urban Poverty History

Words: 2529 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27538659

The public face of stigma involves the general public's negative beliefs, feelings and behaviours directed toward those with a stigma" (¶ 4). Public stigma may contribute to a cycle of poverty by: a) Employers discriminating against obese individuals or those who may be HIV-infected or mentally ill. b) Being poor, per se, may contribute to even more public stigmatization.

Self-stigma and public stigma closely connect, eeder and Pryor (2008) stress . The degree an individual perceives that his/her employers, family, family, and landlords possess stigmatizing attitudes; he/she will likely experience the pain of self-stigma. One's awareness of public stigma frequently promotes self-stigma.

A stigma, similar to a disease may spread from one individual to another. The individual who decides to affiliate with a member of a stigmatized group may acquire a courtesy stigma. In a sense, as the individual gains admission into the stigmatized category, both the stigmatized group's members…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Jeanine B. et al. Poverty and Social Assistance in Transition Countries Journal of Comparative

Economics, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 188-189

Katsiaouni, O. & Gorniak, J. (2001). Globalization and rural poverty in transition economies.

Paper for Expert Group Meeting on Globalisation and Poverty Reduction: Can th Rural Poor Benefit from Globalisation? organised by Division for Social Policy and Development, United Nations, 8-9 November 2001, New York.
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U S Urban History Slavery in

Words: 2224 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58203114

Further, while some upward mobility did exist, competition among small business entrepreneurs and economic instability caused by depression and financial panics created just as much downward mobility (Ibid. At 58).

Housing among the poor in the cities usually consisted of multiple families (as many as 8) living in homes designed for just one. The price of rent was disproportionately high because the numbers of immigrants in the teeming cities kept demand higher than supply (Ibid. At 132). As a result, slum housing developed and the risk of fire and disease became a daily risk for the urban lower class.

The middle class enjoyed much better conditions. hile downward mobility was always possible, the middle class could typically expect rising wages and could afford moderate consumerism, that is, purchasing magazines, clothing, books and some of the new manufactured goods becoming more and more available. A basic middle class characteristic was the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chudacoff, Howard P. And Judith E. Smith. The Evolution of American Urban Society. Prentice Hall, Inc.: Upper Saddle River, NJ (2000).

Goodfriend, Joyce D. Slavery in colonial New York City. Urban History, Vol. 35

(2008), pp. 485-496.

Tomlins, Christopher. Reconsidering Indentured Servitude: European Migration and the Early
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Edr What Is Environmental Design Research Design

Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23184673

Edr

What is Environmental Design Research?

Design and art can accept scientific principles

Environmental Design Research (EDR) = the study of the mutual relationships between human beings and the physical environment at all scales, and applications of the knowledge thus gained to improving the quality of life through better informed environmental policy, planning, design, and education. (passive and active definition)

EDR is related to many other areas of the social sciences

EDR is NOT:

building science or structural engineering

Design practice

Eg. An architect does research to apply to a single building project, but EDR applies research to things like job satisfaction and other measurable results that advance the whole field.

EDR Is:

Basic Research (generation, discovery of knowledge)

Applied Research (answering specific questions related to specific social policy or context)

Research Applications (apply research to policy, plans, designs)

**Must communicate results to policy/professional applications

EDR = Environmental Psychology =…… [Read More]

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Education Can Urban Inner City Regular

Words: 3366 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10018193

Transitions occur in many different educational, societal, and familial situations. Among the more common situations where problems of adjustment might be encountered are changing from one school to another, a change in grades, the shift to regular participation in afterschool programs and childcare, and going from school (non- special education) into the workplace.

(Taylor & Adelman, 2003, p. 122) Various programs have been devised, and services provided, that meet each of these import transitional needs. Children with emotional or behavioral disorders may be as much in need of transition services and programs as those challenged by physical or cognitive disabilities. Children with such conditions are frequently moved from school to school, or form program to program, either through the actions of their own families, or in an attempt to find the right form of treatment for the difficulties they face. These constant changes may, in and of themselves, result in…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002099972

Benz, M.R., Lindstrom, L., Unruh, D., & Waintrup, M. (2004). Sustaining Secondary Transition Programs in Local Schools. Remedial and Special Education, 25(1), 39+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000731321

Field, S., & Hoffman, a. (2002). Lessons Learned from Implementing the Steps to Self-Determination Curriculum. Remedial and Special Education, 23(2), 90+.
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Sustainable Design Is Evidence-Based Design Until Relatively

Words: 845 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4758219

Sustainable Design is Evidence-Based Design

Until relatively recently in human history, most buildings would have qualified as "sustainable," in the sense that they did not use fossil fuels for electricity or heating; and buildings were made with local material.

Now, the concept of sustainable design is more difficult to implement because it is viewed as not being cost-effective.

Evidence shows, however, that sustainable design IS cost-effective when it is done right.

The following case studies prove that sustainable design is evidence-based design.

The Providence Cancer Center

Emphasis on maximizing daylight

Reduces solar gain

Improves patient health due to connection with nature and outdoors

To reduce solar gain

Design shallow rooms and maximum window space for best light penetration

Glazing with low u-values, high visible light transmission

Design building orientation facing the best views of nature

Successful Outcomes

*Energy savings up to 87% during the day because of reduced solar gain…… [Read More]

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Green Building and Sustainable Design

Words: 343 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62932553

The Durst Organization "wants to turn the Big Apple into a Green Apple," ("The Durst Organization Company Profile"). An urban real estate development and management company, the Durst organization is turning a profit. The company "develops, owns, and manages commercial real estate in midtown Manhattan," ("The Durst Organization Company Profile").

Hines is a real estate development, investment, and management firm that is also profiting by becoming green. The firm boasts significantly higher compound annual returns vs. its competitors, and helps raise equity to assist organizations with their green building and sustainable design goals ("Investment Performance"). NCI Building Systems, the Durst Organization, and Hines exemplify the profitability and performance of the green building industry in multiple sectors.

eferences

The Durst Organization Company Profile." Yahoo! Finance. etrieved Mar 6, 2009 at http://biz.yahoo.com/ic/128/128618.html

Investment Performance." HINES. etrieved Mar 6, 2009 at http://www.hines.com/investment/performance.aspx

NCI. "Welcome to NCI Group." etrieved Mar 6, 2009 at http://www.ncilp.com… [Read More]

References

The Durst Organization Company Profile." Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved Mar 6, 2009 at http://biz.yahoo.com/ic/128/128618.html

Investment Performance." HINES. Retrieved Mar 6, 2009 at http://www.hines.com/investment/performance.aspx

NCI. "Welcome to NCI Group." Retrieved Mar 6, 2009 at http://www.ncilp.com
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Human Factors Design Construction

Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61094907

Children spend a large part of their day here, and should therefore be optimally stimulated for their learning benefit. The problem with many current classrooms is the fact that desks and chairs tend to be uncomfortable to a great degree of distraction. Other distracting factors is the lack of general comfort level within a classroom. The classroom atmosphere should be pleasant and focus the attention on the teacher and the blackboard, where information is imparted. Air-conditioning in summer and heating in winter should therefore be primary considerations, along with providing children with comfortable seating arrangements. In movie theaters, clients are provided with the utmost comfort in padded seating, helping them to enjoy the experience. Children should be provided with the same courtesy, as learning is an infinitely more worthy activity than movie entertainment. Surely the long hours spend in school and classrooms justify a better seating arrangement than is currently…… [Read More]

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Sorting and Regression-Discontinuity Design in

Words: 1274 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64404669

However, their measurable test gains may be less than students who do not have such challenges. Quality of instruction is also an issue: perhaps good instructors and smaller class size is best, but what is 'better' -- an average teacher with a small class or a good teacher with a large class? Baker suggests the former scenario is superior, given that smaller class sizes can increase the need for teachers -- good or bad -- leaving many students in the hands of less competent teachers. However, at some threshold class management becomes impossible, even for a good teacher, and the line is difficult to draw. Benefits may be different based upon student's gender, preparation level of the student, social class, and also the preparation level of the teacher. More experienced teachers may be better able to cope with larger classes, and also more adept at using smaller class size to…… [Read More]

The benefits of small class sizes may be cumulative, even if the overall, measured year-to-year effects are small. That would explain such problems as the discrepancies between different grade levels in measured effects of class sizes. But Baker sees such shifts as based on micro rather than macro concerns "the increase in test scores is offset by other test score fluctuations that occur between enrollments of 20 and 25. The positive ratio for third grade students (rather than negative as for second graders) is likely due to the fact that increases in test scores to the right of enrollment threshold are smaller for third than for second graders and, on the average, are offset by other fluctuations" (Baker 2009, p.13).

Even in light of her research hypothesis and skeptical conclusions Baker admits there are some indications that class size has a demonstrable effect upon student achievement. "Findings of school non-participation and creation of enrollment cutoffs [merely] demonstrate the unanticipated consequences that a class-size reduction program based on financial incentives can create, and should be taken into account when designing future class-size reduction policies" (Baker 2009, p. 5; 3). Baker's research highlights a number of questionable policies of California school districts, such as shuttling excess students to overcrowded districts. It is arguable that given the population and financial challenges of California at this time, mandatory class limitations may not be feasible, because the policies they spark to meet compliance are worse than higher levels of enrollment. It is also arguable, based on Baker's research that because of districts' methods of achieving such benchmarks are often underhanded that the class size limits are not serving the populations the programs were designed to help. But that does not mean that class size reduction is not a laudable aim. At very least, the fact that larger class sizes may cause problems for some students should be more fully explored on a qualitative rather than a purely quantitative level, given the generalized categories of Baker's research, which only takes into consideration socioeconomic categorizations.

Baker admits that previous literature indicates that small class size has been supported for some children: it is possible to hypothesize that for ESL learners and students with learning disabilities, large classrooms do not serve their needs, and the poor and disadvantaged may get 'lost' in large districts. The parts of Baker's research indicating that the overall effect of class reduction is not as large as one might expect on a general level often point to a failure of implementation, rather than a failure of class sizes to deliver upon their original pedagogical promises. Analysis of the benefits of class sizes for specific populations is still required, given the differentiation that exists in any school district and California in particular. The degree to which school districts can enforce smaller class sizes without busing 'overflows' of students elsewhere must also be examined, to see if class size reduction benefits students if it is done fairly.
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Parental Involvement in Urban School

Words: 11020 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27657969

Overall parental involvement has an effect on the child from the early stage to the secondary stage. Students need the parents for guidance, integrity and confidence to become successful in life because it is not the teachers job to make sure the students have these qualities. "In reality, parent involvement is a more diverse and complex concept than is generally acknowledged" (Dom & Verhoeven, 2006, p.570).

The study will help to determine the reason for the different challenges students may face due to the lack of parental involvement.

esearch Design and Methodology

The proposed study will use a quantitative research design that uses both secondary resources as well as primary data collected specifically for the purposes of this research. The research procedure will proceed in a step-wise fashion, beginning with an exploratory review of the literature to identify common themes and trends in the research concerning current patterns of parental…… [Read More]

References

McDermott, P. & Rothenberg, J. (2000). Why urban parents resist involvement in their

children's elementary education. The Qualitative Report. 5(3/4).

Blasi, M.J. (2001). Rethinking family-school relations: A critique of parental involvement in schooling. Childhood Education, 78(1), 54.

Ainscow, M. & West, M. (Eds.). (2006). Improving Urban Schools: Leadership and Collaboration. Maidenhead, England: Open University Press. Retrieved July 30, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111655146
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Adult Literacy Educational Program Design

Words: 3982 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52046011

" (Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson, 1998)

Activities in the classroom that use generative themes derived from the adult learner's lives "have been seen to facilitate their acquisition of literacy." (Friere, 1992; as cited in: Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson, 1998) According to Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson (1998) the use of "life-context-specific materials and activities in adult literacy programs is supported by research that documents the powerful role of context in learning." Stated as an example is "...workplace literacy programs teach literacy skills as they are needed within specific work contexts. Compared to programs that concentrated more on 'genera' literacy, adult programs that incorporated job-related materials were associated with larger increases in both job-related and general literacy." (Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson, 1998) However, it is noted that other studies state findings that "much of the growth made by participants in general literacy programs is likely to be lost if recently learned skills…… [Read More]

References

Basic Reading Skills - Adult Literacy Supplemental Assessment (2009) National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL). National Center for Education Statistics. Online available at  http://nces.ed.gov/naal/alsa.asp 

Ways to Get Involved (2009) ProLiteracy. Online available at http://www.proliteracy.org/NetCommunity/Page.aspx?pid=499

Issues in Literacy (2009) SIL International. Online available at http://www.sil.org/literacy/issues.htm

Britt, Robert Roy (2009) 14% of U.S. Adults Can't Read. Live Science. 10 Jan 2009. Online available at http://www.livescience.com/culture/090110-illiterate-adults.html
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Industrialization Urban Industrialization During the

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21789985

Mass production gave the people more goods and raised their standards of living in industrialized nations, but the unequal distribution of wealth created dissatisfaction and unrest among the poor.

Wealthy entrepreneurs and corporations were able to create great structures in the major cities. In 1856 Henry Bessemer (British) perfected the process for producing inexpensive steel; and the next year E.G. Otis (American) installed the first safety elevator. From 1773, cast iron provided strength without bulk and provided architects to span broader widths and raise structures to greater heights than traditional stone buildings. John Nash used cast iron in 1815 for the Brighton Pavilion. The first cast-iron suspension bridge began to be constructed in 1836, but not until mid-century was iron used as skeletal support for mills, warehouses and railroad stations. Joseph Paxton built Paxton's Crystal Palace for the Great Exhibition of London in 1851 of glass and steel in only…… [Read More]

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History of Modern Design

Words: 426 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8707353

De Stijl (The Style) movement of was founded in 1917 by a group of young Dutch architects, among whom the most important are Piet Mondrian, Theo Van Doesburg, and Bart Van Der Leck. In the magazine they founded ( De Stijl), they first displayed their paintings, sculpture, and architectural design. They were eager that their new aesthetic conceptions should embrace everything from city panning to applied arts and philosophy. The main ideas around which they worked (based closely on Mondrian's theory of Neo-Plasticism) highlighted simplicity of line, form and color. Straight lines, primarly colors, and reduced forms were emphasized. Art was viewed as a collective project, and therefore the romantic conceptions of the "personal" artwork were downplayed in favor of a more impersonal approach. It will be seen that the De Stijl ideas had a major influencce on the Bauhaus style in Germany.

hile Constructivism cannot be considered as a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Raizman, David. History of Modern Design . New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 2004.
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New Pile Design

Words: 5135 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2234893

Piles

The literature review for this particular study is conducted in order to ascertain what, if any, problems, solutions and circumstances are present with the manner in which current piles are developed, used and maintained. The literature should provide the researcher with data on the different aspects of current pile technology, as well as information on any new ideas or concepts that might be currently in the works regarding piles and pile technology.

Piles are considered a method for supporting structures in areas where loads are not normally supported. A good example of a pile would be a support structure that transfers load capacity from an inadequate area of support, to an area of adequate support such as in shallow waters or in areas where the soil might not be conducive to providing a good bearing support capacity. A recent report may have put it best when it espoused "the…… [Read More]

References

Boushehrian, A.H.; Hataf, N.; Ghahramani, A.; (2009) Numerical study of cyclic behavior of shallow foundations on sand reinforced with Geogrid and Grid-Anchor, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 58, pp. 607-610

Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition, (2011) Pile, p. 1

Horvath, J.S.; (2010) New structural model for multicomponent pile cross sections under axial load, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 136, Issue 6, pp. 875-879

Hussein, M.H. & Likins, G.E.; (1993) Driving long precast concrete piles, 14th International Congress of the Precast Concrete Industry, Washington, D.C., 10 -- 15th September 1993, accessed on November 28, 2012 at:  http://www.pile.com/reference/14thInternationalCongressOfThePrecastConcreteIndustry/DrivingLongPrecastConcretePiles.pdf
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Community Health Promotion Project Design

Words: 1937 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77784666

Caregivers of Alzheimer's Patients

Community Health Promotion Project Design

As we have discovered in the first part of the study, Alzheimer's is a major health issue for the population of seniors 65 years and older. Alzheimers costs taxpayers and individuals billions of dollars for the provision of care for those who can no longer care for themselves. Alzheimer's is an expensive disease and many times it is the family who must bear much of the expense. We found that the financial strain of caring for someone who has Alzheimer's creates an incredible amount of stress on family members. However, we also found that perhaps even greater than the financial strain, Alzheimer's places in incredible load on the family as they are usually the ones who must care for their family member.

The aggregate for this study consists of family members who must care for other members of the family who…… [Read More]

References

Belle SH, Czaja SJ, & Schulz R, (2003). "Using a new taxonomy to combine the uncombinable: Integrating results across diverse interventions." Psychology and Aging. 18:396 -- 405

Gitlin LN, Belle SH, & Burgio LD, et al. (2003). "Effect of multicomponent interventions on caregiver burden and depression: The REACH multisite initiative at 6-month follow-up." Psychology and Aging. 2003;18:361 -- 374.

Wisniewski, S., Belle, S. & Marcus, S. et al. (2003). The resources for enhancing old climbers caregiver health (REACH): project design and baseline characteristics. Psychological Aging. 18 (3), 375-384.
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Reforming Urban Schools

Words: 13440 Length: 49 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79283099

School Choice Program

This study aimed to determine the impact of school choice through a comparative study of two private schools, which serve primarily, or exclusively African-American students, and a public school.

Data in student achievement in math and reading and data on student attendance were used to determine the impact of choosing a school. Qualitative data derived from interviews with administrators and faculty as well as classroom observation were used to provide additional insight regarding the intellectual climate of the two private schools and the public school.

The focus of this study was on mathematics and reading in middle school students in both public and private schools in Milwaukee, as well as the focus of reform in the state -- reading in Michigan, writing in Vermont and California. This approach enabled me to adequately address my research questions and prove or disprove my hypotheses.

To begin, I conducted structured…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brown, Andrew (1995). Organizational Culture. London: Pitman Publishing.

Dianda, Marcella. Corwin, Ronald. (February 1993). What a Voucher Could Buy: A Survey of California's Private Schools. Far West Lab for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, California and Southwest Regional Lab Survey Results.

Fuller, Bruce. (1995). Who Gains, Who Loses from School Choice: A Research Summary. ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED385928.

Greene, Jay. Peterson, Paul. Du, Jiangtao. (1997). Effectiveness of School Choice: The Milwaukee Experiment. Occasional Paper 97, Program in Education Policy and Governance Center for American Political Studies, Department of Government, Harvard University.
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Restaurant Menu Design and Content

Words: 885 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38896827

Tom's Urban menu communicates the concept of an upbeat, casual, social venue with an urban flair.

The language is informal and trendy. The word "urban" appears more than once.

About a hundred different items are on the menu.

The menu is extensive, focused on pub grub, with a tremendous amount of variety including pizza, burgers, and "urban street tacos." Influences are from different cuisines of the world. Both lunch and dinner offer small plates for sharing, to emphasize the social concept of the restaurant.

There are several sections including sliders, sandwiches, grilled meats, full plate entrees, salads, and the tacos.

Prices range from $6 to $26 depending on the item.

f. The graphics and font that are used signal upbeat, trendy, and casual ambiance.

g. The menu is a digital copy.

I would expect the concept of this food service operation to be pub grub with a focus on social…… [Read More]

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History of Master Builder and Design Build Tradition of the 4 Periods in Ancient Civilization

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38744496

Master Builders

Today, the professions of architect, engineer and construction worker are well-known. Yet, from the earliest civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Rome, the "master builders," who planned and directed the design and construction of many of the greatest structures, held one of the most prestigious positions in society. The fact that some of these structures -- thousands of years old -- remain standing, and many of these same engineering sciences are still used, pay tribute to the abilities of these master craftsmen who were responsible for all steps in the "design-bid-build" project delivery method.

Before the existence of master builders in design and construction, the Code of Hammurabi referred to building as a simple process. Produced approximately between 1792 to 1750 B.C., this is the first known building code. Its rules and responsibilities and acceptable standards of workmanship were carved on stone tablets. Failure to adhere to these…… [Read More]

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New York

Words: 1683 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92389612

New York City: An Examination of Urban Design and Space Function as it Relates to Civic Participation

The objective of this study is to examine urban design and space function as it relates to civic participation in New York City. Kevin Lynch conducted systematic and scientific-based research on urban design in his exploration of the elements of urban design. Lynch stated that every individual "has had a long association with some parts of his city and his image is soaked in memories and meaning." (1960, p.2) The goal of Lynch is reported to be the study of the city's mental images held by its citizens. Lynch focused his work on the city's visual quality or the "apparent clarity and 'legibility of the city-scape." hat Lynch meant was the level of ease with which the city's parts could be organized into a pattern that was of a coherent nature. The city,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kent, Ethan (2013) Toward Place Governance: What If We Reinvented Civic Infrastructure Around Placemaking?

Lynch, Kevin (1960): the Image of the City. Massachusetts New York City (2013) Britannica Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/412352/New-York-City/215659/Manhattan

NYC Votes Transformed the Way New Yorkers Interact with Political Candidates (2013) Pivotal Labs. Retrieved from: http://pivotallabs.com/case-studies/nyc-votes/

Project for Public Spaces. Retrieved from:  http://www.pps.org/reference/toward-place-governance-civic-infrastructure-placemaking/
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Public Space The Living Room

Words: 1966 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17604419

The presence of water is also central to the architecture of mosques, albeit for religious more than aesthetic purposes.

Conclusion: Two Squares, Two Cultures

The Place de la Concorde shares more in common with the Maidan-i-Shah than is immediately apparent. The two squares are about the same size: around 8 hectares. Both have been used for multiple purposes and whisper the changes that have taken place within their respective cities. Political and social life has centered on each of these public spaces.

More than a century separates the two squares, as the Maidan-i-Shah in the early seventeenth century and the Place de Louis XV in the mid-eighteenth century. The architecture and intended use of the two squares proves to be radically different. Unlike the Maidan-i-Shah, the Place de la Concorde serves no religious function. The lack of places of worship as part of the city square speaks directly to the…… [Read More]

References

Boyer, M.C. (1996). The City of Collective Memory: Its Historical Imagery and Architectural Entertainments. MIT.

Carmona, M. (2003). Public Spaces, Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design. Oxford: Architectural Press.

The Center for Design Excellence (n.d.). Public space. Urban Design. Retrieved online:  http://www.urbandesign.org/publicspace.html 

Craven, J. (n.d.). Public spaces: cities, towns, and landscapes. About.com Guide to Architecture. Retrieved online: http://architecture.about.com/od/urbandesign/u/PublicSpaces.htm
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Jane Jacobs Asserts That Art

Words: 880 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4865688



Koolhas's junkspace certainly paints a perfect picture of certain parts of Chicago where undifferentiated ethnic sprawl leads slovenly onto another and then onto another, often without demarcations being drawn and suddenly one finds one walking or biking onto the promenade running alongside the lake or staring up at the skyscrapers that have been squeezed and twisted into tight corners and loom down onto the twisting, careening streets beneath.

Chicago is tight on parking space and many of its narrow streets are one-way traffic only reminiscent of Koolhaas's junkspace since they give us the idea that they were added only as an afterthought with reverse one-streets added as recompense later -- scattered some distance away. Chicago's streets also sprawl and circulate oftentimes without warning ending up in blind sports seeming only to confuse the unwitting pedestrian. And then, as always, there are parks squeezed next to dirty pubs, and roads with…… [Read More]

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Tampa's Strategic Action Plan for

Words: 5938 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94330205

.." (Channel District Redevelopment Area Strategic Action Plan, nd) ecause of this increase in demand there must be a facilities upgrade and additions such as new water lines to the water system. The projected water demand for the Channelside District include those listed in the following table labeled Figure 3 in this study.

Channel District Projected Water Demand

Source: Channel District Redevelopment Area Strategic Action Plan, nd

It is stated in the project report that the projected water demand has been reviewed by the City of Tampa Water Department and that these improvements "...are based on the assumption of water availability at the intersection of Channelside Drive and Adamo Drive. It is anticipated that extension of a new transmission main from other City water mains to this location may be required. A water main connecting at that intersection will be outside of the Channel District boundary, and therefore may require…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Channel District Redevelopment Area Strategic Action Plan (nd) Chapter 1 - Executive Summary. Online available at http://tampafl.gov/dept_economic_and_urban_development/files/the_channel_district_community_redevelopment_area_plan/SAP/Chapter_1_Executive_Summary%20.pdf

Issues Relating to Transportation and Mobility in the Downtown Area (ND)

http://www.cleinberger.com/docs/About_CL/TampaBayBusinessJournal_DowntownAnalyzed_022908.pdf
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Final Paper

Words: 2164 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29084036

economy is in a state of recovery from the great recession. One of the key implications of this economic recovery for urban planning encompasses the decline in unemployment rate. Between 2010 and 2016, the unemployment rate has significantly declined from about 10% to the prevailing rate of 4.9% (Bureau of Labor Statistics). However, it is imperative to note that a great deal of employment opportunities are in major cities such as California, ashington, Florida, Texas and Pennsylvania. Fifty percent of new business establishments across the nation evolved in only 20 major urban counties (Florida). This implies that such urban places are bound to experience an increase in population from skilled workers. In turn, this will cripple the other areas. Considering this, there are also implications for economic policy, governmental budgets and local and state governments. In particular, the local and state governments should apportion and channel government budgets to the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Society of Landscape Architects. "Sustainable Urban Development." Retrieved from:  https://www.asla.org/sustainableurbandevelopment.aspx 

Badger, Emily. "Why Trump's Use of the Words 'Urban Renewal' Is Scary for Cities." The New York Times, 2016. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/07/upshot/why-trumps-use-of-the-words-urban-renewal-is-scary-for-cities.html?_r=0

Birch, Eugenie Ladner. "Radburn and the American Planning Movement the Persistence of an Idea." (1980): 424-439.

Blumenfeld, Hans. Criteria for Judging the Quality of the Urban Environment. The Canadian Architect (November, 1972).
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Panelized and Modular Building Systems

Words: 9477 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51106151

The panels could also be assembled quickly often within a day. Some panels have an in-built wiring in them making the housing construction to be faster. The panelized off-site building technologies could also involve exterior wall of building designed to provide the load bearing structural support, and the panelized building system could be made of light gauge steel, timber, structural insulated panels (SIPs), non-structural or concrete, which could be used to create the whole building.

(Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, 2003). On the hand, Burwood and Jess (2005) reveal another method of panelized building system which is closed system. However, closed system is more complex because it involves the use of more factory fabrication such as insulation and lining materials. Different type of panels may include steel frame or timber frame and they may consist of prefabricated load bearing panels.

There are several advantages that could be derived from…… [Read More]

References

AMA Research (2011). Bathroom and Kitchen Pods Market-UK 2010.2014. AMA Research Ltd., UK.

Azman, M.N.A. Ahamad, M.S.S. Majid, T.A. et al. (2010). The Common Approach in Off-Site Construction Industry. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4(9): 4478-4482.

Barker 33 Cross Industry Group (2006) Modern Methods of Construction (MMC) for the Provision of Housing: Barker 33 Review: Recommendations, Barker 33 Cross Industry Group, London.

Barker, K. (2003) Review of Housing Supply: Securing our Future Housing Needs, Interim Report: Analysis, HMSO, London.
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Agger A 2010 Involving Citizens in Sustainable

Words: 1500 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95942987

Agger, A. (2010). Involving Citizens in Sustainale Development: Evidence of New Forms of Participation in the Danish Agenda 21 Schemes. Local Environment, 15(6), 541-552.

Agger (2010) reiterated that Scandinavian countries hold in high regard the dictates of Agenda 21 and that's why they have een so fast to implement it. This is ecause these countries have institutional capacity that makes it easy for them to apply the principles of LA21. Agger attriuted Sweden's investments in environmental and technical infrastructure to LA21 initiatives. Other Scandinavian countries nevertheless used LA21 initiatives to decentralize state environmental policy initiatives whereas others used it to moilize citizens and associations in local environmental policies (Agger, 2010). Agger identified the network approach, the integrated approach, and the canvassing approach as the overall strategies for reaching many stakeholders.

He reckoned that governments all over the world still faced myriad challenges when it came to diversifying citizens' participation in…… [Read More]

bibliography I came to realize how it is important to engage in environmental conservation. I came to realize that the municipal authorities and local governments have a very critical role to play in urban planning especially when they undertake to apply principles of smart growth concept to ensure there is sustainable urban development.

This research has no doubt changed my point-of-view on sustainable development. I have come to appreciate that plan-led environmentally friendly and sustainable pattern of settlement should integrate elements of distinctive urban culture, spatially compact form, strong landscape framework in a countryside setting, balance of land use, economic and social structures, energy conscious public transportation network, and high level of infrastructure.

References

Agger, A. (2010). Involving Citizens in Sustainable Development: Evidence of New Forms Of

Participation in the Danish Agenda 21 Schemes. Local Environment, 15(6), 541-552.
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Live Concert Analysis How Doing Good Makes

Words: 6286 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68417534

Live Concet Analysis

How Doing Good Makes Us Feel Poweful and Poweless at the Same Time

Design Activism vs. Design fo Social Change

The Awakening Consciousness of Designes 1960's

Manifesto

Thee has been lukewam inteest in public sevice design, social impact and design activism. But in most convesations, all othe designs wok to enhance the standad of living of the people; some of it must be activism. The agument is seldom boosted by the notion that achitectue has been impacted by intellectual movements and ats fo instance, modenism which fuels an idea of a evolutionay society. These movements had ideal poposals fo society's efoms. They wee elated deeply to commece and aesthetics as well (Jose et al., 2008). Conside the diffeence between modenism and activism fo that matte. The modenism idea states that people stand equals to each othe, while society became united in evey aspect fo instance uniting laboes,…… [Read More]

references and charitable habits of Generation Y, Generation X, Baby Boomers and Matures. Convio and Edge Research. (2010).

Boehnert, J. "In the Front Line," Creative Review, October 2008.

Borasi, G., & Zardini, M. (Eds.). Actions: What you can do with the city. Canadian Centre for Architecture. (2008).

Brown, T., Sklar, A., Speicher, S., Solomon D. And Wyatt, J. "Design For Social Impact," (New York: The Rockefeller Foundation, 2009), 80-81.

Cowan, G. "Street Protest Architecture," Bad Subjects, January 2004.
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Culture Lyons Kevin Cease and

Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8759511

As a result, what could be a solid expose on how cultural art forms have been misappropriated becomes a spurious, although interesting piece. Intellectual property and the laws surrounding it are indeed direct products of the Western European culture in which we live. Therefore, it is only natural that the laws of such a society would reflect its cultural ideals. Moreover, Coombo fails to account for how it would be possible to protect collective cultural expressions, many of which are universal symbols such as those from nature. Coombo also fails to offer any clear examples of how artistic forms have been misappropriated from the "ritual contexts" she refers to. The Crazy Horse example is a clear-cut and understandable example to support Coombo's argument, and the article would be strengthened had the author offered more. The article can serve as a good springboard for sociological research studies and investigations into means…… [Read More]

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Collaborative Consumption and Architecture

Words: 8536 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88518479

architects in the 21st century is the issue of sustainability. Not only is there no consensus opinion on how to approach the issue of sustainability in academic circles but there is also no formula of integrating sustainability into architectural curriculum (Wright, 2003). This deficiency underscores an even more stressing problem, however: as Edwards and Hyett (2010) note, "the techniques and technologies of green design are now generally understood -- what is still lacking is an architecture profession which gives priority to ecological issues" (p. 5). In other words, there is no connection between the myriad academic approaches and the professional architectural life. Wheeler (2015) asserts that this issue is due to an inadequate definition of sustainable architecture. In the capitalistic, consumerist global environment of the 20th century, the concept of preservation and connectivity to nature was largely overshadowed by corporate demand and higher margins.

Yet the end of the 20th…… [Read More]

References

About SsD. (2016). SsDArchitecture. Retrieved from http://www.ssdarchitecture.com/about/

Botsman, R. (2010). What's Mine is Yours: The Rise of Collaborative Consumption.

NY: HarperCollins.

Bovill, C. (2014). Sustainability in Architecture and Urban Design. NY: Routledge.
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Watershed Protection and Management

Words: 1591 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82234498

Watershed Management

Evaluating Strategies for Watershed Protection and Management

The world's watersheds are among the most valuable resources that we have on planet earth. Human beings cannot survive without water. Therefore, managing our watersheds is an important responsibility. Many tools are available for the management of our nation's watersheds. This research will explore two of these tools and examine cast studies to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of their use.

Land Use Planning

Land use planning is one of the most important tools for land use management. One of the main problems faced by urban planners is uncontrolled growth and urban sprawl, both of which have negative affects on the quality of water available (Kauffman, Brant, & Kitchell). The invasion of the suburbs into natural areas means the continued development of low-density populated areas. As the city begins to spread, it has a number of impacts on the local economy.…… [Read More]

References

Kauffman, G., Brant, T. & Kitchell, A. (n.d.). "The Role of Impervious Cover as a Watershed

Zoning and Land Use Planning Tool in the Christina River Basin of Delaware."

National Center for Smart Growth Research and Education. (NCSGRE)(2005). "Estimating

Residential Development Capacity." University of Maryland.
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Pevsner Book Visual Planning and

Words: 1883 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41587339

An Outline of European Architecture is a standard, general text in the history of Western buildings and is an outstanding example of Pevsner's ability to synthesize the general - the totality of the Western architectural experience - with the specific - an exploration of how specific techniques and materials combine to make each building a unique entity within several larger ordering systems. His work on Modern Design (also in Pioneers of Modern Design) shows his avowed interest for what were then the buildings of the contemporary vanguard. He has been criticized for his once-held view that the generation of ultra-modern architects who thrived during his study - Le Corbusier, the designers at the Bauhaus, etc. - were the logical "end point" to the evolution of architecture...in short that "Modern" architecture was almost the last possible word in building design. The thesis remains fascinating.

Major, individual volumes aside, Pevsner's name will…… [Read More]

References:

Nikolaus Pevsner, ed. Matthew Aitchison. Visual Planning and the Picturesque (Getty Research Institute, 2010)

AAA the Getty Museum Store. Visual Planning and the Picturesque. The J. Paul Getty Trust. Web. 25 March 2011.

Dr Ute Engel, 'The Formation of Pevsner's art history: Nikolaus Pevsner in Germany 1902-33', paper delivered at centenary conference 'Reassessing Nikolaus Pevsner', Birkbeck College, 12-13/7/2002 and subsequently published in ed. P. Draper, Reassessing Nikolaus Pevsner (Ashgate, 2004).

Sir Nikolaus Pevsner Biography - ( 1902 -- 83 ), Pioneers of Modern Design, an Outline of European Architecture, the Buildings of England http://family.jrank.org/pages/3197/Sir-Nikolaus-Pevsner.html#ixzz1Hxl2VVZ3
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Smart Cities

Words: 1305 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74780978

Smart Cities

Summarize the case in one page, in points

Living PlanIT was initiated in May 2008

The Living PlanIT is a company that is founded on the promotion and implementation of sustainable urban environments

The Living PlanIT engaged first in partnerships and alliances with high-profile business like the McLaren Electronic Systems, CISCO, Buro Happold, Aconex and Accenture

The second year of the company saw extended partnering contracts with other platinum and gold partners

The Living PlanIT had no tangible or official headquarters to work out of The Living PlanIT was the follow-up of the DestiNY project -- it replaced the supply chain management model for builders with the process of identifying the suppliers and partners that could help sustain construction activities and the inclusion of modern technologies in the industry

The overall funding and team of the Living PlanIT was limited and small (respectively) initially

The company was given…… [Read More]

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Sori Yanagi an Artist and

Words: 1408 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75218369

Not only do his designs blend well with their settings, they are extremely functional and usable. In addition, his designs strictly adhere to the tenets of marketability and production that are the backbone of industrial design. The Elephant Stool is molded out of one sheet of fiberglass, and stacks for storage, display, and shipping. The Butterfly Stool pieces nest together when they are not assembled, making them easy to store and ship, and there is only one part that must be attached to make the stool functional, the brass rod or stretcher that holds the two pieces together. Many of his other designs use these same elements to combine simplicity with ease of production and marketing.

His other designs include many functional pieces that can be mass-produced, just like his stools. They include teakettles made out of metal and stoneware, dinnerware, flatware, and even office products like Scotch tape dispensers.…… [Read More]

References

http://www.dwr.com/designers/?designer_id=166May 8, 2007. http://www.kettererkunst.com/bio/sori-yanagi-1915.shtml. May 8, 2007. http://www.japon.net/yanagi/indexe.shtml. May 8, 2007. http://www.tortoiselife.com/new/itempage/soriyanagi.html. May 8, 2007. http://www.velocityartanddesign.com/syes.html. May 8, 2007. http://www.kettererkunst.com/bio/sori-yanagi-1915.shtml. May 8, 2007. http://www.tortoiselife.com/new/itempage/soriyanagi.html. May 8, 2007. http://www.dwr.com/designers/?designer_id=166.May 8, 2007. http://www.velocityartanddesign.com/syes.html. May 8, 2007.
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Art Living the Good Life

Words: 2141 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72579741



Colin owe and Fred Koetter argued in Collage City that the designer should intervene in the existing city by adding to and adjusting what is already there, a process more like collage than any other art form. (Barnett, 1996, p. 185)

The city as "collage" is possibly the finest metaphor for the urban world. Nowhere else do so many different people and purposes come together as in the city. No other place cries out so much for art, and is itself, an inspiration to create art. The realization that cities are living entities has initiated a renewed interest in the preservation and development of their respective parts. So much of Modernist Theory favored the abandonment of the past. It was as if we were all residents of some totally new age that bore virtually no relation to any past era. Were we born long ago and teleported to our present…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98904517

Barnett, J. (1996). The Fractured Metropolis: Improving the New City, Restoring the Old City, Reshaping the Region. New York: Westview Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102715365

Evans, G. (2001). Cultural Planning, an Urban Renaissance?. London: Routledge. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000579396

Guillen, M.F. (1997). Scientific Management's Lost Aesthetic: Architecture, Organization, and the Taylorized Beauty of the Mechanical. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42(4), 682+. Retrieved April 24, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100248456
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Today's IT Project Management

Words: 2403 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53572719

Project Management and the Federal Sustainable Energy Initiative

Today's IT Project Management

The Project Management Failings of the Obama Administration's Sustainable Energy Initiative

Dr. Beverly JN Bowen, PhD

As the global economy continues to suffer the devastating consequences of unchecked growth, in the form of a prolonged recession which has decimated the housing market, private enterprises and public policymakers alike have a vested interest achieving a sustainable form of urban development. Seeking a balance between our society's collective desire for environmental responsibility and the grim calculus of continually rising human populations has long been the goal of conscientious city planners, but the role of governmental intervention in this process has inspired considerable debate among politicians, social scientists, and real estate developers. With the administration of President Barack Obama encountering resistance and ridicule after a significant investment in clean and renewable energy, a move many detractors view as a billion dollar…… [Read More]

References

Campbell, S. (1996). Green cities, growing cities, just cities? Urban planning and the contradictions of sustainable development. Journal of the American Planning Association, 62(3), 296-312. Retrieved from http://www.cnr.uidaho.edu/css386/Readings/Campbell_Greencities.pdf

Duerksen, C. (2008). Saving the world through zoning. Planning: the Magazine of the American Planning Association, Retrieved from http://www.law.du.edu/documents/rmlui/saving- the-world-through-zoning.pdf

Ingram, G.K., Carbonell, A., Hong, Y.H., & Flint, A. (2009). Smart growth policies: An evaluation of programs and outcomes. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Retrieved from http://www.lincolninst.edu/pubs/smart-growth-policies.aspx

Schwalbe, K. (2011). Information technology project management. (6th ed.). Boston: Course Technology Ptr.