Utopia by Thomas More
From the set of attributes that Thomas More employs to describe Utopia, the most likely to be the target of significant social critique is that of communal property. Indeed, the issue of property was a major tenant in the development of British law -- and ultimately, in systems of law established in many other lands. Moreover, property ownership has been a key point of departure with regard to the demarcations of economic and political difference in 20th and 21st century. The tension between the social nature of production and the private accumulation of wealth is an enduring and common thread of puzzlement to rational beings, for which no universally satisfactory remedy has been devised.
It is no longer possible to argue that one approach or the other to dealing with issues of property -- say, capitalism or socialism -- produces superior economic results at the macroeconomic…… [Read More]
hile this ensures that there will be no plotting against the state, it also means that dissidents must fear for their lives if they disagree with the dictates of their rulers and desire to talk about it. This is essentially censorship and control of speech coded in the language of open deliberation, and it reveals another problem inherent in Utopian society.
Here, More is not attempting to present an ideal alternative to European society, but rather demonstrate how any society that sits at the extreme end of an ideological spectrum, as Utopia and Europe both did, will have problems which stem from the actions necessary to maintain that social order. In Europe, kings fought seemingly pointless wars in order to maintain their power and legitimacy, and in Utopia, the state executed anybody who talked about it outside the officially recognized channels. In both instances, human life becomes subordinate to the…… [Read More]
Voltaire's "Candide" nowadays is considered to be one of the most famous variants of a Utopia provided by authors that dedicated their works to the creation of a "perfect" society. As every book "Candide" has its plot- line, which goes through the whole book and with the help of which the author manages to show the controversy of the real world with an "ideal" one. The book by itself impresses the reader with the variety of contents and the way certain aspects are criticized by the author. The fact that "Candide" is a book who was given birth during the Renaissance, a period that worshiped beauty, makes it even more attractive for the reader to see all the ideas of this period denied. It is made with a very a fine satire and most of the time we do not see the events from the points-of-view of the characters…… [Read More]
Utopia's origin in the More's and hopes of the individual author's times.
Utopia is the place where all our needs are balanced by abundant resources. Utopia is believed to be a perfect state, a place which has social justice, political peace, and moral harmony in all aspects of life. If such a place did exist, how would it be structured? How would people work and live together in harmony, while at the same time have all their needs met, and live in abundance so that their desires for profit, prosperity, and personal freedom were met? In 1516, Sir Thomas Moore wrote his epic "Utopia." His work was the result of political and social unrest, and the goal of his work seemed to be to unsettle the thinking of the English empire. Long settled in its methods of economy, personal, religious and cultural life, England had grown to be a nation…… [Read More]
In Thomas More's 1516 Utopia, the flaws of European society are revealed in typical Enlightenment style. That is, More champions individual rights and freedoms and disparages state or Church control. More seems particularly concerned with thought control and the prescription of social norms and behaviors. In Utopia, Raphael Hythloday describes a world that is only partly utopic. There is a degree of gender equity, at least compared with European sixteenth-century society. No lawyers are allowed in Utopia, which is certainly an idyllic idea assuming each individual is empowered with knowledge of the law. Such knowledge can, however, be inferred by the fact that "All laws are promulgated for this end, that every man may know his duty; and therefore the plainest and most obvious sense of the words is that which ought to be put upon them," (More 62).
In Utopia there is no private property either. The mistrust…… [Read More]
Many of the advances of science in the area of technology are at est quite fearsome for human eings until they ecome accustomed with these functions and applications. One can only imagine how strange the creation and development of all of this must have een ten, or twenty years ago and even more so in the earlier 1900's as all of this egan to fall into place in the multidisciplinary study setting. What must e understood in attempting to gain comprehension of the dystopian views are that these views alance the utopian views of life in that while there are extremist views of each, that each of these tend to soften or minimize the other and as well provide some cognitive form of what is in etween these two extremes in the real world.
Rheingold, Howard (1999) Tools For Thought - 1999 Chapter Five: Ex-prdiga.DYSTOPIANO THOUGHT - CYBERNETICSHoward Rheingold…… [Read More]
My utopia would be an isolated piece of land, not very accessible from other areas -- such as an island. The island would be situated in a warm temperate area. The geography would be fairly flat without any high mountains. The entire island would be easily accessible by foot. The land would be very rich and fertile, with a variety of agricultural crop's; which would make the island extremely self-sufficient. There would also be a good supply of fresh water. The ecology would be balanced as well. Part of the island would be dedicated to farming and the production of natural and organic foodstuffs. This is a very important aspect as I feel that modern foods have become contaminated at even the lowest ecological level with antibiotics and the biological alternation of crops.
The island will however not be primitive in any sense. It will have a large underground…… [Read More]
Utopia -- The perfect community. Everyone is happy, every citizen has a role and fulfills his or her duty and responsibilities in a caring and complete manner. The community is established to take advantage of every citizen's unique characteristics and God-given talents. It is a community of order and grace, with free will in choosing one's future and path in life as long as it does not conflict with the overall scheme of the community. The community's harmony is always placed above the individual's right to choose.
In Utopia, each individual is subject to constant and consistent testing to help the individual in choosing a pathway that will ensure his or her happiness, while at the same time maximizing the contribution made by that individual to the community. A specific role is determined at the appropriate time for each citizen based on specific talents and characteristics. The role can be…… [Read More]
Utopia is concomitantly possible and impossible: it is all up to people to get actively involved in making such a scenario possible. Individuals can actually create such an environment as long as they are willing to act in accordance with legislations promoted by More when writing Utopia. The fact that the utopian society has strict rules meant to control people's behavior by preventing them from putting across immoral behavior plays an essential role in linking this society with a modern day society in a developed country. People there are well-acquainted with the fact that it is in their best interest to put across socially acceptable behavior. Also, they know that others will always be penalized it they perform illegal behavior and that the chances of them doing that thus fall dramatically.
More wanted to provide people with an idea that is perfectly normal, as it is not actually impossible for…… [Read More]
The reader can sense the emotionally numb manner in which she describes the presence of the much younger co-wife for whom Ramatoulaye's husband had abandoned her for. Ba brings the reader into the heart of Ramatoulaye to experience what she is feeling. Hurt at losing her husband, being forced to look in the face of his co-wife, and literally losing everything she had worked for to her husband's family. Her aloneness and dismay was evident as she reached out to her friend, Aissaotou. In the midst of it all, she found friendship and her Higher Power as her sources of strength.
In her utopia, friendship and her Higher Power would remain her sources of strength. Still, if Ramatoulaye had experienced the death of her husband in her utopia, she would be the only wife. She would have the ability to make a choice whether to divorce a husband who had…… [Read More]
F. "A.F" stands for the absolute god of this new world, Ford, an obvious allusion to Henry Ford one of the greatest and most successful manufacturers in history. The main slogan of this world is however different from that of Nineteen Eighty-Four: "Community, Identity, Stability."(Huxley, 1) the "brave new world" is not based on terror as Orwell's world was, but on conditioning and effective suggestions. Thus, the main difference is that in Orwell's world everything is done by psychological determination, whereas here the world is controlled by "New Pavlovian Conditioning." The population is here literally controlled since birth through scientific means: the human embryos are hatched in laboratories and afterwards separated in five strict classes: Alphas, Betas, Gammas, Deltas and Epsilons. Then hypnopaedia (repeated messages played during sleep) and negative stimuli (electric shock) are applied so that the individual development is thoroughly controlled. The main aim here is to abolish…… [Read More]
Lastly, the abolition and non-subsistence to the principles of capitalism leads to the reinforcement of a communal society. This also eliminates the emergence of class conflict as a result of the inherent class division that develops from capitalism.
The moral philosophy of the Utopians is primarily based on intellectual development and achievement of reason or rationalization. For them, virtue is the achievement of the common good through the equal provision of the "foods of the mind." For the author, virtue is achieved when there is human happiness, and happiness is generated through acquired knowledge and skills in life. Thus, the provision of basic education services is imperative among Utopians in order to inculcate in the minds of the children the greater meaning of virtue and feelings or emotions among human beings. Thus, virtue and happiness is only achieved when the individual is able to discover his/her true self and able…… [Read More]
Thomas More's Utopia
Thomas More's "Utopia"
Thomas More's Utopia and eligious Toleration
More than an account of a fictional society, Thomas More's Utopia is a criticism of early enaissance European society. On the island of "Utopia" people live together in peace and harmony, experience freedom and prosperity, and worship any religious tradition they see fit. Thomas More used the book to criticize the political, economic, legal, and religious aspects of European society in the 16th century. At that time Europe was still deeply entrenched in the medieval traditions which had guided European society for centuries. However, changes in the nature of European society had brought about a cry for reform, especially in the area of religion which had dominated European society. The Catholic Church started to be seen as corrupt and tyrannical and no longer serving the religious needs of the European people. As part of this call for reform,…… [Read More]
An Analysis of the Lottery and the Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas
George Orwell once wrote that, "Whoever tries to imagine perfection simply reveals his own emptiness." In Shirley Jackson's The Lottery and Ursula K. Le Guin's The Ones Who Walks Away from Omelas, the truth of this maxim is made manifest through gripping tales of what price a utopian society is worth in human suffering. Both authors create ideal societies where inhabitants are materially satisfied and happy, yet underpinning this comfortable lifestyle is a horrible fact which harkens back to the primitive and violent nature of humanity. This shared moral framework in the book forces the reader to question what decision they would come to in order to live in a utopia as well as what choices they are making to live in their own society. The stories do have significant differences. The decision of some individuals…… [Read More]
American thinkers like Ralph aldo Emerson and John inthrop developed cogent visions of their new nation, promulgating utopian ideals and encouraging their readers to actively create an idealized society. As Peyser puts it, both Emerson and inthrop were "deeply suffused with a sense of America's missionary destiny, of the new nation's emancipatory message to the rest of the world," (13). However, inthrop and Emerson held two divergent visions of what a utopian society would look like and how to go about manufacturing grand social, political, and spiritual change. inthrop, an American colonial leader and Puritan in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, cultivated an unabashedly Christian vision of a utopian society. Although Emerson was himself "the product of nearly two centuries of New England Puritanism," and was likewise deeply religious, his utopian vision was less specifically Christian than inthrop's (Nicoll 334). More importantly, Emerson advocated for the type of self-reliance that the…… [Read More]
The town should have a variety of residential types, including apartments, attached condos, villa houses and freestanding houses. Market research should determine what kinds of residences are built so each individual and family can find the type of housing they prefer.
Office buildings should not have their architecture restricted except that construction of very tall buildings, say, over 10 stories, would be restricted to the town's center. On the edge of the town, buildings should be restricted to three stories so people can actually see the rustic, unspoiled perimeter around the town. Small shopping areas should be scattered throughout the town as that will support the ecology by not requiring extensive driving to acquire life's needs. There could also be one large shopping center. They do fulfill a need or there would not be so many of them.
A picture a large town in a suburban area with nearby rural…… [Read More]
Thomas More's Utopia as a Criticism of 16th Century England
There are several notions put in utopia by Thomas More. There is the religious aspect, power sharing and the evils of the private property contrasts in the contemporary England in the 16th century. The Utopian creation by More is a satirical mirroring of the society as well as his own life. His audiences attracted despite their opposition of the idea of communalism as compared to private ownership of property. In regard to this point More maintains that, 'for when an insatiable wretch, who is a plague to his country, resolves to enclose many thousand acres of ground, the owners as well as tenants are turned out of their possessions, by tricks, or by main force' (More). The communal agricultural activities in Utopia satirized the reality of the 16th century England. He puts so much focus in Utopian notions like religious…… [Read More]
And so the ache for meaning goes unrelieved." Utopia as a philosophy is also reflected in McMillian's discussion of the nature of this concept in the post-modern society or the society that is information technology-oriented. He asserted that "...utopia doesn't always have to be a particular type of society; it can also be a process, a liberated way of thinking, an exercise in collective self-definition," an argument that presents More's revolutionary concept as a flexible and abstract, rather than concrete, idea.
In effect, More's "Utopia" is considered as beneficial to society in all its nature and aspects and can be applied throughout society's path to development and progress. Where in the previous centuries Utopia is a concrete idea, this concept took on a different form. It had gradually metamorphosed to being a new kind of philosophy that gave hope for humanity that they can attain perfection, and it is only…… [Read More]
The literary methods that More employs are analogous to those utilized by Galileo Galilei just over a half century later.
Galileo also approached a delicate subject with regard to the Church in a hypothetical and fictitious manner. He had uncovered valid and relatively conclusive evidence that the earth revolved around the sun. Yet, this discovery was a direct contradiction of preexisting clerical interpretations of the scriptures. Even though Galileo was eventually arrested by the Spanish Inquisition for his Dialogue and found guilty of "vehement suspicion of heresy," this was less a consequence of the concepts he presented, than a result of his theoretical mechanism's failure. The full force of Galileo's argument was bestowed upon his best developed character, while the position of the Church was backed by a weak and simple-minded literary creation. More, however, does not make this same mistake. The fact that he gives the proponent of European…… [Read More]
Lafayette educators have combined the educational philosophies of 20th century intellectuals such as Albert Einstein, Bertrand Russell, and 20th century educators such as Howard Gardner with lessons learned from the former Soviet Union and the Eastern Block.
Specifically, Einstein and Russell (and others) often criticized the modern educational system, characterizing it as overly focused on rote memorization, uniformity of subject matter and methods, and the competitive motivation most often used to inspire superior performance. In Eastern Europe, schoolchildren were evaluated for their particular athletic abilities very early so that those with the greatest athletic potential could begin training in their optimal athletic capacity as early as possible.
In Lafayette, children are tested and evaluated continuously for their relative academic strengths; but unlike previous approaches to education, in Lafayette, those evaluations also incorporate the child's interest and preferences. Mandatory subjects consist of only those absolutely necessary to ensure normal social functions…… [Read More]
WOMEN AND FEMINISM IN SIR THOMAS MORE'S TOPIA
First published in 1516, Sir Thomas More's topia is considered as one of the most influential works of Western humanism. Through the first-person narrative of Raphael Hythloday, More's mysterious traveler, topia is described as a pagan communist city-state or polis governed by intellect and rationality. By addressing such issues as religious pluralism, women's rights, state-sponsored education, colonialism and justified warfare, the main protagonist seems to be a very recognizable character to many contemporary readers even after more than five centuries while topia itself remains a foundational text in human philosophy and political ideology through the world.
In his description of the religious practices held within More's perfectly structured topia, Raphael Hythloday informs the reader that "Women are not debarred from the priesthood, but only a widow of advanced years is ever chosen, and it doesn't happen often" (topia 78). Examples of this…… [Read More]
In Ray Bradbury's short story "August 2026: There ill Come Soft Rains," a mechanical house continues operation even though there is no one left alive for it to provide services for. In the world of the Utopia, the perfect society would ensure that such a house was erected for the purpose of pleasing the humans residing inside of it. The concept of Utopia is a society in which everything is ideal and nothing negative is allowed to exist. Dystopia is the complete opposite, a world in which nothing is good or happy. Everything is desolate and full of despair. Ray Bradbury's story is an example of the latter.
At seven o'clock, the house comes to life although no other life will come. It makes breakfast and tries to awaken humans who have been long dead from a presumed nuclear war. This is indicated by the following passage: "The…… [Read More]
The Peripheral Narrator
The narrator of the novel Utopia (Moore) is, in fact, its author. Ever since the real New World's discovery by explorers, Christopher Columbus and many others like him started penning first-person narratives of the new landscapes they stumbled upon. Thomas More was simply emulating such narratives to give an authentic feel to his work. Readers feel they're reading a real, authentic tale:
"It would take too long to repeat all that Raphael told us he had observed in various places; nor would it altogether serve our present purpose. Perhaps on another occasion we shall tell more about the things that are most profitable" (Moore, 1516, p. 13)
In the aforementioned paragraph, the author (as narrator) attempts to give an impression of really being present when the events transpired and of being bound by memory- and time- related limitations. Such narration in the first-person lures and captivates readers,…… [Read More]
In this paper, he discusses the role of culturel in relation to the present age of "barbarism." He makes the important statement that in the age that has produces barbaric events such as Auschwitz, cultural activities such as the writing of poetry are no longer possible. By this he implies that the age that produces barbaric events can no longer act as if their cultural products or creations are exempt from the responsibility for these events. Therefore, to assume that one can continue to write poetry and engage in other cultural activities is "impossible."
If we unpack these views, we find that what Adorno is referring to is the underling way of thought or the submerged ideologies that are not "visible" but which tend to shape, motivate and determine the cultural output. In other words, Adorno in this article draws our attention to the underlying "forces" that exist in Western…… [Read More]
While the perspectives of each of the artists on the revolutionary nature of art is interesting, it does little to convince us that art can play a central role in effecting social change. As idealists, both Lissitzky and Rodchenko fell under the sway of Stalin and would serve as propagandists for this ruthless leader in a period that was rather unfortunate in the careers of both artists. While Margolin does his best to read their works from this period in a fair light, what we know today about Stalin does overshadow such readings of this work. In this respect, one's knowledge of politics can indeed interfere with one's interpretation of a work of art - and have detrimental effects.
Of course, reading works of art in terms of a group of artists' political views and aspirations towards social change can be a vital tool in interpreting works that might otherwise…… [Read More]
Bishop, Members of the Diocese of Utopia, Ladies and Gentlemen!
It's an honor and privilege to me having the opportunity to speak before this distinguished audience. It's an extreme privilege to have you, Dear Bishop, as a private person attending this event. I think that all of us in this room extremely appreciate this! I am here to speak to you not only as a female candidate for the office of the President of the United States, but also as a private person, e.g., a Roman Catholic, a wife and a mother of three children. When I prepared this speech, I asked myself, what is it that might get your attention not only during this short meeting but might also support my candidature for the U.S. presidency during the upcoming elections? Is it my broad view of foreign or domestic politics, my plan of how to help this country recover…… [Read More]
Utopia as outlined and defined in Plato's epublic. The writer examines the epublic's description of a perfect state and then applies its elements to the trial and execution of Socrates. The question becomes "Would Socrates have been tried and executed if Plato's perfect utopia state had been in place at the time?" This paper explains why Socrates would have been spared and respected had that been the case. There was one source used to complete this paper.
Before one can answer the question, "If the utopia outlined in Plato's The epublic had been in place in 399 B.C., would Socrates have been tried and executed?" one must have a clear understanding of the perfect state as described in Plato's books.
Plato's epublic works to provide society with a blueprint for a perfect and successful society. While many of its elements seem to be inconsistent with reality and daily life the…… [Read More]
Like Plato, More retains the belief in One God in his concept of the perfect society by injecting the foundation of Neoplatonism and blending it with a rather festive or carnival-like quality (Marius 1995 as qtd in SparkNotes 2010). Utopians enjoy the good life at the expense of firmly rooted institutions and established order in society. People turn their freedom around and upside down. Ranks, norms, prohibitions, private property and morals are suspended. Critics see the Utopian society as opposing what has been made complete and immortal for ages (SparkNotes).
oth Plato and Thomas More, in their respective works, aim at the perfect or ideal society but in different perspectives under the 5 sub-themes. Plato builds his society on justice and harmony in a way that balances the internal and the external conditions of a person. He assumes that true justice already exists in every man and that every…… [Read More]
My Utopia Job: CFO
Being a Chief Financial Officer (CFO) for a major Fortune 500 company would be my dream job. Capitalizing on a core base of competencies in accounting, cash flow management, and risk management, the CFO sits in the C-suite with a greater sense of purpose and a role that is instrumental in guiding the organization’s strategies (“Chief financial officer (CFO) job description,” 2017). An understanding of management concepts, theories, and principles will help me achieve this goal to help me manifest a utopic career. For example, systems theory shows how the CFO fits into the overall organization and its interdependent, multilateral nature. Likewise, the CFO must have mastered the main management concepts like those we have studied in this class including control and coordination. The CFO is role that balances strategy, tactics, vision, ethics, and communication. To be a successful CFO, one must also master essential conceptual,…… [Read More]
Backward and We: A Comparison
When writers think about the future it's often in dichotomous terms. Writers generally see the future in shades of black and white, with very little deviation between the two. This is particularly the case in the novels Looking Backward by Edward Bellamy and We by Yevgeny Zamyatin. The former is an optimistic tale about a socialist utopia which essentially describes a future full of improvements. The latter describes a futuristic dystopia where humans lack autonomy and privacy. In spite of these incredibly different descriptions and notions about the future, there's still a significant amount of overlap between these two novels. Exploring the different shades of each can provide a deeper understanding of each respective author's inner fears and wishes. As different as these two novels appear to be, they are both actually stories about societies which have made the ultimate (and wrong) sacrifice: they've given…… [Read More]
Thomas More's Gentle Tour Guide Raphael Hythloday of Utopia and Erasmus's scathing use of the teacher of rhetoric Folly in the Praise of Folly
Thomas More's Raphael Hythloday in More's Utopia functions as an ideal character for the reader to aspire to. Raphael is a tour guide of a better, albeit fictional place the author has envisioned. In contrast, Erasmus uses Folly as a satirical and one-dimensional teacher of irony and rhetoric to teach the reader about the real, rather than the ideal world. The reader's encounter with Folly is used to show the reader catalogues of individuals, against whose follies the reader may measure his or her own. Thus although both Thomas More and Erasmus make use of fictional characters to illustrate their philosophical works, Thomas More uses Raphael Hythloday to speak to the reader as a kind of unknowing tour guide, a man unwise to the evils of…… [Read More]
Science Fiction Stories -- Comparisons / Contrasts
all-E & Blade Runner -- Utopia vs. Dystopia
The two well-known science fiction films that are critiqued in this paper -- all-E and Blade Runner -- will be critiqued and contrasted as to the following dichotomies: utopia and dystopia; technophobia and technophilia; and futurity and nostalgia. Thesis: these films both delve into the potentially disastrous environmental future for the planet, and each in its own way provides an alternative future.
all-E and Utopia: This ravaged planet is no utopia in the traditional sense, for sure, but all-E has evolved over the past 700 years; some kind of mutation perhaps is what has allowed him to survive in a highly radioactive environment. To survive alone with the exception of a cockroach (which is one of the few species that can survive horrendous polluting events like radiation) is proof of his survivability. After all, utopia…… [Read More]
Globalization in the economic sense - economic, social and technological process that advocates a constant interdependence at a global level, supporting trade liberalization.
International Monetary Fund (IMF) - an international financial organization that monitors the global financial flows and that offers financial assistance to Third World countries.
African Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC) - cultural festival that promotes and sustains the revival of the lack cultural values and civilization.
1945 - the end of the Second World War and the beginning of the contemporary period. It is also equivalent with the start of the decolonization period, with Indonesia one of the first countries to make this step.
Poverty - lack of the material capacity to finance the basic needs of an individual or a society.
A unfreedom" ref. Sen - according to Sen, these would include, besides lack of political freedom or freedom of the press, forms of unfreedom…… [Read More]
Discussion on Perspectives of Violence Based on Three Readings
Violence and tragedy are a fact of life that the human condition has yet to rid itself off. Misfortune can come from many sources. It can come from within a person, from within a family, or from within a community. It is the way people explain and come to terms with such events that define the life that persists afterwards. In the three stories selected, violence is portrayed in each. However, the source of the violence is attributed to different causes. It is a natural human response to try to make sense of tragic events and people do this in different ways. In this analysis, three stories will be used to compare and contrast how some individuals cope, or fail to cope, with violence or misfortune. Each story provides a different perspective on this issue.
Flannery O'Conner was…… [Read More]
Further, warfare and poverty have all but been eliminated. But in order to have happiness, the people are dependent on government produced stimulation, including Soma and promiscuous sex. The reason for this is because this society lacks the staples of human identity and individuality, such as family, culture, art, literature, science, religion and philosophy.
n this sense, Huxley's utopia is an ironic, or false utopia as without individuality and happiness, society is not really a utopia. Thus, Socrates would agree with Huxley's underlying philosophy that true happiness is only possible through an expression of individuality. Without individuality, society is in fact a distopia.
This is a sentiment that Thoreau would agree with as the premise of his Walden Pond was to create a personal utopia through an expression of complete individuality. Thoreau's premise was that by depending on pure individuality one would experience true happiness. n order to accomplish this,…… [Read More]
Utopian Images of the Natural State
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner's "Bathers Beneath Trees" and Franz Marc's "Bathing Girls." are paintings of the same subject; three women in nature getting ready to bathe and, or, swim. Both are utopian visions of what each artist felt was ideal. The utopian representation of both artists is seen in the use of an idealistic notion of freedom and a personal response to nature. Freedom is seen in the comfortable presence of the nudes and the use of color in nature reflects the artists' perception of utopian existence.
Bathers Beneath Trees is replete with the colors of the island paradise Kirchner thought of as his utopian vision. The tall trees reach to the top of the painting and are done in dark greens with the tree trunks allowed to come forward with the color yellow against a blue and green skyscape. The only blue in…… [Read More]
Walden Two: Human Nature and Society
The bourgeoisie naturally conceives the world in which it is supreme to be the best.
People throughout history, since the beginning of time began, have been expressing dissatisfaction with the way the world is and trying to find ways to make it better. Along the way various fictional societies called "Utopias," after the book of the same name written by Thomas More in 1515 and 1516, were created in an image of perfectionism. These utopian communities, all somewhat different in many ways and often ultimately oppositional in form and function, nevertheless had one thing in common. Each one boasted proudly that it alone was worthy of the ultimate claim: a foundation of consummate judicial and moral principles with the ultimate result of effortless happiness and true freedom for all its people.
.F. Skinner admits that when he wrote Walden Two in 1945…… [Read More]
Whatever happened you vanished, and neither you nor your actions were ever heard of again" (Orwell, 1949, p.168).
Principles of mass production are very clear in the novels. Huxley for instance, applied the idea of mass production in human reproduction, since the people has abandoned the natural method of reproduction. Mass production as the conventional feature of capitalism and Huxley's novel reinforces such. He talked about the requirement of the World State about constant consumption, which is considered as foundation of its stability. Huxley apparently criticizes the commercial dependence of the world towards goods. Conditioning centers teaches people to consume. Orwell similarly provides criticism to capitalism as well: "The centuries of capitalism were held to have produced nothing of any value." The Proles are the symbols of the capitalist system as they constitute the working class who work in assembly lines.
Destruction of the concept of family
oth novels…… [Read More]
What is the difference between a modern utopia and dystopia in fictional writing? Perhaps that is the very theme of A.E. Vogt's The Weapon Shop. What is ideal to one might be a terrifying and reversal of ideal for another. In The Weapon Shop, originally published during the early years of World War II, focuses on a small businessman (Fara) who faces what is to him, a dystopian reality in that despite his complete devotion to the Empress of the Solar System, he faces a number of personal and professional troubles. In fact, he is livid when a weapon's shop that sells advanced and fantastic technology, but uncontrolled by his "government" materializes. He fails in his efforts to have the shop removed from the town, continues his downward slide, and is even personally humiliated when his son helps the other townspeople scam him.
At his wit's end, with…… [Read More]
Kant and Rousseau
Reducing Conflicts Between States
The Theories of the Great Philosophers Rousseau and Kant
The great philosophers of the 18th century were the first of their kind to fully encapsulate what it meant to be an ethnocentric state, rather than a simple nation or territory, and also were the first philosophers able to address the question of war between states as not merely individual struggles for dominance, but rather persistent frictions present in the system of states themselves. The formal idea of statehood came of age in the Peace of estphalia in 1648, which ended the Thirty Year's ar, and affirmed the domination of the central government of each state as the supreme power of the land, rather than any religious or social power. At this time, every state was essentially a dictatorship, and the world was divided into fiefdoms. The peace reached at estphalia created the conditions…… [Read More]
As Hampton (1997) points out, "By using this argument, awls hopes to persuade readers that he has good reasons for commending his theory as correct, without relying on undefended or ill-defined intuitions" (p. 140).
But is his theory really "correct?" Is it even conceivable to apply awls' principles of egalitarianism to a society in which competition is rampant and 'status' is the permanent engraving on the proverbial brass ring? Moreover, in this increasingly globally connected world, could awls' theory of justice be conceivably functional on an international level? Taking into consideration the idealistic nature of awls' suppositions, combined with the complex list of criteria that would need to be fulfilled in order for his vision to take shape, I would have deny the applicability of awls' philosophies to the 21st century. It is possible that his principles may have worked in the small villages of Colonial New England where communities…… [Read More]
However, given that the problem of overcrowding is pervasive in the prison system in general, and not simply at these specific junctures of the judicial process, the choice between a low-use jail and a high-use jail would seem to be the real question. More and more prisoners who might once be shipped to the state penitentiary are now being confined to jails for more extended periods of time than ever before. Thus, to accommodate this problem, a high-use jail that has many of the monitoring and rehabilitative capacities of a prison system would be more useful to the community.
The purpose and function of a high-use jail low-use jail is designed for shorter-term inmates, while a high-use jail is designed to accommodate not simply more inmates, but a wider variety of inmates for longer durations of time. It has the ability to deal with more violent offenders, but also has…… [Read More]
Vogt, Ellison and Arendt
The idea of a utopian society, a perfect Eden, has been a recurring theme in human literature, philosophy, religion, and commentary almost from the beginning of civilization. This recurrent theme is no accident: most cultures have, as a basis for their creation mythos, a utopian view of either the pre-human world or the post-human world. Sociological, this is a functionalist approach that serves to "validate, support, and imprint the norms of a give, specific moral order" and to authorize its moral code "as a construct beyond criticism and human emendation" (Campbell and Fairchild 221).
In opposition, a dystopia, becomes part of the anti-heroic paradigm in that all the benefits of an overall utopian society are almost backwards. hat was good, now seems evil, what was light, dark. Political philosopher Hannah Arendt, in Ideology and Terror: A New Form of Government, sees one of the maxims of…… [Read More]
Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Canterbury Tales. Trans. Neville Coghill. New York: Penguin Books, 1977.… [Read More]
He who would attack that state from the outside must have the utmost caution; as long as the prince resides there it can only be wrested from him with the greatest difficulty. (Chapter III)
So, then one must be present and able to seek ambitious gains and if he is not both these things difficulty and likely failure will arise and greater losses that what is gained can be realized. In this goal the Prince appropriately governs the people and thus a civil society is created.
Within Thomas Hobbes, there is a sense of knowing that defines the nature of man, as one that is comprised of five senses and all beyond that must be learned and improved upon by appropriate seeking of knowledge. (Leviathan, Chapters I-XVI) His discussion of state is the determination of a civil society, designed and created to determine the end of warfare and therefore instability…… [Read More]
Tyack and Cuban with Dewey on Social Change
David Tyack and Larry Cuban do share similar views to John Dewey about the nature of the traditional education system in the United States as well as its origins. Public education as it exists today is a product of the 19th Century industrialization and urbanization process, which created schools that resembled factories, timetables and schedules, and teachers who acted like bosses on a factory floor. Dewey of course abhorred this system and criticized it unmercifully for decades, both in the way it was structured and the type of information it imparted to students. In the history of American education, there has never been a more vocal, prominent and outspoken critic of the traditional system than Dewey, and none has been the subject of greater wrath from conservatives and traditionalists, even decades after his death. Tyack and Cuban are well aware of the…… [Read More]
Machiavelli, Thomas More, Thomas Hobbes
Under what circumstances is it just (or right, or ethical) to go to war? Why? Compare and contrast how Machiavelli, Thomas More, and Thomas Hobbes might answer this question.
Because of the rather negative perception of Niccolo Machiavelli's theories of political survival and expediency at all costs, one might be tempted to assume that the Italian political theorist believed that the ideal leader, The Prince, should go to war at any opportunity to demonstrate his strength as a leader. However, Machiavelli was not nearly so bloodthirsty or foolish. In fact, Machiavelli believed in self-promotion and the promotion of the existence of the Prince's political future and the state at all costs. War occasionally might serve as a means to this end but only should be undertaken in extreme circumstances. For instance, in discussing a specific political situation that plagued Italy at the time, he noted,…… [Read More]
Women Science Fiction Writers as Probing Pathfinders
Author Marge Piercy's Woman on the Edge of Time was written in 1976, and it has received critical acclaim for the science fiction future it depicts, but it was likely given literary wings by a bizarre science fiction tale written in 1818, according to a scholarly essay in Critique: Studies in contemporary Fiction (Seabury, 2001). The science fiction tale Seabury alludes to is in fact "often called the first work of science fiction," and that is the classic story of Frankenstein.
Additionally, Seabury uses a quote to tip the cap to Frankenstein's author, Mary Shelley, who, in penning Frankenstein, has written "perhaps the single most influential work of science fiction by a woman." And so, in the genre of feminist science fiction, even though Frankenstein is quite the opposite of feminine, to say the least, the author was clearly a pathfinder of tremendous…… [Read More]
extend the lines, if necessary, without being wordy.
Three specific instances of irony in "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been" are:
a) ____The title: no one ever asks Connie these questions.
b) ____Connie is the one preyed upon in this tale, but she invites in this demonic provocation.
c) Arnold Friend's remark about holding her so tight she won't try to get away because it will be impossible, is an ironic remark as it represents much of the symbolism at work throughout the story.
In "Young Goodman Brown," a) Brown represents ____The easily corruptible human.
b) the forest represents ____The practice of evil.
c) the peeling, cacophonous sounds represent ____Temptation
3. Explain the mother's attitude towards Emily in "I Stand Here Ironing"; what specific EVIDENCE supports your position? ____The mother's attitude towards Emily in the story is one of distance, rather than motherly attention. She regards Emily as…… [Read More]
Oddly enough, this passage paints a brighter picture of Nietzsche than popular thought attributes to him. Nietzsche here presents a direct path -- unlike Rousseau -- out of the swamps of nothingness: the path is not necessarily religion, nor is it secularism. Rather, it is a lack of contradiction.
Nietzsche urges each man to evaluate just what he believes and desires and understand for himself whether he wishes to credit God or himself. In other words, Nietzsche calls upon man to answer the age old question: fate or control?
If mankind avoids contradiction here, he is able to pick himself up by the bootstraps and re-instill into his life some of the soul and passion that Rousseau bleakly believes is missing.
In fact, Nietzsche had a great argument with Rousseau's thinking: this hostility derives from Nietzsche's conviction that the autonomous subject of Enlightened political discourse is hopelessly inadequate. Nietzsche…… [Read More]
They investigate on the nature of virtue and pleasure but they concentrate on the happiness of man and what it is made up of. They uphold that man's happiness consists mainly in the good type of pleasure. They derive arguments from religious principles, despite its roughness and strictness. Without these principles, all searches on happiness can only be merely conjectural and defective (Philosophy asics).
The need for a real-life utopia is more felt today than before. It is a basic ingredient in the fulfillment of human potential in the contemporary environment (Ainsa 1991).
Contemporary historical, political and philosophical views still retain some Utopian dimension or strain. Utopianism may have discredited for some flaws in the past, but it remains indispensable as an alternative model for mapping out the future. An ideal society is always an attempt to invent the future. Utopia differs from ideology in that utopia represents hope in…… [Read More]
The book even goes beyond this assertion because in Oceania Big Brother even controlled the thoughts of the people. This made it impossible for people to rebel because rebellion cannot be carried out without ideas and the cooperation of many people.
The novel also focuses the reader to consider the power of their thoughts. In the book a government believed that though was so powerful that it created a system in which free though was discourages and even punishable unto death. Big Brother understands that thoughts lead to action and rebellious actions could threaten the authority of the government. In addition, punishing people for thinking the wrong way was designed to deter others from having thoughts that were not sanctioned by the government. This was a fear tactic used to maintain control.
Interestingly enough Orwell had great difficulty publishing many of his novels because of the thoughts that he expresses.…… [Read More]
His most famous work is his Utopia, a book in which he created his version of a perfect society and gave his name to such conceptions ever after as "utopias." The word is of Greek origin, a play on the Greek word eutopos, meaning "good place." In the book, More describes a pagan and communist city-state in which the institutions and policies are governed entirely by reason. The order and dignity of the state in this book contrasted sharply with the reality of statecraft in Christian Europe at the time, a region divided by self-interest and greed for power and riches. The book was also an expression of More's form of Humanism (Maynard 41). The term can also have broader application as a reference to any plans of government or schemes for social improvement which present the possibilities of a good society.
The society depicted in Never Let Me Go…… [Read More]
The Donations of Constantine were in fact a fraud - a fact that could only have been revealed through the subjecting of the "original" document to unbiased evaluation. Yet Leonardo Bruni, much more than Valla, deserves the credit for shaping the modern idea of history. Advancing on the style and technique of such Classical authors as Herodotus and Thucydides, Bruni developed a more modern, and scientific approach to the subject. Though not all of his writings can be taken as shining exemplars of the new commitment to accuracy and truth, Bruni at his best, charted new territory for historical scholarship.
Bruni's monumental Historiarum Florentini Populi Libri XII (hereafter Historiae) is often singled out as an exemplary work, one that set the whole enterprise of history writing on a new plane.... Bruni destroys the legends surrounding the founding and early history of Florence, and then recasts the story on the basis…… [Read More]
Essentially, the power was held by the individual, and the individual was lacking of all incentives to make his understanding more universal.
Bacon sees this as a major obstacle to widespread progress and sees development of easily understandable tables, graphs, and illustrations necessary to the proper sharing of scientific knowledge. He writes:
But natural and experimental history is so varied and diffuse, that it confounds and distracts the understanding unless it be fixed and exhibited in due order. e must, therefore, form tables and co-ordinations of instances, upon such a plan, an in such order, that the understanding may be enabled to act upon them." (Bacon 140).
Bacon is one of the first scientist/philosophers to suggest that those in possession of specialized knowledge must find a way to translate their discoveries to others in some understandable way. This notion is reflected in "The New Atlantis" by his specific mentioning of…… [Read More]
" The people are prevented from doing anything to try and make the child's life better, and they all follow the rules.
As readers, it is easy for us to say that the trade-off is not worth it, that the citizens of Omelas should rebel against the rules and save the child, but the moral question Le Guin presents is complicated. How do we weigh the needs of the many against the needs of the one? The entire population of the city of Omelas gets to live happy, carefree, healthy lives without violence or war, and the only price to pay is the suffering of one person. The price is horrific, all the more so because the boy is merely ten years old, but sometimes a horrific price must be paid. How many of us in the prosperous first world are able to enjoy our luxuries because there are people…… [Read More]
Starting from 19th century psychology, school of thought of behaviorist shared commonalities and as well ran concurrently with the 20th century psychology of psychoanalytic and Gestalt movements, however it was different from Gestalt psychologists' mental philosophy in significant ways. Psychologists who had major influences in it were Edward Lee Thorndike, John B. atson, they opposed method of introspective and advocated to use of experimental methods: Ivan Pavlov, investigated classical conditioning, but he was not to the idea of behaviorists or behaviorism: B.F. Skinner, he did his research on operant conditioning.
During second half of the 20th century, it was widely eclipsed that behaviorism was due to cognitive revolution. Even though behaviorism as well as cognitive schools of psychological thought tends to disagree in terms of theory, they have gone a head to compliment one another within applications of practical therapeutic, for example, cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown utility in treating some…… [Read More]
economy is in a state of recovery from the great recession. One of the key implications of this economic recovery for urban planning encompasses the decline in unemployment rate. Between 2010 and 2016, the unemployment rate has significantly declined from about 10% to the prevailing rate of 4.9% (Bureau of Labor Statistics). However, it is imperative to note that a great deal of employment opportunities are in major cities such as California, ashington, Florida, Texas and Pennsylvania. Fifty percent of new business establishments across the nation evolved in only 20 major urban counties (Florida). This implies that such urban places are bound to experience an increase in population from skilled workers. In turn, this will cripple the other areas. Considering this, there are also implications for economic policy, governmental budgets and local and state governments. In particular, the local and state governments should apportion and channel government budgets to the…… [Read More]
As its title indicates, “The Invention of Peanut Butter” by British author of speculative fiction Matt Haig is intended to be read as a fable, or myth of origins. Despite the fact that peanut butter may seem to be a very prosaic, modern food, the reader is immediately transported into a world which is a kind of primitive utopia. Villagers merely survive on pineapple and peanuts. Everyone lives in a state of collective harmony. To further give a primitive and mythic tone to the utopia of the first few paragraphs, Haig elects not to name the inhabitants of the village. This communicates their sense of solidarity to one another as well. The fact that people do not make food at all gives a kind of communal quality to the environment that is enviable and idyllic, even though the reader presumably is glad that he or she has greater variety in…… [Read More]
Rawls sets out to propose a new theory, which he does by formulating two principles and "to show that the two principles of justice provide a better understanding of the claims of freedom and equality in a democratic society than the first principles associated with the traditional doctrines of utilitarianism, with perfectionism, or with institutionalism" (Rawls, Political Liberalism 292).
Nozick suggests an entitlement theory of justice that might seem to reflect the categorical imperative but which actually counters Kant's theory of property. John Rawls offered a revision of Kantian theory so it could be used as a grounding in ethical theory. Nozick also shows a strong commitment to prepolitical individual rights. He also recognizes that there are forces, including past injustices, which shape our holdings in society in various ways, raising the question of what ought to be done to rectify these injustices:
The general outlines of the theory of…… [Read More]