Its Scripture-based tradition holds that a man cannot serve God and wealth at the same time. It strikes a fair balance between present abundance and need. All nationalities and origins become one in Christ Jesus. All believers would sell their possessions and goods for distribution to all according to need (Wienk).
On Socialist Political Parties
These parties struggle to maintain the socialist ideal and apply it in national life (Wienk 2011). Most of them are democratic, multi-tendency organizations with visible structures and accessible practices. They are thus consistent with the objectives and ideal of Christian socialism. Many of their members call themselves Christians. An example is the Socialist Party USA, which aims at establishing democracy that endeavors to place people's lives under their own control. Taking this vein, that democracy is where people can own and control the means of production and distribution through a democratically controlled system. It provides…… [Read More]
" In other words to understand any writer's utopian vision, one must compare and contrast that particular vision to what utopian authors in the classic traditions have already put forward.
DEFINITIONS of UTOPIA: J.H. "JACK" HEXTER:
Historian, professor and humorist Jack Hexter wrote that "Utopia implies that the nature of man is such that to rely on individual conscience to supply the deficiencies of municipal law is to embark on the bottom-less sea of human sinfulness in a sieve." Utopians approach conscience with "legal sanctions," Hexter believed. In a "properly ordered society," he asserted, the "massive force of public law performs the function which in natural law theory ineptly is left altogether to a small voice so often still" (Davis 56).
EASTERN DEFINITIONS of UTOPIA: BUDDHISM, DAOISM, and CONFUCIANISM:
The Buddhism utopia is conceived in the "antithetical images of Heavenly Paradise and Hell" (u 1995, p. 24), according to author…… [Read More]
Utopian Concept: Country of Loveland
Loveland is a small country located on the western side of Europe. Though largely unheard of, this country has been on the fast track of progress since early 1990s and is now a major tourist attraction for those who are in love with nature. When my cousin usie asked me to join her friends for a trip to Loveland, I had no reason to decline. I packed my bags and soon found myself on Angelo International airport in the capital city of Loveland. The capital city is called New Greens and while small, it is definitely a piece of paradise on earth.
As soon as we landed at the airport, it became clear that we were in some other world. It was so amazingly beautiful that we wondered why it had hitherto been largely undiscovered and hidden from the world. The airport was built in…… [Read More]
utopian communal societies and their influence on leadership in the nineteenth century. Utopian societies sprang up around the United States during the nineteenth century, partly in response to some of the ills their members saw in society at the time. The word "utopia" describes a "perfect" society existing far from the political and social upheaval of the big city. These societies follow the model of the Middle Ages, where religious groups lived apart from society in monasteries and nunneries, living a spiritual and utopian life. While there were numerous utopian societies available for study, this paper will examine the Shakers, the Oneida settlement, and George ipley's Brook Farm, an experiment in American Fourierism. Each of these societies flourished for a while, and had specific ideas about work, education, social structure, and more.
The Shakers and Female Equality
The official name of the Shaker sect was the United Society of Believers…… [Read More]
Visions of utopia -- or more commonly, dystopia -- permeate the canon of literature and the arts. Thomas More's Utopia builds upon prior literature on the subject, like Plato's epublic. In More's Utopia, the author builds himself into the work as a character, much as Plato does in his writing. However, More takes Plato's concept of a utopia much farther to provide a rather detailed and comprehensive vision of what an idealized society might look like and how it might function. More's Utopia bases itself on the ideal of reason, and presumes a human nature that is devoid of problems like greed or anger. The central theme in More's Utopia is the minimization of institutions, laws, and structures. While contemporary culture trends more toward dystopic than utopic visions, some artists do remain committed to a presentation of ideals. John Lennon was one such artist. In his song 'Imagine,' Lennon sings…… [Read More]
Muniz / Kozinets
LITEATUE EVIEW / THEOETICAL FAMEWOK
Muniz and Schau (2005) begin with a discussion of religiosity and the purpose that religious thinking and behavior serve for human psychology. In particular, their theoretical concern involves the way in which religion constructs meaning for believers, and how disappointment -- or a sense of the god that failed -- affects this religious experience as manifest within a brand community. Their specific focus is on the community of Apple Newton users -- "at least 20,000 day-to-day Newton users" (pp.737-8) -- and how their religious thinking was observed after Apple itself discontinued the Newton brand.
Muniz and Schau collected their data largely from two Internet user forums, where Newton users would communicate with each other. However, they also recruited direct subjects for interviewing via a web-page, and ultimately included direct interviews (via email, phone, and face-to-face) with about 80 participants in the Internet…… [Read More]
The concept of a Utopian society is one in which everything is wonderful. It is literally the best of all possible worlds. The opposite of this concept is the Dystopia which, logically enough, is the worst of all possible worlds. In a Utopia, everyone has the ability to think for themselves but the individuality and difference of opinion never gets to the point of disharmony. Contrarily, a dystopian society usually has some sort of totalitarian government or overseer who is domineering over every aspect of that society. Individuality is celebrated in the former and feared in the latter. The television series Dark Angel is an example of a Dystopia. Set in the not-so distant future, the series shows a version of the United States in intellectual and physical ruin and where individuality is feared and hunted down.
Whereas the Utopia has a leader who is benevolent and kindly…… [Read More]
("Great Transformation," n.d.)
Why Polanyi's ideas were more "utopian" than others?
Polanyi's ideas were more utopian because he criticized the various approach to economic / political theory. At the same time, he discussed how certain economic systems were important in addressing social problems to a certain extent. An example of this can be seen with his ideas on capitalism. Where, Polanyi's was saying that it is a good economic system, for creating economic prosperity. Yet, the greed factor can cause various individuals to engage in financially reckless decisions. To prevent these kinds of too big to fail situations, Polanyi, advocates that the government plays a role in addressing this issue through regulation. Where, they must keep a balance, by allowing businesses to function according to supply and demand, while preventing greed run amok. This idea of looking at the merits and demerits of both economic / political approaches is: what…… [Read More]
This attempt at constructing a utopian society, however, is doomed to failure. By creating a society that is entirely communal to isolate the community's dwellers from want, personal happiness is impossible. Moreover, a society that attempts to structure itself entirely upon keeping fear at bay is a society with no real culture at all. Virtually every rule of the society is designed to highlight the division between the forest dwellers and the persons who live in the community. For example, the community is kept vigilant by the sight of a watchtower. Red, the color of the people of the forest (and also a color associated with red-baiting in American society) is entirely prohibited from the community.
hat is also limited, within the framework of the community is sexual desire. The teenagers of the Village feel particularly stifled by this constant watchfulness. By constantly trying to police the safety of this…… [Read More]
utopian school district: An overview
Individualization is the key to effective special education. That is why every child in a special education setting has an individualized education plan (IEP). The needs of, for example, a child with autism who is nonverbal are very different from the needs of a highly verbal child on the autism spectrum with social deficits. Allowing more individualized assessment and delivering more individualized treatment would be a critical component of any 'utopian' school district.
However, as well as creating individualized instruction plans for all students in their supportive environments, the larger environment of the school should also be supportive of learning differences. "Consider children with disabilities as general education children first: Special education and general education are treated as separate systems, but in fact share responsibility for the child with disabilities" and there should be more similarities between the two than differences (Peterson & Tamor 2003:…… [Read More]
Radical multiculturalism holds that cultural groups should be the measure for considerations of justice as a group offers the individual the indispensable good of being rooted in a community. The problem is that groups always set-up unequal in-group out-group relations that are detrimental to society.
The problem is that conservatives claim it undermines cohesiveness, but cohesiveness is exactly what all social movements in the last hundred years have attempted to bring about.
In this context this means that the gains of one group are not balanced by losses of another group.
The civil sphere includes structures of feelings, symbols, psychological identifications, and sympathies determine how resources are allocated in society. The public sphere is more of how this publically stated (the two can be different).
Common identity is malleable depending on the times. The move for woman's voting rights and equal rights into the national identity is an…… [Read More]
Utopian Images of the Natural State
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner's "Bathers Beneath Trees" and Franz Marc's "Bathing Girls." are paintings of the same subject; three women in nature getting ready to bathe and, or, swim. Both are utopian visions of what each artist felt was ideal. The utopian representation of both artists is seen in the use of an idealistic notion of freedom and a personal response to nature. Freedom is seen in the comfortable presence of the nudes and the use of color in nature reflects the artists' perception of utopian existence.
Bathers Beneath Trees is replete with the colors of the island paradise Kirchner thought of as his utopian vision. The tall trees reach to the top of the painting and are done in dark greens with the tree trunks allowed to come forward with the color yellow against a blue and green skyscape. The only blue in…… [Read More]
Northrop Frye recognized this fact but believed that the satire missed its mark:
It completely misses the point as satire on the ussian development of Marxism, and as expressing the disillusionment which many men of good-will feel about ussia. The reason for that disillusionment would be much better expressed as the corruption of expediency by principle (Frye 1987, p. 10).
What links 1984 and Animal Farm most directly is that both are anti-utopian in nature, for Orwell had developed a certainty that government in a utopian society would always be corrupted and would lose sight of its principles because of expediency.
Animal Farm was written during World War II. There is evidence that he was planning a novel that would become 1984 even before he wrote Animal Farm, and there is a relationship between the two books that is not often noted:
The form each book took was very different,…… [Read More]
One of the most pragmatic applications of Marxist labor theory would be strong state regulations on capitalist enterprise: requiring, for example, mandatory profit sharing or a means to include all workers in the process of management and in rights to the means of production.
By the early 20th century, the Russian economy was rapidly industrializing, which dramatically altered social structures and institutions. The Czarist regime was showing signs of wear as a burgeoning bourgeoisie was amassing considerable wealth and corresponding political clout. At the same time, factories demanded a larger labor force and recruited from rural regions. Workers who migrated either permanently or temporarily to urban centers and to centers of industry experienced a significant breakdown in traditional social structures and family life. The first stage of the Russian Revolution occurred when the Czar was overthrown to form an aristocratic government, which was soon overtaken by the Bolshevik communists. Lenin…… [Read More]
Moral Criticisms of the Market
Moral Criticisms Market This assignment requires read article Ken S. Ewert (found eading & Study folder). Note article, Ewert defending free market "Christian Socialists." He states position a rebuttal
Moral criticisms of the market: A critique of Ewert's analysis
It is interesting to read Ken S. Ewert's 1989 criticisms of 'Christian socialists' in light of current debates on other types of economic policies today. Ewert portrays Christian, leftist defenders of socialism as impervious to logic, in contrast to other former critics of capitalism, who grew more acclimated to capitalist principles in light of the failure of the Soviet Union Similar criticisms are made of 21st century religious fundamentalists, who stress the need for private enterprise to address societal problems 'on principle,' even when public regulation might be helpful and who try to define science, including science education, in religious terms rather than in terms of…… [Read More]
The benefits of the Internet as an information dissemination medium are manifold, but that does not mean that true, classical criticism has lost its value. Indeed, despite the cutbacks at newspapers, classic criticism is more vital than ever. "Critics are soldiers in the on-going culture war," cott contends, inferring that the role critics play is often greater than the act of writing a review. The way people think and view the world is often shaped by criticism. When the standards of criticism are compromised, as happens when editorial control is lost, then the influence on the way people think can become negative.
cott's argument was not lost on the generally older crowd in attendance at the Carlos Museum. The Academy itself plays an important role, along with critics, in defining the elements of popular culture that have the most value. While the public has flocked to see sci-fi eyepopper Avatar…… [Read More]
Plato's work is idealistic and, as such, some of the rationale behind many of the conclusions he draws on do not necessarily have a logical or practical motivation. Nevertheless, they are logically tied to most of the assumptions he makes in his work, which is why his conclusions could, ideally, be transposed into the society he had projected. The most important conclusion of his work may be that each part of society is closely related and coordinated with all the others. This is why issues such as education and general knowledge will need to be customized so as to best fit the needs of society and to support the governing infrastructure.
1. Danzig, Gabriel, "Rhetoric and the Ring: Herodotus and Plato on the Story of Gyges as a Politically Expedient Tale," Greece & Rome journal, Volume 55, Issue 02, October 2008, Cambridge University Press, 18 August 2008, pp.169-192
2.…… [Read More]
The British created a well-educated, English-speaking Indian elite middle class d. new jobs were created for millions of Indian hand-spinner and hand-weavers
The Indian National Congress can best be described in which of the following ways:
a. An Indian Civil Service that administered British rule.
b. A group of upper-caste professionals seeking independence from Britain.
c. white settlers who administered British rule.
d. anglicized Indians who were the social equals of white rulers.
Under the Culture System, Indonesian peasants had to Answer:
a. learn to speak and read Dutch b. plant one-fifth of their land in export crops to be turned over to the Dutch colonial government c. convert to the Dutch Reformed Church d. join large state-run farms.
Modern Vietnamese nationalism traced much of its inspiration to Answer:
a. Japanese modernization.
b. China's "Hundred Days" Reform program.
c. The U.S. Declaration of Independence.
d. British Fabian socialism.
The…… [Read More]
Schlesinger describes four main themes relating to the notion of a shared household. These are:
Collective responsibility for medical care or cost-
Family members have collective responsibility and commitment in regard to certain burdens (such as paying the rent or household chores). In a similar way, politicians first argued at the end of the Progressive era that the American nation -- qua family -- owed special responsibility in regard to its duty: medical services. esponsibility in regard to the nation providing social insurance reappeared during the Great Depression era where oosevelt argued that "Americans were ready, in the Depression and after, to abandon individual responsibility for the costs of sickness during and after the Depression" (Schlesinger, 973).
Shared institutions for health care and finance
Just as the household may collectively sit down to meals and share other common experiences, so is the household expected to collectively share in providing for…… [Read More]
It was our land, and still they claimed it as if it were their own.
Not many years passed, and these Americans were everywhere among us - killing us, and driving us out of our ancient homes. They sent their soldiers to slaughter us, and later to collect us up to live beside their forts. They killed the buffalo on which so many of us depended for food, and so caused us to starve. And when we complain, when we tried to use their "laws" to help ourselves, they laughed at us, and told us that we had no rights. This land belonged to them. It was their "Manifest Destiny" to expand across the continent, and to take the land from the "savages" that lived there. They would bring God and civilization to all these places. They believed that only they were right, and that only their God was real.…… [Read More]
The Peripheral Narrator
The narrator of the novel Utopia (Moore) is, in fact, its author. Ever since the real New World's discovery by explorers, Christopher Columbus and many others like him started penning first-person narratives of the new landscapes they stumbled upon. Thomas More was simply emulating such narratives to give an authentic feel to his work. Readers feel they're reading a real, authentic tale:
"It would take too long to repeat all that Raphael told us he had observed in various places; nor would it altogether serve our present purpose. Perhaps on another occasion we shall tell more about the things that are most profitable" (Moore, 1516, p. 13)
In the aforementioned paragraph, the author (as narrator) attempts to give an impression of really being present when the events transpired and of being bound by memory- and time- related limitations. Such narration in the first-person lures and captivates readers,…… [Read More]
Like Plato, More retains the belief in One God in his concept of the perfect society by injecting the foundation of Neoplatonism and blending it with a rather festive or carnival-like quality (Marius 1995 as qtd in SparkNotes 2010). Utopians enjoy the good life at the expense of firmly rooted institutions and established order in society. People turn their freedom around and upside down. Ranks, norms, prohibitions, private property and morals are suspended. Critics see the Utopian society as opposing what has been made complete and immortal for ages (SparkNotes).
oth Plato and Thomas More, in their respective works, aim at the perfect or ideal society but in different perspectives under the 5 sub-themes. Plato builds his society on justice and harmony in a way that balances the internal and the external conditions of a person. He assumes that true justice already exists in every man and that every…… [Read More]
They investigate on the nature of virtue and pleasure but they concentrate on the happiness of man and what it is made up of. They uphold that man's happiness consists mainly in the good type of pleasure. They derive arguments from religious principles, despite its roughness and strictness. Without these principles, all searches on happiness can only be merely conjectural and defective (Philosophy asics).
The need for a real-life utopia is more felt today than before. It is a basic ingredient in the fulfillment of human potential in the contemporary environment (Ainsa 1991).
Contemporary historical, political and philosophical views still retain some Utopian dimension or strain. Utopianism may have discredited for some flaws in the past, but it remains indispensable as an alternative model for mapping out the future. An ideal society is always an attempt to invent the future. Utopia differs from ideology in that utopia represents hope in…… [Read More]
Clare of Assisi
Saint Clare of Assisi was not a feminist in the modern sense, but then again no such ideas existed at all in the 13th Century. By all accounts, though, she was a formidable and powerful woman who was the first in history to found a religious order. In the society in which she was born, women were politically, socially and economically powerless, and quite literally the property of their fathers and husbands. This was a feudal, authoritarian and patriarchal society, and even aristocratic women like Clare and her friend St. Agnes of Prague were forced into arranged marriages by their fathers. Indeed, both Clare and Agnes defied their fathers when they insisted on entering religious life as followers of St. Francis of Assisi, and Clare's family disowned her. She was not a political rebel or revolutionary, but she did have a utopian vision of society that was…… [Read More]
The light shines through it, and the dark enters it. Borne, flung, tugged from anywhere to anywhere, for in the deep sea there is no compass but nearer and farther, higher and lower, the jellyfish bangs and sways; pulses move slight and quick within it, as the vast diurnal pulses beat in the moondriven sea. Hanging, swaying, pulsing, the most vulnerable and insubstantial creature, it has for its defense the violence and.power of the whole ocean, to which it has entrusted its being, its going, and its will.[...]What will the creature made all of seadrift do on the dry sand of daylight; what will the mind do, each morning, waking?"(Le Guin, 3)
Thus, there are some parts in which the narrator gives her point-of-view directly, like the one quoted above, but it is essentially the same as George's and Heather's. Although dreams and the unconscious do influence reality, this is…… [Read More]
hile the winner gets a huge amount of money for supposedly being the strongest human, in fact, the strongest human is merely the one that uses the greatest amount of self-centered cunning and brute strength. If one is going to define humanity, especially in the post-Darwinian age, then it would seem that humanity, to be set apart, would depend on altruistic feelings and use of intelligence rather than selfish feelings and use of brute force alone. In this respect, there is little to separate the producers of TV reality shows from Dr. Moreau, and, by extension, little to separate the participants from the man-beasts. hile it is certainly a cynical viewpoint, it would seem that those who participate in the reality shows might be assumed to be as dimly aware of their condition as the man-beasts after their reversion to the more animal state.
Graff compares Dr. Moreau to Mary…… [Read More]
Scott suggests that the perceptions of individuals are as delicate as sensing slight differences in weight: at first the slight differences are imperceptible, but then clear to the person holding the object. However, this phenomenon cannot be predicted or described beforehand.
The ineffability of craft -- knowing when to add a pinch of this or a pinch of that to a stew -- is what is missing in rigid utopian programs. Another comparison might be studying a language academically without really having to speak it, versus the benefits of total immersion. Scott asks: What would you rather have as a guide: a sailor who knew the sea, or a map and clearly prefers the former.
Scott does not totally deny the benefits of what he calls 'techne' or skilled knowledge, versus 'Metis' or knowledge learned through practice. Techne attempts to "bracket uncertainty" by providing generalized knowledge, such as scientific theories…… [Read More]
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…… [Read More]
247). Further, Jones began preaching about "revolutionary suicide" which was a kind of "collective suicide" as an "outcome of being attacked by forces" against Jonestown.
These facts that are generally supported by other sources can easily lead an alert reader to assume that Jones started with an idealistic spiritual movement and gradually he apparently became obsessed with power - and paranoid that some group would try to wipe him out - and turned his church into a cult. The PBS research claims that prior to the mass deaths Jones "confiscated medicines from every resident" and kept himself "medicated" on barbiturates and amphetamines. It doesn't take a doctor or psychiatrist to project that being on amphetamines (speed) and barbiturates (downers) could induce wild highs and lows, radical mood shifts which could certainly lead to paranoia, fear, hostility, and violence. "Hard physical labor" was forced on members six days a week -…… [Read More]
Vogt, Ellison and Arendt
The idea of a utopian society, a perfect Eden, has been a recurring theme in human literature, philosophy, religion, and commentary almost from the beginning of civilization. This recurrent theme is no accident: most cultures have, as a basis for their creation mythos, a utopian view of either the pre-human world or the post-human world. Sociological, this is a functionalist approach that serves to "validate, support, and imprint the norms of a give, specific moral order" and to authorize its moral code "as a construct beyond criticism and human emendation" (Campbell and Fairchild 221).
In opposition, a dystopia, becomes part of the anti-heroic paradigm in that all the benefits of an overall utopian society are almost backwards. hat was good, now seems evil, what was light, dark. Political philosopher Hannah Arendt, in Ideology and Terror: A New Form of Government, sees one of the maxims of…… [Read More]
Cambridge; Cambridge, MA: Polity Press
Devine, F. (ed.) (2004). ethinking class: culture, identities and lifestyles. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan
Joyce, P. (ed.) (1995). Class. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press
eid, I. (1989). Social class differences in Britain: life-chances and life-styles. London: Fontana [Franklin-Wilkins HN400.S6 EI]
ose, D and K. O'eilly (eds.) (1997). Constructing classes: towards a new social classification in the UK. Swindon: ESC/ONS
Wright, E. (1997) Classes. London: Verso
Zbigniew, a. (1972). Karl Marx: economy, class and social revolution. London: Nelson
Cohen, G. (2009) Why not socialism?
Elster, J (1986) an introduction to Marx
Gurley, J. (1976). Challengers to capitalism: Marx, Lenin and Mao
Lee, S. (200). European dictatorships, 1918-1945.
Marx, K. And Engels, F. (2005). The Communist Manifesto
Newman, M. (2005). Socialism: a very short introduction
Schumpeter, J (2010) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy
Wacquant, L. (2009). Punishing the poor; the neoliberal government of social insecurity… [Read More]
However, Carr is not advocating that we adopt an amoral set of principles when dealing with international politics. Rather, he does present a clear case for including underlying moral tones in how international relations are constructed and executed. Yet, these only have a certain part to play. Exaggerating that portion through unrealistic utopian ideology proves to lead to the failure of the peace attempts during the twenty years Carr describes in crisis.
In this, he is also criticizing the other end of the spectrum in terms of utopian ideology. Carr aims to discredit some of the misconceptions brought about by a more extreme realistic approach that was also failing to provide progressive results. Political philosophies are often in order to gain power over other nations. Thus, they can be very easily molded into oppressive or aggressive strategies if not restrained by some sort of moral guidance. Carr believed that strategies…… [Read More]
realism is that the state is the main and most important role player in the political arena with regard to international relations. Many states are involved in international relations, and as such each state is centrally governed by its own self-interest. This self-interest is furthermore not curbed by a central governing body in world politics, and each state basically chooses its own methods and means of securing its own values of self-interest and security. The realist way of political thought during the 1930s and 1940s displaced the thought of idealist and utopian ideals of politics. This was a result of an essentially negative view of human nature, brought about by the apparent success of negative strategies such as war in world politics.
Indeed, it is apparent from historical evidence that the realist theory of international relations is at least to some degree accurate. The unitary state seeks power and self-interest.…… [Read More]
Constructed Myths and Man's Purpose
Since Nietzsche declared that God was dead, science and mankind have begun a twofold search. Nietzsche's declaration asserted that the need for God in the society's constructed identity no longer existed. The understanding of the times was that the scientific method could break down any problem into is components, and uncover both the purpose and the source of all of mankind's desires, tangible and intangible alike. The accompanying hopes for a utopian society would also be ushered in by modern thought. Modern, logical and rational thought would be able to replace oppressive superstition, religious, and myth of ignorant and uneducated people who used religious beliefs to explain those elements of life which previously could not be understood. Since the publishing of his work, along with Jung, Kant and a myriad of others, the social sciences have searched to identify the purpose of religious life within…… [Read More]
The meaning of humanity is difficult to grasp. It is complex and often layered. People do not think of humanity as being one of animals or being. It is often seen as a combination of the two. Humans bleed, have instincts, and mate. Human females carry babies within the wombs. This is how any normal mammal behaves. Yet, humans also think and perform conscious actions against their instincts.
Humans have, since 5,000 years ago, formed intricate and complex societies. They use games for recreation to relieve stress and promote bonding. They carry out detailed plans to build towns and cities. Humans even use religion in order to connect with each other and their perceived spiritual world.
There are many wonderful aspects of humanity that make them, us, more than just animals. So how does this apply to the meaning of being human? Perhaps the struggle between animal and being,…… [Read More]
" The people are prevented from doing anything to try and make the child's life better, and they all follow the rules.
As readers, it is easy for us to say that the trade-off is not worth it, that the citizens of Omelas should rebel against the rules and save the child, but the moral question Le Guin presents is complicated. How do we weigh the needs of the many against the needs of the one? The entire population of the city of Omelas gets to live happy, carefree, healthy lives without violence or war, and the only price to pay is the suffering of one person. The price is horrific, all the more so because the boy is merely ten years old, but sometimes a horrific price must be paid. How many of us in the prosperous first world are able to enjoy our luxuries because there are people…… [Read More]
imilarly, the phases of the image evolves from art reflecting basic reality, through three progressive stages that culminate in art that has no relation to reality at all. The same happens with utopian and science fiction writing. The first stage requires no such writing, as the world is viewed as utopian in its current state. The second stage recognizes the world as imperfect, and compensates for this by means of romantic dreams (Mann). The third stage revolves around technological dreams such as robots and machines, while the final stage once again culminates in an end to science fiction: the hyperreal absorbs science fiction into a new genre related to the Internet and other types of mass media.
There are many examples of the hyperreal in the modern media. Perhaps the most striking of these is entertainment centers such as Disney World. These worlds are presented as reality to visitors, who…… [Read More]
The capitalist, in Marx's view, merely accumulated wealth and used that wealth to unjustly make more wealth, like an aristocrat of old. The capitalist's exploitation of the worker was no progress at all. It was merely the latest manifestation of the age-old dialectic of the haves vs. The have-nots. The have-nots inevitably overthrew the haves, came to power, and exploited the lower orders once again, as had occurred in the new economic system. Likewise, Nietzsche questioned the idea that Christianity had made human beings more moral and civilized, he felt it had merely made them less creative and more complacent. Progress should not be measured through the creation of more social controls. Nietzsche advocated a return to a Dionysian worship of the body, not a containment of the body.
However radical these critiques, however, both Marx and Nietzsche in their own ways created visions of progress that were fundamentally utopian…… [Read More]
" hy is this the case? hy are some concerned about privacy and others not at all? The answer lies in the fact that society is mirroring both authors' perspectives, Orwell's and Huxley's -- one fearful and the other apathetic. Society is thus a dichotomy of two anti-utopian visions.
Yet, Zittrain, like Boyd and Baym, supports the new media technology by asserting that "the Net is quite literally what we make it." So even as society moves toward a state that intertwines both Huxley's and Orwell's visions, another portion of society attempts to keep a balanced viewpoint by suggesting that such movement does not necessarily have to be as bad as it might seem.
In conclusion, although civilization is headed in a direction that looks much like that described by Orwell and Huxley -- those anti-utopian visions are not necessarily what are in store for society. Boyd and Baym do…… [Read More]
Geology was one of the sources of Marx's views about social system and it's structure (the idea of formation). Among the biological discoveries that influenced on Marx's sociological views were the discovery of cell, cell theory of the organism's structure and the most important was evolutionary teaching of Darwin that was stated in work "The origins of species." Marx saw biological analogue of his theories in Darwin's work and it was a stimulus for further work as well.
The basic question of sociology is a question about interaction of material and spiritual values in the life of society.
Marx introduced a new and independent variable in this process, which plays a key role in the relations that exist in society and it was a mode of material production. Besides he supported the views about the initial role of being in relation to society's consciousness, but not in the sense of…… [Read More]
Socialism is a highly charged issue in any capitalistic culture as a lack of general understanding of the term and the fragmentation of its application over the years has led many to equate it with both despotism and social degeneration through lack of personal control over the means of production. To many capitalist thinkers socialism holds back the progress of any one individual and therefore any culture that accepts it through the seeming lack of upward mobility available to those who practice socialism in a broad way. Socialism, generally defines is:
The general term for the political and economic theory that advocates a system of collective or government ownership and management of the means of production and distribution of goods. Because of the collective nature of socialism, it is to be contrasted to the doctrine of the sanctity of private property that characterizes capitalism. here capitalism stresses competition and profit,…… [Read More]
Oddly enough, this passage paints a brighter picture of Nietzsche than popular thought attributes to him. Nietzsche here presents a direct path -- unlike Rousseau -- out of the swamps of nothingness: the path is not necessarily religion, nor is it secularism. Rather, it is a lack of contradiction.
Nietzsche urges each man to evaluate just what he believes and desires and understand for himself whether he wishes to credit God or himself. In other words, Nietzsche calls upon man to answer the age old question: fate or control?
If mankind avoids contradiction here, he is able to pick himself up by the bootstraps and re-instill into his life some of the soul and passion that Rousseau bleakly believes is missing.
In fact, Nietzsche had a great argument with Rousseau's thinking: this hostility derives from Nietzsche's conviction that the autonomous subject of Enlightened political discourse is hopelessly inadequate. Nietzsche…… [Read More]
Edward Carr is seen to this day one of the most important theoreticians of the study of international relations. Despite the fact that his work has been written before the start of the Second World War, he was among the first scholars and analysts to take into account the theory of international relations as a paradigm and afterwards as a science.
One of his most important works in this area and perhaps the one that provided the backbone of the research conducted in international relations in modern times is Carr's "The Twenty Years' Crisis" first published in 1939 with a second issue in 1946. The subject of the book cannot be presented as a chapter-by-chapter presentation especially given the nature of the work that includes a significant role of analysis and interpretation. More precisely, the book in itself represents the first and most eloquent attempt to argue on the role…… [Read More]
alk Away from Omelas tells the tale of a city that must torture one of its citizens so that the rest can live a happy and cultured life. The one child that must be kept in misery is a scapegoat and must receive all of the filth, poverty, darkness, and misery so that others may have a utopian life. This poses a moral dilemma that the citizens must come to terms with in order to live their lives in a way that makes the suffering of the one "worth it." This essay will explore the theme of the individual and society in the story.
The society in the story is utopian due to the collective actions of individuals and their commitment to make the sacrifice of the one "worthwhile." Societies are a collection of the individuals and the attitudes that prevail. One cannot change societal attitudes without changing the minds…… [Read More]
Tyack and Cuban with Dewey on Social Change
David Tyack and Larry Cuban do share similar views to John Dewey about the nature of the traditional education system in the United States as well as its origins. Public education as it exists today is a product of the 19th Century industrialization and urbanization process, which created schools that resembled factories, timetables and schedules, and teachers who acted like bosses on a factory floor. Dewey of course abhorred this system and criticized it unmercifully for decades, both in the way it was structured and the type of information it imparted to students. In the history of American education, there has never been a more vocal, prominent and outspoken critic of the traditional system than Dewey, and none has been the subject of greater wrath from conservatives and traditionalists, even decades after his death. Tyack and Cuban are well aware of the…… [Read More]
Vietnam and the Two-Sided American Dream
The Vietnam era began under a cloud. Kennedy had inherited a government neck-deep in covert operations and rather than check the rate at which the U.S. exercised military might in foreign countries, he accelerated it. The American Empire had been doing so for nearly two decades since the end of WW2. With the Cold War in full force, the ay of Pigs fiasco behind him, and the Cuban Missile Crisis causing panic worldwide, the last thing Americans wanted was more war. With the assassination of Kennedy in 1963 and the installation of pro-ground forces Lyndon Johnson, Americans were stripped of the carefree innocence of the 1950s. Camelot was ended. The 1960s and the 1970s became decades of radicalism in which American youth would rebel against the authoritarian tone of American foreign and domestic policy. They would rebel in their dress, in their speech, in…… [Read More]
Bellamy's own assumptions or presuppositions about human nature, social institutions, history, and ideal social relationships. Analyze his assumptions in some or all of these areas."
Introduction to the Book
Looking Backward: 2000-1887 (1945/1888) by Edward Bellamy filled the empty space felt by the Americans of that era, desiring the utopian substance of society without the presence of "Associationism." Though the book is not predominantly notable as the writer's invention, it addresses the longings of the people struck by socio-economic frights and breakdown through the proposal of a Paradise-like society wherein warfare, starvation, and hatred were removed from the community. The story embodies the amazement of Julian est, a person who wakes up after sleeping for 113 years in Boston, 2000 A.D. The book revolves around the author's portrayal of a society formed after a revolution that liberated the people from the terrors of capitalism. In this idealized version of the…… [Read More]
World War One and World War Two, artists pondered their role in the world. "Largely in response to the horrors of World War I and the wish to remake society in its aftermath," artists, architects, and designers began to view art "as a means of social and spiritual redemption," ("De Stijl," n.d.). The result was a utopian and yet ironically pragmatic and functionalistic movement known by its Dutch name De Stijl, or The Style. De Stijl was also the name of the printed journal chronicling the ideas and aesthetics of the movement. Architect Theo van Doesburg is credited with founding De Stijl, but Gerrit ietveld and Piet Mondrian were also key figures in the movement.
De Stijl is characterized by the "machine aesthetics of the new industrial age," abstraction, simplicity, and the absence of surface decorations ("Art, Design, and Visual Thinking: De Stijl," n.d.). Taking its cue from cubism and…… [Read More]
Octavia Butler's novel Parable of the Sower depicts an America that has crumbled into complete chaos and disarray. ithin the dystopia of 2024, Lauren Olamina reflects on her family background and her past in order to help create a more ideal future for humanity. The key to the future is liberation, both personal and political. Therefore, the message of Parable of the Sower is revolutionary. Lauren does not just need to be a true leader; she needs to change what it means to be human. Butler reportedly said about the potential for female heroines to create a utopian society out of the ashes of the patriarchal dystopia: "I don't believe that imperfect humans can form a perfect society," (Zaki 239). Butler does not expect Lauren and the Earthseed community to become a Utopia because no matter how revolutionary and idealistic she might be, Lauren remains constrained by her past and…… [Read More]
Furthermore, both statutory and tort law at the time were ill-equipped with regard to provision of environmental safeguards and taking care of the fall-out of an environmental crisis . In fact, at the time that Hoover Chemical Corporation was dumping toxins into the canal, there was no law with regard to the disposal or dumping of chemicals; thus, Hoover was acting within its purview since at all times it either had the owner's permission to dump or it was the owner of the property itself. Consequently, in order to avoid this problem in the future, legislation was passed regulating the dumping of hazardous waste. Furthermore, environmental laws were passed such as CECLA (Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liablity Act, aka Superfund) that held polluters accountable or the damages they caused. Additionally, in the realm of civil tort law, in 1994, a Federal District court ruled that Hooker had been negligent…… [Read More]
It is a work that seems to be eerily familiar to what is happening in many areas of society today, and that is one aspect of the novel that makes it exceedingly frightening to read.
Abdolian, Lisa Finnegan, and Harold Takooshian. "The U.S.A. PATIOT Act: Civil Liberties, the Media, and Public Opinion." Fordham Urban Law Journal 30.4 (2003): 1429+.
A secondary source that gives useful information on the U.S.A. Patriot Act. Includes commentary on the pros and cons of the act, and how the media portrayed it. Also includes opponents to the act, and some of the most controversial policies included in the act.
Deery, June. "George Orwell. Nineteen Eighty-Four." Utopian Studies 16.1 (2005): 122+.
A secondary source that talks about Orwell's novel, why he wrote it, and when it was reissued in 2003. Also discusses Orwell's motives for writing the novel, and what influenced him. It is a…… [Read More]
This became an age in which visionary thinkers said, "see, we told you so," and were able to garner additional support from not only the activist type, but the regular citizen.
Malthusian dynamics (overpopulation and resource allocation) became a focus of futurists. Marshall McLuhan, for one, combined futuristic predictions with analysis of global media and advertising trends.
Noam Chomsky was revolutionizing the idea of linguistics as a way to view our innate cultural mechanisms.
Science fiction writers like Clarke, Asimov, and Lem pushed the boundaries of science as far as possible -- insisting that the reader ask very difficult questions about what it truly means to be human, what it truly means to have conservatorship of a planet, and whether or not we have the wisdom to maintain life on earth as we know it.
Chapter 6 -- Fast Forward
Arthur C. Clarke made an interesting remark about…… [Read More]
Cultural effects would take longer to appear, but would be drastic. ith both the incentive and the ability to move long distances gone, families and friends would stay in the same community through several generations. Children would see grandparents daily or weekly instead of just on holidays. Grade-school friends would grow into adulthood together and raise their own children side-by-side. Over a few decades, social networking websites like Facebook and MySpace would wither and die from lack of demand.
Not only would one's spirit benefit from strong family relationships and friendships, one's body would benefit from several changes. The first and most obvious change is the exercise that would come from walking or riding bicycles or horses everywhere. The Center for Disease Control says that even a moderate amount of physical activity can: prevent obesity, reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, reduce the risk of Type 2 diabetes, strengthen muscles…… [Read More]
An important contribution to the market ideology is that the authors recognized the existence of a relationship between employment and the market. This relationship was based on that the employment, the division of labor and the "human material progress had proceed in parallel with the growth of the market." Otherwise put, there existed a direct relationship between the market and the employment, with the market being the feature which set the tone. An increase of the market would generate an increase in employment and vice versa. However, an increase or decrease in employment would not affect the market as the relationship between the two is unilateral.
Engels, Moore and Jones believed that the future successful implementation of the communist policies would see no major use of the market; "in the society of the future, there would be no mediation through the market. Wealth would satisfy needs directly. It would be…… [Read More]
Whatever happened you vanished, and neither you nor your actions were ever heard of again" (Orwell, 1949, p.168).
Principles of mass production are very clear in the novels. Huxley for instance, applied the idea of mass production in human reproduction, since the people has abandoned the natural method of reproduction. Mass production as the conventional feature of capitalism and Huxley's novel reinforces such. He talked about the requirement of the World State about constant consumption, which is considered as foundation of its stability. Huxley apparently criticizes the commercial dependence of the world towards goods. Conditioning centers teaches people to consume. Orwell similarly provides criticism to capitalism as well: "The centuries of capitalism were held to have produced nothing of any value." The Proles are the symbols of the capitalist system as they constitute the working class who work in assembly lines.
Destruction of the concept of family
oth novels…… [Read More]
The outcome of all of this was a rock concert which -- aside from the actual happenstance of performances -- was heavily controlled by the interest of the filmmaker. Though various aspects of the concert-attendance experience indicate that great care was paid to the appeal of the event itself, there is an explicit self-consciousness on the part of the subject as to the grander intention of the captured film to eulogize the touring band.
And with that purposeful modus operandi in mind, we may take note that the apparent distance between Direct Cinema and Cinema Verite really only serves academic purposes. From the perspective of the filmmaker or the documentarian, there is room both for a realistic portrayal of its subject and for the selection of an angle or impression. Given that the subject is a single concert event, wherein which the musical performances are the purpose of the document,…… [Read More]
In this paper, he discusses the role of culturel in relation to the present age of "barbarism." He makes the important statement that in the age that has produces barbaric events such as Auschwitz, cultural activities such as the writing of poetry are no longer possible. By this he implies that the age that produces barbaric events can no longer act as if their cultural products or creations are exempt from the responsibility for these events. Therefore, to assume that one can continue to write poetry and engage in other cultural activities is "impossible."
If we unpack these views, we find that what Adorno is referring to is the underling way of thought or the submerged ideologies that are not "visible" but which tend to shape, motivate and determine the cultural output. In other words, Adorno in this article draws our attention to the underlying "forces" that exist in Western…… [Read More]
Islamic government may be defined therefore as the rule of divine law over men."(Khomeini, 29) God is the true authority in the state, and the sole legislative power: "In Islam the legislative power and the competence to establish laws belongs exclusively to God Almighty."(Khomeini, 30) it is obvious therefore that Khomeini believes in the realization of a Platonic, almost utopian republic in which everything should be ruled only on the principle of divine absolute justice. In this idealist view, the state is a reflection of the divine order. The Islamic republic endeavors to make absolute knowledge and absolute truth a form of government. Thus, the definition of the Islamic republic resembles that of the Platonic republic much more than the estern correspondent. As Khomeini himself notes, the main difference between the estern republic and the Islamic one is that the estern government is based on human social rights, while the…… [Read More]
She developed "Cooperative Discipline' a new K-12 in-service training program...offers exactly what many schools are looking for." (Kyle 1991) the problem, as I see it, of Cooperative Discipline is that the students will always try for the least amount of 'punishment' for any perceived wrong committed. The teacher would have to be especially tough in order to counteract the attempt at leniency which would put the teacher and student back into an adversarial position. My classroom will have a set of rules that will be followed. Any flaunting of the rules will result in consequences that have been shared with the classroom since the initial class.
Curwin, R.L., (2002) Finding Jewels in the Rubble, Educational Leadership, Vol. 59 Issue
Glasser, . (2002) Unhappy Teenagers, New York: Harper Collins Publishing
James, G. (2006) Skinner's Utopia, ilson Quarterly, Vol. 30 Issue
Kounin., J., (1983)
Classrooms: Individuals or Behavior Settings? Monographs…… [Read More]
He has something there. Bellamy writes, "During the last decade of the century, such small businesses as still remained were fast-failing survivals of a past epoch, or mere parasites on the great corporations, or else existed in fields too small to attract the great capitalists" (Bellamy 52). Many small businesses cannot compete when large corporations enter their territory, so Bellamy seems to recognize that greed and capitalism will always exist, no matter how advanced our society becomes.
Ultimately, Bellamy's book is a hopeful look into a future utopia that cannot exist. Bellamy wants to believe in the best of humankind, but unfortunately, his utopian world is simply a fantasy world. His ideas are born from a good heart that hopes society can learn from its mistakes and improve on many of the ills he saw in the nineteenth century. That is not the case. Society does not improve; it seems…… [Read More]