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He stated that France as a financial capital was richer than Germany and Japan combined.
The rest of the section sees a return to the monopolies and their control over raw materials. Stating how the international monopolies controlled all the material necessary to manufacture and produce goods. He asserts that the monopolies created shortages in areas to keep the public from turning against colonization of other areas when in fact they could have cooperated with agriculture to more than supply the means.
Lenin draws the conclusion that monopolies not only desire the areas of known resources but attempt to acquire resources not discovered yet. Undeveloped land deemed as worthless might someday yield desirability with technological advancements. He states that the financial systems sought to acquire the greatest amounts of land to keep away the chances of competition from the smaller nations or businesses. It is noted the world was divided…… [Read More]
Valdimir Ilyich Ulyanov, well-known by his pseudonym Lenin, was instrumental for the communist revolution that dramatically altered the political and social setup of Russia. Lenin was born in 1870 in Simbirsk at a time when the Czar enjoyed supreme power and influence. Lenin even lost his brother Alexander to the tyrannical rule of the Czar but that did not stop him from his revolutionary activities. He was the first person to practically implement the philosophy of Karl Marx by means of his radical policies. In 1895 when he was 25, Lenin was jailed for a period of 14 months after which he was exiled to Siberia for three years on charges of instigating revolutionary activities against the Czarist government. [Soviet Encyclopedic Dictionary]
It was during this period that Lenin completed his famous work called "The Development of Capitalism in Russia." For most of the next decade and a half…… [Read More]
During his first few months in Paris, Marx became a communist and put forth his views in a plethora of writings known as the Economic and philosophical Manuscripts, that remained unpublished until the 1930s. It was also in Paris that Marx developed his life long association with Friedrich Engels. (Karl Marx, 1818-1883)
At the end of 1844 Marx was debarred from Paris and with Engels migrated to Brussels. In the initiation of 1848, Marx moved back to Paris when a revolution first emerged and onto Germany where he instituted again in Cologne, the Neue heinishce Zeitung. In later periods Marx settled in London, and was optimistic about the imminence of a new revolutionary emergence in Europe. He re-entered the Communist League and wrote two prolonged pamphlets on the 1848 revolution in France and its repercussions, the Class Struggles in France and the 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. He had a…… [Read More]
When Lenin's Bolshevik Revolution occurred, Russia was primarily an agricultural country with many of its people being little more than poor agricultural workers. There was little sign of an impending industrial revolution.
When Lenin came into power and held the position of head of government, he began to implement some of his socialist ideologies. In 1918, the Russian Constituent Assembly was dissolved and enabled the Bolsheviks to consolidate their political power. Prior to this consolidation, in 1917 the Cheka was formed. Created to defend the Russian Revolution, the Cheka began to clamp down on voices opposed to the Bolshevik party, taking control of newspaper content and ensuring no defamatory articles were written about the Cheka. As was always his intention, Lenin sought to introduce the world to his revolutionary ideas and in 1923 he looked to the Third World as the focus of his revolution. He praised China's socialist values…… [Read More]
hen thirty-year-old Maximilien Robespierre arrived at Versailles to represent the Third Estate of Artois, he seemed an unlikely revolutionary. In his home town of Arras, he was known as a solid, though not particularly inspiring lawyer. His manner of dress was simple and conservative. His high-pitched, atonal voice placed him at a disadvantage as an orator (Jordan 66). He was not, however, entirely lacking in strengths. According to Jordan, Robespierre loved words and had a gift for stringing them together into stirring sentences (64). Furthermore, he was persistent, making speeches on a variety of issues in spite of his own fears and the jeering of hecklers (67). Finally, he carried in his mind and heart a glowing vision of a just, economically stable, democratic post-revolutionary France (34).
Through his speeches, Robespierre emerged as one of the more influential figures of the Revolution. This paper will examine Robespierre's evolving political, social,…… [Read More]
He became a virtual dictator which saw his government making peace with Germany, distributed land and nationalized industry.in 1918 there was a devastating civil war against the anti-Bolshevik white forces.in 1920 the anti-Bolsheviks were defeated which saw the formation of the Union of oviet ocialist Republics (UR) in 1922 (A&E Television Networks, LLC, 2014).
During the Civil war between 1917 and 1921 the Bolsheviks adopted the war communism that led to the breaking up of landed estates as well as forcible seizure of agricultural surpluses.in the cities there were intense food shortages as well as a break down of monetary system. City dwellers fled to the countryside to tend to the land which Bolshevik break up of the lands estates had transferred of peasants. Early 1921 there was a lot of public discontent with the state of economy resulting to numerous strikes and protests. The Kronstadt rebellion was…… [Read More]
One of these leaders of nations who had subsisted to the promise of Communism is Vladimir Lenin, Revolutionary leader who became the first leader of Soviet Russia, and eventually, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Under Lenin's leadership, he began realizing Marx's vision of a Communist society, where there is no private property and no class stratification. However, Lenin did not subscribe to Marx' belief that it should be the working class who will induce social reform and revolutionize to build a Communist society, in opposition against capitalism. In "What is to be done?," Lenin argues that revolution under a broad organization of revolutionaries made up of "hardened workers" is not feasible, simply because this organization is "loose," making the revolutionaries of workers more susceptible to outside intervention. These interventions, he states, are the police and gendarmes; hence, a broad organization of workers are not ideal, for it…… [Read More]
While Lenin's economic program benefited the Russians, particularly its working class, Stalin's economic program was advantageous for military personnel and industrialists. In fact, Stalin had changed the nature of USSR economy from being socialist to pseudo-capitalist, a reversal of Lenin's objectives. Thus, Stalinism in the Soviet Union had destroyed the nationalistic objective that Lenin had originally created for the Russian people and the Soviet allies.
Nikita Khrushchev's leadership after the rule of the Stalin government included the abolishment of the Soviet Union. Russia gradually assumed a capitalist economy, although the immediate reform that Khruschev implemented was the destruction of Stalin's Communist regime and its institutions. His administration focused on the abolishment of any trace of Stalin's authoritarian rule in the Soviet Union right after World War II. Russian morale at this time was at its lowest, what with the fall of the 'socialist experiment' and prevalence of poverty and hunger…… [Read More]
leadership is crucial to successful political military campaigns. Close scrutiny of the military and political leaders of the First World War demonstrate how political leaders use methods like propaganda and ideology to forge their victories in the psyches of the people, helping military leaders achieve their goals by engendering trust, courage, and conviction in spite of tremendous hardships and even death. Similarly, the victories of military leaders become critical for effective political campaigns. Military leadership requires a different set of tools and tactics than political leadership but both are crucial for desirable outcomes.
One of the most successful political leaders during World War One ended up being Vladimir Lenin, who spearheaded the Bolshevik evolution and ensured the enduring success of Soviet policies. Lenin's leadership skills far exceeded those of Czar Nicholas II, who failed to inspire the people of ussia in the way Lenin had, thus leading to the demise…… [Read More]
We are surrounded on all sides by enemies, and we have to advance almost constantly under their fire. We have combined, by a freely adopted decision, for the purpose of fighting the enemy, and not of retreating into the neighboring marsh, the inhabitants of which, from the very outset, have reproached us with having chosen the path of struggle instead of the path of conciliationæthere can be no talk of an independent ideology formulated by the working masses themselves in the process of their movement, the only choice is -- either bourgeois or socialist ideology. There is no middle course (for mankind has not created a "third" ideology, and, moreover, in a society torn by class antagonisms there can be a non-class or an above-class ideology)."
The Revolution of 1905 developed in two phases. First, a diverse group opposing the Tsar and encompassing much of the political spectrum took form.…… [Read More]
Hapsburg Empire in the Half entury before World War I
At the outbreak of World War I, The Hapsburg Empire was one of the last vestiges of Holy Roman Empire to be found in Europe. The eventual defeat of the Austrian Haspburgs culminated a demise that began in the half century before the war started.
The reason for the longevity of the Hapsburg Empire rested in its ability to form advantageous political alliances whether they be through marriage- Maria Theresa and Joseph II, religion- acceptance of Protestants ending discrimination against Jews or militaristic- alliance w / Germany, in nature. During the half century before the World War, The Haspburgs created some allegiances that would prove to be faulty.
During the rimean War (1853-1856) the Haspburgs flirted with siding with the France and England against Russia if Russia did not leave Romania. Russia withdrew but not without hard feelings towards the…… [Read More]
A democracy based on peaceful demonstrations rather than on a coup or forced government changes is one in which millions of citizens decided to take action for their own future economic and democratic benefit. The political system India has is based on the political culture of the society that governed it - which is England. The Indian system of justice, according to the CIA orld Factbook is based on English common law. But because India is 80% Hindu, 13.4% Muslim and 2.3% Christian, the country has separate codes of law for those three religions. In fact, there is a great deal of hostility between Muslims and Hindu people, so separate law codes show that India has adopted Classical Liberalism.
Classical Liberalism that has evolved into New Liberalism in India means an open democracy where the government uses a free market and fairness in matters of justice along with regular elections…… [Read More]
Marxist Perspective for Understanding Society
Although the United States and other Western nations fought a cold war against Communism for a significant part of the twentieth century, Western nations were not immune to the influence of Karl Marx, an intellectual and ideological founder of Communism. Even during the Cold War, Marxism entered disciplines in social sciences in the United States and students of sociology, history, political science, and a few other disciplines can no longer ignore Marxist perspective for understanding society today. Indeed, key components of Marxist perspective -- all of them revolving around the basic premise that societies can be defined by class struggle -- are very helpful in analyzing how a society functions. And Marxism today is not confined to the writings of Marx only but has been enriched by other scholars who helped to make Marxism a very useful and important tool for evaluating complexities of societies.…… [Read More]
" Only by purging it completely would Russia be pure enough for the clean sheet of the revolution (erth, 2008). The history of communism and fascism is replete with such nauseating disrespect for the common customs and mores of people that gird the very structures of society. e do not always see these microlaws, but they are there and have validity and society only invades upon them with great danger.
In addition to local common law, microlegal systems guide and gird international law as well. As defined by Philip Adott in the Concept of International Law, "micro-legal systems of treaties…are an integral part of a society's legal self-constituting, its self-ordering through law…the international legal system…contains a customary form of law, and treaties have a complex and subtle relationship to customary international law (Adott, 1999, pp. 42-33)." According to Adott, microlaw can potentially be international in its scope and can impact…… [Read More]
It was simply not modern or wealthy enough to withstand such strong economic pressure. In 1917 the first of two major coups occurred; the Tsar was imprisoned and later executed, a Civil War erupted eventually resulting in the emergence of the Bolshevik Party under Vladimir Lenin; the world's first socialist state.
The major thrust of the new government was to completely revise the economy of the massive state -- breakup landed estates, seizure of agricultural surpluses, but an economic period of 8 years (1921-29) that was more market socialism. However, once Lenin died and the power struggle for ultimate control went to Joseph Stalin, a vast and rapid reindustrialization took place. Stalin believed that the only way to retain a Soviet State was to modernize and the only way to modernize was to collectivize all agriculture so there would be enough food and surplus to fuel the drastic measures necessary…… [Read More]
The impact of Marx's theories was not as significant during his lifetime as in the 20th century after his death. Nevertheless, his ideas about class struggle were considered so dangerous by the governments dominated by the elite class that he was repeatedly prosecuted and exiled from major European countries such as France and Germany for propagating revolution. Besides his writings, he formed the Communist League and the First International to promote working class revolutions in the industrial countries, putting his own belief that "there is no point in gaining a deeper insight into the world unless it is a means of changing the world." ("Karl Marx: Man of Millenium.") After his death, however, with the growth of the labor movement in Europe, Marx's theories began to take on greater significance.
Various socialist movements around the world took up his analysis of capitalist economy, his theory of historical materialism,…… [Read More]
Domestic and foreign policy caused nation's anger and disrespect both in the eyes of own people and foreigners. As a result, Russian defeats and casualties on the WWI battlefields became a culminating point of Russian troubled times - the March Revolution began. Ultimately, Czar's rule was replaced and two main powers appeared: Provisional Government which consisted of wealthy elite and local Soviets which represented the majority of population. As the matter of fact Russians got disappointed with Provisional Government for many reasons. First of all that government continued participating in WWI and did nothing to stop it while practically all citizens suffered wartime troubles and wished taking their state out of the absurd war. Also Provisional Government was weak and had no real support either among citizens or in the army, so when Bolsheviks attacked it there was nobody to defend it. Russians realized that Provisional Government provided the same…… [Read More]
Hence, the model of preparation applies to Guevara's situation and choices perfectly because all of the prior knowledge and experience he had through his medical visits across Latin America motivated him to be absolutely prepared for a long battle, hence he not only stayed in the area where he could learn the most, he associated with people who had been pursuing the same goal longer then him and knew more about the things that he wanted to be aware of .
Domain knowledge that Guevara gained by staying in Guatemala and preparing was also of significant importance to sharpen the technical skills he needed to possess to succeed. Two of the most important aspects that Guevara aimed to gain through the domain knowledge were:
To familiarize himself with the rules with which a revolution or change within different societies operates in differing environments and the practical wisdom to compete in…… [Read More]
" The revolution was also responsible for establishing "conditions for an era of economic development. Capitalist development had begun in Mexico prior to the revolution, but it had been constrained by the power of the large landholders and lacked the sponsorship of an active, development-oriented state (MacEwan)."
During the 1920s and 1930s, the modern Mexican state "came to embody the dual heritage of the Mexican revolution, representing and containing the interests of Mexico's working people and also leading a process of capitalist development by actively intervening in the country's economic life, resulting in a highly nationalist state. The revolution had in part been a reaction to the power of foreign investors, and nationalist policies struck a popular chord (MacEwan)."
In order for the country's economy to experience its total growth potential, it was essential that Mexican capital receive "support for the state and protection from foreign competition (MacEwan)."
Russia's Revolution…… [Read More]
Another tragic page of Jewish history is tragic period of Holocaust. There's no need to explain those terrible times and German crimes - these facts are well-known but I have to mention that Jewish Zionists managed organizing resistance to the Nazi regime and also they gained success cooperating with British, Soviet and American governments which agreed and let Jews create their state after the war. "Among the few European Jews who escaped the Holocaust were Zionists who emigrated to Palestine" (Shmuel; Reinharz, Jehuda Zionism and Religion Among, p.122). They were happy to leave Europe that was their real homeland but after Hitler's crimes they got sure that having own state, which would protect its citizens, is the best way out from international violence and anger directed against Jewish nation.
1948 was a turning point of Jewish history. At last Jewish nation created an own state on their historical land -…… [Read More]
in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…… [Read More]
The Variant Paths of Post-Communist Russia, Poland, and Hungary
The past ten years have seen great changes in the formerly Communist countries of Eastern Europe. Bound together for years under the Soviet yoke, these nations have now embarked upon their own individual paths as sovereign states. Representative of these emerging one-time Eastern Bloc nations are Russia, Poland, and Hungary. All three once shared a common form of government and a single social system. In each of these cases, Communism overlay a pre-existing civilization and set of traditions. This relatively brief interlude of Marxism, Leninism, and Stalinism was thus, a veneer, a covering over, if you will, of far older patterns of behavior and ways of thinking. It was these underlying cultural and historical characteristics that, combined with the shared history of Soviet rule, produced the countries we know today. Three distinct nations were put together into the crucible of…… [Read More]
S.-Soviet partnership lasted only a year and a half. With World War II over and the OSS disbanded in October 1945, the Cold War was looming on the horizon.
The research showed that the KGB was established in 1917 and was official deactivated in 1991. The research also showed that the KGB was not the stuff of the James Bond movies, but rather was characterized by an enormous sense of internal rivalry, a profound sense of paranoia and a desire on the part of many of its agents to defect to the West at their first opportunity. In this environment, it was little wonder that the KGB would resort to some of the tactics it used to achieve its mission, and it is reasonable to assert that current ussian intelligence agents will have taken a lesson or two from their KGB predecessors as they seek to maintain hegemony with…… [Read More]
I agree with the authors that the main problem with capitalism is its lack of an ideological basis, and really its denial of any process by which ideology could be implemented. That is, the basic tenet of the free market concept is that enforced regulation limits profitability and growth, and that the markets themselves will correct any mistakes by rising to meet demand. This has proven already not to be the case for certain unprofitable ventures, such as public transit, which is nearly always operated at a loss. The fact that you can take a bus to work is a testament to the fact that capitalism does not answer everything. Even worse, though, are the instances where capitalism provides an incomplete answer. The issue of health care is very important in this country and around the world; under the capitalist and globalist economy, many people are unable to afford the…… [Read More]