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Social groups that have increased susceptibility and are at risk for health problems are referred to as "vulnerable populations." This paper seeks to briefly define the meaning of the term "vulnerable population,' describe its characteristics, identify some of the barriers to health care service, and look at cultural attitudes relating to these populations. In addition, a cursory look at nursing theories, and models, concerning vulnerable populations will be presented.
Vulnerability means to have increased risks in the area of physical, psychological, or social health and can be established by evidence of inadequate access to health care, unhealthy living condition, relatively high mortality rates, and low life expectancy. Individuals can become vulnerable due to life changes or unexpected events such as a loss of employment, a major medical event, or natural disaster. Health care professionals that focus on vulnerable populations are concern with whole social groups that are at…
Anderson, B. (2007). Caring for the Vulnerable: Perspectives in Nursing Theory, Practice, and Research. Sudbury, Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett .
Crow, S.E., Harrington, M.E., & McLaughlin, C.G. (2002). Sources of vulnerability: a critical review of the Literature on Racial/Ethnic Minorities, immigrants, and Persons with Chronic Mental Illness. Economic Research Initiative on the Uninsured, Retrieved from http://www.rwjf-eriu.org/pdf/wp14.pdf . (Dec 10, 2010).
McKone, J. (2010, December 07). The future of sustainable urban mobility: make the poor a priority. The City Fix, Retrieved from http://thecityfix.com/megacities-on-the-move-make-the-poor-a-priority/
WIC program is a federal program designed for mothers and their children. "The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides Federal grants to States for supplemental foods, health care referrals, and nutrition education for low-income pregnant, breastfeeding, and non-breastfeeding postpartum women, and to infants and children up to age five who are found to be at nutritional risk" (usda.gov). This federal program attempts to address the needs of the vulnerable population of single mothers or mothers from low-income households which have children and families which are nutritionally at risk: thus the program is able to provide these children (up to the age of five) with supplemental foods to help provide them with a more well0roudned diet. In certain respects, one of the reasons why this program is supported by the federal government is because it's a preventative program. By making sure that all infants have the…
Holmes, A., Chin, N., & Kaczorowski, J. (2009). A Barrier to Exclusive Breastfeeding for WIC Enrollees: Limited Use of Exclusive Breastfeeding Food Package for Mothers. Libert Inc., 25-30.
Sekhobo, J., Edmunds, L., & Reynolds, D. (2010). Trends in Prevalence of Obesity and Overweight Among Children Enrolled in the New York State WIC Program, 2002 -- 2007. Public Health Rep., 218 -- 224.
USDA.gov. (2013). Women, Infants and Children (WIC). Retrieved from Usda.gov: http://www.fns.usda.gov/wic/about-wic-wics-mission
financial impact vulnerable population. Consider: o the impact age groups, ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic education level o Health illness trends, disease morbidity mortality population o Health care service, acute care, long-term care, nursing home, home health, hospice • Description funding assist population.
The terms vulnerable populations refers to the groups of people who are not properly integrated into the health care system as a result of their cultural, geographic, ethnic, health characteristics, or economic status. This group of people is usually isolated in terms of its members being at risk of not obtaining access to essential medical care. Therefore, this population is a potential threat to the health of the community because of their lack of access to medical care. Some examples of these vulnerable populations are the minority groups either ethnically or racially. There is also the urban and rural poor population. There are the undocumented immigrants and…
Aday, L.A. (2001). At Risk in America: The Health and Health Care Needs of Vulnerable Populations in the United States. New York: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE). (2011). Overview of the Uninsured in the United States: A Summary of the 2011 Current Population Survey. Washington, DC U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Goodson, J.D. (2010). Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Promise and Peril for Primary Care. Annals of Internal Medicine, 152(11), 742-744. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-152-11-201006010-00249
Miller, W., Vigdor, E.R., & Manning, W.G. (2004). Covering The Uninsured: What Is It Worth? Health Affairs, W4, 157-167. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.W4.157
Accommodating Vulnerable Populations in Healthcare
Within contemporary healthcare, access to healthcare services is negatively impacted by a variety of potential barriers. Typical examples of such barriers include cultural and ethnic isolation, advanced age, low income, lack of access to public transportation, and language barriers. In our healthcare agency, the two most prevalent barriers to healthcare access are advanced age, language barriers, and the particular vulnerabilities of aged populations.
Within our healthcare organization, there may be issues of the failure on the part of many staff members to empathize with the significance of these issues, largely because the staff are almost all young, well-educated individuals whose primary language is English. This project consists of several proposed methods of increasing the awareness and sensitivity among healthcare providers to the significance of these potential barriers to healthcare access. In principle, they are designed to help individuals who are not and have never been…
Beauchamp, T.L. And Childress, J.F. (2009). Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 6th
Edition. Oxford University Press.
Hiscock, R., Pearce, J., Blakely, T., and Witten, K. "Is neighborhood access to health care provision associated with individual-level utilization and satisfaction?" Journal of Health Services Research, Vol. 43, No. 6 (2008): 2183 -- 2200.
Rust, G., Ye, J., Baltrus, P., Daniels, E., Adesunloye, B., and Fryer, G.E. "Practical barriers to timely primary care access impact on adult use of emergency department services." Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 168, No. 15 (2008):
poor elderly are a vulnerable population in all communities. Specific factors that have contributed to this factor constitute ageism, namely the way that elderly are generally stereotypes as deserving of less social respect and undeserving of social support. In American society in particular, and in western society in general, youth is glorified and monetary success considered, whether erroneously or not, to equivocate happiness. The fact is that an elderly person who is wealthy might well receive the best of treatment. It is the combination of age and poverty with poverty dominating that spells rejection and, sometimes, premature death, deprivation, and suffering.
A great source of resources for the elderly in my community are social support networks such as The Ark that even though promoted as Jewish, is actually available for all individuals regardless of race. Not only does it regularly deliver food packages to needy elderly people. Its medical clinic,…
Chesney, A.P., Chavira, J.A., Hall, R.P., & Gary, H.E. (1982). Barriers to medical care of Mexican-Americans: the role of social class, acculturation, and social isolation. Med. Care 20, 88
Orlando Sentinel. (Dec., 04. 1993). Clinic On Wheels To Take Health Care To Elderly Poor
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f) if the abstract is accurate;
g) if the figures/tables are necessary and clear;
h) whether the references are comprehensive or lacking.…
Evidence-based nursing interventions that will provide quality care to vulnerable populations
There is evidence in innovative health programs whose outcomes are Hospice care with increased patient and caregiver satisfaction costs lower than the conventional care; programs with community-based care reduces the severity of symptoms and results in a rapid functioning; for the frail elderly, it results in improved satisfaction; Patient empowerment, especially with the frail elderly and disabled adults, brings satisfaction and knowledge about their care; for the mentally ill, it lowers the rate of homelessness and for patients with diabetes or congestive heart failure, it decreases the morbidity. Usually, the beneficial effects were limited to the duration of the intervention (Aday, 2001).
There is evidence for enhanced patient satisfaction in the health care that emphasize continual care, multidisciplinary approaches, patient empowerment, and innovative approaches. Health care providers should also practice evidence-based care as it demonstrates the effectiveness. Patients with…
Assessing the ability of these individuals to perform basic tasks in their daily lives can also have much significance (Marshall, Warren, Hand, Xie, & Stumbo, 2002). Many older Americans are able to feed and clothe themselves without apparent problems, but others are not as fortunate (Marshall, Warren, Hand, Xie, & Stumbo, 2002). If they are unable to do these things correctly without help, their nutritional status will often suffer (Marshall, Warren, Hand, Xie, & Stumbo, 2002). Patients who are older should be assessed for their ability to do these simple tasks, and also for their ability to perform slightly more complex tasks such as fixing their own meals, cleaning their house, and balancing their checkbook (Marshall, Warren, Hand, Xie, & Stumbo, 2002). Sometimes cognitive impairment will lead to a lack of nutrition, and when this is the case, it often shows up in forgetfulness and an inability to perform even…
Bartholomew LK, Parcel GS, Kok G, & Gottlieb NH. 2001. Intervention Mapping: Designing Theory and Evidence-Based Health Promotion Programs. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company.
Collinsworth, R., & Boyle, K. 1989. Nutritional assessment in the elderly. Journal of Gerontological Nursing 15(12): 17-21.
Gambrell, K.A. 2003. White House rolls out Medicare reform plan. United Press International.
Industry Group 91, 2000. President Clinton releases new state-by-state report demonstrating urgent need for Medicare reform. Regulatory Intelligence Data.
Vulnerable Populations: Low Income Adults
Low income adults in Wyandot County, Kansas City, Kansas, are vulnerable to the socio-economic factors that commonly have a negative health impact. These factors include low wages, unstable family life, risky sexual behavior, drug and alcohol abuse, high crime, low education, obesity, diabetes, and poor access to health care (Boyer et al., 2017; Guariguata, 2014; Osborn, Squires, Doty, Sarnak & Schneider, 2016). Low income adults, therefore, are at risk of not receiving the proper health education they need to maintain healthy lifestyle; they are at risk of lacking a cogent support system to maintain a healthy lifestyle; they are at risk of not having adequate access to health care, whereby they maintain obtain necessary health education and preventive care.
Understanding the needs and risks of vulnerable populations is important to the clinical population I will serve as an advanced practice nurse because community health is…
While it is true that in many countries like Canada there has been a reduction in vulnerabilities such as poverty among the elderly, it is equally true that;
some 3.3 million seniors still live below the poverty line Good housing and proper medical care are often out of reach for the poor elderly -- or so expensive that little money is left over for other needs. Hundreds of thousands of elders go hungry every month. (Callahan, 1999, p. 74)
Poverty is however also a strong indicator of elderly vulnerability in Canada; where the lack of resources is also linked to safety and security issues. Many elderly people live alone and they become more vulnerable to abuse and attack if they so not have enough funds to afford adequate home security. As one Canadian resource notes; "Examples include safety devices that would reduce their chances of a fall or an alarm…
Abuse of the elderly. Retrieved February 10, 2009, at http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2002/9241545615_chap5_eng.pdf
Ageism: Canadian Network for the Prevention of Elder Abuse. Retrieved February 10, 2009, at http://www.cnpea.ca/ageism.htm
Barer M. And Hertzman C. (1972) on Being Old and Sick: The Burden of Health Care for the Elderly in Canada and the United States. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 17(4), pp.763-782.
Brownell P., Welty a., Brennan M. Elder Abuse and Neglect. Retrieved February 10, 2009, at http://www.aging.state.ny.us/explore/project2015/artabuse.htm
Children with AIDS
The Centers for Disease Control estimate there were 217 children with HIV below the age of 13, in 2010 in the 46 states. The report indicates that seventy-five percent of these were infected prenatal. By the end of 2009, approximately 10,834 people diagnosed with HIV at the age of 13 and below, were living with confidential, long-term name-based HIV reporting. Of the prenatal infections, 63% were from the African/Black community, 22% were Latino/Hispanics, and 13% were whites. The CDC estimates that the number of new children infected will increase by 30%. This is because the number of women giving birth in the U.S., with HIV increase at a rate of 30% in 2006. New York has the highest number of children with AIDS in any area of the U.S., as half of the children diagnosed with HIV / AIDS in the country reside in the…
Holmes, A.M., Ackerman, R.D., Zillich, A.J., Katz, B.P., Downs, S.M., & Inui, T.S. (2008). The Net Fiscal Impact of a Chronic Disease Management Program: Indiana Medicaid. Health Affairs, 27(3), 855-864.
Peters, V.B., M.D., Liu, K., Robinson, L., Dominguez, Kenneth L, M.D., M.P.H., Abrams, E.J., M.D., Gill, B.S., PhD., & Thomas, P.A., M.D. (2008). Trends in perinatal HIV prevention in New York City, 1994-2003. American Journal of Public Health, 98(10), 1857-64.
Schackman, B.R., Gebo, K.A., Walensky, R.P., Losina, E., Muccio, T., Sax, P.E., Weinstein, M.C., Seage, G.R. III, Moore, R.D., & Freedberg, K.A. (2006). The lifetime cost of current human immunodeficiency virus care in the United States. Medical Care, 44(11), 990-997.
Elderly in Monrovia, CA
The population of people aged 65 years or greater is steadily escalating, as baby boomers come of age. It is estimated that this age bracket accounts for 10% of the total world population, and is statistically increasing. As this sector of the population steadily increases, there are of course, accompanying health care issues: osteoarthritis, cardiac and kidney issues, Alzheimer's or dementia, and an ever-growing problem with depression. For this essay, we will concentrate on several health issues that plague seniors nationally, but will specifically focus on the aging population over 65 in Monrovia, California.
Monrovia is a smallish city located at the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains in the San Gabriel Valley, Los Angeles County. Monrovia was settled in the late 1800s as a central hub for the growing orange grove industry, but has now become more of a bedroom community that supports the urban…
Breathe California of Los Angeles County. (2009). Cited in:
California Department of Public Health. (June 2009). "Healthy California -- 2010
Midcourse Review." Executive Summary. Cited in:
Care for Populations
When it comes to the well-being of the overall population, community and public health are both vital areas to consider. However, how the community rallies around its members and how it bands together in times of crisis are not the only kinds of issues that have to be looked at. Those are important, but it is the day-to-day workings of a community that provide more indication as to how it treats the population and whether an overall sense of well-being can be expected. How that same community responds to public health issues is also worthy of consideration. If a community does not take public health seriously, that could be very disastrous for the overall population. Sickness can spread quickly when people are not taking care of themselves and one another.
It also spreads when the people in a community are not focused on the severity of the…
Barzilai, G. (2003). Communities and law: Politics and cultures of legal identities. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Chipuer, H.M., & Pretty, G.M.H. (1999). A review of the sense of community index: Current uses, factor structure, reliability, and further development. Journal of Community Psychology, 27(6): 643-658.
Cohen, A.P. (1985). The symbolic construction of community. Routledge: New York.
Garrett, L. (2000). Betrayal of trust: the collapse of global public health. New York: Hyperion.
This can include families who are breaking up, adult children forced to leave home, and any number of other situations (Editors, 2006). New York City has made it a priority to prevent homelessness as part of its comprehensive Action Plan for the Homeless, which is mandated through 2009. This plan includes ideas on how to prevent homelessness, redirect more homeless to shelters, create "viable alternatives" for the homeless, coordinate services so people are not "dumped" between them, and provide more housing options. As of 2005, the Action Plan was at least indirectly responsible for reducing homelessness by 10% in the city. It seems the plan is working, and other cities would do well to implement an appropriate plan for their own areas.
Traditionally, most people have looked at homelessness as a problem of demographics and personal attributes. However, more researchers now understand homelessness is more than demographics; it is a…
Baumohl, J. (Ed.). (1996). Homelessness in America. Phoenix: Oryx Press.
Editors, (2006). Action plan. Retrieved from the NYC.gov Website: http://nyc.gov/html/endinghomelessness/html/action_plan/action_plan.shtml21 Nov. 2006.
Perinatal HIV Transmission
One of the more tragic consequences of the HIV / AIDS pandemic is the prevalence of infected children. An estimated 4 million children have been diagnosed with the disease worldwide since HIV was first described in 1981 and greater than 90% of these infections occurred perinatally (Lundy and Janes, 2009, p. 468). Children's immune systems are especially vulnerable to HIV and they typically progress to developing AIDs quickly; rarely to they survive to adulthood and are often are faced with losing one or more parents to the disease.
Causes of Perinatal HIV Transmission
In more developed countries almost all HIV infections in newborns are acquired from HIV-infected mothers perinatally (Lundy and Janes, 2009, p. 468). In the United States these infections are more likely to occur because the mothers had little or no access to quality prenatal care. Access to prenatal care in the United…
Lundy, Karen Saucier and Janes, Sharyn. (2009). Community Health Nursing: Caring for the Public's Health (2nd Ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers
Wang, Xu and Ho, Wen-Zhe. (2011). Drugs of abuse and HIV infection/replication: Implications for mother-fetus transmission. Life Sciences, 88, 972-979.
violence against non-combatant populations to increase the psychological effects of warfare has been a mainstay of human aggression for millennia. As Russian revolutionist eon Tolstoy once said: "kill one, intimidate one thousand." In the modern world, the idea of terrorism has moved from the overt spark that caused World War I to the events of September 11, 2001. Just after 9am Eastern Standard Time, most of the world watched in horror as the global media replayed the events surrounding four passenger planes that were high jacked in the United States. Two of these aircraft were flown into New York's Twin Towers, one into the Pentagon in Washington, D.C., and the final one crashed into a field in Pennsylvania. Even though the damage was confined to the physical and geographic area of the United States, the image and aftermath of the attacks were global. American conservative columnist George Will, never a…
Looking at the photographs or reviewing the footage, of the Twin Towers is highly emotional and symbolic; likely exactly the point of using them as targets. The Twin Towers represented not just New York or America, but capitalism, international business, the human spirit in almost defying gravity and using human ingenuity to build something grand. However, grand though it may have been, just like December 7, 1945 and Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, the very soul of modernity was ripped away, making individuals feel vulnerable, unsafe, and quite frankly -- terrified in a hostile world.
Whatever motives the al-Qaida sect might have had are less important than the capability of adapting to such an evil and nefarious purpose. This of course, is the great conundrum that 9/11 reminds us: we are a species capable of the most ardent dichotomies imagined. Even examining only the 20th century, we find that humans have produced some of the most beautiful works of art imaginable: the sublime works of T.S. Eliot, the controversial yet intriguing works of Aaron Copland and Igor Stravinsky, the disturbingly emotional Salvador Dali, and architectural masterpieces that dwarf anything built, and more technological advances than can be adequately chronicled here. Then, we have also had the Holocaust, Stalin's Purges, the excesses of Pol Pot and Idi Amin; vast populations starved, displaced, and several disease vectors that have wiped out significant populations. From the perspective of an extraterrestrial anthropologist, we would seem a confusing species at best; a clear dichotomy of values, morals, and actions.
Yet the images of 9/11 also remind us that while a dichotomy exists, it is that very capacity for evil that allows us to rise above and produce good. New York City is certainly a different place than it was on September 10, 2011; and the world has grown even closer since the attacks -- partially due to technology, but also due to a true desire and vision that when all external trappings are gone, the kernel of the individual is indeed the human spirit.
ongaarts (2004) reports that since 1950 the median age in North America, Europe Japan and the rest of the developed world has increased from 29 years to 37 years. In addition by 2050 the median age is expected to increase to 45 years old. However in the developing world, including North America and Africa, the median age is 24 years. Although the median age is lower in the developing world these nations are also experiencing declines in both mortality and fertility rates will increase the median age to 36 by 2050. These facts concerning median age in societies around the world are important to understand because they dictate the public policy decisions.
How does the presence of an aging population affect public pension programs?
How do current immigration laws dictate how replacement immigration might be impacted by immigration laws?
Problem addressed by proposed study
The aging of the population…
Bongaarts, John. Population Aging and the Rising Cost of Public Pensions
Chand, Sheetal and Albert Jaeger. 1996. "Aging populations and public pension schemes," IMF
Occasional Paper Number 147. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.
Windshield Survey of Diabetes in the Asian-Indian Community in Plainsboro, New Jersey: Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation
As the home to the second-largest population of Asian-Indians in the United States today (the first is another nearby small community, Edison, New Jersey) (Sahney, 2010). Out of a population of around 23,500, 16.97% of the residents of Plainsboro (or about 4,000) describe themselves as having Indian ancestry (Sahney, 2010). Although Plainsboro enjoys a high standard of living, a desirable community environment and state-of-the-art medical facilities, it is reasonable to suggest that some of the Asian-Indian population in this community remain marginalized due to an inability to afford these state-of-the-art health care services and the potential for cross-cultural differences in views about health care may further exacerbate this lack of access.
A growing body of evidence also indicates that Asian-Indians are among the highest-risk populations for developing diabetes, making this community an especially important…
About Plainsboro. (2015). Township of Plainsboro. Retrieved from http://www.plains boronj.com/content/about-plainsboro.
Anderson, E. N. (2014). Everyone eats: Understanding food and culture. New York: New York University Press.
Brooks, J. (2004, July 26). NLC membership offers many benefits to cities, towns. Nation's Cities Weekly, 27(30), 8.
Chandras, K. V. & Eddy, J. P. (1999, Winter). Counseling Asian-Americans: Implications for training. Education, 120(2), 239.
Infrastructure Vulnerability and Protection
The efficient operation of any city in the world depends on the level of the infrastructure that is available, indeed even the far removed areas from the city can only be categorized as accessible and habitable with the introduction of the necessary infrastructure. Infrastructure has been the yardstick for measuring the level of civilization in any part of the world, with regions that lack basic infrastructure like roads, electricity, communication, means of transport among others being categorized as uncivilized or yet to be civilized. The economic categorization also hinges its definition on the amount and quality of infrastructure that a region or a country has, with those with most sophisticated infrastructure considered to be developed and those with the least considered as developing or underdeveloped regions/nations (O'Conor T., 2014).
Apparently, the infrastructures, in most cases are interconnected for them to function significantly well. The infrastructure in…
Manuel Suter, (2007). A Generic National Framework For Critical Information Infrastructure Protection (CIIP). Retrieved April 18, 2015 from http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/cyb/cybersecurity/docs/generic-national-framework-for-ciip.pdf
O'Conor T., (2014). The Safety and Security of Critical Infrastructure. Retrieved April 18, 2015 from http://drtomoconnor.com/3430/3430lect01a.htm
Program Development and Evaluation
The proposed program is intended for, and targets the students of both secondary and tertiary institutions. The program is known as "MSM Initiative for Colleges." "
The ability of this program to use ICT as a way of helping the aggregate is one important technique that will give the program a new edge. This is to help develop an effective combination of avoidance intervention that will be able to deliver BCC-behavioral change in communication. These behavioral changes in communication can be in the form of products, services, messages, as well as referrals, as a way of promoting and improving the use of condoms and condom-compatible lubricants, HIV tests, reporting cases of violence, and using complementary services. This inventive online 'cyber educator' MSM intervention, virtually provides a one-on-one HIV and BCC counseling, and test referrals (Adams, Klindera, Walsh, & Wold, 2014).
Interventions for the Aggregate
Adam, D., kinder., K., Walsh, C.S., & Wold, R.C (2014), November 14). Innovative programmatic approaches to HIV prevention and care services for gay men, other men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender persons using information and communication technology (ICT). Digital Culture & Education (DCE). Retrieved from Digital Culture and Education: http://www.digitalcultureandeducation.com/uncategorized/v6_i3_editorial_html/
Cohen, L. M., & Gelbrich, J. (2015, October 16). Sample Educational Philosophy Statements . Retrieved from Oregun State University: http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/sample.html
PEPFAR (2011).Technical Guidance on Combination HIV Prevention. The U.S. President's Emergency plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR).
Caring is important to human kind and in our daily experiences. Although caring is fundamental, knowledge about it and its application is not one of the serious academic concerns. Caring as a topic can raise various descriptions. In nursing as a discipline of concern, caring relates to the ability and desire to help someone grow or overcome a depressing situation. Caring is the moral ideal in nursing practice. It involves ones will to care, and mind about the situation of others. In nursing practice, Caring is a process that nurtures itself from a person's moral responsibility to meet a society's mandate. According to Watson (1985), nurses are the caretakers of care for other helping professions. Nursing is the epitome of care and a nurse has to guard and develop the concept. Caring is not only required in nursing but also in various disciplines. Caring can develop from different motivational factors.…
Caudill, M. (2009). Managing pain before it manages you. New York: Guilford Press.
Watson, J. (1985). Nursing science and human care: A theory of nursing. London: Jones & Bartlett publishers.
Srivastava, R. (2007). The healthcare professional's guide to clinical cultural competence.
Toronto: Mosby Elsevier.
role of nurses in dealing with rise and spread of HIV AIDS in the vulnerable community of Orange County Orlando FL. Homeless males between the ages of 40-50 were the target population for this paper. Ways to tackle this issue in accordance with the healthy NC2020 objectives have also been explained.
In a diverse population, such as that of Orange County, Orlando FL, there is no doubt that health risks and problems would be just as varied, especially among the different communities based on race, age, ethnicity and income class. However, this paper's special focus is on assessing the increased likelihood of the homeless males of Orange County between the ages of 40 and 50 to be exposed to HIV / AIDS, keeping in mind the three factors that this aggregate community has in common -- those of sex, social class and age, and regional belonging.
Homelessness has been on…
Anonymous (2010).Population of Orange County, Florida: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Graphs, Quick Facts. CensusViewer.com .
Anonymous (2011).ORANGE COUNTY COMMUNITY HEALTH ASSESSMENT.Division of Public Health, North Carolina.
Anonymous (2013).Healthy North Carolina 2020: A Better State of Health. NC Department of Health and Human Services.
Evans, Nancy (2011). HIV / AIDS for Florida Healthcare Professionals.EMS-CEU.com.
Cultural, Ethical, And Legal Factors in esearch
In research, there are cultural, ethical, and legal factors that have to be addressed, and that are highly significant to the quality and appropriateness of the research and its conclusions. These include IB approval and informed consent, along with whether the study participants were part of a population that was vulnerable. Three articles will be reviewed and addressed here, in order to see whether they were handled acceptably from cultural, ethical, and legal standpoints. Whether the populations that were used for the studies were treated correctly is highly significant when it comes to the safety of those populations and their use in future studies. When older research is used and compiled there are no serious worries about population safety, but when the researchers of a current study decide to conduct a survey or experiment, it is vital to be sure the participants are…
Bibbins-Domingo, K., Pletcher, M.J., Lin, F., Vittinghoff, E., Gardin, J.M., Arynchyn, A., Lewis, C.E., & Williams, O.D. (2009). Racial differences in incident heart failure among young adults. The New England Journal of Medicine, 360(12): 1179-1190.
Gottdiener, J.S., McClelland, R.L., Marshall, R., Shemanski, L., Furberg, C.D., Kitzman, D.W., Cushman, M., Polak, J., Gardin, J.M., Gersh, B.J., Aurigemma, G.P., & Manolio, T.A. (2002). Outcome of congestive heart failure in elderly persons: Influence of left ventricular systolic function. Annals of Internal Medicine, 137(8): 631-639.
Yancy, C.W., Fowler, M.B., Colucci, W.S., Gilbert, E.M., Bristow, M.R., Cohn, J.N., Lukas, M.A., Young, S.T., & Packer, M. (2001). Race and the response to adrenergic blockade with carvedilol in patients with chronic heart failure. The New England Journal of Medicine, 344(18): 1358-1365.
Munity Nursing and Human Trafficking
Community nursing and Human trafficking
From the PowerPoint we get the definition of human trafficking which is stated as the exploitation of a person or persons for sex, labor or for body organs. This means that human trafficking is done for different reasons which are stated above (Chernush, 2010). Statistics show that men, women and children are all victims of the different forms of human trafficking. Therefore it means that men, women and children are all vulnerable to these three forms of human trafficking.in the U.S. The average age at which a child can become a victim of sex trafficking is between 12 and 14 years. This means that children at this age are more vulnerable to sex trafficking in the United States. Human trafficking can happen to anyone and even the people we love most. The victims of human trafficking are from all walks…
Levy, R., Simon, K., Smyth, E. And Stulberg, A. (2012). Great debate: Human trafficking. The Morningside Post. Retrieved from http://www.themorningsidepost.com/2012/12/04/great-debate-human-trafficking .
Chernush, K. (2010). Human trafficking: The global issue in your backyard. Retrieved from http://www.coca-colacompany.com/stories/human-trafficking-the-global-issue-in-your-backyard
Community Teaching Plan
Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal
Directions: Develop an educational series proposal for your community using one of the following four topics which was chosen within your CLC group:
Primary Prevention/Health Promotion
Secondary Prevention/Screenings for a Vulnerable Population
Planning Before Teaching:
Estimated Time Teaching Will Last:
Three 2-hour sessions
Location of Teaching:
Athens Community Health Department
Supplies, Material, Equipment Needed:
Laptop; digital projector; screen
Community and Target Aggregate:
Athens Community Health Department, Athens, Georgia
Secondary Prevention/Screenings for a Vulnerable Population
Session I: Sources of Vulnerability
Session II:Implications for Healthcare Providers
Session III: Innovative Practice; Gordon's Functional Health Patterns Assessment
Epidemiological ationale for Topic (statistics related to topic):
The literature on vulnerable people clearly indicates that the special needs of these populations and the ubiquitous barriers to quality care access lead to traceable disparities in the provision of healthcare and in their health outcomes…
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). National healthcare disparities report 2008. Chapter 3, Access to healthcare. Washington: AHRQ; 2008. Retrieved http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr08/Chap3.htm
Edelman, C.L. And Mandle, C.L. (2006). In D. Como, L. Thomas (Eds.), Health Promotion Throughout the Lifespan. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby.
cultural assessment in community or public health care with vulnerable populations? Explain.
I feel that it is expedient to include a cultural assessment in community or public health care with vulnerable populations. The very fact that the population is considered vulnerable suggests that there will be dangers in making assumptions about the patient's health care. Moreover, it is well established that cultural background can have a tremendous impact on health care choices for the individual. Decisions that may seem counter-intuitive or misguided to a health care professional may be much easier to understand if the professional completes a cultural assessment. Knowing the potential conflicts between the population's culture and the dominant culture can help a nurse prepare to deal with potential problems.
However, it is important to keep in mind that while it might be expedient to do a cultural assessment when dealing with vulnerable populations, that does not mean…
Healthcare: Social Vulnerability to Disease
Health care has as its immediate concern the welfare of clients and patients. However this pressing concern is often influenced by multiple factors many of which have a distinct social dimension. Consequently, care of individuals and the delivery of quality care is not only a medical problem but also a social problem. Vulnerable populations generally require direct external interventions to assist in the reduction of the levels of risk the group experiences.
There is a fundamental difference between at risk groups and vulnerable populations. The difference is as a result of the role of political, environmental and other social factors in amplifying an already existing risk. At risk groups are populations for whom the relative risk of acquiring a disease is increased beyond that of the general population. There are groups who have a higher probability of contracting malaria and dying from this disease. An…
Weiss, Helen A.; Quigley, Maria A.; Hayes, Richard J. Male circumcision and risk of HIV
infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS 14(15):
World Health Organization: High Risk Groups (2002) Retrieved from http://www.who.int/malaria/high_risk_groups/en/
A good example of this can be seen with popular Chinese talk show host Yang Lang donating $72 million, to start his own foundation to: help support and develop the health care system. This is important, because it shows how both international and domestic-based non-profits are addressing these underlying problems facing the health care sector. (Dobryzski, 2010)
Clearly, the biggest challenges facing the health care systems in the United States and China are vastly different. Yet, they are also wrestling with similar problems, as they face the issue of increasing numbers in the elderly population. In the case of the United States, this is challenging because there are a variety of disadvantages that must be addressed to include: they have access to some of the most cutting edge procedures, there is large number of choices about health care providers and the elderly can be able to receive effective treatment for…
Advanced Practice Nurses. (2010). Bukisa. Retrieved from: http://www.bukisa.com/articles/352958_advanced-practice-nurses-a-global-role
Health Systems. (n.d.). WHO. Retrieved from: gis.emro.who.int/HealthSystemObservatory/.../Conceptual%20frameworks. Ppt Health Care in China. (2006). IBM. Retrieved from: http://www-05.ibm.com/de/healthcare/downloads/healthcare_china.pdf
More About RN's. (2011). ANA. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingworld.org/especiallyforyou/studentnurses/rnsapns.aspx
Opportunities in the Health Care Sector. (2006). Grail Research. Retrieved from: http://www.grailresearch.com/pdf/ContenPodsPdf/Opportunities_in_the_China_Healthcare_Sector.pdf
Mental health services for adults and children in Florida are commonly provided by community health facilities and agencies. The use of community health agencies and facilities is providing these services are fueled by the need for an intensive care level to address the increase and impact of mental disorders. Florida State has embraced a framework of directive principles of care as the foundation for providing mental health services to adults and children. However, this framework has been insufficient to effectively deal with mental disorders for children in Jacksonville, Florida. Based on recent statistics, over 20% of children and young people experience the signs and symptoms of these illnesses during the course of a year (Goldhagen, 2006). A comprehensive, integrated community mental health service program is a suitable community-based approach this problem in Jacksonville, Florida.
Description of the Population
Mental disorders have developed to become a major health problem…
Buchanan, D. (2007). Integrating Behavioral Health into Primary Care. Retrieved from University of Nebraska -- Medical Center website: http://webmedia.unmc.edu/Community/CityMatch/EMCH/062807/DCBHS%202007.ppt
Cohen et. al. (2011). Three Models of Community Mental Health Services in Low-income
Countries. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 5(3), 1-10. Retrieved from http://www.ijmhs.com/content/pdf/1752-4458-5-3.pdf
Flannery, F., Adams, D. & O'Connor, N. (2011, February). A Community Mental Health Service
What are Bacteria and Viruses?
The most basic difference between bacteria and viruses is their size. Whereas both bacteria and viruses are too tiny to notice with the naked eye, most bacteria are about one micrometer in length and can be perceived with a good optical microscope. On the other hand, viruses are smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which suggests that they can only be perceived by using an electron microscope (Nursing Times, 2006). Infection, every so often the initial phase, takes place when bacteria, viruses or other microbes that cause disease enter the human body and start to multiply. Disease comes about and ensues when the cells in the human body are damaged, as a result of the infection, and signs and symptoms of a disease appear.
Bacterial and viral infections are contaminations caused by bacteria and viruses. Bacteria release poisons known as toxins into the…
objectively what happened. Choose something that you learned. Give details of what you learned or happened. Answer the Question: What did I do, read, see, hear?
Of particular importance, is the rising inequality of health care attributed to varying socioeconomic backgrounds. One of the most profound lines in the notes reads, "many times intertwined with poverty are the factors of race, ethnicity, uninsured and underinsured. Cultural barriers, discrimination and lack of appropriate health care are some of the reasons that race and ethnicity are common factors of vulnerability." This line is particularly important given the circumstances prevailing in the market today. According to 2010 census data, nearly 20% of the nation's populations lives with an income under $20,000 a year. However, on a per capita basis, the U.S. generates nearly $50,000 of GDP. Currently in America, individuals are producing nearly $50,000 worth of goods and services while a quarter of…
Health Services for Vulnerable Population
Beyrer, C., Malinowska-Sempruch, K., Kamarulzaman, A., & Strathdee, S. A. (2010). 12 Myths About HIV / AIDS And People Who Use Drugs. Lancet, 376(9737), 208-211. Doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61005-7
This article explores on the misconceptions that have rocked the existence of the phenomena in HIV and ADIs in many parts of the world. The article looks at different interpretations people have on HIV and AIDs, with the outcome or the decisions these people take like using certain drugs based on their stereotypical understanding. The authors of the article have noted that the misconceptions include the statements that HIV and AIDs people who make use of drugs and not compliant in that they have a negative response to the antiretroviral drugs just like those who do not have the disease (Beyrer et al. 2010). Further, the article claims that these people have a very poor rate of retention of…
Beyrer, C., Malinowska-Sempruch, K., Kamarulzaman, A., & Strathdee, S. A. (2010). 12 Myths About HIV / AIDS and People Who Use Drugs. Lancet, 376(9737), 208-211. Doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61005-7
Chepngeno-Langat, G., Falkingham, J. C., Madise, N. J., & Evandrou, M. (2012). Concern about HIV and AIDS among Older People in the Slums of Nairobi, Kenya. Risk Analysis: An International Journal, 32(9), 1512-1523. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01765.x
Surgevil, O., & Akyol, E. M. (2011). Discrimination against People Living With HIV / AIDS in The Workplace: Turkey Context. Equality, Diversity & Inclusion, 30(6), 463-481. Doi:10.1108/02610151111157693
Social Vulnerability Analysis
Compare and contrast your findings based on your research and provide a summary.
Describe the correlation between environmental and socioeconomic risk and vulnerability for the counties you selected. This is Part III of the Social Risks and Vulnerabilities Project. St. Lawrence County, New York State and Missoula County, Montana were chosen from the Hazard Vulnerability and Risk Institute web site because they have similar population size but are from different geographic regions (Northeast vs. Northwest).
The correlation between environmental and socioeconomic risk and vulnerability for St. Lawrence County, New York State and Missoula County, Montana
Lawrence County, New York State
Environmental risk factors include the accessibility and availability of tobacco which is higher here than in many other states in the U.S.A. . This makes it one of the places in New York that experiences a high level of lung and bronchus cancer. It has a rural…
Ethics of Prisoner Experiments
Prior to the medical trial at Nuremberg physicians and scientists were largely free to conduct experiments on unsuspecting persons (Freyhofer, 2004, p. 9-10), including inmates inside America's prisons. When it was discovered that German physicians had been conducting inhumane experiments on death camp and concentration camp prisoners during WWII, the world was shocked that doctors were capable of such behavior. The American Military Tribunal in Nuremberg heard arguments from both the defense and prosecution for twenty three doctors and administrators accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity. The defense argued that the doctors' conduct was not a significant departure from past practices and any inhumanity was more a function of the ongoing hostilities. The judges on the tribunal saw it differently and created ethical guidelines for medical researchers, because the evidence presented in court revealed the Hippocratic Oath could not protect patients and…
Freyhofer, Horst A. (2004). The Nuremberg Medical Trial: The Holocaust and the Origin of the Nuremberg Medical Code: Vol. 53. Studies in Modern European History. New York: Peter Lang.
HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). (2005). The Nuremberg Code. HHS.gov. Retrieved 4 Sep. 2013 from http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/archive/nurcode.html .
Hornblum, Allen M. (1998). Acres of Skin. Human Experiments at Holmesburg Prison. A True Story of Abuse and Exploitation in the Name of Medical Science. New York: Rutledge.
Lerner, Barron H. (2007). Subjects or objects? Prisoners and human experimentation. New England Journal of Medicine, 356(18), 1806-1807.
Community Teaching Proposal for Primary Prevention/Health Promotion
The objective of this study is to create a community teaching proposal for primary prevention and health promotion. The work of Kulbok, wet al (2012) reports that public health nursing practice is "population focused and requires unique knowledge, competencies, and skills." (p.1) Public health nursing makes the requirement of working with communities and populations "as equal partner and focusing on primary prevention and health promotion." (Kulbok, et al., 2012, p.1)
Community teaching for primary prevention and health promotion involves educating community members about what is required to address primary prevention and promotion of health. This can be accomplished through community-wide meetings held at a central location in the community. As noted by Kulbok et al. (2012) "In the 21st century, public health nurses practice in diverse settings including, but not limited to, community nursing centers; home health agencies; housing developments; local…
Anderson, DR, et al. (2012) Primary Care Nursing Role and Care Coordination: An Observational Study of Nursing Work in a Community Health Center, The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 17 No. 2. Retrieved from: http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-17-2012/No2-May-2012/Primary-Care-Nursing-Role-and-Care-Coordination.html
Connor, N. et al. (2012) Healthy People 2020 from Theory to Practice in a Nursing Program. The University of Central Florida. Retrieved from: http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.aptrweb.org/resource/resmgr/tp2012_presentations/conner_aptr_tp12.pdf
Kulbock, PA, et al. (2012) Evolving Public Health Nursing Roles: Focus on Community Participatory Health Promotion and Prevention. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 17. No. 2. Retrieved from: http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-17-2012/No2-May-2012/Evolving-Public-Health-Nursing-Roles.html
Straightened Circumstances": A eview and Analysis of the Current Debate about Measuring Poverty and Wealth in Canada
Although there is no official definition of poverty in Canada, recent estimates place the percentage as high as 14% overall, with significantly higher levels for vulnerable populations such as single elderly females, indigenous peoples, and single females with children. These levels of poverty indicate that the problem is severe and it is important to ensure that the steps that are taken to address poverty in Canada are timely and effective. In order to ensure that the scarce resources that are used to assist impoverished Canadians are applied effectively, though, there must also be some reliable ways of determining whether progress is being made or not. To this end, this paper provides a review and analysis of the relevant literature concerning the current debate about measuring poverty and wealth in Canada, followed by a…
Armitage, A. (2005). Social welfare in Canada, 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press Canada.
Canada. (2012). U.S. Government: CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov / library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ca.html.
Canada GDP. (2012). NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/eco_
Work Disability in Small Firms
Work Disability Thesis Proposal
Is There a Problem? What is the Contribution?
ivermore, Whalen, Prenovitz, Aggarwal and Bardos (2011) explain how the connection between disability, work productivity and income benefits the whole society by reducing reliance on tax-funded support programs (p. 1). All of us have an interest in ensuring the most productivity from all workers, if stable employment for workers with disabilities frees up resources for other public or private endeavors, and turning tax consumers into tax payers will help reduce the burden for those who now pay. Given public perceptions of funding constraints and increased challenges to public services posed by an aging population majority, ensuring stable employment for everyone especially workers with disability grows more rather than less urgent over time. Even at current levels, ivermore et al. (2011) assert, "it is especially important for policymakers to have access to a wide…
A major confound undermining many survey-based research claims is selection bias, where researchers impute generalizations from convenience samples without ensuring truly random selection. This study will sidestep that issue simply by avoiding claims of incidence, because copious such data already exist in general as Markesich (2008) and Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Disability Statistics and Demographics (2011) demonstrate, even if those data do not speak to workers' productivity and satisfaction in precisely the category of interest between large and small firms and disability compared to workers without. Avoiding claims of prevalence will enhance focus on qualitative inquiry as to satisfaction and productivity given the qualification that those responses indicate perceptions or intent, like perceived job fit or intent to quit or search for different employment. Claims couched in terms of perception and ex-ante intent rather than as ex-post quantitative events, will avoid the type of subjectivity Hotchkiss (2002) e.g. finds underlying much of the research on incidence or causality.
Likewise reporting perceptions of ability, performance and satisfaction seeks to avoid confounding subjectivity of language but also of disclosure, because counting disability as only those conditions with medical documentation or real accommodation in the workplace, would omit workers with invisible disability they may have declined to report. That official definitions restricted by documentation and disclosure understate incidence of disability in the workplace is not only logically coherent, but becoming more recognized as a growing body of research demonstrates (e.g. Hotchkiss, 2002, pp. 8-13, or Kukla & Bond, 2012, p. 14). Kruse and Schur (2003), for example, raise plausible doubt about comparing statistics as definitions
Demographics of Population Vulnerable to HIV / AIDS
Undoubtedly, AIDS has become an epidemic of color. Additionally, the menace has affected hay and bisexual men who have sex with other men (MSM). Today, these groups depict the highest risk rates compared to other groups and communities. In this paper, we endeavor to analyze the high rates of HIV / AIDS prevalence in these two groups. Further, we explore the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in the U.S. and the impact it has brought regarding the prevention and care of these vulnerable populations.
The African-American community has occurred as the ethnic community that has suffered a severe blunt of this disease to a devastating degree. Historically, the African-American community has experienced neglect in healthcare and prevention regarding AIDS control. The changing demographics have exemplified the urgent need of concern and actions towards alleviating the spread of this disease, especially…
Kates, J., Garfield, R., & Young, K., Quinn, K., Frazier, E. and Skarbinski, J. (2014, Jan 7). Assessing the Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Health Insurance Coverage of People with HIV. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved from http://kff.org/report-section/assessing-the-impact-of-the-affordable-care-act-on-health-insurance-coverage-of-people-with-hiv-issue-brief/
Kliff, S. (2013, March 23). Obamacare's five biggest challenges. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2013/03/23/obamacares-five-biggest-challenges/
National Institute on Drug Abuse (2010). Diagnosis of HIV Infection among Adults and Adolescents, by Transmission Category (2010).NIH Retrieved from http://www.drugabuse.gov/longdesc/diagnosis-hiv-infection-among-adults-adolescents-by-transmission-category-2010
Weitz, R. (2012). The Sociology of Health, Illness, and Health Care: A Critical Approach. New York: Cengage Learning
Workable plan unmet HC need
Individuals who are particularly vulnerable to having unmet healthcare needs are often found in rural areas of the nation. Unlike the past, in the beginning of health care development, (tarr, 1998, pp. 16, 64) entry into care by new physicians challenges the entry of physicians into rural health care, in large part because of the disproportionate cost of providing care for the underinsured and for only a small potential patient group. Those then who are often the most vulnerable to having unmet health care needs are often aged individuals living in rural areas. These individuals live far from services and often live in areas where service sites for basic primary care, preventative medicine, dental and vision care and not to mention specialized geriatric care for chronic debilitating diseases are located far from home in areas that lack basic public transportation services. "Life expectancy in the…
Shah, M.N., Clarkson, L., Lerner, E., Fairbanks, R.J., McCann, R., & Schneider, S.M. (2006). An Emergency Medical Services Program to Promote the Health of Older Adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 54(6), 956-962. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2006.00736.x
Shi, L. & Singh, D. (2008) Essentials of the U.S. Health Care System, 2nd Edition. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Starr, P. (1982) Social Transformation of American Medicine. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Developing and Supporting a esearch Question on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Various occupations expose practitioners to traumatized communities or victimized individuals. The exposure increases the risk of these groups to significant levels of stress that affect their health and health outcomes negatively. Empirical evidence shows that people such as clinicians working with those in pain, fear, and suffering have a high risk of developing cognitive, emotional, and physical consequences. Whether exposure to a traumatic event is a disaster or occupational hazards, the consequences of such exposure might present with symptoms of sleeplessness, nightmares, hopelessness, and other forms of stress traumatic disorders (Engel, Schutt, & Engel, 2010). However, exposure to extreme levels of such stress predisposes the individuals to post-traumatic stress the presents over time, unless a corrective action is taken. Therefore, it is at this level that the role of the social worker becomes apparent. The social workers provide services…
Corby, B. (2006). Applying research in social work practice. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Engel, R.J., Schutt, R.K., & Engel, R.J. (2010). Fundamentals of social work research. Los n Angeles: SAGE.
Engel, R.J., & Schutt, R.K. (2011). The practice of research in social work. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Epstein, I. (2010). Clinical data-mining: Integrating practice and research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Provide sustained technical assistance (Expert Panel Meeting: Health Information Technology: Meeting Summary, 2003)
Evaluation of the process in rural and small communities includes: (1) scope of the project; (2) goals; (3) critical success factors; and (4) technical assistance." (Expert Panel Meeting: Health Information Technology: Meeting Summary, 2003) Community grants have been focused on the provision of 'personal digital assistant (PDA) systems in assisting with the decision support role. The initiative is stated to include: (1) development of toolkits; (2) leveraging known tools; (3) developing capacity; and (4) disseminating best practices. (Expert Panel Meeting: Health Information Technology: Meeting Summary, 2003)
Ormond, Wallin, and Goldenson report in the work entitled: "Supporting the Rural Health Care Safety Net" (2000) state: "The policy - and market-driven changes in the health care sector taking place across country are not confined to metropolitan areas. Rural communities are experiencing changes impelled by many of the same forces…
Healthcare and Healthcare Insurance Country Report: India (2004) Tata Consultancy Services and Microsoft. WebHealthCentre.com. 2004 August. Online available at http://download.microsoft.com/documents/customerevidence/7144_WebHealth_CS.doc
Expert Panel Meeting: Health Information Technology (2003) Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) 23-24 July 2003. Online available at http://www.ahrq.gov/data/hitmeet.htm
Silberman, P. And Slifkin, R. (nd) Innovative Primary Case Management Programs Operating in Rural Communities: Case Studies of Three States. Working Paper No. 76 North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Program.
Ormond, Barbara a.; Wallin, Susan Wall; and Goldenson, Susan M. (2000) Supporting the Rural Health Care Net. 15 May 2000 Urban Institute
Thereby it is important that the professionals in the field must ask for additional advice.
Patient rights also include a freedom towards observing their lives in the clinics in accordance to their cultures and ethnic backgrounds. It has been mentioned that racial disparity is one of the main issues in the clinic so the freedom being given to the already mentally vulnerable patients is lesser that is having a negative impact on their well-being (Lloyd, King, and Deane, 2008, p. 38).
3. Strategies to Ensure Confidentiality
One of the main facts that need to be highlighted here is that the mental healthcare professionals should be aware of the rights of the mentally ill people. One of the main responsibilities that the mental healthcare professionals should have is to make improvements in the mental health of the patients. Patient recovery is the main aim in these cases.
In the mental clinic,…
Almeder, F.R. (2002). Mental illness and public health care, Biomedical ethics reviews. Humana Press.
Backlar, P., and Cutler, L.D. (2002). Ethics in community mental health care: commonplace concerns. Springer.
Barker, P. (2011). Mental Health Ethics: The Human Context. Taylor & Francis.
Bhugra, D., and Malik, A. (2010). Professionalism in Mental Healthcare: Experts, Expertise and Expectations, Cambridge medicine. Cambridge University Press.
Healthcare for Mentally Impaired Patients
Probing what information is available about the current status of placement or accommodation and level of personal healthcare available to mentally impaired and emotionally disturbed individuals, it is clear that the analysis is as diverse as there are different mental illnesses. While statistics on managed care treatment for people with severe and disabling mental illnesses are sparse, it is evident that the financial responsibility to care for and house these patients is enormous.
According to Dr. David Satcher, the Surgeon General (1999), approximately 20% of the U.S. adult population has a mental illness. He says, "These illnesses include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, anorexia nervosa, and severe cognitive impairment. More serious mental illnesses include ipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Mental illness accounts for 15% of overall burden of disease -- more than malignant cancer and respiratory diseases -- and as far back as 1996 the direct cost…
Boulard, G. (2000, April). Forgotten Patients the Mentally Ill. State Legislatures, 26, 12. Retrieved February 13, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Callahan, D. (1993, October) Minds and hearts: priorities in mental health services.
The Hastings Center Report.
Fox, M. & Kim, K. (2004, January) Evaluating a Medicaid Home and Community-based Physical Disability Waiver. Family and Community Health. Vol 27: 37.
Institutional eview Board
The focus of my research is on the factors which can inhibit the development of at-risk youth in urban locations. Understandably, research performed upon children is always of particular concern for institutional review boards. The three generally-accepted levels for institutional review boards are exempt, expedited, and full review status ("IB," 2014). For research conducted on children, however beneficial to the child's well-being, a full review is required given that the study is being performed on minors. Greater scrutiny is required, regardless of the type of research. "Ethical standards are critically important when conducting research with young children and other vulnerable populations. Some key points are: research procedures must never harm children, physically or psychologically" and "children and their families have the right to full information about the research in which they may participate, including possible risks and benefits" ("Ethical standards for research," 2014). Children must be informed…
Ethical standards for research. (2014). NAEYC. Retrieved from:
IRB review levels. (2014). University of New Hampshire. Retrieved from:
Community development is concerned with tackling inequities, and with understanding the interconnections and pathways between the various determinants of health for particular communities.
The effectiveness of community development in health is enhanced by partnerships between health and other sectors such as education, housing, arts or sport, or in programs such as community building and neighborhood renewal. Community development approaches to health promotion are generally poorly identified in planning and practice. Concepts such as empowerment, community engagement and participation are commonly referred to as either processes or out- comes, but often given token effort and paid only lip service. Community development is not a single track in health promotion programs. Health promotion practice entails the planning and implementation of interventions which may take many forms. Evidence about the effectiveness of health promotion demonstrates that one-off programs at a single level of intervention have little value, and that multi-level approaches delivered intensively…
Bezrucha, S. (2001). Societal hierarchy and the health Olympics. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 164(12), 1701-3.
Bunker, S., Colquhoun, D.M., Esler, M.D., Hickie, I., Hunt, D., Jelinek, VM., Oldenburg, B.E, Peach, H.G., Ruth, D., Tennant, C.C., and Tonkin, a. (2003). Stress and coronary heart disease, psychosocial risk factors, National Heart Foundation of Australia: Position statement update. Medical Journal of Australia, 178(6), 272-76.
Bush, R. (2002). Community engagement. VicHealth Letter. Melbourne: VicHealth.
Dixon, J. (1999). A national R&D collaboration on health and socio-economic status for Australia. Canberra: NECPH, Australian National University.
Sources of data
*Two literature searches were conducted in order to generate conditions of nurse satisfaction. One search centered on variables of work satisfaction described in relevant job satisfaction theories. The other search probed applicable reviews and meta-analysis for factors of job satisfaction relevant to the nurse profession.
The literature, in the first case, was plumbed for studies that provided theoretical insight into the concept of job satisfaction. Terms such as 'job satisfaction' and 'theory' were used to aid the research.
In the second case, research was conducted by using terms such as 'nursing', 'job satisfaction' and 'factors'. The resulting Meta analyses and literature reviews were thoroughly analyzed and only those relevant to the intent of the study retained. They had to, in other words, be congruent to the nursing profession and related to satisfaction that the employee gained from his or her job.
'Nurse satisfaction' as a result was,…
Breakwell, G., Hammond, S. & Fife-Schaw, C. (2000). Research methods in psychology. USA: Sage
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (EFILWC). Measuring job satisfaction in surveys - Comparative analytical report. Retrieved on 10/30/2011 from:
Lloyd S, Streiner D, Shannon S. Predictive validity of the emergency physician and global job satisfaction instruments. Acad Emerg Med 1998;5:234 -- 241.
National Health Goals and Behavioral Influences
Nurse Educators in Downstream, Midstream, and Upstream Obesity Interventions
The professional nurse has numerous opportunities to advocate for changes in social policy, community awareness, and behavioral risk factors associated with the choices of individual patients. With respect to obesity intervention, nurses can contribute their efforts to upstream, midstream, and downstream interventions. McKinley describes a framework that details the manner in which professional nurses can intervene to reduce the risk factors in obesity at three distinct levels: upstream, midstream, and downstream.
The types of obesity risk factors that exist at the upstream level include the prevalence of poor dietetic choices in the community, advertisement campaigns for unhealthful food choices targeted to children and other vulnerable populations, and the absence of government regulation over areas where appropriate legislation could reduce some of those risk factors by mandating socially conscious behavior on the part of food manufacturers…
Kovner, A.R., and Knickman, J.R. (2011). Health Care Delivery in The United States
(10th ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Dermatology Differential Diagnoses
Dermatology Differential Diagnosis
Skin conditions can be notoriously difficult to diagnose. It is crucial to understand the epidemiology and pathology of common conditions in order to make a thorough diagnosis of the current case. Here, the research states that "key questions for the patient include the time of onset, duration, location, evolution, and symptoms of the rash or lesion. Additional information on family history, occupational exposures, comorbidities, medications, and social or psychological factors may be helpful" (Goldstein et al., 2012). All of this knowledge provided by the patient can ultimately help lead to differential diagnoses that can then prepare treatment.
In this current case study, there is a 33-year-old male suffering from a rash. The patient has a rash of 2-weeks duration located behind the knees and elbows bilaterally. It is itchy, red, somewhat raised, and dry. At times it has had clear drainage. Thus, the "papules…
Dunphy, L., Winland-Brown, J., Porter, B., & Thomas, D. (2011) Primary care: The art and science of advanced practice nursing (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.
Feldman, Steven R., Dellavalle, Robert P., Duffin, Kristina C., & Ofori, Albena O. (2013). Treatment of Psoriasis.
Feldman, Steven R., Dellavalle, Robert P., Duffin, Kristina C., & Ofori, Albena O. (2014). Epidemiology, clinical manifestations and diagnosis of psoriasis.
(De Leon, 2010)
Finally, in recent years there has been a call for more stringent regulatory measured to be put in place in order to prevent this category of disease. Many experts refer to outdated laws and policies that are not successful in detecting and prevent problems along the entire food production process (Jessen). They also refer to restricted and inadequate legal tools to check the spread of the diseases. There is therefore a need not only to update present legislation but also for organizations and individuals to be become more aware of the need to prevent this type of disease from occurring.
De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. etrieved from http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html
Definition of Foodborne disease. etrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). etrieved from http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf
Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. etrieved from http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFEDnTPpuZO8D2blQ
De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. Retrieved from http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html
Definition of Foodborne disease. Retrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). Retrieved from http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf
Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. Retrieved from http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCRFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFERDnTPpuZO8D2blQ
Foodborne Illness. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/foodborneillness.html
Children with autism and irritable behavior are an incredibly vulnerable population. The right medications are crucial because the children are the ones who suffer any social or emotional problems based on their conditions. That is why Aman et al. (2008) explored the use of risperidone in children with autism and other forms of irritable behavior. The study aimed to better understand risperidone's cognitive impact on children with severe behavior disturbances to test its efficiency as a potential solution to some of the children's behavioral issues.
isperidone is an antipsychotic that is often administered to this vulnerable population; yet there is surprisingly little discourse on the cognitive impact it may have during treatment of behavioral disorders. The study conducted by Aman et al. (2008) aimed to test whether or not risperidone had a cognitive impact in the short-term during administering of treatment to children. During this age range, cognitive…
Aman, Michael, Hollway, Jill, McDougle, Christopher, Scahill, Lawrence, Tierny, Elaine, McCracken, James, Arnold, Eugene, Vitello, Benedetto, Ritz, Louise, Gavaletz, Allison, Cronin, Pegeen, Sweizy, Naomi, Wheeler, Courtney, Koening, Kathleen, Ghuman, Jaswinder, & Posey, David L. (2008). Cognitive effects of risperidone in children with autism and irritable behavior. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 18(3), 227-236.
U.S. residents want a society in which all persons live long, healthy lives (1); however, that vision is yet to be realized fully. As two of its primary goals, CDC aims to reduce preventable morbidity and mortality and to eliminate disparities in health between segments of the U.S. population. The first of its kind, this 2011 CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities eport (2011 CHDI) represents a milestone in CDC's long history of working to eliminate disparities.
Health disparities are differences in health outcomes and their determinants between segments of the population, as defined by social, demographic, environmental, and geographic attributes (7). Health inequalities, which is sometimes used interchangeably with the term health disparities, is more often used in the scientific and economic literature to refer to summary measures of population health associated with individual- or group-specific attributes (e.g., income, education, or race/ethnicity) (8). Health inequities are a subset of health…
1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the Secretary's Advisory Committee on National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives for 2020. Phase I report: recommendations for the framework and format of Healthy People 2020. Rockville, MD: DHHS; 2008. Available at
American Disability Act and Affirmative Action Act
Critique of Modern Civil ights Acts
The quest to ensure that every American's civil rights are guaranteed is still being waged today. New populations of disadvantaged are continuing to be guaranteed by modern legislation the same every day benefits the majority of the population often takes for granted. Acts like the American Disability Act and the Affirmative Action Act are continuing to provide for the American people to ensure that everyone gets the same benefits and rights; although some of these acts have been more successful than others.
The American Disability Act was a monumental piece of legislation aimed at helping protect the rights of vulnerable populations. For generations, there was little vocational protection for the disabled in the work environment. This often led to wrongful termination and even a complete lack of hiring people with disabilities. In 1990, the president Bush passed…
Dale, Charles V. (2005). Federal affirmative action law: A brief history. CRS Report for Congress. Web. http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/crs/rs22256.pdf
U.S. Equal Opportunity Employment Opportunity Commission. (2008). Facts about the American Disability Act. Web. http://www.eeoc.gov/facts/fs-ada.html
Established in 1990, the California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) is one of America's oldest state tobacco control programs. As a longstanding program, CTCP is logically evaluated by "process evaluation" questions. Fortunately, the program's 20+ years of existence in serving large target populations provides a significant amount of meaningful data for collection and evaluation.
The California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) was established in 1990 with the stated mission "to improve the health of all Californians by reducing illness and premature death attributable to the use of tobacco products" (California Department of Public Health, 2010, modified 10/31/2012). To that end, CTCP embraced the core strategy of changing social norms (California Department of Public Health, n.d.) and long-term goals of: empowering statewide and local health agencies to promote health and quality of life by providing leadership and research in advocating social norms creating an environment that is tobacco free; stopping illegal tobacco sales…
Anonymous. (n.d.). Common conceptual and methodological frameworks - Powerpoint presentation.
Anonymous. (n.d.). Typical evaluation questions - Powerpoint presentation.
California Department of Public Health. (2010, modified 10/31/2012). California Tobacco Control Program. Retrieved November 18, 2012 from www.cdph.ca.gov Web site: http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/tobacco/Pages/default2.aspx
California Department of Public Health. (n.d.). About the California Tobacco Control Program. Retrieved November 18, 2012 from www.cdph.ca.gov Web site: http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/tobacco/Documents/Making%20a%20Difference%20012012.pdf
It provides health-related advice on its website that all readers can benefit from, not simply those who use its services. As well as reaching out to the wider population of patients, it honors those within its fold who serve the organization with nights such as its "Celebrating Our Talent" ceremony designed to honor organizational members who have shown excellence in their duties (Boyd 2012).
The climate at the organization stresses valuing employees as well as clients, and serving the needs of its employees is included in the organization's statements of its critical functions. This acknowledges the need for caregivers to be cared for as well as patients. There is also a commitment to technological change to facilitate care: the organization was praised in 2003 for completely reconfiguring the way in which it kept track of patient data, switching to an entirely online system, to comply with changes in regulation and…
Boyd, Tracey. (2012). VNSNY home care agency praises nursing talent. VNSNY. Retrieved:
Mission and vision. (2013). VNSNY. Retrieved:
Vulnerability comes as a result of an interaction between the resources accessible to persons as well as communities and the life challenges they go through. Vulnerability emerges from developmental challenges, individual inabilities, underprivileged social status, insufficiency of interpersonal networks as well as supports, dishonored neighborhoods along with environments, as well as the intricate interactions of these aspects over the life course.
Special Populations in relation to Healthcare analyzes the notion of vulnerable populations as well as associations between social, political, as well as economic circumstances as well as the tendency that brings about the rise vulnerability (Burkholder & Nash, 2013). Matters of gender are as well pertinent in that there has commonly been an overlook of women's drug use/tribulations in the so called drug field. There have emerged numerous instances of unsuitable sweeping statement of study on men to the circumstances of women. For instance Jellinek (1952) founded his…
Broom, Dorothy, & Stevens, Adele, (1990): 'Doubly deviant: Women using alcohol and other drugs.' The International Journal on Drug Policy, 2, 25-27. Criminology Australia, 1995, Summer: 'News [Well, what's number one?].' Criminology Australia, 7(2): 14. Retrieved on 14th Feb 2014 http://www.dulwichcentre.com.au/the-politics-of-drug-use.html
Burkholder, D.M. & Nash, N.B. (2013). Special Populations in Health Care. San Diego, CA:
Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Jellinek, E.M. (1952): 'The phases of alcoholic addiction.' Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 13, 673-684. Retrieved on 14th Feb 2014
affordable Care Act (also known as the ACA or Obamacare) on the elderly
Obamacare: Its impact upon the elderly
The impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) (often called 'Obamacare') upon America is often discussed by politicians as if it had a uniform impact upon all citizens. However, the ACA's effects have been relatively disparate, depending upon the nature of the population. This paper will specifically focus upon the impact of the ACA on the elderly of a variety of socio-economic categories.
One of the criticisms of the American healthcare system before the passage of the ACA was the spiraling cost of entitlement programs such as Medicare, the federally-provided health insurance program for seniors. "One good result of all this [ACA] is that the burden of Medicare for taxpayers in future years has been drastically lowered. In fact, the day Barack Obama signed the ACA into law he cut the…
ACA. http://www.hhs.gov/healthcare/rights / Accessed November 6, 2014.
FAQ: What retirees and seniors need to know about the ACA? NPR. October 11, 2013.
http://www.npr.org/2013/10/11/231101137/faq-what-retirees-and-seniors-need-to-know-about-the-affordable-care-act Accessed November 6, 2014.
Goodman, John. What seniors have to fear from Obamacare? Forbes. October 28, 2014.
Tak, S., Sweeney, M., Alterman, T., Baron, S., & Calvert, G. (2010). Workplace Assaults on Nursing Assistants in U.S. Nursing Homes: A Multilevel Analysis. American Journal of Public Health October 100 (10):1938-1945.
This particular topic provokes my interest because it considers the potential of risk to a population that usually is closely supervised to ensure that they do not inflict damage to vulnerable populations. Looking at the potential for damage to nurses is an important consideration because of the anticipated increase in the numbers of persons to be hospitalized in the future. These researchers appear qualified to conduct this research as their academic training has exposed them to engage in this level of assessment and dialogue. All of the researchers have obtained terminal degrees as well as Masters Degrees. All but one of the researchers has a Master of Public Health which indicates that they have been exposed to many…
Creswell J.W. (1994).Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. London: Sage
Gravetter, F.J., & Wallnau, L.B. (2008). Statistics for the behavioral sciences 8th ed. California:
This is an every growing problem that needs to be addressed immediately.
As a nurse it is very important to me to see that all people who need healthcare have access to it. In order for our nation to be healthy it is important that everyone have access to affordable health care.
Funding for this program should be achieved with both public and private funding sources in order not to put a burden upon either source and yet be able to provide the care that is much needed in this country.
With the overwhelming concern for the growing number of uninsured Americans it is very important that we put a plan in place that will allow all Americans to have affordable health care coverage and be able to get the health care that they need when they need it.
I urge you to show your support for this important piece…
Coverage: Mapping Health Care Coverage in 2019. (2009). Retrieved October 31, 2009, from Cover the Uninsured Web site: http://covertheuninsured.org/content/coverage-mapping-health-care-coverage-2019
Affordable Health Care for America Act, H.R. 3962. (2009). Retrieved October 31, 2009, from Web site: http://docs.house.gov/rules/health/111_ahcaa.pdf
Physician Assisted Suicide in Patients With Unbearable Suffering or the Terminally Ill
One of the most hotly debated issues today is physician-assisted suicide. ecently, California became the fifth state to legalize physician-assisted suicide, and there is an increasing likelihood that other states will follow suit in the foreseeable future. The purpose of this study is to determine if the factors chosen have any bearing on those who choose to end their life with physician assisted suicide. In support of this purpose, the objectives of this study were as follows: (a) to research scholarly articles regarding physician-assisted suicide and gather pertinent information into a comprehensive profile; (b) to research whether unbearable suffering is the dominant motive to request physician-assisted suicide; (c) to research whether the race and level of education of the patient are contributing factors when physician-assisted suicide is requested; and, (d) to research whether the type of terminal illness…
Bauer-Maglin, N. & Perry, D. (2010). Final acts: Death, dying, and the choices we make. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Biller-Adorno, N. (2013, April 11). Physician-assisted suicide should be permitted. The New England Journal of Medicine, 368(15), 1451.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
Boudreau, J. D. & Somerville, M. A. (2013,April 11). Physician-assisted suicide. The New England Journal of Medicine, 385, 15.
Social isk and Vulnerability Analysis Comment by Babyliza: There's No Abstract
Vulnerability to hazards is affected by several factors, comprising age or income, the power of social networks, and neighborhood individualities. Social vulnerability takes into account the socioeconomic and demographic factors that influence the resilience of populations. The Sovi for Bexar County is 0.230416 whereas that for Philadelphia County is 3.418284. This indicates that Philadelphia County as a geographical expanse has a higher vulnerability and susceptibility to environmental and public health hazards. A key group that ought to be taken into consideration is one of people lacking insurance. This is a group that is severely impacted in the course of disasters and after disasters, and are not able to easily recover. Individuals that are not self-insured are generally excluded from these calculations.
All expanses of the United States have experienced disasters, both natural and anthropogenic. The vulnerabilities that are…
Bexar County Emergency Management. (2016). The Mission & Vision of the OEM. Retrieved from: http://www.bexar.org/675/OEM-Mission-Vision
Chavi. (2015). Here Are The 10 Worst Disasters to Occur in Pennsylvania History. Only in Your State. Retrieved from: http://www.onlyinyourstate.com/pennsylvania/pa-disasters/
City Data. (2016). Philadelphia: Geography and Climate. Retrieved from: http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/The-Northeast/Philadelphia-Geography-and-Climate.html
Dunning, C. M., Durden, S. (2013). Social Vulnerability Analysis: A Comparison of Tools. Institute for Water Resources.