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From there, the speaker addresses the sages and asks that they teach him to sing. In other words, he is tired of the life that he has on this earth, and he wants to give up his earthly form and move on to what comes next. He feels that he is still fastened to something (his body) that is dying, and he wants to set free his soul and move into what eternity has to offer to him, where there is no 'old' and no one that does not know how to 'sing.' The speaker will then take his form in whatever he likes, such as a golden bird, and will not be concerned with these earthly issues anymore. The speaker wants to pass on, out of this world, and move away from being old and unnoticed as he has been for some time. Life, he apparently feels, is for…
Yeats justification of contemporary Irish Nationalism by creating a myth of the Irish past:
The use of magic, myth and folklore in the poetry of .B. Yeats, specifically in his book "The anderings of Oisin and Other Poems."
Although the poetry of the Irish .B. Yeats is largely known today for the writer's espousal of a spare, harsh modernism, in his early 20th century poetry, Yeats' tone in verse also had a substantial mythological component. To justify his views of the Irish independence movement and the value of Irish history, Yeats created his own form of elegiac verse. This verse both recreated the ancient forms of Irish epic myths, based upon old folkloric tales, and also created a new self-enclosed schema of mythology within the framework of the poet's own individualistic vision.
The contrast between the modernist and the folklorist within Yeats is widely accepted by most contemporary critics of…
Bloom, Harold. Yeats. 1970.
Yeats, W.B. "The Wanderings of Oisin and Other Poems." 1886. Last updated March 24, 2003. Retrieved on April 1, 2004 at http://www.web-books.com/Classics/Poetry/Yeats/Drama/Wanderings1.htm
Yeats." Columbia Encyclopedia. 2001. Sixth Edition. Retrieved on April 1, http://www.bartleby.com/65/ye/Yeats-Wi.html2004 at
In all of these poems Yeats brings these fantastic worlds into such clarity -- both visually and emotionally -- for the reader that they feel swept away for the time they are reading. "ho Goes with Fergus" is exceptional in its ability to transport the reader into Yeats' world especially considering its brevity.
Finally, the poem that is most poignant in placing the Romantic movement is "The ilde Swans at Coole." This poem is about change, and it clearly relays the heartache that one must feel when confronting the dramatic change of all that you know in your youth. Both I and the Irish Civil ar were fought in the time between his first viewing of the swans and the one that he describes in this poem (Pierce 89). Both of these war changed the face of Ireland's world, both literally and figuratively, and Yeats was coming from a generation…
Bell, Robert. "About Helen of Troy." Modern American Poetry. 1996. http://www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/poets/g_l/hd/abouthelen.htm.19 July 2006.
Harmon, William, C. Hugh Holman, William Flint Thrall, & Addison Hibbard. "On
Romanticism." A Handbook to Literature. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1995.
Pierce, David. Yeats's Worlds: Ireland, England and the Poetic Imagination. New Haven
The final lyrics in this poem divert back to the young girl that has stolen Yeats attention away from politics. The line reads "But O. that I were young again/and held her in my arms!(Yeats)" This line is significant in that Yeats seemingly asserts that although there is a certain fascination with politics, to a young man winning the affections of a girl is too much of a distraction and seemingly more important than politics. This line can also be a refection of Yeats life. It is as if he is looking back in hindsight and acknowledging that when he was younger he had an interest in politics and studying political systems but did not pursue this interest because of the aforementioned distraction.
Indeed, Yeats often expressed his political beliefs through poems that were also about love. Such was the case with a poem entitled No Second Troy. It is…
Bloom, Harold. Yeats. London: Oxford University Press, 1972.
Khan, Jalal Uddin. "Yeats and Maud Gonne: (Auto)biographical and Artistic Intersection." Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics (2002): 127+.
Kiberd, Declan. Inventing Ireland: The Literature of the Modern Nation. London: Vintage, 1996.
Koch, Vivienne. W.B. Yeats, the Tragic Phase: A Study of the Last Poems. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1951.
Poetry of William Butler Yeats [...] theme of Ireland in Yeats poetry and show in several poems how this one theme is developed and changed over time. Poems discussed are "To Ireland in the Coming Times," "Down at the Salley Gardens," "No Second Troy," "When you are Old," "At Galway aces," "ed Hanrahan's Song about Ireland," "The Falling of the Leaves," and "The Two Trees." William Butler Yeats was a famous Irish poet whose love for his homeland is evident in his works. This love changed and matured as Yeats himself matured, but he never lost the affection he felt for his homeland, or the ability to communicate that love to his readers.
Themes in William Butler Yeats Poetry
William Butler Yeats was a prolific writer, penning both plays and numerous poems. His poems encompass many themes, but none more enduring than his love for his homeland of Ireland, and…
Gallagher, Patrick, et al., eds. The Yeats Country: A Guide to Places in the West of Ireland Associated with the Life and Writings of William Butler Yeats. Dublin: Dolmen Press, 1962.
Yeats, W.B." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000.
Yeats, William Butler. "Poems." Poetry-Archive.com. 2002. 27 Feb. 2004. http://www.poetry-archive.com/y/yeats_w_b.html
Yeats' "The Stolen Child"
An Analysis of the Temptation to Flee Reality in Yeats' "The Stolen Child"
Yeats' "The Stolen Child" depicts a world in which fantasy and reality are in contention with one another. The conflict is between the sense of reality (barely perceptible and inundated by a flood of dreamlike perceptions) and the flight of fantasy. A parallel might be drawn between the poem and the social problem of addiction. If the poem on one level is about a child's escape/flight from reality into fantasy, it might also be said that the poem on a deeper level is about those who suffer from addiction are unable to face reality and must fly from it. Indeed, the imagery used by the fairy narrator evokes scenes comparable to states of inebriation or drunkenness. While fear and the ominous sense of death both appear to be underlying factors in the poem,…
hile imagination is important to the poem, it is not all of it. Stuart claims that the poem is often "dismissed as a youthful, nostalgic, derivatively romantic lyric" (Stuart 71). In this way, we can see how the poem is more than just a wishful place. The "retreat to the island of Innisfree is a journey in search of poetic wisdom and spiritual peace, a journey prompted by supernatural yearnings, a journey in quest of identity within a tradition" (71). Stuart claims that the wisdom and peace that the author seeks can only be "realized through a poetic and spiritual grasp of the purity and even identity that exists between the legendary past of the Celtic world and the present" (72). The place is real and it is imagined. Clearly, Yeats intended for us to see both worlds through his lens.
Chrism Semansky agrees. He states, "The details in the…
Hunter, Stuart, "Return to 'la bonne vaux': The Symbolic Significance of Innisfree." Modern Language Studies. 14.3. JSTOR Resource Database. Site Accessed September 20, 2008. http://www.jstor.org
Semansky, Chris. "Critical Essay on 'The Lake Isle of Innisfre.'" Poetry for Students, GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed September 20, 2008. www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Yeats, William Butler. "The Lake Isle of Innisfree." Literature, an Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, & Drama. 4th Compact Ed. Kennedy, X.J., et al. eds. New York: Pearson Longman. 2005.
Thus, at the end of the poem, Yeats uses words to suggest that Leda has made a full transformation from weak women to one with a sexual assertiveness that can only be described as a shudder and a power that is greater than Zeus's. Through this suggestion, Yeats also points out that women are different than the Greek's conception of them in the myth. Instead of being weak, his word choices argue that they are powerful enough to overcome even the greatest of powerful men, and that this struggle to become powerful is what makes them gain that ability.
Finally, the structure of Yeats' poem itself suggests Leda's eventual rise from a weak, sexually conquered, "staggering girl" (2), to a strong, sexually assertive woman. This can be seen, first, through the chronological nature of the poem. Content, imagery, and word choice all trace Leda's evolution in a chronological fashion. In…
Yeats, William Butler. "Leda and the Swan." n.d. The Literature Network. 3 April 2009.
< http://www.online-literature.com/yeats/ 865/>
W.. Yeats and Eavan oland
While William utler Yeats and Eavan oland may be united by a common nationality and literary heritage, they are divided by almost a full century. Eavan oland, as an Irish poet living after Yeats, has certainly been indebted to his influence. Ignoring such a debt would indeed be impossible, and oland herself has even admitted to the importance of Yeats' Irishness to her:
There were great and wonderful Irish male poets, all of whom I found inspiring in different ways. It meant an enormous amount to me in a very tribal way that William Yeats was Irish. And I would have liked, I suppose, to include in that tribalism a woman as well.
The Stoicism of Love")
oland here admits that she sees herself in a line of Irish poets and that she has a literally "tribal" kinship with other Irish poets. While, this may…
Bernstein, Michael. The Tale of the Tribe: Ezra Pound and the Remaking of American
Poetic Tradition. Berkeley: U. Of California P, 1992.
Boland, Eavan. "Interview." Caffeine Destiny. Apr. 23, 2003. http://www.caffeinedestiny.com/boland.html
Boland, Eavan. "The Pomegranate." The Academy of American Poets Web Site. Apr. 22, 2003. http://www.poets.org /poems/poems.cfm?45442B7C000C07040F74
The verse structure is not consistent from book to book, though the third book consists purely of four-line stanzas, whereas the rest of the poem does not even have this regularity. Its use in the third book could foreshadow the return to normalcy and balance that comes with Oisin's literal fall.
Yeats uses form to help clarify and define meaning. In the third book, with its regular four-line stanzas, there is a driving and almost monotonous pace that recalls the hoof-beats of the horse from which Oisin must not alight. In the first two books, when the end is not so imminently near, stanza length is adjusted to account for each piece of the story, with enough lines used per stanza to tell each discrete piece of the story, whether that be only three lines or twenty. Yeats' adaptation of the poem's form at various pints reinforces the storytelling and…
Yeats is well-known as a poet who has used a lot of symbolism in his works, especially mythological. 'The Gyres' is also one such poem where he introduces his readers to one of the most important esoteric concepts of his works - gyres. There are numerous references of circles and of re-occurring periods, as a whole, in Yeats' poems, and those references are somehow linked back to the concept of 'gyres' - conic spirals that signifies cycles of 2000 years that bring major changes in the world. Intensity of the change that a gyre cycle is capable of bringing can be evaluated by the second line of the poem - 'Things thought too long can be no longer thought (2)'. One needs extensive deciphering of symbolism when reading (and getting underlying meaning) of Yeats' poems - The Gyres is no exception. The period Yeats has in mind started with…
Successful Rhythm in Yeats' "hen You Are Old"
e read many thing a and do not generally consider rhythm as part of the reading experience. However, with poetry rhythm emerges as an important aspect of the poem, creating a mood and tone that the poet would otherwise have difficulty achieving. illiam Butler Yeats creates rhythm in "hen you Are Old" by using a familiar rhyming meter, literary devices such as alliteration and assonance, and a simple rhyme scheme. The poem is written in iambic pentameter, which creates a slow and even rhythm that is easy to read. Rhythm gives this poem an added feature, which makes it more memorable to readers. "hen you Are Old" displays Yeats' style and ability as a poet.
"hen you Are Old" is written in iambic pentameter, following the ABBA rhyme scheme. This form allows the poem to feel more romantic and even mesmerizing. The…
Yeats, William. "When You Are Old." Bartleby Online. Information Retrieved April 9, 2011.
Frost and Yeats
The poems "Sailing to Byzantium" by illiam Butler Yates and "Birches" by Robert Frost both tell narratives about one generation and how the death of the old is what allows the present generation to thrive. hereas Yates uses a narrator describing the evolving mental state of a man who knows that he is not long for this earth, Frost uses the degradation of the forests over time to illustrate the same point. One line of Yates' poem acts as a motto for both: "hatever is begotten, born, and dies" (line 6). They are epitaphs to a dying generation, which includes the narrators of the poems themselves.
Yeats' poem "Sailing to Byzantium" is a sad tribute to the older generation who can no longer survive in the modern world. "That is no country for old men" (line 1). The narrator, closely approaching death remarks upon the fragile nature…
Frost, Robert. "Birches." Literature. 11th Ed. 1042-1043. Print.
Kennedy, X.J., and Dana Gioia. Literature. 11th ed. Print.
Yeats, William Butler. "Sailing to Byzantium" Literature. 11th ed. 937-939. Print.
Poets of the eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth century concerned themselves with childhood and its various experiences, but the particular historical and aesthetic contexts within which different poets wrote affected their perspective on the matter greatly. As literature moved from Romanticism to naturalism, the tone poets took when considering children and their place in society changed, because where children previously existed as a kind of emotional or romantic accessory, they soon became subjects in their own right, with their own experiences and perspectives. By examining illiam ordsworth's "Michael," illiam Blake's "The Chimney Sweeper," and .B. Yeats' "A Prayer for my Daughter," one is able to see how the gradual transition from Romanticism to naturalism brought with it a less exploitative consideration of children, one that better reflected their place in the rapidly changing world.
The first poem to examine is illiam ordsworth's "Michael," because it fall squarely in the…
Blake, William. Songs of Innocence and Experience. London: Basil Montagu Pickering, 1866.
Wordsworth, W. Lyrical Ballads. 4th. 2. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, & Orme, 1805.
Yeats, William. The Collected Poems of W.b. Yeats. London: Wordsworth Editions, 2000.
Yeats acknowledged that Synge was a true genius when regarding things from an artistic point-of-view and insisted that they develop a collaboration in bringing life to the Irish theatre environment. "For some time after his return Synge spent his time renewing his kinship with Ireland, sensing the life and belief of its peasantry" (JOHN MILLINGTON SYNGE).
Many critics believe The Playboy of the estern orld to be one of the most significant of Synge's plays. Synge's work was accompanied by strong critique from behalf of the masses in both Dublin and Philadelphia. People felt that the play was immoral and that it was thus likely to instill confusion in individuals who were vulnerable to being influenced by the playwright's corrupted thinking.
illiam Butler Yeats was one of the foremost individuals in the Irish Theatre environment and also played an important role in the English and Irish literary movement. He joined…
Gassner, John, "The Reader's Encyclopedia of World Drama," (Courier Dover Publications, 09.05.2002)
"JOHN MILLINGTON SYNGE," Retrieved February 24, 2013, from the Theatre History Website: http://www.theatrehistory.com/irish/synge001.html
"William Butler Yeats," Retrived February 24, 2013, from the Online Literature Website: http://www.online-literature.com/yeats/
These images reinforce the serene environment the poet experiences. ith "Friends," the sanctuary is emotional while "The Lake Isle of Innisfree" is a more physical experience bust just as powerful. Both experiences reinforce the notion that art is more than art because it touches the human soul and provides solace and refuge from the wear and tear of the world.
Friends" and "The Lake Isle of Innisfree" are poems of escapism in that they take the poet and the reader away from the world. Yeats' demonstrates how art is constructive for the creator and the audience because it provides something intangible that is satisfying.
Yeats, .B. "Friends." Bartleby Online http://www.bartleby.com/147/25.html. Site Accessed December 08, 2008.
The Lake Isle of Innisfree." Literature, an Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, & Drama. 4th Compact Ed. Kennedy, X.J., et al. eds. New York: Pearson Longman. 2005.
Yeats, W.B. "Friends." Bartleby Online http://www.bartleby.com/147/25.html . Site Accessed December 08, 2008.
The Lake Isle of Innisfree." Literature, an Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, & Drama. 4th Compact Ed. Kennedy, X.J., et al. eds. New York: Pearson Longman. 2005.
Thus, the "ceremony of innocence" by which the boy was received into the tribe is now replaced with violence. Okonkwo, even though he loves the boy, kills him to avoid seeming weak.
Yeats' slow-moving rough beast with a lion's body but the head of a man may seem to represent Okonkwo, at first, in Achebe's novel, given Okonkwo's violence towards other people in the novel. But while Okonkwo is certainly rough, and unable to appreciate feminine and humane values, as embodied, for example, in his wife's tribe or in the missionaries his son turns to for guidance, the coming colonial influence to Africa could also be characterized as a beast. The beast moves slowly, and is at first imperceptible to the tribesmen who are concerned with their own internal disputes, but gradually the political and religious worldview of outsiders subsume the home-grown tribal ideology of the past.
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: Heinemann, 1996.
"The broken wall, the burning roof and tower / and Agamemnon dead." Leda's body is broken through penetration, and Troy's wall also becomes broken. Zeus' desire burns, like the roofs and towers of Troy will burn. And men will die, including the great general Agamemnon. Time rushes forward in an instant.
Leda's pregnancy resulted in Helen, for whom the Trojan ar was waged. Yet the future war is also a kind of synecdoche for the violence done to Leda. The violence of war and the violence of sexuality are intertwined, and become metaphors for one another. The reader is suddenly aware that he or she has been reading an extended metaphor, both for how one sexual act can lead to violence, and also how violence is at the heart of all sexual activity. The poem reaches its climax with the sexual act, which foreshadows the horror to come.
Yeats. W.B. "Leda and the Swan." Online Literature Library. 11 Nov 2007. http://www.online-literature.com/yeats/ 865
They are rocked by a hand of fear, not motherly nurturance. They are obsessed by their fears, of becoming like his father in the case of Okonkwo and of not becoming like his father in Nwoye's instance. However, Nwyoe, because of the cultural and political shifts endured by his native land, has another framework of self-definition that his father lacks -- the availability of another culture, namely that of the Christian missionaries who have come to the country. To find a new identity, Nwyoe literally as well as metaphorically slouches towards Bethlehem. Within the foreign doctrine of Christianity Nwoye finds a prop for his sense of self against which his father's African nationalism and masculinity ultimately proves to be powerless. Through the weakness advocated by Christianity (a false weakness, given the overarching ambitions of the missionaries to convert all African natives) Nwoye finally finds strength that his father's worldview cannot…
Going further with the analysis, it could be stated that the Irish get answers to their dilemmas from their own cultural identity (which is nourished by the best values).
The previous idea of Ireland being eternal is supported by the view according to which its history stretches to immemorial times: "Every layer they strip/Seems camped on before./The bogholes might be Atlantic seepage./The wet centre is bottomless" (Heaney, 25-28). The fact that the centre is wet suggests the constant and eternal vitality of existence's root. The values of the people living in ogland can not get weary because they have such a solid source.
If ogland is the place where the poet comes from, in Yeats' case, Innisfree is the place where he wishes to escape. The environment is simple and just like in the poem analyzed above, the island is a symbol of freedom. In addition, the isolation allows the…
Meredith, D. "Landscape or mindscape? Seamus Heaney's Bogs," Retrieved October 11, 2010 from http://188.8.131.52/~geograph/irishgeography/v32-2/bogs.pdf
Heaney, Seamus. "Bogland"
Yeats, W.B. "The Lake Island of Innisfree"
God, the World, and Literature: The Concept of Social Morality in Modern Literature
Literature, as the primary source of information of people in witnessing and experiencing realities interpreted by the author/writer, is more than a medium that extends messages of reality and experience. Literature is, first and foremost, an expression of thoughts and ideologies that may or may not be agreed upon by the author or his/her characters in the said work. The concept of social morality is such example of these ideologies extended thru literary works. Through literature, writers are able to provide people with varying themes related to the discussion of social morality, offering people avenues wherein morality can be created and developed by the society, and adapted by the individual.
Modern literature boasts itself of this kinds of art -- literary works that depict the life of individuals who were directly affected by their own or…
Achebe, C. Things Fall Apart. New York: First Anchor Books, 1994.
Camus, A. The Guest. Available at http://www.geocities.com/su_englit/camus_guest.html.
Eliot, T.S. The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock. Available at http://www.cs.amherst.edu/~ccm/prufrock.html .
Yeats, W.B. The Second Coming. Available at http://www.poets.org /poems/poems.cfm?prmID=1369.
Strength in Themes of Modernist Poetry
Things fall apart, the center cannot hold," wrote Yeats of the modern, human condition. Yeats later poetic vision highlights a central notion in much of modern poetic philosophy, namely that the old ideological and religious structures have begun to unravel in modern life. hat ideologies that once held up the human form and human social norms are no more, in the face of modern war and destruction. The title of this poem "The Second Coming" refers to the fact that the awaited solution to the crisis, that of the second coming of the Messiah, seems no where to be found, and while human beings wait for meaning, it seems to be no where, and all human strength is lost.
However, not all of modern poetry is absent of answers of the lack of strength in the face of the bleak crisis of hopelessness, of…
Dickinson, Emily. "I felt a funeral in my brain." http://swc2.hccs.cc.tx.us/htmls/rowhtml/dickinson/emily02.htm. On April 19, 2004
Pound, Ezra. "Fan Piece, for her Imperial Lord." Retrieved at http://www.theotherpages.org/poems/pound01.html . On April 19, 2004.
Yeats, W.B. "The Second Coming." Retrieved at http://www.poets.org /poems/poems.cfm?prmID=1369on April 19, 2004.
In O'Connor short story, "A Good Man is Hard to Find," the antagonist is an outlaw, in keeping with the frequent use of alienated members of society in Romantic poetry and literature. The alienated member of society is contrasted with the crass materialism and superficiality of the family the Misfit kills. The child June Star is so poorly brought up that she says: "I wouldn't live in a broken-down place like this for a million bucks!" To the owner of the roadside restaurant the family stops at, and is punished dearly for her transgression by the author O'Connor with death.
Yet the grandmother, upon hearing of the story of the Misfit says: "hy you're one of my babies. You're one of my own children!" The grandmother is said to "reached out and touch" the Misfit him on the shoulder, but the Misfit is said to have "sprang back as if…
Frost, Robert. "Fire and Ice." December 11, 2008. http://www2.puc.edu/Faculty/Bryan_Ness/frost1.htm
Holman, C. Hugh & William Harmon. "Romanticism." Definitions from a Handbook to Literature, Sixth Edition. Excerpt available on the web December 11, 2008 at http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/eng372/intro-h4.htm
Hughes, Langston. "The Negro Speaks of Rivers." Poetry.org. December 11, 2008. http://www.poets.org /viewmedia.php/prmMID/15722' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The message of the poem is the longing for life and youth. In this case as well the images have a strong symbolical dimension, the light must be understood as life and youth, whereas the night as death and decay. Just as the title suggests it, there are people who will not easily accept their fate. "Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight, / And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way, / Do not go gentle into that good night" (Thomas, 10-12). Wild is a state of mind and the sun in flight is a symbol of freedom and creation. The imagery creates spiritual landscapes which unite the poet and the reader.
Shakespeare in his sonnet "My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun" makes a clear opposition between elements of nature and parts of the body of the woman he loves. On the…
Heaney, Seamus. "Bogland"
Shakespeare, W. "My Mistress' Eyes are Nothing like the Sun"
Thomas, D. "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night"
Yeats, W.B. "The Lake Island of Innisfree"
ilfred Owen's poem "Dulce et Decorum est" describes the horrors of orld ar One. ith rich imagery, the poet refers to the gory and horrid details of the "great war," such as "the blood / Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs, / Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud," and "watch the white eyes writhing in his face, / His hanging face, like a devil's sick of sin." Owen's commentary comes directly from personal experience, as the poet served as a soldier in orld ar One. Having witnessed the devastation and death he describes in "Dulce Decorum Est," the poet challenges the popular assumptions of war's glory, honor, and necessity. The title of the poem comes from a Latin phrase meaning "It is sweet and right." The phrase was often used in reference to the First orld ar, to promote morale among soldiers. Owen concludes that the phrase is truly…
Written in 1926, William Butler Yeats' "Sailing to Byzantium" focuses not on war but on aging, death, and immortality. Through colorful, almost mystical imagery, Yeats describes the city of Byzantium through its glorious works of art, paintings that will stand the test of time. Yeats contrasts the immortal beauty of the works of art with the mortal decay of human flesh: "An aged man is but a paltry thing, a tattered coat upon a stick."
The poem "Dinner Guest: Me" by Langston Hughes describes the racial divide in America, and Hughes writes from an African-American perspective. The poem takes place around a dinner table in which the white hosts entertain a black guest, bombarding him with questions, "the usual questions / That come to white mind / Which seeks demurely / To Probe in polite way / The why and wherewithal / Of darkness U.S.A." In spite of their high-minded intellectual probing, the narrator of the poem cannot help but notice that "Solutions to the Problem, / Of course, wait. In spite of well-meaning discourse on racial equality, the problems associated with racism still exist in America and the gap between white and black remains large.
Sylvia Plath's poem "Daddy" describes anger and rage associated with mental and physical oppression. While Plath seems to focus on her relationship with her father, her rage extends also to her relationship with her husband, "The vampire who said he was you / And drank my blood for a year, / Seven years." The narrator relates all forms of oppression to the Nazi slaughter of the Jews. The intensity of the poet's emotions culminated in Plath's killing herself at age 30.
Let the wenches dawdle in such dress
As they are used to wear, and let the boys
Bring flowers in last month's newspapers.
Let be finale of seem.
The only emperor is the emperor of ice-cream.
The children gather around the curls of cream, to wonder at the miraculous substance and this ordinary, humble labor is made momentarily great by his trade, a European Emperor who can give and take at will, and thus also seems faintly sinister in his muscularity.
Stevens celebrated "the emergence from old ideologies in the form of what was rapidly becoming an aesthetic ideology," a form of "American home-grown" modernist abstraction that still had its roots in the concrete, the concrete nature of imagism, and also of plain, simple, profound American reality. Unlike other American modernists, like T.S. Eliot (who eventually became a British citizen and converted to Anglicanism) or Ezra Pound (a permanent expatriate)…
Filreis, Alan. "Beyond the rhetorician's touch: Steven's painterly abstractions."
Originally published in American Literary History. Spring 1992: pp. 230-63. Accessible 4 Dec 2006 at http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/Stevens/talcoat-alh.html
Groundbreaking Book: Harmonium by Wallace Stevens." Poets.org. Online publication of the Academy of American Poets. [4 Dec 2006] http://www.poets.org /viewmedia.php/prmMID/5952' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Also, a few new Nohs have been written and some 'retired' ones have been re-activated. Noh has also blended with other forms of entertainment and theatrical genres.
That is the extent of the change, though as there is a very sincere and earnest call for tradition and custom throughout the Noh industry. The field remains very codified and the emphasis from within the field is much more so on tradition than innovation. The society of Noh preserves and espouses the traditions. One of the traditions is the regimented progression of Noh characters than an actor/actress can portray during the course of their lives.
The Noh remains an integral part of Japanese culture. Ezra Pound maintained a pursuit of sharing the Noh with the est for most of his adult life. His endeavor was a success as the Noh has indeed been shared all over the world while remaining particularly sacred…
Ewick, D. 2003. Sadakichi Hartmann, The influence of Japanese art on Western civilization.
Japonisme, orientalism, modernism: A critical bibliography of Japan in English-
language verse. http://themargins.net/bib/A/01.htm (accessed October 7, 2010).
Fenollosa, Ernest and Ezra Pound. The noh theatre of Japan: with complete texts of 15 classic plays. Dover: Courier Dover Publications, 2004
When we consider the career of Rabindranath Tagore as a "nationalist leader," it is slightly hard to find comparable figures elsewhere in world-history. Outside of India, Tagore is most famous as a poet: he won the 1913 Nobel Prize for Literature for his engali poetry collection Gitanjali. Perhaps the closest contemporary analogue to Tagore would be the Irish poet and "nationalist leader" W.. Yeats, who would win the Nobel Prize for Literature ten years after Tagore. Ironically enough, it was Yeats who introduced Tagore to Europe, quite literally -- the English translation of Gitanjali had an introduction by Yeats recommending Tagore in the highest possible terms to European readers. And Yeats was a "nationalist leader" in the same way as Tagore: Yeats, after all, believed that his own poetry and drama in favor of Irish independence had inspired the 1916 Irish "Easter Rebellion" against the ritish Empire, and…
Guha, Ramachandra. Makers of Modern India. Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2011.
Metcalf, Barbara, and Metcalf, Thomas. A Concise History of India. London: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
Colonial Resistance in Things Fall Apart
Chinua Achebe was born in Ogidi, Nigeria, and his father was a teacher in a missionary school. His parents were devout evangelical Protestants and christened him Albert after Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria, although they installed in him many of the values of their traditional Igbo culture. He attended University College in Ibadan, where he studied English, history and theology. At the university Achebe rejected his ritish name and took his indigenous name Chinua. In 1953 he graduated with a A, and later studied broadcasting at the C where, in 1961, he became the first Director of External roadcasting at the Nigerian roadcasting Corporation. In 1944 Achebe attended Government College in Umuahia. He was also educated at the University College of Ibadan, like other major Nigerian writers including John Okigbo, Wole Soyinka, John Pepper Clark, Elechi Amadi, and Cole Omotso. There he studied…
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1958.
Balint-Kurti, Daniel. "Novelist rejects national honors to protest conditions in Nigeria." Chicago Sun-Times. 18 October 2004. 4 August 2005 .
Bowen, Roger. "Speaking Truth to Power: An Interview with Chinua Achebe." Academe. Jan/Feb 2005. 4 August 2005 .
Gallagher, Susan VanZanten. "Linguistic power: encounter with Chinua Achebe - Nigerian writer." Christian Century. 12 March 1997. 4 August 2005 .
ather than continue the process that began in the first two books, in which the osicrucian Order first announced themselves, gave their history, and then responded to certain criticisms while making their position within Christian theology clearer, the Chymical Wedding can almost be seen as the first instance of literature written within the osicrucian tradition, rather than as part of its manifesto-like founding documents, because it does not seek to explain the history of osicrucianism, but rather explicate how the teachings and underlying beliefs of osicrucianism contribute to and alter one's interpretation of Christian scripture (Williamson 17; Dickson 760). Specifically, one can see a distinct connection between the Chymical Wedding and seventeenth-century attempts to expand Protestantism throughout Europe. The Chymical Wedding can be seen as a the most explicit attempt on the part of osicrucians and osicrucian supporters to wed the new (or newly revealed) society to the larger religious…
Andreae, Johann. The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz. N/a: Benjamin Rowe, 2000.
Case, Paul F. The True and Invisible Rosicrucian Order: An Interpretation of the Rosicrucian
Allegory and an Explanation of the Ten Rosicrucian Grades. York Beach, Me: S. Weiser,
Assisted by the receipt of some arms from Germany, the group seized several buildings in Dublin which they were able to hold for nearly a week before British forces were able to put down the uprising.
The leaders of the rebellion, who had declared the establishment of an Irish Republic during the time that they occupied the Dublin buildings, were captured and subsequently summarily executed by the British government. These executions were a major political mistake for the British. Prior to the executions the popular sentiment in Ireland was to continue with British rule but the summary nature of the British actions subsequent to the Easter uprising caused a radical change in Irish attitudes. The executed men were quickly regarded as martyrs and the arrests of the remaining rebellion participants raised the ire of the Irish citizenry. hat began as a small and poorly organized demonstration escalated into a rallying…
Donnelly, James S. The Great Irish Potato Famine. Charleston, SC: The History Press, 2008.
Lee, Joseph J. Ireland, 1912-1985: Politics and Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
Lengel, Edward G. The Irish through British Eyes. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2002.
Plunkett, John Quinn and George William Russell and Horace Curzon. The Irish home-rule convention. Charleston, SC: Nabu Press, 2010.
These are the results of studies conducted by Mansfield in 1962, Utton in 1972, and Singh and Whittington in 1975. However, according to the study conducted by Hart and Prais in the year 1956, most companies demonstrated an 'inverse size-growth relationship' for certain times, and the theory of the Law of Proportionate Effect was thus rejected completely by them. Certain studies conducted by Hall in 1897, Dunne and Hughes in 1994, Hart and Oulton in 1996, and more recently, Blonigen and Tomlin in 2001 that were based on the manufacturing data of certain companies, showed that the size and the growth relationship of these companies, whether taken at the firm or at the plant level, was in fact negative. (Dynamics of growth and profitability in Banking)
In the Banking sector, the study conducted by Alhadeff and Alhadeff in 1964 show that between the years 1930 and 1960, it was discovered…
Audretsch, David B; Elston, Julie Ann. R&D Intensity and Firm Growth and Institutions in Germany. March, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.bus.ucf.edu/wp/content/archives/CES3.pdf . Accessed on 1/6/2004
Gibrat's rule of proportionate growth. Economy Professor. Retrieved at http://www.economyprofessor.com/economictheories/gibrats-rule-of-proportionate-growth.html. Accessed on 1/6/2004
Goddard, John; Molyneux, Phil; Wilson, John O.S. Dynamics of growth and profitability in Banking. Retrieved at http://www.hhs.se/NR/rdonlyres/E64A741A-F305-482C-B83A-5D9AF0B9E703/796/Molyneux.pdf . Accessed on 1/6/2004
Kusakabe, Motoo. APU Special Lecture on Development Strategy. Retrieved at http://www.ecomlink.org/APU2004/Lesson2.asp. Accessed on 1/6/2004
Hyde, Morris, and Banes discuss the impact of community on creativity. Provide a central argument (or two) that explains the relationship among these theorists on issues of community and creativity. Be specific about the elements of community and how they differ/are similar from Banes' alternative community to Hyde's gift economy to Morris's "age of" theory.
According to Hyde, in contrast to an impersonal, modern capitalist economy where exchanges are based in values ascribed to particular goods and services, the gift economy is about reinforcing personal relationships. True creativity comes from speaking from the heart, all of the potentially embarrassing things which remain unsaid. Hyde idealizes poets such as Yeats and Pound, who saw themselves as intimately connected to a community and a lineage, versus just writing for the marketplace. Artists cannot feel driven to produce simply to replicate what is popular. "The fruits of the creative spirit is the work…
Such a parsing of into which school Samuel Beckett can be slotted may seem to be nothing more than intellectual engagement -- not that there is anything wrong with this -- but it also serves as an important way of assessing both the "Irishness" and the humor of Beckett's writings. Unlike a writer like John Synge, for example, or illiam Butler Yeats, Beckett is generally not clearly identifiable as Irish from the dialect or settings or historical references in his writings. (This is especially true, of course, once he begins to write in French.) But there are hints of his nationality in this back-and-forthing that he does with literary genres and literary conventions. Such liberty with self-identification in terms of artistic identity is not solely Irish, of course. But an unwillingness to be categorized neatly does seem to be clearly associated with colonial identity. Ireland in Beckett's time was still…
Barrett, William. Real Love Abides. The New York Times, September 16, 1956.
Beckett, Samuel. The Complete Dramatic Works. New York: Faber and Faber, 2006.
Cronin, Anthony. Samuel Beckett: The Last Modernist. New York: HarperCollins, 1997.
Fiedler, Leslie, Search for Peace in a World Lost. The New York Times, August 3, 1997.
That in itself is startling, but there are precedents for mystical encounters of various kinds, or to be less extreme, a choice of persuasions to put it down to fancy; until -- "My God," says a second man, "I must be dreaming, I thought I saw a unicorn." At which point, a dimension is added that makes the experience as alarming as it will ever be. A third witness, you understand, adds no further dimension but only spreads it thinner, and a fourth thinner still, and the more witnesses there are the thinner it gets and the more reasonable it becomes until it is as thin as reality, the name we give to the common experience... "Look, look!" recites the crowd. "A horse with an arrow in its forehead! It must have been mistaken for a deer."
One of the greatest conflicts that art allows each one of us to…
Bunuel, Luis. My Last Sigh. Minneapolis: U. Minnesota P. 2003.
Colina, Jose de la, and Tomas Perez Turrent, Paul Lenti (ed. And trans.). Objects of Desire, Conversations with Luis Bunuel. New York: Marsilio Publishers. 1992.
Edwards, Gwynne. Indecent Exposures: Bunuel, Saura, Erice and Almodovar by Gwynne Edwards. London: Marion Boyars P. 2000.
Eisenstein, S. And Richard Taylor (ed. And trans.) Selected Writings Vol. One: works 1922-1934. London: BFI. 1987.
This image has lasted for nearly three thousand years but may now be in need of renewal. "God" may be longing for release from His immolation in the structure of our beliefs. To use a gardening metaphor, God has become pot-bound, fixed and constricted by the anthropomorphic, gender-biased, paternalistic image that we have projected onto Him. As Teilhard de Chardin suggested, we need to formulate a new image of God that is related to the phenomenal discoveries science has made about the new dimensions of the universe.
What have we done to God? The old image we have inherited from the Iron Age portrays God creating the Earth from a distance; God as something transcendent to, different from, creation and ourselves; God as male; God as fearful Judge, God as both punishing and loving Father. We have divided life into two - spirit and nature - and have lost the…
Edinger, E. (1985). Anatomy of the psyche: Alchemical symbolism in psychotherapy. La Salle, IL: Open Court
Edinger, E. (1996). The new god-image: A study of Jung's key letters concerning the evolution of the western god-image. Wilmette, IL; Chiron publications.
Goodchild, V. (2001). Eros and chaos: the sacred mysteries and dark shadows of love. York Beach, ME Nicolas-Hays, Inc.
Goodchild. V. (2006). Psychoid, psychophysical, P-subtle! Alchemy and a New Worldview. In Spring: A journal of archetype and culture, 74, "Alchemy." New Orleans, LA: Spring Journal Inc.
He could represent colors in different shades using the right placing and wattage and this gave more life to the images in the background.
His second contribution was the integration of actors with the design of the backdrop. He designed clever backdrops that made it realistic and gave viewers the perception that the actors is actually moving through the backdrop. He harmoniously combined movements in space and the color and lighting of the backdrops to give a realistic effect. His third contribution is the use of fixed flats that made it possible to have indoor as well as outdoor stages. He even filed a patent for this technical change in 1910.
What others think of him
Many people had mixed opinion about Craig because he was a brilliant artist and designer and also an extremely difficult person to work with. He wanted complete art control for an production and this…
Craig, Edward Gordon; Chamberlain, Franc. On the Art of Theater. New York: Routledge, 2008.
Bablet, D. The Theatre of Edward Gordon Craig. London: Eyre Methuen. 1981.
Akard, Jeffrey; Isakson, Nancy. Edward Gordon Craig. Cambridge: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, 1983.
There are a number of reasons for this. The first is that this is a growing group, and any store that fails to embrace a new market will come (in general) to regret it. The second, in the case of this particular market, is the morbid but true fact that if Michael's focusses on only the elderly knitter, then the store's demographic will relatively soon simply disappear through attrition. Finally, while small, individually owned stores can rarely challenge large chain stores in out current economic moment, there are exceptions.
Small knitting stores are an example of a success story in terms of being able to challenge large chain stores -- and this has been true precisely because they offer the kinds of yarns, needles, knitting patterns, stitch markers, and knitting groups that appeal to younger knitters and the reasons that they have taken up this centuries-old craft form, transforming both…
The poet is bringing us into one of the most sacred places there can be - his bedroom - and we walk away with a sense of understanding and appreciation after reading the poem.
Howard Nelson states that the poem "focuses on Yeats calls 'honey generation' the joys of lovemaking that lead to birth and the almost-instinctive yet gloriously conscious love parents and child" (Nelson 240). Nelson states that the poem is "balanced by ironies" (Nelson 238) noting that the most quiet intimate noises seem to attract the boy to his parents like a magnet. The poem "celebrates the root force of mortality's beginning: not death but the lovemaking that can lead to birth" (239).
The poem captures the love between and man and a woman in the final stanza, the poet sating:
In the half darkness we look at each other and smile and touch arms across this little,…
Richard J. Calhoun. Galway Kinnell; Overview. GALE Resource Database. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com Site Accessed April 03, 2008.
Kinnell, Galway. "After Making Love We Hear Footsteps." Poets.org. http://www.poets.org /viewmedia.php/prmMID/15927SiteAssessed' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
"(McCarthy, 205) Under the pressure of the modern world, the real things remain hidden from the view of man: "hen you encounter certain things in the world, the evidence for certain things, you realize that you have come upon something that you may not very well be equal to... hen you've said that it's real and not just in your head, I'm not all that sure what it is you have said."(McCarthy, 56) Thus, through an edgy and even troubling plot, McCarthy manages to portray a few of the failings of modern man and of the modern world itself. As Aaron Gwyn points out, the novel is almost an elegy of the lost world forever, but which can be regained as a new Paradise later: "McCarthy composes a tale of immense terror and beauty, one which poses the most serious of moral questions even as it pushes the bounds of…
Gwyn, Aaron. "No Country for Old Men. Book Review." The Review of Contemporary Fiction, Fall 2005 v25 i3 p 138(2)
McCarthy, Cormac. No Country for Old Men. New York: Knopf, 2005.
Strong, Benjamin. "A prophet of Gore." The New Leader 88.4 (July-August 2005): 31(2).
Walter, Kim. "Texas Noir." The New York Times Book Review, July 24, 2005 p 9.
"O Sylvan ye! thou wanderer thro' the woods, / How often has my spirit turned to thee!" (http://www.uoregon.edu/~rbear/ballads.html) Now, the poet wishes to "transfer" the healing powers of nature that he himself has experienced to his sister. By stating."..Nature never did betray / the heart that loved her" (http://www.uoregon.edu/~rbear/ballads.html) ordsworth assures his sister that she will also find peace in the middle of nature if she believes in the communion with nature. This prediction is an artifice of the poem and is not simple. "ordsworth's ability to look to the future to predict memories of events that are happening in the present is ingenious and complicated. But ordsworth beautifully clarifies this concept by using nature as the ideal link between recollection, foresight, and his relationship with another."(Eilenberg, Susan. Strange power of Speech: ordsworth, Coleridge, and Literary Possession. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).
Moreover, by imagining the future of his…
Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. Ed. Beth Newman. Boston: St. Martin's, 1996.
Baudelaire, Charles. Selected Writings on Art and Literature. London:
Spector, Jack the State of Psychoanalytic Research in Art History. The Art
At the end of the poem the line "and dreaming with strange whale eyes wide open in the waters of the beginning and the end" gives us a clue to the answer to this question. These whales with eyes wide open see reality. The meaning is that in our evolution we have closed our eyes on reality and in doing so have rejected passion.
The whole poem is written in a rhythmic pattern with calming language that also suggests a higher power. The result is that the reader begins to long for this enchanting life of the whale. While the poem raises questions in its content, it also allows the reader to experience the longing that Lawrence feels.
The Mystic lue
The Mystic lue is a poem about death and was written while Lawrence was grieving the loss of his mother. The poem has a staggered quality to it, reflected…
Boulton, James. T. Letters I: The Letters of DH Lawrence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.
Boulton, James. T., Zytaruk, George. J. Letters II: The Letters of DH Lawrence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. "DH Lawrence." New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. http://www.bartleby.com/65/la/LawrencDH.html
Sagar, Keith. Life into Art. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1985.
The central focus of the book is the search for self and identity and an attempt to answer the question of what happens when men leave the protective normative and restraining influence of society. The central figure of Kurtz is a man who has broken free of the constraints of a sick society. However the novel also questions whether Kurtz too has become evil and lost his own sense of direction. The question is posed questions whether the human "heart of darkness" is not the real problem. If one interprets the book from this perspective, as a work that states that human nature or the human heart is essentially flawed, then one could conclude that Heart of Darkness is in fact more gloomy or pessimistic then the Wasteland.
The Heart of Darkness is a complex work that can be interpreted on many different levels: psychological, sociological, ethical and political. The…
Bloom, Harold, ed. 1(986). T.S. Eliot's the Waste Land. New York: Chelsea House,
Conrad, Joseph. (1946) Youth: Heart of Darkness, the End of the Tether; Three Stories. London J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd., 1946. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24227703
Eder, Doris L. (1984).Three Writers in Exile: Pound, Eliot & Joyce. Troy, NY: Whitston, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=75053211
Suffering Madonna of Ireland: omen, sentimentality, and mother Ireland
Sean O'Casey's play "Juno and the Paycock" portrays an Ireland where good women and particularly good mothers are the soul and heart of the Irish land, and Irish men are shiftless, murdering, or bad. Army men and unionizing men and worst of all, lawyers, threaten the dignity and the soul of the Boyle family, but only with the integrity of Mrs. Boyle does anything good survive out of the tragedies that ensue over the course of the play.
This deflationary view of men can be seen even if one parses the title of O'Casey's play. The" Juno" of the title is a nickname for the matriarch of the clan, given by her husband to his wife. In contrast, the epithet "paycock" is a dialect rendition of Mrs. Boyle's husband's name, a man who is known as strutting peacock, particularly when he…
Atkinson, Brooks, Ed. The Sean O'Casey Reader. By Sean O'Casey. New York: St. Martin's, 1968.
Gill, Peter. "A New State of Chassis: The Irish Civil War and its background." National Theater. First Published 1989. Last Modified 16 Feb 2005. http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/town/parade/abj76/PG/pieces/ocasey/new_state_of_chassis.shtml
O'Casey, Sean. "Juno and the Paycock."
"Sean O'Casey: Biography" The Moonstruck Theater Database. http://www.imagi-nation.com/moonstruck/clsc100.html . [1 Mar 2005] Article originally published in Minute History of the Drama. Edited by Alice B. Fort & Herbert S. Kates. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1935.
In some cases, it does make the world a connected whole and global village. An e-mail goes from Europe to Africa in seconds, a girl in South America plays a PC game with a boy in Australia, a man in California talks over the computer to a friend in Japan. In some ways, this must be improving international communication.
However, the Internet has also made it much easier for people to stay indoors in front of their computers. Children are forgetting how to actually play imaginative games, they are becoming obese and their thumbs are suffering from repetitive movement syndrome. People of all ages are actually addicted to the Web; a camp in Germany only allows children 30 minutes a day on the computer and encourages them to spend as much time out of doors as possible. Computer/video gamers devote more than triple the amount of time spent playing games…
Guterman, J. "Technology in America." PC Magazine. March 12, 2002.
International Telecommunication Union. World Telecommunication Development Report, Geneva, 1998, p. 50.
Kapica, J. "Gadgets blur lines between work, play." Globe and Mail Update. Tuesday,
Marchand, P. 1989, Marshall McLuhan: The Medium and the Messenger. New York:
" (Kipling) This shows the cobra's association with the native religions of India. The cobras also have a conception of themselves as a people in danger of loosing their natural habitat and at war with those who would eradicate or tame them. When they find that Rikki-tikki is threatening their existence, and that the humans will willing shoot snakes, they make a plan to fight back.
One might guess just from this set of characters where the central tension lies - for Rikki-tikki must fight nobly to save his friends and family, and on that level the reader respects him, yet at the same time one understands that by being "tamed" by the white man, as it were, Rikki's human models were eradicating their own native history and religion. (Thus only the snakes speak of faith or of family, but the mongoose is an orphan with no culture) on that…
Kipling, Rudyard. "The White Man's Burden: The United States & the Philippine Islands, 1899." Rudyard Kipling's Verse: Definitive Edition (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1929). [archived at http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5478/ ]
Wikipedia. "Rudyard Kipling" Wikipedia, the Free Encylcopedia. April 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kipling#Kipling.27s_childhood
Mulligan keenly notices features of Stephen's obsession when he mockingly calls him "O, shade of Kinch the elder! Japhet in search of father!" Partially, his argument for Shakespeare's autobiographical tendencies is seeded by his own frustration in his search for paternal links.
Out of this, Stephen's rejection of the Irish renaissance is significant because he wishes to judge himself against the backdrop of classical standards. "In our case, Stephen has 'entered into a competition' with Shakespeare by making himself a companion to the model of Shakespeare and placing himself, as much as he can by means of lecturing, next to the model of Shakespeare." So the contention that Shakespeare's plays are autobiographical, by being a particularly unique argument, if successful, would forever attach the name Dedalus to Shakespeare -- thus, his intellectual roots would be fundamentally defined to the external world. Notably, this would remain true regardless of Stephen's recognition…
Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness and the Secret Sharer. New York: Bantam Books, 1981.
Ellman, Richard. James Joyce. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.
Jones, William Powell. Stephen Hero, a Part of the First Draft of a Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. New York: New Directions, 1944.
Joyce, James. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. New York: Penguin Books, 1993.
We see the stone images raised again to indicate soulless worshipping. It is used to highlight the impurity and insincerity of worshippers:
At the hour when we are Trembling with tenderness
Lips that would kiss
Form prayers to broken stone.
The fourth section is actually that twilight zone that hollow men dreaded. The fear of meeting the eyes had already been overcome. It is their absence which is disturbing now:
As the perpetual star
Of death's twilight kingdom
The absence of eyes in the 'twilight kingdom' suggests that this part if yet another version of the world. Here reappearance of eyes would mean rekindling of spirit and rebirth of soul and conscience. The return of eyes is now a hope- 'the hope only'. The syntax is deliberately ambiguous- 'This broken jaw of our lost kingdoms' evokes a powerful and mysterious image of things in the twilight kingdom. The…
C.K. Stead, The New Poetic: Yeats to Eliot (Penguin, 1967 edn), 167-70
Robert Hayden, one of the most important black poets of the 20th Century, was born in Detroit, Michigan in 1913 and grew up in extreme poverty in a racially mixed neighborhood. His parents divorced when he was a child and he was raised by their neighbors, illiam and Sue Ellen Hayden, and not until he was in his forties did he learn that Asa Sheffey and Gladys Finn were his biological parents. During the Great Depression he was employed for two years by the Federal riter's Project, and published his first volume of poetry Heart-Shape in the Dust in 1940. He taught English at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee for twenty-three years, and then at the University of Michigan from 1969 until his death in 1980. Among his other works were The Lion and the Archer (1948), Figure of Time (1955), A Ballad of Remembrance (1962), orks in Mourning Time…
Bloom, Harold. Robert Hayden. Chelsea House Publishers, 2005.
Fetrow, Fred M. "Middle Passage: Robert Hayden's Anti-Epoch" in Bloom: 35-48.
Gates, Henry Louis and Evelyn Brooks Higgenbotham. Harlem Renaissance Lives: From the African-American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2009.
Kutzinski, Vera M. "Changing Permanences: Historical and Literary Revisionism in Robert Hayden's Middle Passage" in Bloom: 306-21.
Claude Rawson is best known as a scholar of Jonathan Swift and the eighteenth century, but Rawson's has also used the savage irony of Swift's modest proposal for a series of essays which consider Swift's invocation of cannibalism in light of a longer tradition (in Anglo-Irish relations) of imputing cannibalism literally to the native Irish as a way of demonizing their "savagery" or else to implying a metaphorical cannibalism to describe the British Imperial exploitation of those native Irish. Rawson reapproaches these Swiftian subjects in a more recent essay entitled "Killing the Poor: An Anglo-Irish Theme" which examines what Rawson calls the "velleities of extermination" in a text like Swift's "Modest Proposal" (Rawson, 300). Rawson examines how Swift's ironic solution of what to do with the poor of Ireland (eat them as food) undergoes, in various later iterations by Anglo-Irish writers including Shaw and ilde, transformation into a…
Burgess, Anthony. ReJoyce. New York: W.W. Norton, 1965.
Ellmann, Richard. Ulysses on the Liffey. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 1972.
Henke, Suzette. James Joyce and the Politics of Desire. New York and London: Routledge, 1990.
Joyce, James. Ulysses. Ed. Hans Walter Gabler. New York: Vintage, 1986. Print.
Bright Knots of Apparitions: Transcending Reality in Fascicle Sixteen
In the early eighteen sixties, many Americans were concerned with the national fracture that manifested itself in the Civil ar. Northerners, galvanized by the Compromise of 1850, which held them punishable by law for aiding escaped slaves, had come to realize that this conflict involved all Americans. The nation seethed with factionalism and looked outward for direct and active solutions to a moral crisis.
Emily Dickinson, as far as her biographers can determine, seemed unaware of or unconcerned with the national conflict. Instead, in the same time period, she would experience a tremendous period of artistic production, writing three hundred sixty-six poems in 1862 alone, a six-fold increase over her output in 1858. Eleven of her 1861-1862 poems she would bind in the little hand-sewn bundles she kept in a box under her bed; this collection of terse, conflicted lines is…
Ierardi, Michelle. "Translating Emily: Digitally Representing Dickinson's Poetic Production Using Fascicle Sixteen as a Case Study. http://www.cs.virginia.edu/najfzj/emily/emilyindex.html
economy continues to struggle, many areas of the nation continue to struggle as well. Non-profit and governmental organizations are faced with cutbacks, fewer donations and general lack of assistance that they may have been accustomed to in the past.
Add to this the globalization process and the increasing need for assistance by these organizations and it is easy to understand why it has become critical to manage them as efficiently as possible. The strategic management of non-profit organizations as well as governmental organizations must be as efficient and capable as possible for the organization to be able to continue operating.
Several elements are needed for the strategic management of such organization including team work, financial planning and goals. This paper will discuss and detail the importance of strategic management in these areas as well as suggest future paths for success.
Strategic Management in a Nonprofit and Governmental Organization.
Relationships Between Organizational Characteristics And Strategic Planning Processes In Nonprofit Organizations.
Strategic management case writing: suggestions after 20 years of experience.
Strategic planning in third-sector organizations.
Transforming the Balanced Scorecard from Performance Measurement to Strategic Management: Part I.
2005 study by Mohala Tucker Besser et al., conducted upon HIV-positive pregnant women who are about to undergo voluntary caesarian section to give birth. Mohala Tucker Besser et al. used a sample population to study whether or not HIV was present within the amniotic fluid of these pregnant women, and discovered that -- contrary to a previous study published in 1987 -- it was not. Additional relevant studies -- including the original 1987 Lancet publication by Mundy Schinazi Gerber et al., and further studies involving viral transmission between mothers and newborns and specific risk factors for HIV transmission in prenatal and perinatal situations -- are examined in conjunction with Mohala Tucker Besser's 2005 study. The finding has implications for preventing HIV transmission between mothers and newborn infants, and confirms the growing clinical consensus that elective caesarian section remains one of the most reliable ways to reduce viral transmission from an…
Lin HH, Kao JH, Hsu HY, Mizokami M, Hirano K, Chen DS. (1996). Least microtransfusion from mother to fetus in elective cesarean delivery. Obstetric Gynecology 87: 244-248.
Magder LS, Mofenson L, Paul ME, Zorrilla CD, Blattner WA, Tuomala RE, LaRussa P, Landesman S, Rich KC. (2005). Risk factors for in utero and intrapartum transmission of HIV. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficicency Syndrome 38: 87-95.
Mofenson LM 1997. Mother-child HIV-1 transmission: timing and determinants. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 24: 759-784.
Mohlala BK, Tucker TJ, Besser MJ, Williamson C, Yeats J, Smit L, Anthony J, Puren A. (2005). Investigation of HIV in amniotic fluid from HIV-infected pregnant women at full term. Journal of Infectious Diseases 192: 488-491.
These young men were not immersed in the high modernist traditions of Virginia Woolf and T.S. Eliot: rather, they were immersed in the experience of war and their own visceral response to the horrors they witnessed.
Thus a multifaceted, rather than strictly comparative approach might be the most illuminating way to study this period of history and literature. Cross-cultural, comparative literary analysis is always imperfect, particularly given the linguistic challenges presented by evaluating German poetry in relation to its British counterparts. Contextualizing the British war poets requires a certain level of understanding how the war was seen by the other side, and by alien eyes. More is likely to be gained than lost by reading the German war poets in translation. Yet reading the German poets in translation allows the reader to appreciate the influence of symbolism and expressionism in their work that was not present even in the harsh…
Okonkwo seems full of passionate intensity to preserve things as they are, and to preserve his sense of masculine, patriarchal authority. But although this sense of passion seems to have its origin sense of nostalgia for traditional forms of control, it is also too tied up the man's ego to be called a conviction. A true conviction about justice is not self-interested. It is also worth remembering that Okonkwo's father did not embody such authority within his own family structure, thus Okonkwo partly wishes to defy his own family's tradition. And Okonkwo's sense of wishing to preserve the positive aspects of his personal authority does not mean that he is not willing to kill his adopted son, for fear of looking weak, even though this hurts the tribe's future. Thus Okonkwo lacks convictions that transcend the self, and denies such positive self-sacrificing values as feminine.
Fern Hill (Dylan Thomas)
The "Poetry Explications" handout from UNC states that a poetry explication is a "relatively short analysis which describes the possible meanings and relationship of the words, images, and other small units that make up a poem."
The speaker in "Fern Hill" dramatically embraces memories from his childhood days at his uncle's farm, when the world was innocent; the second part brings out the speaker's loss of innocence and transition into manhood. This explication will identify and critique Thomas' tone, imagery (including metaphors) and expressive language (as it contributes to the power of the poem). ("Fern Hill" uses 6 verse paragraphs; there are 9 lines in each paragraph.)
"Now as I was young and easy under the apple boughs / About the lilting house and happy as the grass was green / the night above the dingle starry / time let me hail and climb / golden…
Bible Meanings. (2011). Lamb. Retrieved December 9, 2012, from http://www.biblemeanings.info/words/animal/lamb.htm.
Cox, C.B. (1959). Dylan Thomas's 'Fern Hill.' The Critical Quarterly, 1(2), 134-138.
Thomas, Dylan. (2012). Fern Hill. Academy of American Poets. Retrieved December 9, 2012,
from http://www.poets.org .
Although "Midsummer" is a shot work, in keeping with more of the original modernistic style of poetry writing, it is no less poignant in the message it conveys.
In many ways, DH Lawrence is a visionary that offers the reader imagery and creativity that engulfs the reader into the world in which he creates with his words. As with Walcott, it was not necessary for Lawrence to achieve cadence in his writing though the use of rhyme. There is a balance that is struck that clearly reads as poetic. Lawrence's expressive language and use of interesting characters helps to tell the stories of dehumanization that only comes with man's lack of recognition for the power of nature, and moving too fast in directions unknown under the call for modernization.
"If one thinks a poem is coming on… you do make a retreat, a withdrawal into some kind of silence…
Baugh, Edward. Derek Walcott. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2006.
Burnett, Paula. Derek Walcott: Politics and Poetics. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001.
Eagleton, Terry. The English novel: an introduction. Willey-Blackwell, pp. 258-260, 2005.
King, Bruce. Derek Walcott, a Caribbean life. Oxford: OUP, 2000.
. . "
"I don't recall having sold the house," Ned said, "and the girls are at home."
In the narration Ned continues on his journey home. Once he is home it is revealed that his house is indeed empty and his wife and daughters are gone. This is just one example of the conflict that exist in this narration between was is reality and what is illusion.
In addition to this aspect of conflict in The Swimmer, there is also a great deal of conflict associated with Ned's ability to swim across the county. This conflict exist because Ned also drank strong alcoholic beverages throughout his journey. It would have been next to impossible for him to swim after he had consumed just a few of these drinks. This is an obvious conflict that would have hindered his journey but the author presents it as fact and not…
Cheever, J. 1954. The Five-Forty-Eight
Cheever, J. 1964. The Swimmer
Cheever, J. 1957. The Wapshot Chronicles. New York: Harper,
Cheever, J. The Angel of the Bridge
(oime, et. al.).
Similarly, author James Joyce helped define the modernist novel by taking the traditionalist concept of telling a coming of age story and adding to it the modernist characteristics of open form, free verse, discontinuous narrative and classical allusions. The result is a novel that, like Starry Night, captures the movement and color of the real world.
Perhaps no other work of Joyce's demonstrates his modernist characteristics then his magna opus, Ulysses. At its core, Ulysses is a retelling of the classic tale by Homer, the Odyssey.
One of the main uses of modernism is found in the final, unpunctuated chapter, popularly referred to as Molly loom's Soliloquy, a long, free verse (or stream of consciousness) passage that list her thoughts as she lies in bed next to the main character, Leopold loom. This is a key modernist passage as it reads as human dreams or thoughts really…
Blamires, Harry. The New Bloomsday Book: A Guide Through Ulysses. London: Routledge, 1988.
Boime, Albert. Vincent van Gogh: Starry Night. A history of matter, a matter of history. Washington: Smithsonian Institute Press, 1994.
However, in line with the Paz prompt at the outset of this discussion, Keats merely uses this tradition as a bridge on which to extend toward motivation on behalf of the evolving form. The subject matter is where this work takes a step toward modernity. The manner in which Keats describes the reality of dying is startling for its time primarily because it lacks religiosity. In describing death, the poet tells, "where youth grows pale, and spectre-thin, and dies; / here but to think is to be full of sorrow / and leaden-eyed despairs; / here beauty cannot keep her lustrous eyes, / or new Love pine at them beyond to-morrow."
The notion of discussing death from a decidedly humanistic rather than spiritual perspective is more daring and innovative than perhaps we are won't to give credit for. It is remarkable that the poet would invert a steadfastly traditional form…
Dickinson, E. (1862). #303 (the Soul Selects Her Own Society). Poets.org.
Eliot, T.S. (1917). The Love-Song of J. Alfred Prufrock. University of Virginia. Online at http://people.virginia.edu/~sfr/enam312/prufrock.html
Keats, J. (1819). Ode to a Nightingale. Arthur Quiller-Couch, ed. 1919. The Oxford Book of English Verse: 1250 -- 1900.