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illiam ordsworth: A ordsmith for All Time
Harold Bloom in his book Genius: A Mosaic of One Hundred Exemplary Creative Minds says "ordsworth remains, in the twenty-first century, what he has been these last two hundred years: the inventor of a poetry that has been called, at intervals, Romantic, post Romantic, Modern, and Postmodern, yet essentially is one phenomenon: the replacement of subject matter by the poet's subjectivity" (377). It is for this reason that ordsworth was chosen as the subject of this paper.
This paper will focus on some of the important events in ordsworth's life as well as analyze two of his works, The orld is Too Much with Us (1807) and It is a beauteous evening, calm and free (1807). Furthermore, the paper will examine oodworth's reputation over time.
illiam ordsworth was born on April 7, 1770 in Cumberland, a place in the Lake District of…
Bloom, Harold. Genius: A Mosaic of One Hundred ExemplaryCreative Minds. New York: Warner Books, 2002. Print.
Burra, Peter. Wordsworth. New York: The MacMillian Company, 1957. Print.
Cummings, Michael J. "The world is Too Much With Us." Cummings Study Guide.2007.Web. 10 December 2012.
Gill, Stephen. William Wordsworth: A Life. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. Print.
illiam ordsworth, 1770-1850, is considered one of the great English poets and leader of the Romantic Movement in England (ordsworth pp). He was a defining member of the Romantic Movement in England and like other Romantics, his personality and poetry were heavily influenced by his love of nature, particularly the scenic area of Lake Country where he spent most of his adult life (Complete pp). ordsworth was an honest philosopher who displayed a sincerity that was tempered with a love and appreciation of simplicity (Complete pp).
After graduation from Cambridge, ordsworth traveled abroad, where he fell in love with Annette Vallon in France, with whom he had a daughter, Caroline, although he and Annette never married (ordsworth pp). ordsworth was strongly influenced by the spirit of the French Revolution and the principles of Rousseau and republicanism (ordsworth pp). A year after returning to England, he published "An Evening alk," ...…
Wordsworth, William. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition; 6/7/2005
The Complete Poetical Works of William Wordsworth.
Petters, John G. "Wordsworth's 'Tintern Abbey.'(William Wordsworth)(Critical
In essence, Wordsworth sees nature as a form of both physical as well as spiritual rejuvenation and transformation.
In Lines composed a few miles above Tintern Abbey he goes on to describe the gift of nature as follows:
To them I may have owed another gift,
Of aspect more sublime; that blessed mood,
In which the burthen of the mystery,
In which the heavy and the weary weight
Of all this unintelligible world,
( "Tintern Abbey." Lines 36-41)
It is through the imaginative experience of nature that he encounters a "blessed mood" that makes him aware of the underlying power and mystery of reality. This could be described as a 'mystical experience' or a spiritual awakening that is obscured by the humdrum noise and activity of modern life. In the presence of nature he becomes aware of himself as a "living soul" who sees "… into the life…
Danby, John F. The Simple Wordsworth: Studies in the Poems, 1797-1807. London:
Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1960.
Introduction to Romanticism. November 8, 2009.
William Wordsworth and obert Frost
Humanity has many given failings, foremost of which is the failure to look past the concrete and acutely relate to the spiritual potential that manifests within. Through the lack of this abstract hindsight, Nature and the Sea are strangers to mankind, open only should mankind return to a direct sense of awareness in its environment. William Wordsworth's poem "The world is too much with us" and obert Frost's poem "Neither out far nor in deep" both touch upon these human failings. While the themes are generally the same, the methods and imagery called upon to discuss mankind and Nature differ somewhat.
William Wordsworth -- The World is Too Much with Us
The world is too much with us; late and soon,
Getting and spending, we lay waste our powers;
Little we see in Nature that is ours;
We have given our hearts away, a sordid…
Brians, Paul. (1999). Reading about the world. Harcourt Brace College.
Frost, Robert. (1936). Neither out far nor in deep. A Further Range. Henry Holt & Co.
Jarrell, Randall. (1953). Poetry and the age. Knopf Publishing.
Wordsworth, William (1888). The Complete Poetical Works. London: Macmillan and Co.
.."(ordsworth, 428) Nature thus becomes an all-powerful voice for the youth, who can now understand its sacredness and its true meaning as the personification of God's love on earth. As Gaskell observes therefore, there is clearly a mutual interdependence between the spirit of Nature and that of man: "The relationship between Nature and the mind is one of mutual dependence. Ontologically they are equally real; neither has, nor should have, priority."(Gaskell, 36) for ordsworth, the love of nature is the very structuring force of his development as a poet. The self can only evolve through its relationship with the whole, with the mighty voice of the universe and of God himself.
Gaskell, Ronald. ordsworth's Poem of the Mind: An Essay on 'The Prelude'. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1991.
Harding, Anthony John. "ordsworth's Prelude, Tracey Emin, and Romantic Autobiography." ordsworth Circle 34.2 (Spring 2003): 59(7).
Philmus, Robert M. "ordsworth…
Gaskell, Ronald. Wordsworth's Poem of the Mind: An Essay on 'The Prelude'. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1991.
Harding, Anthony John. "Wordsworth's Prelude, Tracey Emin, and Romantic Autobiography." Wordsworth Circle 34.2 (Spring 2003): 59(7).
Philmus, Robert M. "Wordsworth and the interpretation of dreams." Papers on Language & Literature 31.n2 (Spring 1995): 184(22).
Smith, J. Mark. "Unrememberable' sound in Wordsworth's 1799 Prelude." Studies in Romanticism 42.4 (Winter 2003): 501(19).
illiam ordsworth as the quintessential Romantic poet - a man in love with the idea of a simple life lived close to nature - that we are apt to overlook the fact that his relationship with nature is in fact a somewhat ambivalent one, or at least a complex one. hile ordsworth will always be known for the clarity and undiluted Romanticism of "Tintern Abbey," to assume that his stance vis-a-vis nature in this poem constitutes an adequate description of all of his connections to and understandings of the external world does him a disservice. To do so would be to equate his passion for the natural world and the necessity of direct human connection to nature for a simple-minded sort of tendency to ramble on about beauty. Rather, if we look beyond "Tintern Abbey" to the whole body of his work, we came to a fuller understanding of the…
Fiero, Gloria. The Humanistic Tradition. London: Brown and Benchmark, 1997.
Hill, Philip. Romanticism and Realism. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1989.
Lucas, Frank. The Decline and Fall of the Romantic Ideal. New York: AMS Press, 1975.
Wordsworth, William. William Wordsworth: The Major Works. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000.
The same is true of politics, where there are few women political leaders, and the United States has never seen a woman president or vice-president. It is interesting to note that Wollstonecraft hopes women will "grow more and more masculine" in order to compete with men, and yet, Presidential candidate Hillary Clinton has been criticized for that very attribute, pointing to how little real difference there is between today and Wollstonecraft's time.
To continue that theme, Wordsworth's poem "The World is Too Much With Us" also carries themes and images that mirror events in today's society. Wordsworth's short poem decries the lack of respect for the natural world and the greed and power that seemed to permeate society at the time, and led to the activities of the French evolution and other rebellions against tyranny and inequality. He writes, "Getting and spending, we lay waste our powers / Little we…
Wollstonecraft, Mary. "From 'A Vindication of the Rights of Women'." The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Eighth Edition. Stephen Greenblatt, M.H. Abrams, editors. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2006. 1456-1460.
Wordsworth, William. "The World is Too Much With Us." The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Eighth Edition. Stephen Greenblatt, M.H. Abrams, editors. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2006. 1484-1550.
illiam ordsworth illustrates the narrator's love of life. His "heart leaps up" when he sees a rainbow, indicating his affection for natural beauty. Moreover, he hopes his sense of awe and appreciation of all aspects of living continues throughout his life. This is what the narrator calls "natural piety," a type of spiritual devotion that comes not from organized religion but through nature and introspection. In this poem, "natural piety" is also associated with childhood and innocence. Children experience the world with fresh eyes, untainted by dogma or the bitterness that often accompanies adulthood. hen ordsworth says, "The child is the father of the man," he implies that children are often wiser and more attuned to spirituality than adults are because of this natural innocence.
Therefore, this poem is part prayer, part assertion: the narrator hopes that his days will be filled with this sense of wonderment, for he fears…
Wordsworth, William. "My heart leaps up." 1802.
" The narrator fails to convince the little girl that her two dead siblings are any different than the ones who are alive and away from home. Moreover, the narrator fails to destroy the little girl's optimism and sense of innocence. The narrator is a jaded man who clings to a belief that death is final. Although he affirms that a "simple child" "feels its life in every limb," he cannot stretch his consciousness to embrace the girl's point-of-view. The girl simply defines death differently than the narrator.
Therefore, Wordsworth explains two highly different worldviews. Wordsworth demonstrates the irony inherent in civilization through the dialogue between the man and the little girl. No one knows what death means and yet the narrator is determined to prove the girl wrong. Both the man and the girl are stubborn, clinging to their beliefs about life and death. Logically, however, neither one is…
In "Preface to Lyrical Ballads," illiam ordsworth explores what he believes to be the search for truth in art. His claim rests on the assertion that "all good poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (ordsworth 19). ordsworth clearly equates the creation of poetry as an outward expression of an inner emotion or experience. His theory supports the fact that poetry is not simply something that is to be written but that it be read and understood by every man. This paper will examine how ordsworth reaches this conclusion and successfully proves his points.
ordsworth begins his "preface to Lyrical Ballads" by focusing on issues of style. He claims, "Humble and rustic life was generally chosen, because, in that condition, the essential passions of the heart find a better soil in which they can attain their maturity, are less under restraint, and speak a plainer and more…
Wordsworth, William. "Preface to Lyrical Ballads." Textbook. City: Publisher. Year.
"uonaparte" elucidates clearly how Nature and social interaction bring about human freedom and social progress.
The analysis of "Tables Turned" and "uonaparte" brings into focus the important points that make up Wordsworth's political views. His consistent criticism of the Enlightenment, rationalization, modernization, and the French Revolution demonstrates his belief that the path towards rationalization of society has brought greater adverse rather than beneficial effects. In the texts that follow, the main themes that emerged from the analysis of the two poems are discussed exclusively to provide greater understanding of Wordsworth's political ideology between the periods 18th and 19th centuries. These themes are identified as follows: the French Revolution, tyranny as a consequence of misguided need to attain individual freedom, the fall of human society as it succumbed to modernization and rationalization, and lastly, the path towards savagery instead of social progress as a result of political conflict that emerged during…
Bainbridge, S. (1999). "Men are we: Wordsworth's 'Manly' Poetic Nation." Romanticism, Vol. 5, Issue 2.
Bohm, a. (2002). "Nimrod and Wordsworth's 'Simon Lee': Habits of Tyranny." Romanticism, Vol. 8, Issue 2.
Dyer, G. (1997). British satire and the politics of style, 1789-1832. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.
Liu, Y. (2000). "Crisis and recovery: The Wordsworthian poetics and politics." Papers on Language and Literature, Vol. 36, Issue 1.
poetical parallel of William Wordsworth and it is fairly widely believed that Wordsworth exerted a profound influence on Frost particularly on his poems of nature. Both Frost and Wordsworth share similarities and dissimilarities in philosophy and style.
For Frost, for instance, his poetry "begins in delight and ends in wisdom," whereas Wordsworth's poetry "begins in delight and ends in delight." Wordsworth occasionally seems more flat. Frost, sometimes, seems more egotistical.
Frost also does not always involve himself as subject matter in his poetry and dissimilarity in style from that of Wordsworth is that he is more conversational although both poets avoided the grandiloquent tone assumed by poets such as hakespeare. Frost's poem, A Boy's Will, for instance, is extraordinary in its down-to-earth treatment of the subject and informal cadence of the lyrics. Wordsworth's poems are simple too. The main difference here, however, is that Frost's poems, though seeming simple on…
Syed Naquib Muslim (Saturday, August 14, 2010 )Frost and Wordsworth: A comparative overview. The Daily Star.
Romantic era poets like Coleridge and ordsworth both relied heavily on nature imagery to convey core themes, and often nature became a theme unto itself. In "To illiam ordsworth," Coleridge writes accolades for his friend using many of the tropes of Romanticism, including the liberal use of nature metaphors to commend ordsworth's creativity. The metaphors are mainly encapsulated by the spirit of springtime and the ebbing of energy that seasonal rebirth entails. Elements of nature in "To illiam ordsworth" include the tumultuous transition from winter into spring, with its attendant storms, as well as the swelling and ebbing of energy that comes from the act of gestation, procreation, and birth.
In "To illiam ordsworth," Coleridge shows that poetry and the act of creating poetic verse is akin to the mystery of creation itself. Coleridge uses analogies of pregnancy and birth to underscore the parallel between creative writing in poetic format…
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. "To William Wordsworth."
ordsworth and Coleridge's Response To Nature
Nature has played an important role in inspiring poets throughout time and illiam ordsworth's involvement in discussing this topic is especially intriguing, considering the strong connection that the poet seems to have with the natural world. By taking into account Samuel Taylor Coleridge's perspective on ordsworth's writings, one can gain a more complex understanding concerning the latter's feelings with regard to the environment. ordsworth practically worshipped nature and this is reflected by most of his poems, especially considering that the emotions he described make him one of the Romantic era's greatest nature lovers.
This proposal is meant to discuss with regard to the relationship between ordsworth and Coleridge and to how this respective relationship was deeply influenced by the feelings that the two poets experienced with regard to nature. Coleridge's poem "To illiam ordsworth" actually relates to how the poet understood his friend and…
Coleridge, S.T. & Wordsworth, W. 2008. Lyrical Ballads. Broadview Press.
Lacey, N. 1948. Wordsworth's View of Nature and Its Ethical Consequences. CUP Archive
WODSWOTH "The world is too much with us"
William Wordsworth was a prominent poet of the omantic Age and this period was characterized by its love of nature and resentment against rapid industrialization. In the poem, "The world is too much with us," Wordsworth has highlighted the changes that he witnessed in the attitude of people and expresses dissatisfaction over rising materialism. The world that we considered extremely fast paced today has its roots in the omantic period of 18th and 19th centuries when industrialization was taking roots and people were quickly abandoning their villages and rural areas in search of greener pastures in the urban localities. Industrialization was definitely not an easier phenomenon to accept because with rapid movement to urban cities, people not only forgot about their roots, they also abandoned nature altogether. It is this theme that resonates in this poem as the poet dejectedly writes: "Getting…
1. Brennan, Matthew C. Simms, Wordsworth, and "the mysterious teachings of the natural world"; Southern Quarterly, Winter 2003
2. "Consuming Nature - Poems of William Wordsworth on Nature and Technology," available online at: http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/ind_rev/voices/wordsworth.html#steamboat [Accessed 13th September 2005]
Wordsworth "We Are Seven"
Since time immemorial humanity has always been fascinated with the specter of death. In We Are Seven, William Wordsworth addresses the meaning of death through a poetic dialogue he has with an eight-year-old child. Through this dialogue, Wordsworth attempts to show that the dead are connected to the living when human consciousness is pure and innocent of the corruption of adult conditioning and experience.
For Wordsworth's 'simple child,' her two dead siblings occupy as much of a place in her memory as the siblings who are alive but away from home: "...two of us at Conway dwell, / And two are gone to sea. / Two of us in the churchyard lie..." (We Are Seven, 19-21). In many ways, this is perhaps the most significant of lines in the poem for it clearly shows that in the little girl's mind there is absolutely no difference between…
William Wadsworth. The writer attempts to analyze the poet's technique and style and discuss the use of emotions within those works. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
Throughout history authors of literature have used their works to fill their readers with emotions. Poets have been especially good at making the reader feel things that they might otherwise not have felt before reading the work. William Wordsworth is considered one of the most prolific and classic poets in history. His works cover topics of wide range and there are over 900 poems that flowed from his heart to the reader within his life. Many of his works are strong examples of his ability to show emotion in his speakers. The poet is well-known for his ability to reproduce emotion in his reader through the use of diction, rhythm, detail, apostrophe, and imagery. The Lucy poems, The Thorn and…
Wordsworth, William. The Lucy Poems. Bantam Classics 1990
Wordsworth, William. The Thorn. Bantam Classics 1990
Wordsworth, William. Home At Grasmere. Bantam Classics. 1990
ordsworth and Frost
Nature and the Individual
One's relationship with nature is a theme that has been explored often in poetry and across global borders. In "The orld is Too Much ith Us," illiam ordsworth writes about the disconnect that individuals have with nature and a desire to reestablish a relationship with it. On the other hand, in "The Road Not Taken," Robert Frost looks to nature in order to help him to make life decisions and uses it as inspiration for the future. ordsworth and Frost use nature as a means of defining whom they are and what they choose to do.
In "The orld is Too Much ith Us," ordsworth feels as though people have become disconnected from nature and wishes that he could find a way to reconnect. ordsworth laments, "The world is too much with us; late and soon,/Getting and spending, we lay wasted our powers:…
Frost, Robert. "The Road Not Taken." Web. 23 May 2012.
Wordsworth, William. "The World is Too Much With Us." Web. 23 May 2012.
The years in which the Romantic Era had its great impact -- roughly 1789 through 1832 -- were years in which there were "intense political, social, and cultural upheavals," according to Professor Shannon Heath at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville (Heath, 2009). The beginning of the Romantic Era actually is traced to the French Revolution, and though that tumultuous event was not in England, illiam ordsworth and others sympathized with the French Revolution -- at least at the beginning of the Revolution.
The demands for democracy in the Era were manifested through poems that reflected solidarity with principles of "equality and individuality," Heath explains. The principles of fairness and equality were needed in England as well as in France, and Heath suggests that poets were not just responding to revolutions but rather were critiquing English government. According to Giovanni Pellegrino the struggles for democracy and the "political…
Heath, S. (2009). The Culture of Rebellion in the Romantic Era. Romantic Politics. University of Tennessee at Knoxville. Retrieved April 24, 2014, from http://web.utk.edu .
Pellegrino, G. (2011). Romantic Period in England. Centro Studi La Runa. Retrieved April 24,
2014, from http://www.centrostudilaruna.it .
" Rather than endlessly musing upon his father's death, like a drumbeat Thomas simply repeats that his father must not "go gentle into that good night." ith every tercet, the repeated lines take on a different nuance. Reading the poem is like hearing a favorite song sung in a different way, again and again -- every time, a different shade of meaning is brought forth in the refrain of the poem. It is all too easy for a free verse poem to say the same thing in different ways: Thomas uses the same words again and again to convey different shades of emotion: good men, wild men, grave men, all for different reasons, he states, have not borne the inevitability of death with meekness.
The reader comes to understand that repeated words are a paradox -- Thomas tells his father, begs his father, to do what is futile -- to…
Briggs, John. Fire in the Belly. Red Wheel 2000.
"Poetic Form: Villanelle." Poets.org. Published by the Academy of American Poets.
February 10, 2010. http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/5796
Here, though ordsworth has once again assumed his place apart from the natural world, he denotes that it is of value to return to this beautiful space in his memory when he is in need of emotional or psychological respite. And ultimately, this reinforces the romantic imperative of distilling the human experience within its context. For ordsworth, the context of modernity invokes a greater appreciation for man's inextricable bond to the natural world.
For Shakespeare, a pre-romantic prerogative toward leaving one's own stamp on the world seems to drive the perspective of Sonnet 116. So is this evidenced by his closing remarks, which states rather definitively, "If this be error and upon me proved, I never writ, nor no man ever loved." Both with regard to the way that Shakespeare characterizes the everlasting nature of true love and the way that he references his own role in the world…
Shakespeare, W. (1609). Sonnet 116. Shakespeare-Online.com.
Wordsworth, W. (1807). I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud. Poem Hunter.
ordsworth's often chose a model for his narrative structure that resembled a river. This allowed him to emphasize the differences between his text and retrospectively processed narratives. hen looking at a river, the flow happens in the opposite direction as in a forking path, which changes the suggestion of the model and makes a river a more apt metaphor for prospective texts. In a path model, the possible options are ever increasing when looking to the future, but only one option can be followed. This gives the person traveling a series of choices that decide an otherwise indeterminate future. A river highlights the simultaneous contributions of many small tributaries, all of which travel unavoidably toward the same predetermined end. In a text with a plot that is structured like a river, there is no guesswork involved about which path the plot might take. There is always one point toward which…
Bloom, Autumn. (2007). William Wordsworth's The Prelude. Retrieved June 30, 2009, from Associated Content Web site:
Coley, Sarah. (2008). Featured Poem: The Prelude, William Wordsworth. Retrieved June 30,
Dorothy ordsworth --"we journeyed side by side."
illiam ordsworth was the famous Romantic poet. His sister Dorothy was his quiet strength, support and inspiration. Dorothy ordsworth (1771-1855) devoted her life to her brother (1770-1850).
Intimate friends and close confidants, they shared an immense mutual dependence and were of extreme significance and value to each other. As illiam put it in his poem, "The Recluse," as quoted in the title above, brother and sister journeyed not only to Grasmere, but through all of life, "side by side," blown by the winds of life, "like two birds, companions in mid-air,/Parted and reunited by the blast (Clark 28).
Dorothy and illiam's mother died in 1778. Dorothy, age six, was separated from all her brothers, including illiam, age eight, and raised by various relatives, while he lived at school. As young children illiam and Dorothy were very close, and it was perhaps this separation…
Alexander, Caroline. "The Other Wordsworth, In England's Lake District." New York Times 28 February 1999, sec. 6, p. 15, col 1.
Alexander, Meena. "Dorothy Wordsworth: the Grounds of Writing." Women's Studies. 1988 Vol. 14:195-210.
Clark, Colette. Introduction. Home At Grasmere. By Dorothy Wordsworth. New York: Penguin Books, 1978.
Mallaby, George. "Dorothy Wordsworth: The Perfect Sister." The Atlantic Monthly. 1950 December. http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/50dec/mallaby.htm .(accessed 11-26-2002),
Romantic ideal in the poetry of William Blake, William Wordsworth and Walt Whitman shares the attitude that the most worthy part of human existence lies in simplicity and deep emotion rather than rational thought. Romanticism is based upon a movement away from the rationality of Enlightenment and the wealth-driven society inspired by Industrialism. This ideal is reflected in the work of the poets mentioned above. To demonstrate this, "The Chimney weeper," "Ode: Imitations of Immortality" and "I ing the Body Electric" from each respective poet are considered.
Blake's poetry emphasizes the evils of existing power systems within society, and how these are used to oppress the poor and powerless. This is shown in his poem "The Chimney weeper." The little chimney sweeper is representative of the poor and oppressed suffering under the current systems of power. The parents and the church are images reflecting the oppressive forces. The…
Blake, William. "The Chimney Sweeper."
Whitman, Walt. "I Sing the Body Electric."
Wordsworth, William. "Ode: Imitations of Immortality."
Returning to Nature
They looked toward the wilderness, and behold, the glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud.
The great Romantic bard illiam ordsworth loved nature. To him, nature was a place to return to, not just in a physical sense, as in a sojourn or expedition, but in an emotional and spiritual sense. Returning to nature meant to revitalize an essential part of one's humanity through the cathartic and transformative powers of nature. To help unpack this concept, this essay will analyze two of ordsworth's poems: "Nutting" and "The orld is Too Much ith Us."
"Nutting" is a Conversation poem, in the Coleridge tradition, between the Narrator and his Maiden (Rumens). Over the course of the poem, he's tells his Maiden about a day he spent gathering nuts in the forest and how, after gathering the nuts, he felt a sense of guilt for needlessly…
Cronon, William. Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature. New York: W.W. Norton &, 1996. Print.
Rumens, Carol. "The Romantic Poets: Nutting by William Wordsworth." The Guardian.
Guardian News and Media, 28 June 0026. Web. 24 Feb. 2012.
William Blake, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Wordsworth, & Percy Shelley
For William Blake, religion is but a medium used by self-interested groups and individuals who want to gain power and influence over society. His criticism of religion, particularly inappropriate use of religion by people, is expressed in the poem "Jerusalem." In this poem, Blake expresses his skepticism about religion's purpose for the society, particularly his countrymen: "And did those feet in ancient time / Walk upon England's mountain green?... And was Jerusalem builded here / Among these dark Satanic mills?" Disillusioned by the constant conflicts and disorder in society caused and premeditated by religious leaders, Blake questions whether religion has become constructive, or destructive, in English society.
William Wordsworth offers in his poems veneration for Nature, as expressed in his Romanticist style of writing poetry. An example of Wordsworth's poem that evokes and expresses his affinity with nature is evident…
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
The cliched image of the Romantic poet is of a solitary tortured genius; it is ironic that the work of the poets collectively regarded as the 'Romantic School' is marked by collective and co-operative effort as much as by individual creativity. For none of the great figures of Romantic poetry is this so true as it is for Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The first-rate poetic output of this extraordinary, multi-faceted man lasted only a few years, from approximately 1797 to 1802, and he has even been regarded by some historians and critics as 'merely a channel for the work and ideas of others' (Jasper, 8) rather than as a creative figure in his own right. It is as if his own creative character has become lost in the extraordinary wide-ranging and complex interplay of relationships between poets, thinkers, writers and critics which swirled around him. It is also…
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. Biographia Literaria. Ed. J. Shawcross. London: Oxford University Press, 2 vols., 1954.
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, The Complete Poetical Works. London: Oxford University Press, 1912.
Hill, John Spencer. A Coleridge Companion. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1983.
Holmes, Richard. Coleridge: Early Visions. London: Penguin, 1989.
Poets of the eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth century concerned themselves with childhood and its various experiences, but the particular historical and aesthetic contexts within which different poets wrote affected their perspective on the matter greatly. As literature moved from Romanticism to naturalism, the tone poets took when considering children and their place in society changed, because where children previously existed as a kind of emotional or romantic accessory, they soon became subjects in their own right, with their own experiences and perspectives. By examining illiam ordsworth's "Michael," illiam Blake's "The Chimney Sweeper," and .B. Yeats' "A Prayer for my Daughter," one is able to see how the gradual transition from Romanticism to naturalism brought with it a less exploitative consideration of children, one that better reflected their place in the rapidly changing world.
The first poem to examine is illiam ordsworth's "Michael," because it fall squarely in the…
Blake, William. Songs of Innocence and Experience. London: Basil Montagu Pickering, 1866.
Wordsworth, W. Lyrical Ballads. 4th. 2. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, & Orme, 1805.
Yeats, William. The Collected Poems of W.b. Yeats. London: Wordsworth Editions, 2000.
Victorian literature was remarkably concerned with the idea of childhood, but to a large degree we must understand the Victorian concept of childhood and youth as being, in some way, a revisionary response to the early nineteenth century Romantic conception. Here we must, to a certain degree, accept Harold Bloom's thesis that Victorian poetry represents a revisionary response to the revolutionary aesthetic of Romanticism, and particularly that of ordsworth. The simplest way to summarize the ordsworthian child is to recall that well-known line from a short lyric (which would be appended as epigraph to later printings of ordsworth's "Ode: Intimations of Immortality, from Recollections of Early Childhood") -- "the child is father of the man." Here, self-definition in adulthood, and indeed the poetic vocation, are founded in the perceived imaginative freedom of childhood.
Thou little Child, yet glorious in the might
Of heaven-born freedom on thy being's height,
Arnold, Matthew. "The Forsaken Merman." Web. Accessed 15 April 2012 at: http://www.bartleby.com/101/747.html
Arnold, Matthew. "William Wordsworth." In Steeves, H.R. (ed.) Selected Poems of William Wordsworth, with Matthew Arnold's Essay on Wordsworth. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1921. Print.
Arnold, Matthew. "Youth's Agitations." Web. Accessed 15 April 2012 at: http://www.readbookonline.net/readOnLine/12118/
Bloom, Harold. "Introduction." In Bloom, Harold (ed.). Bloom's Major Poets: A.E. Housman. New York: Chelsea House, 2003. Print.
"O Sylvan ye! thou wanderer thro' the woods, / How often has my spirit turned to thee!" (http://www.uoregon.edu/~rbear/ballads.html) Now, the poet wishes to "transfer" the healing powers of nature that he himself has experienced to his sister. By stating."..Nature never did betray / the heart that loved her" (http://www.uoregon.edu/~rbear/ballads.html) ordsworth assures his sister that she will also find peace in the middle of nature if she believes in the communion with nature. This prediction is an artifice of the poem and is not simple. "ordsworth's ability to look to the future to predict memories of events that are happening in the present is ingenious and complicated. But ordsworth beautifully clarifies this concept by using nature as the ideal link between recollection, foresight, and his relationship with another."(Eilenberg, Susan. Strange power of Speech: ordsworth, Coleridge, and Literary Possession. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).
Moreover, by imagining the future of his…
Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. Ed. Beth Newman. Boston: St. Martin's, 1996.
Baudelaire, Charles. Selected Writings on Art and Literature. London:
Spector, Jack the State of Psychoanalytic Research in Art History. The Art
) and towards the more practical needs for Aryan survival.
c. hy did a growing number of Germans support Hitler and the Nazi Party in the years leading up to his appointment as chancellor?
There are many arguments to this question, but one that surfaces more often than others focuses on economics and self-preservation. The German people were humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles -- their military and economic system had been stripped away, their debt unbearable, and their economy was being controlled by other countries. The ideas of National Socialism were attractive to many: unification of the German Volk, reestablishing the German lands as a country dedicated to certain ideals, focusing on ethnic and linguistic similarities, the overthrow of Versailles, the idea of German self-determination, lebensraum (room for Germans to live, grow and prosper), and an improvement over the crippling inflation and economic woes of the eimar Government, seen…
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Primary Source
Documents, History 100.
Hitler, a. Mein Kampf. Primary Source Documents, History 100.
Marx, Karl and F. Engels. The Communist Manifesto. Primary Source
The urn is a symbol to him of all great works of art which, picturing beauty, will always reflect truth to those who behold them. To Keats "beauty is truth, truth beauty," and art is the balm which soothes his fevered soul. He died at the age of 25 from tuberculosis.
ordsworth, who lived longer than the other poets, dying at the age of 80, was the leading poet of the nineteenth century. His work, with exquisitely turned phrasing, accurately depict both nature and his emotions. Nature was his inspiration and solace. He believed that nature could heal and commune both the elemental and divine through its natural forces. Like Coleridge, he believed that transcendental meditation was possible and that one could rise to a plane above that of the merely human with contemplation of nature and beauty. His verses rose to new heights in rhythm and meter, unlike the…
Fiero, Gloria K. The Humanist Tradition, Book 5: Romanticism, Realism, and the Nineteenth-Century World. New York: McGraw-Hill. 2002.
Paul is rather lazy. He does not like to flatter other people, since he sees himself as superior to others, thinking he possesses greater refinement and culture. In contrast to another young man in the story, the young man who marries a serious woman to discipline his appetites, Paul has no desire to do so.
"It was at the Theatre and at Carnegie Hall that Paul really lived; the rest was but a sleep and a forgetting." (paragraph 29) --The last part of this quotation (in italics) is a sneaky reference to a poem by William Wordsworth, called "Intimations of Immortality." Look up this poem and determine what Wordsworth says about the various stages of life. How does this relate to Paul's story?
Paul lives in a fantasy world, not in the real world. His fantasy life leads to his death. The reference to sleep and forgetting suggests that he…
drew you to the post to which you are responding -- a particular insight, way of writing, or question being asked.
Be generous and name what you find engaging about the post.
Ask questions that invite clarification or further discussion.
Contribute your own thoughts and experiences where appropriate.
The writer seems to me curious and engaged with life. He seems to be drawn to nature and to seeing below the surface. From a person's descriptions, one can tell something about their interests and preoccupations, and it is interesting to note that in all descriptive, the author turns to nature and uses nature-connected illustrations.
In his first reflections about Gaslan, the writing could have been remotely, if at all, connected to nature. Gaslan seems to have asked questions of an existentialist character: where do I come from? Where do I go? The author, himself, notes that Gaslan was a solid, down-to-earth…
This poem is a favorite of mine because it reminds me to slow down and appreciate everything. It does not take long nor does it take much to renew and revive and that is exactly what the poet wishes to communicate.
In Joy Harjo's "Remember," the poet uses imagery and personification to convey points of importance. Because the poet is encouraging someone to remember, she pulls images from experience that will be familiar. She begins by telling the reader to "Remember the sky" (Harjo 1) and to "know each of the star stories" (2). In addition, it is important to know the moon. The poet wants to use images the reader already knows and identifies with in order to stress the importance of connecting with the earth. The importance of remembering one's parents is also important because we are all connected. She tells the reader to remember the "earth whose…
Bishop, Elizabeth. "The Fish." Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing. 9th Edition.
edited by Edgar V. Roberts and Henry E. Jacobs. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.
Frost, Robert. "Stopping by Woods." Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing. 9th Edition.
Most individuals fail to appreciate life to the fullest because they concentrate on being remembered as some of the greatest humans who ever lives. This makes it difficult for them to enjoy the simple pleasures in life, considering that they waste most of their time trying to put across ideas that are appealing to the masses. While many did not manage to produce ideas that survived more than them, others succeeded and actually produced thinking that remained in society for a long period of time consequent to their death.
Creativity is generally regarded as one of the most important concepts in society, considering that it generally induces intense feelings in individuals. It is responsible for progress and for the fact that humanity managed to produce a series of ideas that dominated society's thinking through time. In order for someone to create a concept that will live longer than him or…
His belief that literature is a magical blend of thought and emotion is at the very heart of his greatest works, in which the unreal is often made to seem real.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge effectively freed British (and other) poetry from its 18th century Neo-classical constraints, allowing the poetic (and receptive) imagination to roam free.
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. Kublai Khan. In The Portable Coleridge, I.A. Richards
Ed.). New York: Penguin, 1987. 157-158.
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner. In The Portable Coleridge, I.A. Richards
Ed.). New York: Penguin, 1987. 80-105.
Moore, Christopher. "Introduction." Samuel Taylor Coleridge. New York:
Grammercy, 1996. 10.
Nokes, David. Raillery and Rage: A Study of Eighteenth Century Satire. New York: St. Martin's, 1987. 99.
Pope, Alexander, The Rape of the Lock. Representative Poetry Online. Retrieved September 22, 2005, from: http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:0gO7fceq2_
Romanticism." ikipedia. 3 Apr. 2005. Retrieved September 22, 2005, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism.
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. Kublai Khan. In The Portable Coleridge, I.A. Richards
Ed.). New York: Penguin, 1987. 157-158.
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner. In The Portable Coleridge, I.A. Richards
Ed.). New York: Penguin, 1987. 80-105.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge's poem, "To a Beautiful Spring in a Village" represents the Romantic Movement in that the poet expresses appreciation for the "sweet stream." Coleridge is also expounding on his experience of the stream, which is an example of how the Romantic riters wrote. The poem celebrates the stream with its "friendly banks" and "pebbled falls," focusing on every detail and finding joy in all of them. (Perkins 397)
illiam ordsworth's poem, "Lines ritten in Early Spring" is an excellent example of Romantic verse as it, too, places a great deal of respect and awe upon nature. In this poem, ordsworth laments what "man has made of man" while rejoicing in the beauty of nature. The poet is emphasizing the workings of nature when he thinks that "every flower enjoys the air it breathes" and the birds around him "hopped and played" with their every movement seeming to be…
Hall, Donald, ed. Contemporary American Poetry. New York: Penguin Books. 1971.
Perkins, David, ed. English Romantic Writers. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
The poem explicitly expressed the issue of environment degradation, when the protagonist exclaimed, (upon learning that he was to give up the land he tilled for many years), "These fields were burthened when they came to me...It looks as if it never could endure Another Master."
Apart from the theme of environmental degradation, moral degeneration was especially explicit in the works of Tennyson and Carlyle, who discussed the importance of morality in the midst of humanity's success in attaining higher levels of intellectual development and knowledge about the nature of things (living or non-living), in this world. "In Memoriam," Tennyson's religious explication, presented humanity as incapable of achieving further development in life without spiritual guidance. This humble realization showed humanity's intellectual development as a gift from God, not solely based on human capacity and faculties alone: "...we cannot know, for knowledge is of things we see and yet we trust…
"omance," "omanticism" and "omantic" are three related words frequently utilized rather loosely by literature readers and hence requiring some clear definition. The most important fact is these words are always written with the first letter capitalized to differentiate them from the words "romantic"and "romance" -- words which are generally used to denote erotically intensified conditions and events or love stories. While omances commonly do contain love interests, it isn't a prerequisite for this genre. Similarly, omantic poets don't just address experiences of love and love affairs; their poems revolve around the entire continuum of experiences of humanity.
omanticism, meanwhile, represented an intellectual and artistic movement between the late 18th-century and 19 thcentury. The emphasis of this movement was powerful emotions, which formed the fountainhead of aesthetic experiences. Especially emphasized were emotions like fear, consternation, terror, and wonder experienced in the face of nature's sublime-ness. omanticism elevated language, tradition and…
Rahn, J. (2011). Romancticism. Retrieved from Jalic Inc.: http://www.online-literature.com/periods/romanticism.php
There are many instances of art acting as a means of enabling people back to health. This healing aspect of creativity is, I believe, due to the fact that we are liberated from the restrictions of the world in the process of creativity and because artworks are in a sense the residue of the experience of spiritual and expanded consciousness.
There are numerous clinical studies which show the effective of art therapy. For example, a number or art therapists have studied the affect of art therapy on people who have experienced loss. "Art therapists consistently observe the power and potential of art to help identify, cope with, and heal the pain experienced during the grief process..." (Hill, M.A.)
However, the healing process in creativity can best be explained by the deeper meaning of spontaneity.
Nachmanovitch asks the important question: "How does one learn improvisation?" The answer to this question is…
Hill M.A. Healing grief through art: art therapy bereavement group workshops. Retrieved 8 September, 2006, from Malinda Ann, M.A http://www.drawntogether.com/healing.htm
Nachmanovitch, S. (1990) Free play: The Power of Improvisation in Life and the Arts. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher.
Wordsworth W. LINES COMPOSED a FEW MILES ABOVE TINTERN ABBEY,
ON REVISITING the BANKS of the WYE DURING a TOUR. JULY 13, 1798. Retrieved September 7, 2006, at
" For Pound, the Image should be central to the poem; this is the "thing" that needs to be dealt with solely and directly, without any extraneous words, in musical meter.
Pounds definition of an image is "that which presents an intellectual and emotional complex in an instant of time." That is, an image as Pound uses the term is a snapshot; it is a motionless artifact, spontaneously and completely captured by the poet and transmitted via the poem to the reader without any additional trappings. The effect of such an image is one of "liberation;" it is the "sense of freedom from time limits and space limits." Images exist outside of time and space; they are not representations of shift but eternal constructs -- Pound uses the word complex -- that exist somehow outside the mind, somewhat like Plato's concept of the ideal. Imagism is the school of poetry…
Moved" by Uvavnuk is a celebration of life, of being alive to enjoy the world. The author has captured that moment of exhilaration that most humans, if they are lucky, feel at least once in their life. It is a moment when all seems right in the world. Everything is as it should be, and being present in that moment stirs the soul and warms the heart. A Buddhist would refer to this moment as nirvana, a state of blissfulness. Andrew iget points out that Inuit poetry is unique for its juxtaposition of humans against nature, how humans are dwarfed by the enormity of nature which results in human beings "continually struggling to secure their existence" (iget). iget also notes that this view of nature corresponds to the notion of the Romantic sublime, "a combination of awe, terror, and humility" (iget). Dee Finney notes that Uvavnuk was initiated when she…
Finney, Dee. "On Shamans. Retrieved November 06, 2005 from:
Frost, Robert. "The Road Not Taken." Retrieved November 06, 2005 from:
SYMBOLIC THEMES OF MYSTERY AND THE SUPERNATURAL IN SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDE'S
RIME OF THE ANCIENT MARINER
In Samuel Taylor Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner," considered by many scholars as the quintessential masterpiece of English Romantic poetry, the symbolic themes of mystery and the supernatural play a very crucial role in the poem's overall effect which John Hill Spencer sees as Coleridge's "attempt to understand the mystery surrounding the human soul in a universe moved by forces and powers... immanent and transcendent" (157). Yet the Mariner himself appears to be trapped in this supernatural world as a result of ghostly manifestations which emanate from the realms of the unknown.
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner" was first published in Lyrical Ballads in 1798, a collection of poetry written and published jointly by Coleridge and his good friend William Wordsworth. Yet the text of the poem generally in use today appeared…
Great Britain: Cambridge University Press, 1927.
Nooden, Lars. Animal Symbolism in Celtic Mythology. Internet. November 22, 1992. Accessed February 27, 2003. www-personal.umich.edu.
Spencer, John Hill. A Coleridge Companion. London: Macmillan, 1983
English/Poetry and Literature
Classics could turn in their graves if they heard how poetry sounds today. In fact, they would not even be able to understand it. They would not recognize it as poetry. If Michelangelo could see a Pollock painting what would his thoughts be about it? Would he be able to recognize it as a painting? Most certainly not. Considering this chain of logical thinking, the same may be applied to poetry. Different times ask for different forms. Language is a living entity, constantly changing and adapting. Poetry, the most personal form of expression, puts the inside out in a way that allows the author to call it art. William Wordsworth an Shakespeare have created poems and sonnets obeying the rules of classic poetry, sonnets that are a testimony of their creative genius. They sound absolutely wonderful as long as the reader or listener is ware of the…
Anthology of Rap by Adam radley and Andrew Duois sets out to illustrate how rap can be analyzed from a literary standpoint, and traces the development of the genre from the late 1970s to contemporary interpretations of the genre. Throughout the book, radley and Duois offer interesting insights into how the music movement developed and evolved, and while they provide some insight into the development of the genre as a movement, they overlook significant factors that influenced rap.
In the introduction, The Anthology of Rap establishes that it will focus primarily on rap as poetry, yet the focus frequently shifts to other influencers. The book's introduction is full of promise and offers a definition of rap that allows the rapper to be considered a poet and helps to create a distinction between rap and the overarching genre of hip hop. KRS-One states, "Rap music is something we do, but hip…
Bradley and DuBois's discussion of the Golden Age of rap ends on a low note because of its complete disregard for the role that women played during this time. The authors simply mention, "Whereas before, the best female lyricists crafted lyrics that were indistinguishable in essence from those of their distinguished male counterparts, figures such as MC Lyte, Roxanne Shante, Salt-N-Pepa, and Queen Latifah began to speak on themes provoked by a sense of gender disparity and the untapped power of women" (129). Bradley and DuBois ignore women's roles in rap throughout The Anthology of Rap, and while they mentioned that women rappers at this time wrote lyrics that were initially indistinguishable from their male counterparts, the authors do not elaborate nor explain how these women were affected by rap's evolution or how they contributed to rap as poetry. Throughout the book, Bradley and DuBois place focus on one singular female, M.I.A. And praise the impact she had on American hip hop, specifically citing her song "Paper Planes," which is heavily influenced by The Clash's 1982 song "Straight to Hell," which Bradley and DuBois do not cite nor recognize in applauding M.I.A.'s contributions to hip hop.
While The Anthology of Rap sets out to demonstrate the influence that rap had on society and argues rap lyrics should be considered works of art, much like poetry, the book's structure and focus progressively unravel as it traces rap's roots in the 1980s to hip hop's "death" in the new millennium. Bradley and DuBois have worked to create a distinction between rap and hip hop throughout the entire anthology, yet the last section "New Millennium Rap" appears to focus solely on hip hop. Furthermore, as the book progressed, they began to focus less and less on rap as poetry and instead transitioned into providing a brief explanation of how rap as a genre transitioned from something that was underground to something that was commercial. Furthermore, Bradley and DuBois place too much emphasis on music business in the later half of the book, completely voiding their claim that they seek to bring attention to rap as poetry.
Overall, The Anthology of Rap succeeds at presenting a collection of rap lyrics, however, its point-of-view is severely skewed, focusing mostly on the contributions of men with no more than 25 or so lyrical inclusions of rap by women. Additionally, the shifting focus in each of the major sections detracts from the purpose of the book. While the book begins by stating it will focus on rap as poetry, it begins to focus on individuals, society, and the music business soon thereafter. By the end of the book, the focus is no longer on rap, but on hip hop, which Bradley and DuBois defined as being two separate concepts. The book's deviating focus and the ignorance of women's contributions to rap cause a potentially great book to fall short.
The crime rates in the western countries started when the Europe experienced a growth rate, which was the time of the 19th century industrial era. During the period, there was an influx of immigration from different part of the world that led to the urbanization and growth of the cities. Moreover, different thoughts were emanated during the period such as romanticism, modern western industrialization, rationalization of enlightenment, and Darwin theory of evolution. The book, "The Humanistic Tradition," (Fiero, 2010 p 1) illustrates the emergence of different thoughts that include realism and romanticism of the 19th century (Fiero, 2010). However, different thoughts in the books are reflected in the film titled the Seven (1995). The chapter 27 of the books reveals the industrial progress of the 19th century, the idealistic thought, nature of European literature, and Asian literature. However, the crime rates was part of the major characteristics of…
Fiero, G.K. (2010). The Humanistic Tradition Book 5: Romanticism, Realism, and the Nineteenth-Century World.(6th Edition). Chicago. Humanities & Social Science.
Claire, K. (2015). Synopsis for Seven (1995) . Amazon Company.
Furthermore, this brief introduction details the different types of legislation regarding men and women that Wollstonecraft supported. Next, this chapter moves onto Wollstonecraft's own life and actions, as well as a brief description of the time period in which she lived. These descriptions allow the reader to understand how Wollstonecraft was both revolutionary and conventional, in addition to how society encouraged and discouraged her various roles. Furthermore, I introduce these ideas to personify the struggle in which Wollstonecraft operated every day. It is this struggle that I emphasize during this chapter, giving the reader an idea of the challenging nature of Wollstonecraft's life because of it, in addition to its contribution to her struggle on paper. This chapter also introduces the reactions that others had to her work, as well as a tribute to its lasting contributions. I remark that Wollstonecraft is a strong voice among other female writers and…
These assumptions encapsulate the notion of consumer sovereignty in neoclassical economics of consumption' (Jonathan Scheckter (2006). A Holistic Approach to Consumption Analysis in the Popular Music Market). While the concept is often criticized at an empirical level, or at an intuitive level, the origins of consumer sovereignty are seldom explored with reference to popular music.
The most important advancement of neoclassical economics arose as a sophisticated defense of this assumption of constant preferences. The argument asserts from the outset that, 'tastes neither change capriciously nor differ importantly between people'. (Becker and Stigler, 1977: 76) the starting point is the utilization of a reformulation of consumer theory, first expressed by Becker and Michael (1974). This new theory "transforms the family [consumer] from a passive maximizer of the utility from market purchases to an active maximizer also engaged in extensive production and investment activities," (Becker and Stigler, 1977).
The theory explained various…
Adorno, Theodor (1976). "Mediation." In Introduction to the Sociology of Music. New York: Seabury.
Berland, Jody. (1990). "Radio Space and Industrial Time: Music Formats, Local Narratives and Technological Mediation." Popular Music 9(2): 179-192.
Frith, Simon. (1981). "Making Records." In Sound Effects: Youth, Leisure, and the Politics of Rock 'n' Roll. New York: Pantheon, 89-129.
Hall, Stuart. (1973). "Coding and Encoding in Television Discourse." In Culture, Media, Language. Edited by Stuart Hall et al. London: Hutchinson.
Note the way that the poet uses descriptive adjectives. The bird looks down on the "wrinkled" sea which "crawls" beneath him.
This description tends to provide the impression of the power of this lonely but proud bird. Simile is used in the last line to describe and actual motion of the bid as it falls like a "thunderbolt." The use of the word "thunderbolt" again intensifies the feeling of power and strength of this bird.
The poem The Darkling Thrush by Hardy also deals with a bird but the bird in this case only appears in the last two stanzas of the poem. The thematic intention in this poem is firstly an expression of despair and depression; which is supported by the poetic description of the winter landscape. In the poem the protagonist feels that all hope is lost and this is emphasized by the images of the apparently dead…
Literary Terms. 5 January, 2006. http://www.armour.k12.sd.us/Mary's%20Classes/literary_terms_glossary.htm
What is Poetry? 5 January, 2006. http://contemporarylit.about.com/od/poetry/a/poetry.htm
omantic era began in the late eighteenth century as a reaction against the Age of Enlightenment and was a period of great change and emancipation. The movement started as an artistic and intellectual reaction against aristocratic social and political norms of the Enlightenment and against the scientific rationalization of nature. During the Enlightenment literature and art were primarily created for the elite, upper classes and educated, and the language incorporated in these works was highly poetic, completely different from that spoken by the masses. Artists of the omantic era accessed the ballads and folklore that was familiar to commoners, rather than from the literary works popular with the aristocracy. This shift in emphasis was most strongly manifested in the visual arts, music, and literature. This was the beginning of a period of artistic freedom, experimentation, and creativity. The movement stressed strong emotion, imagination, freedom from classical correctness in art forms,…
Constable, J. (1821). The hay wain. [Painting] The national gallery. Retrieved January 6, 2012, from http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/john-constable-the-hay-wain
Kartha, Deepa. (2010). Romanticism: Chariteristics of romanticism. Buzzle.com. Retrieved January 6, 2012, from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/romanticism-characteristics-of-romanticism.html
Nourrit, A. (1832). La Sylphide. Ballet encyclopedia. Retrieved January 6, 2012, from http://www.the-ballet.com/sylphide.php
Shelley, P.B. (1820). The Question. About. Com A Today. USATODAY.com. Retrieved January 6, 2012, from http://classiclit.about.com/library/bl-etexts/pshelley/bl-pshel-question.htm
It is interesting, however, that Coleridge chose to describe two women in a homoerotic situation since lesbianism was practically unheard of at the time whereas male homosexuality, though illegal, was at least recognized. It's even more interesting in the face of Coleridge's history of unease with women (Grossberg 152).
The two main characters in this piece are Christabel and Geraldine. Geraldine's appearance coincides with a mysterious sound that is never identified, and is but one indication of her supernatural origins. It has been suggested that Geraldine is the first appearance of a vampire in literature, though she is referred to as a witch in the text itself. She has a strongly homoerotic connection to Christabel, one of Sir Leoline's, the baron who owns the castle where the poem takes place, daughters. Christabel is enchanted by Geraldine, whether literally or figuratively, though she is terrified as well. Essentially Christabel and Geraldine…
Abrahms, M.H. (ed). "Introduction to the Gothic." Norton Anthology of English
Literature. London: W.W. Norton, 2000.
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. "Christabel." British Literature 1780-1830. Ed. Anne K.
Mellor and Richard E. Matlak. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 1996. 721-729.
people of all ages and backgrounds. Literature, like any historical document, allows reader to gain a larger understanding of cultures, history, society, and politics. Furthermore, literature helps to instill the reader with the ability to read and understand complex concepts and enables them to develop critical thinking skills.
One of the most fascinating things about literature is the structure of what is written and how that structure has evolved over time to become a way for the writer to express himself or herself. Poetry may be one of the most applicable examples of how form and structure complement content. There are many different types of poetry, from the sonnet to the epic, and each is intended to convey a certain message to the reader. These messages may be personal, contemplative, or even political in nature. For example, works written by George Herbert's encompass personal, contemplative, political, and religious concepts. Furthermore,…
Bara Howes' "Looking Up at Leaves"
The awesome beauty and wonder of nature are the focal point of Barbara Howes' poem, "Looking Up at Leaves." Howes employs the literary techniques of imagery, metaphor, simile, and symbolism to express her appreciation for nature. This paper will examine how Howes illustrates her talent as a stylist.
The poem begins by including humankind as a part of nature that is surrounded by the company of trees. She tells us that we have no reason to feel alone when we are in the presence of trees. This statement personifies trees, giving them the human quality of keeping company. This theme remains dominant throughout the poem, which the poet extends to the leaves as well.
For example, the poet tells us the leaves have "depth" (2) and even though they beckon us, we also sense withdrawal from them as well. ith this image we can…
Howes, Barbara. "Looking Up at Leaves." Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Kennedy, X.J. And Gioia, Dana, eds. New York: Longman Publishers. 2001.
William Shakespeare and Robert Burns are both iconic figures in the UK. Also known as the Bard of Avon, Shakespeare is often regarded as England’s national poet. Shakespeare is also considered the world’s greatest English writer and dramatist. During his time, Shakespeare authored tens of plays, over a hundred sonnets, and several narrative poems and verses (Marche, 2012). Shakespeare’s work has been translated into virtually all major languages of the world. Also, his work is performed more regularly than any other work. Robert Burns, born close to one and a half centuries after the death of Shakespeare, was also a prominent poet. Similar to Shakespeare, Burns is regarded as Scotland’s national poet (Hogg, 2008). Referred to as the Bard of Ayrshire, Burns is also recognised worldwide for his work (Cairney, 2000). As poets and playwrights, both Shakespeare and Burns have substantially influenced English literature and language as well as…
WILLIAM BLAKE'S HOLY THURSDAY
Why and how does Blake create a distinction between innocence and experience in Holy Thursday?
What kind of political and social beliefs have a strong bearing on Blake's poems?
Blake belonged to a group of English radicals: how does his work reflect this radicalism?
William Blake's entire work revolves around social and political conditions of his times. He was one of those romantics who did not follow in the footsteps of people like Wordsworth but instead received inspiration from harsh realities of life. Instead of focusing only on the good and the positive as Wordsworth did, Blake was more interested in exposing the cruelties that were hidden behind what apparently looked good on the surface. Blake used his work not only to explore nature or soul as most other Romantic poets did, but tried to utilize his talent to comment on the political and social weaknesses…
Children play an important role in the poem as it is their undiluted happiness that makes the poet realize that we have a strong connection with heaven in our early days but as we grow older, we somehow lose that link. He cautions children against growing up too fast. The poet understands that children want to grow up quickly but if he had a second childhood, he would have tried to pause a little and grow up slowly in his attempt to truly savor the nature and its immense beauty. Immortality in this poem refers to the immortal beauty of the nature. While we may come and go, wither away with seasons, but nature stays the same for all generations to enjoy. Its beauty doesn't fade with time. It renews itself every season so people of all ages can appreciate its magnificence. Thus while children grow up and lose their…
Individuals have become estranged from their true nature and their true self, which is contradictory to the getting and spending.
The tone is pessimistic and somber, with the poet implying that this is not a trend that can be reversed at any time in the future. This is true for the 21st century: mankind has undertaken a road that does not promise its potential return to nature or to the true self of the individual, one in tone and line with the environment it is part of.
It is in the last verses of the poem that Wordsworth gives a true image of what he would like to be or, in other words, where he would like mankind to be. It is in the nature, looking over the meadows and the seas and admiring everything that nature has to offer. However, again, there is a pessimistic tone about it: the…
Because I was happy upon the heath,
And smiled among the winter's snow,
They clothed me in the clothes of death,
And taught me to sing the notes of woe.
And because I am happy and dance and sing,
They think they have done me no injury,
And are gone to praise God and his priest and king, Who make up a heaven of our misery."
In these two poems, Mark Blake was allegorically relating the importance of God and religion in our lives. In The Little Black Boy, he gives an optimistic perception of God. The poem having the persona of an African child who questions his color and identity learns from his mother that God does not base his love on the color of one's skin. His mother also teaches him that the lives we have here on earth are temporary and but mere preparations of the rewards…
Percy Bysshe Shelley. (2006). Retrieved December 13, 2006, from Representative Poetry Online
Romanticism. (2006) Retrieved on December 13, 2006, from Encyclopedia Britannica online. http://www.Encyclopediabritannica.com
William Blake poems. (2006). Retrieved December 13, 2006, at http://quotations.about.com/cs/poemlyrics/a/William_Blake.htm
Because of the existence of so many common homophones in the English language, Bullokar wanted to retain some way of distinguishing between these words in print, and if two different symbols signified the production of the same sound, this could be accomplished (olfe 41). His reform efforts were essentially centered around the visual word, no doubt due to the novelty of the printing press, and he attempted to develop a simple visual system for pronouncing the English language.
Pitman's shorthand accomplishes the same thing, to some degree, but that was not at all its purpose nor is his system limited in such a fashion. Pitman wanted to develop a true science behind the development and codification of linguistic elements, and his phonetic shorthand system -- one of the first serious and comprehensive efforts at the development of a phonetic alphabet for English -- does largely this, having one symbol for…
Baker, Alfred. The Life of Sir Isaac Pitman. London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, 1919.
Bullokar, William. Three Pamphlets on Grammar. Accessed 26 March 2010. http://ota.oucs.ox.ac.uk/headers/0025.xml
Dons, Ute. Descriptive Adequacy of Early Modern English Grammars. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2004.
Pitman, Sir Isaac. A History of Shorthand. London: Ben Pitman, 1890.