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Women's ights In Saudi Arabia
Despite recent media attention stemming from Saudi Arabia's recent legislative decision to allow women the right to vote and run in the 2015 municipal elections, the truth remains that Saudi Arabian women remain some of the most tightly-controlled and oppressed populations in the world in terms of legislation and cultural practices -- both of which prohibit them from having the same rights as men. In viewing the existence and role of Saudi Arabian women in society, the struggle towards equality remains one that is both difficult and unprecedented largely because of the cultural, economic, and educational burdens that exist within the country, along with legislation on women's rights lingering years behind that of the western world.
Women's rights in Saudi Arabia are largely defined by the teachings of Islam and Islamic Law known as Sharia, which are based on the Qur'an and the…
Baki, R. (2008). Gender-segregated education in Saudi Arabia: its impact on social norms and the Saudi labor market. Education Policy Analysis, 12.2: pp. 25-38. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Coleman, I. (2010). The global glass ceiling. Foreign Affairs, 89:3, pp. 13-21. Web.
Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Hanley, D. (2010). Empowering Saudi Arabian women. The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, 24.7: pp. 73-75. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
omen in nineteenth century Europe were systematically excluded from positions of power in the public spheres including but not limited to political and economic domains. Thus invisible and disenfranchised, women were relegated to being priestesses in the cult of domesticity: the private sphere that was at once necessary for the maintenance of life but also restricting in its roles and functions. The cult of domesticity was open primarily to members of the white middle class: females in the province of the dominant culture. omen of color and the very poor would have been summarily exempt, as their labor duties were too valuable to be restricted to the domestic sphere. In her decisive apology for patriarchy, Ellis starts by linguistically feminizing her native England: "One of the noblest features in her national character is the domestic character of England -- the home comforts, and fireside virtues for which she is so…
Ellis, Sara Stickney. The cult of domesticity: A system of middle-class values and social duties. Retrieved online: http://college.cengage.com/history/west/resources/students/primary/domestic.htm#source
Image 1 "Two Spheres of Life": http://www.historyteacher.net/images/TwoSpheresOfLife.JPG
Image 2: Gibson: http://www.library.csi.cuny.edu/dept/history/lavender/386/graphics/gibson.gif
Image 3: Brooke's Soap: http://taapworld.wikispaces.com/file/view/P3060043.jpg/301804162/P3060043.jpg
On the othe hand, women view dange associated wit achievement at the wokplace, as being left alone o isolated by othe employees (With, 2001).
VI. Tuning point in histoy
Fom my point-of-view, I see that much has happened on the changing ole of men and women at home. Both women and men can be found doing the dishes, laundy, cleaning (these wee egaded as female wok by tadition), and it is thei esponsibility to maintain vehicles, the lawn and appliances (in the past this was man's wok). Maiage has lost its oiginal meaning and nowadays it is moe to do with patneship. This is the case because women have made thei way to the wokfoce, the geat education and affluence of society, ate of divoce, and the movement by the feminist. Men still top the chats as they still have domination at thei places of wok in tems of highe…
references: The Role of Gender Self-Schema. Journal of Applied
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Klenke, K. (1996). Women and leadership: A contextual perspective. New York: Springer Pub.
Leeming, A. (1993). Breaking through the glass ceiling: Women and management education.
omen and Health Agenda Over the Last 20 Years
This review is about women's health demands and their contribution in creating a healthy society. For many decades, orld Health Organization (HO) has had tremendous measures that concern women's health. omen's health remains a crucial priority by various healthcare agencies. This review explains why various healthcare institutions take a great initiative in ensuring that women's health remains an urgent priority in the society. In addition, this review takes a stock of our own understanding about women's health issues at all stages of their live. Highlighting major issues - some health issues are familiar, while others merit more focus on opportunities for developing the society.
Furthermore, the review also identifies areas that provide better information plus policy discussion at national, regional and international level. The work also shows the significance of the basic health care reforms established in The world health report…
Antman, E.M. Time is muscle: translation into practice. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2008, 52(15), 1216-1221.
Bean-Mayberry, B., Yano, E.M., Bayliss, N., Navratil, J., Weisman, C.S., & Scholle, S.H. federally funded comprehensive women's health centers: leading innovation in women's healthcare delivery. Journal of Women's Health, 2007, 16(9), 1281-90.
Berger, J., Bairey-Merz, C., Redberg, R., Douglas, P. Improving the quality of care for women with cardiovascular disease: report of a DCRI Think Tank, March 8 to 9, 2007. American Heart Journal, 2007, 156(5), 816-825.
Bonney, L.E., Clarke, J.G., Simmons, E.M., Rose, J.S., & Rich, J.D. Racial/ethnic sexual health disparities among incarcerated women. Journal of the National Medical Association, 2008, 100(5), 553-8.
This picture displays the many steps involved in a man's drinking and his addiction to alcohol. It begins with a friendly drink but ends up with alcohol destroying the family. The image of a woman and her child leaving a ruined home reinforced the idea that alcohol destroyed homes. Women were particularly interested in the Temperance Movement because they felt that the destruction of their families was being caused by their husband's alcoholism. If women could remove alcohol from society, they felt that their husbands would become decent and hard-working members of society.
Women played an important role in the Abolitionist Movement and this picture, taken from the weekly Abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, is an attempt to draw sympathy from women for the fate of women slaves. It depicts a woman slave on her knees, chained, but pleading, almost as if she is praying for release…
Women's oles In New England During Colonial America
Today, women still have not seen an acceptable level of equality compared to their male counterparts. Yet, the struggle for women's rights have improved conditions for modern women tremendously when compared to the roles that the sex was limited to play during the colonial period. In Colonial America, women were often limited to purely caretakers, dealing only with domestic and child raising matters. Still, even in such belittling times, many women during the American evolution found ways to truly embody the spirit of independence, thus influencing the future fate of an emerging nation.
Every society is in many ways characterized by its notions of gender roles. A gender system within any given society "is the way in which this differentiation creates expectations for behavior and apportions power between men and women" (Middleton & Lombard 2011 p 158). These social structures determine what…
Berkin, Carol. (1997). First Generations: Women in Colonial America. Macmillan.
Jennings, John. (2003). The ladies' defence. Revolution & Romanticism. Web. http://www.crcstudio.org/streetprint/Pages/viewtext.php?s=search&tid=37&route=basicsearch.php&sterms=women&s=browse#
Library of Congress. (1782). Verses, made on the sudden death of six young women and one boy, who were drowned at Jamestown. An American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera. Web. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=rbpe&fileName=rbpe16/rbpe165/1650120a/rbpe1650120a.db&recNum=0&itemLink=D-rbpebib:24:./temp/~ammem_qbIi::&linkText=0
Middleton, Richard & Lombard, Anne. (2011). Colonial America: A History to 1763. John Wiley & Sons.
The sphere of women's work had been strictly confined to the domestic realm, prior to the Industrial evolution. Social isolation, financial dependence, and political disenfranchisement characterized the female experience prior to the twentieth century. The suffrage movement was certainly the first sign of the dismantling of the institutionalization of patriarchy, followed by universal access to education, and finally, the civil rights movement. Opportunities for women have gradually unfolded since the suffrage movement. Although patriarchal social norms still hold sway in some situations, the isolation of women has long been outmoded in the West.
Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton formed the National Woman Suffrage Association in 1869, with the fundamental focus of obtaining a Constitutional Amendment guaranteeing women the full rights of citizenship. The early woman suffrage movement coincided with abolitionism, but later evolved as its own distinct social cause. The cause remained localized, confined to petitions to…
Buechler, S.M. (1990). Women's Movements in the United States. Rutgers University Press.
DuBois, E.C. (1978). Feminism and Suffrage: The Emergence of an Independent Women's Movement in America, 1848-1869. Cornell University Press.
Flexner, E. & Fitzpatrick, E.F. (1996). Century of Struggle: The Women's Rights Movement in the United States. Harvard University Press.
Gallo, M.M. (2005). Winds of change: The Daughters of Bilitis and lesbian organizing. Retrieved online: http://www.gerberhart.org/dob.html
Women and the Union: Struggle for Change
Women's rights have enjoyed an increasingly prominent position in society and the workplace since the suffragettes managed to gain the vote for women. Acknowledging the intelligence and power of women as sufficient to allow them voting rights has led to other allowances as well. Throughout the 20th century, this struggle has not been an easy one, but it has been one that has gained steady ground through the decades. Since the 1970s, women have found themselves increasingly involved in unions, creating committees and combining forces to obtain a stronger position within unions and thus, by association, within the workplace and society in general. This has also become true on a global level, where globalization has created a much wider platform upon which women can make their voices heard.
White (1993, p. 123) notes that, although unions are by nature of concern to women…
Briskin, L. (1999). Autonomy, diversity and integration: Union women's separate organizing in North American and Western Europe in the context of restructuring and globalization. Women's Studies International Forum, 22(5), 543-554.
Chandler, S.K. And Jones, J. (2003). You have to do it for the people coming: Union organizing and transformation of immigrant women workers. Affilia, 18(3), 254-271,
Rajalakshmi, T.K. (1999, July). Sita and her daughters: Women workers at an Indian export-processing zone. Retrieved from: http://www.twnside.org.sg/title/sita-cn.htm .
White, J. (1993). Women's activities and issues inside unions. In J. White (Ed.), Sisters and solidarity: Women and unions in Canada (pp. 123-137). Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing Inc.
The authors further point out that at the time, NWSA did not accept male membership as its focus was firmly trained on securing the voting rights of women nationwide. As their push for the enfranchisement of women at the federal level became more and more untenable, NWSA shifted its focus to individual states. In so doing, it planned to create a ripple effect that could ease the attainment of its agenda across other states. It is however important to note that despite adopting similar approaches, these two groups had to contend with quite a number of challenges particularly in the 1880s. For instance, both NWSA and AWSA were unable to attract and maintain the much needed broad support particularly from male politicians. The support the two groups had from women was also not guaranteed. Indeed, as Horowitz points out, the average American woman was not really concerned with the ideals…
Buckley, Susan. 2011. Voting Rights. Pelham, NY: Benchmark Education Company.
Danver, Stephen L., Ed. 2011. Revolts, Protests, Demonstrations, and Rebellions in American History: An Encyclopedia. Volume 1. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, LLC.
Dilke, Mary. 2009. Women's Suffrage. Culver City, CA: Social Studies School Service.
Frost-Knappman, Elizabeth, and Kathryn Cullen-DuPont. 2009. Women's Suffrage in America. Updated Edition. New York, NY: Facts on File, Inc.
Women in the Ancient World: Witches, Wives, And Whores
One of the paradoxes of the ancient and medieval world is that although women were often discriminated against and treated as second class citizens (or not allowed to be citizens at all); they had an extremely central role in literature of the period. Women fulfilled a symbolic function in literature, representing foreignness, danger, and sexuality. Occasionally, when women's virtue surpassed that of men, this was used to goad men to behave in a more moral fashion. But the standards of behavior, conduct, and common humanity were seldom the same for both sexes. Women were usually seen as innately 'worse' than men and thus had to be 'better than men' to earn praise.
The fears of men are perhaps most starkly embodied in the character of the Greek dramatist Euripides' Medea. Not only is Medea a spurned wife: she is also a…
Women and men are made, not born. Debate this statement
Women and Men Are Made, Not Born
The statement that - "women and men are made, not born" - invokes the notion that, it is not by birth that one acquires their gender but rather by the process of socialization. This brings into perspective the need to understand what gender is and whether, biological determination of gender at birth is sufficient. This paper discusses the statement drawing arguments form scholars and gives the authors stands on the issue.
Arguments for At birth one is not immediately aware of the social skills required in life perform or make it given the society expectations. There is a need for one to be initiated and guided through the stages of growth where lessons are given slowly. This teaching process creates a modeling process that direct one towards what the society expects of them.…
ANDOLINA M.W., JENKINS K., ZUKIN C. & KEETER, S. 2003. Habits from Home, Lessons from School: Influences on Youth Civic Engagement. PS: Political Science and Politics, 36, 275-280.
BECK-GERNSHEIM E. 1998. On the Way to a Post-Familial Family: From a Community of Need to Elective Affinities. Theory, Culture & Society, 15, 53-70.
BENNER D.G. & PENNINGTON B. 2004. The Gift of Being Yourself: The Sacred Call to Self-Discovery, InterVarsity Press.
BESSANT J. & WATTS R. 2007. Sociology Australia 3rd edition, Australia, Allen & Unwin.
Women's Higher Education From 1920 To 1945
The female college students from 1920 to 1945 have had a lasting impact on women's education in the United States, which is not surprising since that generation of women was the first generation to attend colleges or universities in large groups. One of the most significant impacts is that they helped shift the face of higher education, so that women at colleges and universities are frequently in the majority and it is no longer seen as unusual for a woman to seek a higher education. However, achieving educational parity was in no way synonymous for achieving cultural parity. While women may have obtained degrees that would have enabled them to move into professional careers, that educational background did not match reality. Many employers were reluctant to hire women. Furthermore, even women who attended universities may have had attitudes that were steep in the…
Bullock, D. (2013, April 19). Why We Still Need All Women's Colleges in 2013. Retrieved
October 23, 2013 from Policy Mic website: http://www.policymic.com/articles/36325 / why-we-still-need-all-women-s-colleges-in-2013
Faehmel, B. (2009). Before the Second Wave: College Women, Cultural Literacy, Sexuality,
and Identity, 1940-1065. Retrieved October 23, 2013 from ScholarWorks website:
Women and Unemployment
Gender identity is an individual's way of experiencing and defining their own gender. There are, of course, various ways this can be defined; the obvious physical, but then psychological, social, and cultural. Within each of these subcategories the "idea" of gender roles often changes due to culture, the time period, and social mores and pressures. For instance, the idea of being a "female" during certain stages of history was to forage for food close to the camp, raise the children, look after the livestock, and be the solidifier of the community while the "male" hunted for food. Similarly, the idea of gender and its societal and cultural definition and actualization has evolved in the modern workplace (Baron, 2003; Unger, 2004).
ecently, scholars have focused on the study of gender roles in numerous aspects of contemporary society. Some of this research has concentrated on the way gender roles…
Baron-Cohen, Simon. (2003). The Essential Difference: The Truth about the Male and Female Brain. New York: Perseus.
Collinson, David and Jeff Hearn. (1994). Men, Women, and Organizations. Gender,
Work and Organization. 1(1): 2-22.
Percheski, C. (2008). Opting Out? Cohort Differences in Professional Women's Employment Rates from 1960 to 2005. American Sociological Review. 73 (3): 497-515. Retrieved from: http://www.soc.washington.edu/users/brines/percheski.pdf
Women and Nonwhites Facing Prejudices
Back when the frontier existed, women had very limited options for independence. So, if they wanted to travel, they had to be accompanied by a man and they had to be going to their destination. Because of this, women offered their labor so that they could get what they needed. They earned the money they needed by doing laundry or cooking, sometimes they even resorted to becoming prostitutes. Like women, the non-white races also occupied the lower class, these were Indians, African-Americans, Mexicans, and the Mongolians. These races did the unskilled labor that the white man did not want to do. This included working in mines and working on the railroad generally as construction and manual labor people. Here, it will be discussed how the roles of women and other races were treated and what they did.
In his essay, Fredrick Jackson Turner talks…
Cebulla, B. (2010). How Frontier Experience Had an Impact on Women's Role. New York: GRIN Verlag.
Fowler, W. (2005). Woman on the American Frontier. New York: Cosimo, Inc.
Hall, R. (2001). Performing the American frontier, 1870-1906. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Keyes, B. (2010). The American Frontier: Our Unique Heritage. Washington DC: Kessinger Publishing.
The role of women in the camp followers group was therefore crucial for the armies, regardless of their affiliation. At the same time though, there were a lot of criticism brought to the group of "camp followers." One example in this sense was the reluctance to the idea of women in the camp followers group. More precisely, "many equated 'camp follower' with 'whore' or even if they were not quite so derogatory, they saw such a being as part of the lower orders that did not quite seem representative of or equal to the ideal of American citizen"
. Therefore, the distinction between women and the rest of the society was seen even at that level, despite the constant aid provided by women as members of the "camp followers" group.
This perspective offers the general framework for the evolution of women's status in terms of the challenges they faced and…
Banta, Martha. Imaging American women: idea and ideals in cultural history. Columbia University Press, New York, 1987.
Boritt, Gabor S. Why the Civil War Came. Ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Brockett, L.P. And Mary C. Vaughan,. Woman's Work in the Civil War: A Record of Heroism, Patriotism, and Patience. Philadelphia: Zeigler, McCurdy, 1867.
Conway, Jill K., Linda Kealey, and Janet E. Schulte. The female experience in eighteenth and nineteenth century America: a guide to the history of American women. Garland Publishing, New York, 1982.
Three appendices provide information on workshop participants and strategies to improve educational opportunities for girls. (Rihani and Prather, 2003)
The work entitled: "Gender and Development in the Middle East and North Africa: women and the Public Sphere" states that gender inequality is the "...differential access to opportunity and security for women and girls" and that this has become an issue that is "important and visible...for the economies of the Middle East and North Africa."
While most countries in this region of the world have contributed resources that are significant in nature to the education of women and "with impressive results" and since MENA governments have spent approximately 5.3% of the GDP on education the result is a change in the "supply, quality and profile of the labor force." (Institut Europeen de Recherche sur la Cooperation Mediterraneene et Euro-Arabe, 2008) Women's entry into the labor force has been slowed due to…
El-Sanabary, Nagat (1989) Determinants of Women's Education in the Middle East and North Africa: Illustrations from Seven Countries. PHREE Background Paper Series the World Bank, Education and Employment Division, Population and Human Resources Department, 1818 H. Street, N.W., Washington, DC 204.
Education in the Middle East (2005) Voice of America - News Report. Published online 4 June 2005. Available at http://www.voanews.com/uspolicy/archive/2005-06/2005-06-06-voa1.cfm
Roudi-Fahimi, F. And Moghadam, V.M. (2003) Empowering Women, Developing Society: Female Education in the Middle East and North Africa. Population Reference Bureau. Nov. 2003. Online available at http://www.prb.org/Publications/PolicyBriefs/EmpoweringWomenDevelopingSocietyFemaleEducationintheMiddleEastandNorthAfrica.aspx
Empowering Women, Developing Society: Female Education in the Middle East and North Africa: Summary (2006) Early Childhood Development. Online available at http://www.comminit.com/en/node/219484
Neil Armstrong has made a significant contribution in the American history by: being the first man to set foot on the moon. (Jackson, 2008) for centuries, humans were only able to look at the heavens and dream of visiting other worlds. As the mission commander of Apollo 11, he was able to accomplish this on July 20, 1969. His achievement placed the United States ahead of the Soviet Union in space race and it created a lot of excitement for future space exploration. Aside from Armstrong, the Apollo 11 crew included: Edwin "uzz" Aldrin (who followed Armstrong onto the surface) and Michael Collins (who served as the command module pilot).
The Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), is a multi-faceted student and youth organization that aimed to bring about changes in schools / communities. It was developed in the mid-1960's and endured until 1969. SDS made important contributions in the…
Barakso, M. (2004). Governing Now. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Jackson, M. (2008). Neil Armstrong. New York, NY: Sterling Publishing.
Pekar, H. (2008). Students for a Democratic Society. New York, NY: Farar.
omen and Iran
Iran has long been an extremely conservative nation, greatly influenced by Islam and its teachings. hat is usually regarded as common social practice in many parts of the world is regarded as a taboo in the Islamic republic. Traditionally an all male 'patriarchal' society, Iran has little to offer women in terms of roles and position. In accordance with traditional Muslim culture, women are restricted more to their homes and household chores. omen until now have played little or no role in the all male social club of Iran. Iran became The Islamic Republic of Iran after the Islamic revolution that marked the downfall of the regime of the last Shah. The revolution was aimed at Islamizing a nation that had traditional and strong Muslim roots but was regarded to have been steered 'off-course' by the Shah and his influential American backing.
The popular revolution was initiated…
Works Cited brief history of Women's movements in Iran - I. 2000 Retrieved at http://www.payvand.com/women / Accessed on April 17, 2004 brief history of Women's movements in Iran - II. 2000 Retrieved at
Throughout the history of estern civilization, cultural beliefs allowed women only limited roles in society, such as mothers and wives, and it was believed that women were intellectually inferior to men (omen's pp). omen shared the same disadvantages with the majority of working class men, since many social, economic, and political rights were restricted to the wealthy elite (omen's pp). During the late eighteenth century, political theorists and philosophers asserted that all men were created equal and thus entitled to equal treatment under the law, and when in the nineteenth century, governments in Europe and North America began drafting new laws guaranteeing equality among men, large numbers of women began demanding equal rights as well (omen's pp). However, this was also during the Industrial Revolution which tended to further divide the roles of men and women, since more men worked outside the home in factories, the rightful place…
Women's Liberation Movement
Women Colonists Pre-
Women Colonists Pre-1776
This paper will provide a comparison and contrast of women colonists prior to 1776 and beyond, from the perspective of European settlers and Native American woman. It will analyze the effects of race, class and other effects on women's economic, social and family roles, and how these factors influenced diversity within the colonies.
North American women's economic, social and family roles varied significantly in colonial times. Factors such as race, ethnicity, class and geographic region influenced this diversity. The Native American woman was held in higher esteem than the European woman for some time during the early pre-colonial woman. In fact, in some ways the Native American woman set the stage for events including European woman's fight for equal rights including the right to vote, even though when the settler's first arrived, they had no such rights. When European women first arrived…
Brown, K.M. 1996. Good wives, nasty wenches, & anxious patriarchs. The University of North Carolina
"Colonial Women." 1 October, Portland State University. Retrieved:
The history of Women's suffrage in American can trace its roots back to the 1630's, and Anne Hutchinson who was convicted of sedition and expelled from the Massachusetts colony for her religious ideas. One of which was the idea that women should be involved in religious discussions and decision-making within the church. But it was the Quakers who really made a significant contribution to women's suffrage by preaching equality, not only among the sexes, but among all human beings. The subject lingered until the American colonies declared their independence from Britain. Then, during the Continental Congress, John Adams' wife, Abigail, wrote to her husband begging him to remember the ladies in the new laws he was instrumental in writing. Following this ideal, the state of New Jersey, in 1790, granted the vote to all free inhabitants, but rescinded that right to women when a politician was almost defeated…
"35 Years of Ensuring the Promise of Opportunity." Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Retrieved from http://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/history/35th/history/index.html
Jorgensen-Earp, Cheryl. (1999). Speeches and Trials of the Militant Suffragettes. Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses.
Keyssar, Alexander. (2000). The Right To Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States. New York: Basic Books.
"19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Women's Right to Vote (1920)." ourdocuments.gov. Retrieved from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=63
Immigrant Women from Sub-Sahara Africa
Intimate partner violence, also referred to as domestic violence, is one of the most prevalent kinds of violence against women and takes into account physical, sexual, and emotional abuse as well as controlling manners and actions by an intimate partner. Domestic violence takes place in all settings and amidst all socioeconomic, religious and cultural groups (World Health Organization, 2012). In particular, violence by an intimate partner is associated to both the short-term and long-standing health, social, economic effects. The population chosen is immigrant women from Sub-Sahara Africa living in Grande Prairie Alberta in Canada. In the historical account of Canada, immigration has been a pivotal factor in fashioning not only the economic but also social and cultural growth and development of the nation. Statistics indicate that for every five of Canadians in the present day, one of them immigrated to the nation and is born…
Arrey, A. E., Bilsen, J., Lacor, P., & Deschepper, R. (2015). “It’s my secret”: fear of disclosure among Sub-Saharan African migrant women living with HIV/AIDS in Belgium. PloS one, 10(3), e0119653.
Esther Thatcher MSN, R. N., & Eunhee Park BSN, R. N. (2012). Evolving public health nursing roles: focus on community participatory health promotion and prevention. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 17(2), B1.
Odyssey House. (2017). Grande Prairie’s Emergency Shelter & Supportive Housing Centre. Retrieved from: https://www.odysseyhouse.ca/
Settlement Org. (2017). Refugee Health Services. Retrieved from: https://settlement.org/ontario/health/refugee-health/refugee-health-services/i-came-to-canada-as-a-refugee-what-mental-health-services-can-i-get/
Statistics Canada. (2016). Census Profile, 2016 Census: Grande Prairie [Census agglomeration], Alberta and Alberta [Province]. Retrieved 9 October 2017 from: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CMACA&Code1=850&Geo2=PR&Code2=48&Data=Count&SearchText=Grande%20Prairie&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=Population&TABID=1
Topen, A. (2017). How integrated are women from sub-Saharan Africa in the Canadian labour force? Halifax case study. Our Diverse Cities: Atlantic Canada. Metropolis.
World Health Organization. (2012). Understanding and addressing violence against women: Intimate partner violence. Retrieved 9 October 2017 from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/77432/1/WHO_RHR_12.36_eng.pdf
Women Empowerment in the Age of the #MeToo Movement
When the #MeToo Movement arrived following accusations made against Hollywood Mogul Harvey Weinstein, an avalanche of accusations fell down upon the heads of male celebrities, CEOs, and executives who occupied positions of power and used those positions to either ask for sexual favors from women subordinates or pushed themselves onto unsuspecting or unwilling participants for sexual favor. Women across the Internet began to hashtag their Twitter responses with #MeToo to show their solidarity with other women who had been made the victims of sexual assault. It was widely viewed as a movement towards the empowerment of women, as they were using their voices to be heard and to challenge a system in which men used their power to subordinate women in a demeaning and non-consensual manner (Ralph). However, as the Movement has picked up steam, many voices have criticized it. Roseanne…
Elsesser, Kim. “Googlers To Walk Out Over Sexual Harassment: Here Are The Lessons For Google.” Forbes, 2018. https://www.forbes.com/sites/kimelsesser/2018/10/31/googlers-walk-out-over-sexual-harassment-here-are-the-lessons-for-google/#2c0deb477cdb
Henderson, Cydney. “Roseanne Barr calls #MeToo accusers \\\\'hoes,\\\\' slams Sen. Kamala
Harris, Christine Blasey Ford.” USAToday, 2019. https://www.usatoday.com/story/life/people/2019/03/03/roseanne-barr-calls-metoo-accusers-hoes-slams-sen-kamala-harris/3048973002/
O\\\\'Neil, Adrienne, et al. \\\\"The# MeToo movement: an opportunity in public health?.\\\\" The Lancet 391.10140 (2018): 2587-2589.
Ralph, Sarah. \\\\"# MeToo and# TimesUp-what now for employers?.\\\\" Governance Directions 70.3 (2018): 140.
Women Participation in Marine Industry
The Relation Ship between the Participation of Woman in Maritime Sectors and Various Policy Organizations
Women represent a considerable portion of the world's labor force. However they face the hurdles of wage discrimination, harassment, and occupational segregation which ultimately limit their economic advancement. Historically, marine industry does not tend to be a successful career path for women. However, with the passage of time women have penetrated quite deeply in this marine industry. This essay highlights the participation of women in marine industry and the role played by policy making organizations like International Transport Federation (ITF), Seafarers International Research Center (SIRC), International Labor Organization (ILO), and International Maritime Organization (IMO). It explains the extent to which these various marine bodies are addressing the issue of gender.
The Relation Ship between the Participation of Woman in Maritime Sectors and Various Policy Organizations
Traditionally marine industry has been…
Belcher, P. Sampson, H., Thomas, M., Veiga, J. & Zhao, M. (2003). Women Seafarers: Global
Employment Practices and Policies, Geneva: International Labor Organization.
Dcomm (2003). Women seafarers: Fighting against the tide? As on land, so by sea: Women join
the ranks of seafarers, World of Work Magazine, 49, Retrieved September 29, 2012, from http://www.ilo.org/global/publications/magazines-and-journals/world-of-work-magazine/articles/WCMS_081322/lang -- en/index.htm
Despite representing half of the human population, until very recently women were not afforded the same rights and freedoms as men. Furthermore, in much of the world today women remain marginalized, disenfranchised, and disempowered, and even women in the United States continue to face undue discrimination, whether in the workplace, at home, or in popular culture. However, this should not be taken as a disregarding of the hard-fought accomplishments of women since 1865, because over the course of intervening years, women have managed to gain a number of important rights and advantages. In particular, after spending the nineteenth century largely isolated within the domestic sphere, over the course of the twentieth century women won the right to vote, the right to equal pay and housing, and freedom over their own bodies in the form of birth control. By examining the history of these important developments, one is able…
Adams, C. (2003). Women's suffrage: A primary source history of the women's rights movement in america. New York: Rosen Publishing Group.
Chen, L.Y., & Kleiner, B.H. (1998). New developments concerning the equal pay act.
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 17(1), 13-20.
Gordon, L. (2002). The moral property of women: A history of birth control politics in america.
Women in the Workforce
Training Plan: Breaking the Glass Ceiling at Intuit
Intuit revolutionized the accounting industry with innovative applications that assist with financial analysis and tax preparation. Since 1983 Intuit has been a proud leader providing our most famous products: Quicken and TurboTax to a wide variety of customers from individuals to small businesses and corporations. We have prided ourselves on providing an excellent workplace that sparks creativity and builds long-term relationships. Our atmosphere is one of continual learning and growth.
However, this focus on growth always means that there is room for improvement. The following examines a new training plan to help take advantage of one area that could be improved. Intuit attracts young movers and shakers. However, women have recently complained that their needs are being ignored. The following will examine a plan to include women in the Intuit mix in a way that allows them truly…
Intuit Inc., (2008, August 13). Intuit Unveils Small Business Connected Strategy. Intuit.
Retrieved from http://about.Intuit.com/about_Intuit/press_room/press_release/2008/0813.jsp li, M., Metz, I., & Kulik, C. (2007, December 4-7) Workforce gender diversity: Is it a source of competitive advantage? Paper presented at the 21st ANZAM conference, Sydney,
Australia Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/40898/1/40898.pdf
Griffiths, M. & Moore, K. (2010). 'Disappearing Women': A Study of Women Who Left the UK
Women have, for a long time, been expected to fulfill certain roles. These roles varied through the ages but have remained rooted in their main objective, to have women raise children and assist and serve their husbands (Vishwanathan, 1994, p. 34). Women are seen as the ones who stay home, tend the hearth, and raise the young while men are the ones that earn the money, own the property, and control the household. In literature, women are depicted often as fulfilling these stereotypical roles and also rebelling against them. Karen Van Der Zee's "A Secret Sorrow" and Gail Godwin's "A Sorrowful Woman" are two works of literature that demonstrate the lives of women who belonged to a society that required them to conform to their selected role. Both narratives establish the anticipated place of women in society, but do so from dissimilar perspectives. "A Secret Sorrow" has a female character…
Foster, C.D., Siegel, M.A., & Jacobs, N.R. (1988). Women's changing role (1988 ed.). Wylie, Tex.: Information Aids.
Meyer, M. (2002). The Bedford introduction to literature: reading, thinking, writing (6th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Vishwanathan, M. (1994). Women & society. Jaipur: Printwell.
But sometimes the victims themselves are afraid to voice their grievances in the public because speaking up entails shame, ostracization, and even extra-judicial killings. The victims can express their grievances in public "only at certain times and in certain ways" because their rights are infringed on social and cultural levels (Dewey).
The fact that cultural and traditional beliefs and attitudes contribute to violations of women's rights in a systematic manner can be observed by reading literature on the practice of dowry. Many Indian legal and philosophical thinkers use relativistic terms to contest the notion that the practice contributes to the abuse of women. They contest the notion because they argue the concept of human rights is a estern notion, sometimes disregarding cultural variations and sensibilities of the Indian nation (Gupta). The general critique of the concept of human rights as a western notion may be valid in some matters, but…
Dewey, Susan. "Dear Dr. Kothari': Sexuality, Violence Against Women, and the Parallel Public Sphere in India." American Ethnologist, 36/1 (2009): 124-139.
Duggal, Ravi. "The Political Economy of Abortion in India: Cost and Expenditure Patterns." Reproductive Health Matters, 12/24 (Nov. 2004): 130-137.
Grewal, Indu and Kishore, J. "Female Foeticide in India." International Humanist and Ethical Union. 1 May 2004. Web. 12 Dec. 2011
Gupta, Nidhi. "Women's Human Rights and the Practice of Dowry in India." Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, 48 (2003): 85-123. Web. 12 Dec. 2011
omen Are More Faithful Than Men
The libraries and bookstores are overloaded with published books about love and relationships, and television programs deal with those topics on a daily basis. One of the most frequently addressed topics in these books and programs is infidelity.
And while digging into the subject, as this paper does, it is apparent that when it comes to infidelity and cheating, men do it more than women. This paper does not try to delve very deeply into the why, but it provides solid scholarship on the data and the literature on the situations that exist in society, and in marriages, that tempt men to stray from their relationships. The substance of this paper is that women are more faithful than men. Young women considering marriage should engage in a patient and thorough investigation into the tendency of men to cheat, and be totally familiar with her…
Brand, Rebecca J., Markey, Charlotte M., Mills, Ana, and Hodges, Sara D. (2007). Sex
Differences in Self-reported Infidelity and its Correlates. Sex Roles, 57(1/2), 101-109.
Brisco, Joanna. (2005). Weekend: Your Cheating Heart: Email, Text Messages and intimate websites… they're all making it easier for us to stray from long- term relationships.
The Guardian. Retrieved January 10, 2012, from http://0-proquest.umi.com.
Stocker, deaf since birth, admittedly attempted to compensate for her disability, her imperfection, through the relentless pursuit of achieving perfection physically and athletically, and even when she excelled, Stocker confesses, for a long time she remained emotionally tortured by disability for which no amount of body shaping or athletic skill in sports could change that disability (2001, p. 154). Stocker's struggle with her self-image, her identity and hers sexuality were in large part shaped by her disability.
While it is not an attempt here to disparage Stocker, or to belittle the significance of her disability; Stocker is a woman who suffered her hearing impairment from birth. Stocker suffered emotionally as a result of her disability, struggled with it for most of her life in the ways in which it impacted her self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality. So, might not a woman who acquired a disability at that point her life when…
Barker-Benfield, G.J. (2000). The Horrors of the Half-Known Life: Male Attitudes toward Women and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Routledge. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108011402 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000224494
Bellerose, S.B., & Binik, Y.M. (1993). Body Image and Sexuality in Oophorectomized Women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 22(5), 435+. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000224494
DeFries, Z., Friedman, R.C., & Corn, R. (Eds.). (1985). Sexuality: New Perspectives. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=51035002 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105657669
Islamic women are now restricted from most activities, and their rights have been steadily decreasing. Her social and political as well as economic rights are all being violated everyday by unscrupulous men who have corrupted the very religion to their own advantage, and today, especially in most Arab countries, woman has become 'Awarah', or the very subject of concealment, wherein her public presence is banned; where even her very voice, must not be heard in public. (Women's Position, ole, and ights in Islam)
In India, there are only 960 women to 1000 men, a figure that when compared to the rest of the world, especially developed countries, which shows 105 women to 100 men, due to better health care for women, is quite miserable. It is in India that women are often considered to be burdens on their families, and the main reason for this is the 'dowry system', wherein…
Agarwal, Sita. Hindu Scriptural Sanction for the Crushing of Women. Retrieved at http://www.dalitstan.org/books/gowh/gowh6.html . Accessed on 16 March, 2005
Gender Equality. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.faithnet.org.uk/Ethics/genderequality.htm. Accessed on 16 March, 2005
John, MacArthur Jr., Women's Roles. 20 March, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.believersweb.org/view.cfm?ID=205Accessed on 15 March, 2005
Mbiti, John. The Role of women in African traditional religion. Retrieved at http://www.afrikaworld.net/afrel/atr-women.htm . Accessed on 16 March, 2005
During the nineteenth century, many accomplishments in women's rights occurred. As a result of these early efforts, women today enjoy many privileges. They are able to vote and become candidates for political elections, as well as own property and enjoy leadership positions.
During the early nineteenth century, the women's rights movement came into effect. omen like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony created many organizations for equality and independence. However, even with these activist groups, victory would not be fast or easy.
Changing social conditions for women during the early nineteenth century, combined with the idea of equality, led to the birth of the woman suffrage movement. For example, women started to receive more education and to take part in reform movements, which involved them in politics. As a result, women started to ask why they were not also allowed to vote.
The Start of the Revolution…
Berg, Barbara. The Remembered Gate: Origins of American Feminism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Degler, Carl N. At Odds: Women and the Family in America from the Revolution to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.
Pessen, Edward. Jacksonian America: Society, Personality, and Politics. Homewood, Illinois: Dorsey Press, 1969, 1978.
Ryan, Mary P. Womanhood in America: From Colonial Times to the Present. New York: New Viewpoints, 1979.
Pretention was key because the women knew that the men's focus stayed on preventing race mixing between blacks and whites. To distract the men from the issues that the WKKK were fighting for, they would cleverly get the men to focus on black men trying to flirt or what have you with them. This was just a ploy for them so that they could fully pursue their interests with little or no interference from the men.
Auxiliary or Organization
Clearly, the intent of the KKK was for the women to establish an auxiliary in order to support them. The women had other ideas. The men were used to further the women's cause unknowingly. "Klanswomen embraced the mixture of individualism and deference to authority that characterized the male Klan." (p. 36). The women did not and would not be a support group for the men. They did feel that other races…
Blee, K.M. (2008). Women of the Klan: Racism and Gender in the 1920s (2 ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press.
Others, however, saw things differently.
Perhaps the clearest way to come to an understanding of the status of the WKK as either an independent or an auxiliary organization is to examine the central philosophies of the two groups. While the leadership of the WKKK by and large supported the racial and religious policies of the larger Ku Klux Klan -- i.e. A mistrust or outright hatred of blacks, Catholics, and Jews -- there were fears that even "Protestant men…were likely to be 'unyielding' in opposition to gender equality since they benefited directly from the current situation" (Blee 1991, pp. 76). Given this level of mistrust and irreconcilable difference, it seems unlikely that the most vocal, staunch, and long-standing members of the WKKK considered themselves a part of the same organization as the man they viewed as their oppressors. Though working in tandem with the Ku Klux Klan and using many…
Blee, K. (1991). Women of the Klan. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
The problems that these women have encountered have ranged from domestic issues to career issues to stereotypes. To solve these problems, the United Status must view them in the light of immigrant women.
Anderson, M.J. (1993, April). A License to Abuse: The Impact of Conditional Status on Female Immigrants. The Yale Law Journal 102(6). etrieved January 28, 2008, from No Status Quo. Web Site: http://www.nostatusquo.com/ACLU/anderson/brides/pg2.html
Grieco, E. (2002, May). Immigrant Women. etrieved January 28, 2008, from Migration Information Source. Web Site: http://www.migrationinformation.org/usfocus/display.cfm?ID=2
Jewish Women's Archive. (2009, January 27). Exhibit: Women of Valor, Emma Lazarus
Introduction. etrieved January 27, 2009, from the Jewish Women's Archive. Web site: http://jwa.org/exhibits/wov/lazarus/
Lee, a. (2008, March 10). Justice Denied for Battered Immigrant Women.
etrieved January 28, 2009, from the American Prospect. Web Site: http://www.prospect.org/cs/articles?
McDonnell, J. And de Lourenco, C.I., 2005-08-12 "Women's Stories: Brazilian
Immigrant Women as "Transnational" Migrants" Paper presented at…
Anderson, M.J. (1993, April). A License to Abuse: The Impact of Conditional Status on Female Immigrants. The Yale Law Journal 102(6). Retrieved January 28, 2008, from No Status Quo. Web Site: http://www.nostatusquo.com/ACLU/anderson/brides/pg2.html
Grieco, E. (2002, May). Immigrant Women. Retrieved January 28, 2008, from Migration Information Source. Web Site: http://www.migrationinformation.org/usfocus/display.cfm?ID=2
Jewish Women's Archive. (2009, January 27). Exhibit: Women of Valor, Emma Lazarus
Introduction. Retrieved January 27, 2009, from the Jewish Women's Archive. Web site: http://jwa.org/exhibits/wov/lazarus/
The women's work, therefore, continues to be arduous and tedious, potential productivity, unrealized and quality of life is substandard. According to Jehan, for example, solutions to bettering this situation include enhancing data on women's economic participation and increasing the proportion of women in education, rural incomes and productivity.
In India, for instance, a number of economic initiatives have been undertaken in regard to the role and status of women. These include the economic exposure and access to Meerut Seva Samaj (MSS), an entrepreneurship program that allows women to engage in home-based work. This allows them to continue to fulfill their domestic responsibilities at the same time as helping to financially support their family. Financial institutions, companies, and NGOs are discovering the impact that can be made by extending different forms of entrepreneurial assistance to women startup businesses, such as micro-credit, or small loans, Meerut Seva Samaj demonstrates the way that…
Jehan, Qamar "Role of women in economic development in Pakistan." PhD thesis, 2000
University of Balochistan, Quetta. 10/25/08 http://eprints.hec.gov.pk/442/
Nanu-Fabu, Stella. "An analysis of economic status of women in Cameroon." Journal of International Women's Studies 8.1(2006):148-162.
Roy, K.C., Tisdell, C.A., Blomqvist, H.C. Economic Development and Women in the World Community, Praeger, London, 1996
Women winning the right to vote, far too long after the founding of America, was of course an important 'first step' in ensuring that women become full participants in the American experiment. But understanding the subtle cultural discrimination, as manifest in John Adams' treatment of his wife, and the subsidiary complaints of Stanton, Wollstonecraft, and Woolf also demonstrate that simply passing a law is not enough to change the rights of women. Women have been treated as children, and also viewed as incapable of truly realizing their dreams because of their capacity to be mothers. This has remained unchanged in the cultural discourse and memory in a way that affects all of our perceptions, male and female, and unless we remember this, we may be too easily seduced by the achievements, however remarkable, of a few talented women who have been able to chip away at the 'glass ceiling.'
As it pertains to the physical differences women have to miss some time at work after having a child to allow their bodies to heal. Missing this time from work can be detrimental to pursuing certain management positions. However men who become fathers do not have this same type of barrier. In addition, although many fathers are more involved with the daily care of their children, mothers are still the primary caregivers (Sumer, 2006). With this being understood, women often have a harder time balancing work and family life (Sumer, 2006).
In some cases it may be difficult for women to find childcare and as a result they may not have the luxury of being able to work the long hours that male counterparts can work. Some corporations have attempted to assist working mothers as it relates to childcare by offering childcare facilities in the workplace (Sumer, 2006). It appears…
Mitra, a. (2003). Access to Supervisory Jobs and the Gender Wage Gap among Professionals. Journal of Economic Issues, 37(4), 1023+.
Nelson, T., & Levesque, L.L. (2007). The Status of Women in Corporate Governance in High-Growth, High-Potential Firms. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 31(2), 209+.
Sumer, H.C. (2006). Women in Management: Still Waiting to Be Full Members of the Club. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 55, 63+.
Many women took up the cause of temperance. omen like Jane Adams, worked to expose political corruption and economic exploitation and established philanthropic programs for the poor.
By 1900 over one-third of the wage-earning women in this country were employed as domestics or waitresses." As business grew, the privileged class grew. Domestics were in demand and were expected to do every kind of household chore in addition to cooking, serving, laundry, sewing, and anything else required by her mistress.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony in 1865 joined in their work to equalize the rights of men and women. They declared that women had a natural right to happiness, and the opportunities and advantages, and denied that women were made simply for men and that her best interests must be "sacrificed to his will" (Kerber, pg. 225).
In 1923, a feminist conference in Seneca Falls, New York developed a…
Modern Feminism and American Society, 1965 to the Present, Publisher, city, date?
Kerber, Linda K. And Jane Sherron DeHart Women's America, Refocusing the Past, Oxford University Press, New York: 1995.
From the start, social welfare policy has been shaped by the work ethic and the belief that the provision of benefits to able-bodied persons will weaken their motivation to work. As a result, the cash assistance programs including Social Security benefits, Unemployment Insurance, and Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) enforce the work ethic either by rewarding higher paid workers over those who earn less or by encouraging able-bodied persons to choose paid labor (no matter what the wage levels or working conditions) over government aid. (Abramovitz, 1988, p. 1)
The desperation that is associated with seeking public assistance, even when the opt out option does not exist, and private pension plans have declined in popularity as other forms of retirement compensation have taken their place, and more and more people are required to simply save for their old age, no matter what. The social security system does not…
Abramovitz, M. (1988). Regulating the Lives of Women: Social Welfare Policy from Colonial Times to the Present. Boston: South End Press.
Adler, M., Bell, C., Clasen, J., & Sinfield, a. (Eds.). (1991). The Sociology of Social Security. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Berrick, J.D. (1997). Faces of Poverty: Portraits of Women and Children on Welfare. New York: Oxford University Press.
Chafe, W.H. (1978). Changing Patterns in American Culture. New York: Oxford University Press.
The glass ceiling that women bump up against in many workplaces and cannot move past exists because of fear, and partly because of misunderstanding. Many men fear or are hostile to competition by women in the workforce, and others simply do not feel women are qualified to manage or oversee a company. Yes, the glass ceiling exists, and statistics prove it.
Tannen notes that it is common for women not to receive all the credit they deserve for projects and for their positions in general. Some women never are promoted, while others make it to a certain level of management and no further. For example, Tannen notes, "A woman who headed a major division of her company, and who did work comparable to that of six men who headed the other six divisions, had the title 'director" while the men were vice-presidents" (Tannen 134). There seems little reason for disparities…
Tannen, Deborah. Talking from 9 to 5: Women and Men at Work. New York, Harper Paperbacks, 1995.
Judy, Richard W. And Carol D'Aminco. Workforce 2020: Work and Workers in the 21st Century. Indianapolis, in: Hudson Institute, 1997.
It also widened her female audience much further than the small group of upper-class women with whom she was acquainted (ibid).
Overall, this work represented Lanyer as a complex writer who possessed significant artistic ambition and "who like other women of the age wrote not insincerely on devotional themes to sanction more controversial explorations of gender and social relations" (Miller 360).
In her work, Lanyer issued a call to political action by noting several Old Testament women who changed the course of ancient Jewish history through their bravery, humor and valor, and she recalled the favor Christ demonstrated to women in a variety of actions and by electing them as custodians of his salvational message (ibid 362). The story covered Christ's betrayal by male apostles, the arraignment before male authorities to whom Lanyer addressed complaints, and the account of Christ's procession to Calvary, the crucifixion and the drama of the…
Barish, Jonas. Ben Jonson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1963.
Braun, Lily, and Meyer, Alfred. Selected Writings on Feminism and Socialism. Gary: Indiana University Press, 1987.
Castiglione, Baldassare. "The Courtier." In Three Renaissance Classics. NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953, 242-624
De Vroom, Theresia. Female Heroism in Thomas Heywood's Tragic Farce of Adultery. NY: Palgrave, 2002.
Yet women with similar or comparable education and experience or achievement still earn less than men in work organizations. A missing link or the absent ingredient, between performance and a just payoff, was identified as women's own ability to comfortably and consistently draw the attention they deserve to the contributions they made or gave. Findings of a study conducted on 322 male and female executives showed that women were less comfortable in promoting themselves than men. Many of them still believed that self-promotion by women was still unacceptable and that hard work alone would not put them in the same level as men. Women were also found to be "over-preparers" who wanted their work to be technically correct but who did not bring this sense of accuracy and care to the attention or notice of influential individuals in the organization. Goodson found that even women who understood the importance of…
1. Auster, Ellen R. professional Women's Mid-career Satisfaction. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research, June 2001
2. Hultin, Mia. Wages and Unequal Access to Organizational Power: an Empirical Test of Gender Discrimination. Administrative Science Quarterly: Connell University Johnson Graduate School
3. Lemons. Mary A. Contextual and Cognitive Determinants of Procedural Justice: Perceptions in Promotion Barriers for Women. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research: Plenum Publishing Corporation
4. Moya, Miguel. Close Relationships, Gender and Career Salience. Sex Roles: a Journal of Reserch: Plenum Publishing Corporation, May 2000
Nonetheless, Lu sees some hope for transgressive representations of Asian women in media, particularly in those films which actively seek to explode stereotypes regarding Asian women not simply by fulfilling the desires of a white, patriarchal society but rather by demonstrating full-fledged, unique characters whose Asian and female identity is only one constituent part of their personality and whose expression is not limited to the roles prescribed for Asian women in American media (24-26).
Lu, Lynn. "Critical Visions: The Representation and Resistance of Asian omen." Dragon
Ladies: Asian-American Feminists Breathe Fire. 1st ed. Cambridge, MA: South End
Press, 1999. 184-189. Print.
Mihesuah, David Abbot. "Feminists, Tribalists, or Activists?" Indigenous American omen:
Decolonization, Empowerment, Activism. 1st ed. Omaha, NE: University of Nebraska
Press, 2003. 115-123. Print.
Smith, Andrea. "Sexual Violence as a Tool of Genocide." Conquest: Sexual Violence and American Indian Genocide. 1st ed. Cambridge, MA: South End Press,…
Lu, Lynn. "Critical Visions: The Representation and Resistance of Asian Women." Dragon
Ladies: Asian-American Feminists Breathe Fire. 1st ed. Cambridge, MA: South End
Press, 1999. 184-189. Print.
Mihesuah, David Abbot. "Feminists, Tribalists, or Activists?" Indigenous American Women:
omen and Commodities
In both Jonathan Swift's "The Lady's Dressing Room" and Christina Rossetti's "Goblin Market," women are presented both in a world of commerce and as commodities themselves, but only Rossetti's text is critical of this formulation. In both poems, the value of a woman is dictated by her physical appearance, but whereas Swift seems to be arguing that the value produced by a beautiful woman outweighs any of the undesirable or otherwise unattractive elements which go into maintaining that beauty, Rossetti suggests that the woman who allows herself to be tricked into believing that a woman's value comes from her physical appearance will ultimately be doomed to waste away and die. By examining the conclusion of Swift's poem in conjunction with certain relevant scenes from "Goblin Market," one may see how the former serves to reinforce the notion that women are essentially semi-autonomous commodities, existing solely for visual…
Rosetti, Christina. "Goblin Market." Loudlit. Loudlit.org, n.d. Web. 24 Oct 2011.
Swift, Jonathan. "The Lad'ys Dressing Room." Rutgers University. Rutgers, n.d. Web. 24 Oct
omen struggles in EL
The rights of women in society have always been a topic shrouded in a great deal of discussion. In many ways women are still struggling for equality within society and will likely continue to struggle for some years to come. The purpose of this discussion is to focus on how this theme of women's rights has informed English Literature and the manner in which it has been expressed including those thing that have changed and those things that have remained constant. More specifically the research will focus on women's rights in English literature from the Romantic Age until the 21st century.
The Romantic Age
In the real of English literature the Romantic age (1789-1830) was an extremely important time because it marked a new birth in the type literature that was written and the manner in which readers were exposed to the literature. As it pertains…
Bronte, Charlotte. (1847) Jane Eyre. London, England: Smith, Elder & Co
Rich, A. (1995) Of Woman Born - Motherhood As Experience And Institution
Showalter, E. (1982). A literature of their own. Princeton University Press
Woolf. V. (1989) A Room of Ones Own.
This made the United States the only estern nation to criminalize contraception at that time (Time). hile women (and men) continued to illegally access birth control, often using devices labeled differently for contraceptive purposes, it would be decades before birth control could be openly used within the United States. In 1916, Margaret Sanger opens the first birth control clinic in the United States, but it is shut down in 10 days (Time). It was not until 1938 that the federal ban against birth control was lifted by a federal judge (Time).
hile women did not enjoy an abrupt increase in civil rights following the Civil ar, it is important to realize that there was a gradual increase in attention towards civil rights and support for women's rights after the Civil ar. In 1868, the National Labor Union supported equal pay for equal work, which was the first real call for…
A&E Television Networks. "The Fight for Women's Suffrage." History.com. N.p. 2012.
Web. 16 May 2012.
The Prism. "The Path of the Women's Rights Movement: A Timeline of the Women's Rights
Movement 1848-1998." The Prism. N.P. Mar. 1998. Web. 16 May 2012.
oman Identified oman by Radicalesbians
In the essay entitled, "oman identified woman," the organization Radicalesbians discusses the crucial issue of identifying women as reinforces of the perpetuation of oppression in human society. This means that prejudice and oppression against women cannot be eliminated nor gradually lessened, primarily because women will always act against the interest of their own sector. However, it is important to bear in mind that what makes women reinforce this oppression upon themselves is the result of a long history of living under the social structure of patriarchy.
Addressing these important issues in the essay, the argument of the Radicalesbians involves a three-pronged analysis of the social condition of women's oppression in the contemporary society. First, they talk about the nature of lesbianism and its challenges in a male-dominated society; second, they go further in their critique of acceptance of lesbianism in the society to include on…
Radicalesbians. (1970). "The woman identified woman." Available at: http://carnap.umd.edu/queer/radicalesbian.htm.
S. Constitution, and Susan B. Anthony was very upset at that.
For one thing, the women's suffrage movement had vigorously supported the abolition of slavery well prior to (and, of course, during the Civil War); and now that blacks were free, and were given the right to vote (although many blacks in America didn't really get to vote until the Voting ights Act of 1965 guaranteed their right to cast votes) prior to the women in American having the right to vote.
For another thing, many women were already stretched to the maximum in terms of the patience over their lack of voting rights.
According to an article in www.About.com (Women's History: Susan B. Anthony), "Some of Susan B. Anthony's writings were...quite racist by today's standards." She made the point that "educated white women would be better voters than 'ignorant' black men or immigrant men." In the late 1860s, she…
About.com. "Women's History: Susan B. Anthony; Seneca Falls Convention;
Declaration of Sentiments." 2004. Available
History of the American Suffragist Movement (2004). "Timeline: 1861-1867,"
It is possible that early American history would be taught very differently today if based on history books such as this. To play devil's advocate, there perhaps would have been women historians who agreed with the men's decisions, women historians who did not believe in the actions of their fellow females. Those histories, too, would have had an impact on today's perspective of that period.
Similarly, what would have happened if the topic of women's equality had been covered by a famous female historian who did not support the suffragist cause? The early 1900s saw some women, called the anti-suffragists, who were strongly opposed to giving the vote to their gender. These women were afraid of change and believed the family would fall apart if women could vote. They also feared suffrage would overload women already burdened by their own many responsibilities. They called the suffragists communists, among other things,…
Des Jardins, Julie. Women and the Historical Enterprise in America: Gender, Race, and the Politics of Memory, 1880 -- 1945. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.
Sherr, Lynn. Failure is Impossible. New York: Random House, 1995.
Weatherford, Doris. A History of the American Suffragist Movement. Santa Barbara, CA:
They argued that women would not have any reforming effect on the country because they would vote with their husbands (opposite of what they argued earlier). In states where they already had the vote, they had made no difference. Finally, they argued that women didn't really want the vote, anyway. This last charge had some truth to it. Susan . Anthony observed that the apathy of most women about the vote was the biggest obstacle for the movement. President Theodore Roosevelt in 1912 said that women would get the vote when "women as a whole show any special interest in the matter" (Woloch 242).
Terborg-Penn (113) points out that between 1910 and 1920 middle-class black women became active in the cause. She states that black feminists could never overlook the issue of racism; for them, it wasn't just a matter of being women; their color was a major cause of…
This gave her husband the right to sell any of her property and she was not in a position to object in any way. Religious women with their vows of obedience and poverty really had no reason to get involved in legal matters and were untouched in any way by the legal structure.
idows were the only women who held in legal position in the society. "She (a widow) regained her legal personality, was entitled to a certain share of her husband's holdings and, for the first time in her life, could make independent decisions." Legally, this was the best position for women. It was not without problems especially for wealthy women. These women were frequently intimidated into a second marriage or into relinquishing parts of their holdings. They had no legal recourse against this kind of intimidation in the same way that married women could not object to domestic…
Barber, Richard. The Penguin Guide to Medieval Europe. New York: Penguin
Conway, Stephen. "Silent Voices: Women in the Middle Ages." 1991. http://www.subverbis.com/essays/medievalwomen.rtf .
Delort, Robert. Life in the Middle Ages. Trans. Robert Allen. New York:
Dr. Hayden believes the reason for this change at the school level is due to greater recruitment efforts, financial and academic support, and more women role models to provide encouragement. Dr. Hayden sees a similar situation happening in the engineering field.
Dr. Lin, a male electrical engineer, on the other hand, somewhat ironically, seems to feel that women face a tougher challenge in engineering than Dr. Hayden stated. According to Dr. Lin, women can succeed as an electrical engineer if "they are determined." This is clearly a male-oriented view of how to succeed. According to typical male beliefs, success is an individual achievement. If you work hard you will succeed. If you do not succeed, it is because you did not work hard enough. However, Dr. Hayden emphasized in her response to the same question the role of peer mentors, academic support and other outside resources. This is typically a…
Baker, Wayne. Achieving Success Through Social Capital. New York: Jossey-Bass.
Dr. Hayden. Personal Interview. California Poly Pomona. 2006.
Dr. Lin. Personal Interview. California Poly Pomona. 2006.
Fuller, Georgina. "Recent Graduates Expect More from their Employers" Personnel
Women comprise an essential part of the society; the role of women in the modern world is becoming more influential compared to the traditional days. The society is realizing the importance of women as leaders in the community and calling upon their ability to ensure that there is growth in the society. The rise of women in the society has been faced with stiff opposition from the male counterparts. In some developing countries, gender equality has not been achieved, but the pressure from developed is pushing many governments to recognize equality. Nations that have recognized the contributions of women have high economic growth compared to other countries that have ignored women.
Women empowerment refers to providing equal opportunities to women as men. Traditional organizational setting considers division of labor in the organization. Women are given roles that are not physically challenging while leadership roles are reserved for men.…
omen in Television
In the late 1960s to early 1970s, as women burned their bras and took to the streets for equality, the female labor force grew three times more than that their male peers (Toossi), increasing numbers of educational opportunities made themselves available to the "fairer sex,"
and a cultural shift was taking place for women within the household and in society as a whole. As is frequently the case, television seized the moment and looked for ways to capitalize on this women's lib movement. As Fiske wrote, "Television often acts like a relay station: It rarely originates topics of public interest (though it may repress them); rather, what it does is give them high visibility, energize them, and direct or redirect their general orientation before relaying them out again into public circulation." Thus, Turner's MTM Enterprises introduced "That Girl" and followed it by the seven-year hit "Mary Tyler…
Bodroghkozy, Aniko. "Where have you gone, Mary Richards? Feminism's rise and fall in primetime television." Iris: A Journal About Women 12.28 (2004). 5 November 2010 http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-127160507/have-you-gone-mary.html
Bordo, Susan. The Male Body. A New Look at Men at Public and Private. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999.
Douglas, Susan. Where the Girls Are. New York: Three Rivers Press, 1995.
Dow, Bonnie. Prime-Time Feminism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.
This brings us to the idea of ideal femininity. What is the ideal woman? What should we expect of the female gender in the new millennium? When comparing the two views above, I would say that Chan's ideal of the woman as one who is worthy of recognition for her efforts in any context is far more valid than that forwarded by Campbell, who creates an emotional victimhood for women. When combining these views, I would say the ideal woman is indeed emotional, but she is also capable of using her emotion to energize her efforts towards the life she desires. Emotion can translate into passion, and I believe that women have a possible advantage here. A woman's emotion for her family can create a passion for creating the perfect home. Her passion to contribute economically to her relationship with her partner or her family can lead to great excellence…
Campbell, S. (1994, Summer). Being Dismissed: The Politics of Emotional Expression. Hypatia, Vo. 9, No. 3. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3810188
Chan, Z. (2002, Nov.) Cooking Soup to Writing Papers: A Journey Through Gender, Society and Self. Journal of International Women's Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1. Retrieved from: http://vc.bridgew.edu
Women and Islam
Do Muslim women eally need saving?
Stengths and weaknesses
Between hee and thee: feminist solidaity and Afghan women.
Stengths and weaknesses
Do Muslim women eally need saving? Anthopological eflections on cultual elativism and its othes.
Topic oveview and famewok
The aticle deals with the topic of 'Wa on Teoism', the wa claimed to have been launched fo libeating the Afghan women fom Taliban and an agument with anthopological pespective to deconstuct the essentially flawed epesentation of Afghan women that Wa on Teoism hetoic makes. The aticle is aimed at investigating the nuances of identity that ae essentially devoid of histoical constuction of ole of women in Afghan society. The aticle also aims to identify the pocess though which women's ole in Afghan society is not constucted on anthopological gounds but athe influenced by one's own cultue, identity, and standads of living. Thus, cultual bias is said to…
references: Constructions of gender in the Bush administration discourse on the attacks on Afghanistan post-9/11. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 8(1), 19-41.
Women's Objectification in Society
Women's Objectification in Society
It is crucial to notice the language we use when we talk about bodies. We speak as if there was one collective perfect body, a singular entity that we're all after. The trouble is, I think we are after that one body. We grew up with the impression that underneath all this normal flesh, buried deep in the excessive recesses of our healthy bodies, there was a perfect body just waiting to break out. (Hornbacher, 1999, p. 47)
In recent years, much attention from both the public media and professional research community has focused on the growing problem regarding the objectification and sexualisation of women. The American Psychological Association's (2007) publication outlining the problem has given the public a greater awareness and understanding of the dynamics between our culture's tendency to objectify women's bodies and the consequences of this for…
Bartky, S.L. (1990). Femininity and domination: Studies in the phenomenology of oppression. New York: Routledge.
Calogero, R.M. (2004). A test of objectification theory: The effect of the male gaze on appearance concerns in college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 16-21.
Cusumano, D.L., & Thompson, J.K. (1997). Body image and body shape ideals in magazines: Exposure, awareness, and internalization. Sex Roles, 37, 701-721
Fredrickson, B.L., & Roberts, T. (1997). Objectification theory: Toward understanding women's lived experiences and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173-206.
Women throughout Chinese history have experienced the oppression their tradition and culture exert as well as the power only members of their sex can attain in their chosen domains. Although readers have been exposed to historical anecdotes relating foot binding and Man's superiority to women, there are also many stories relating their freedom and tenacity, whether they are wives, concubines, courtesans or prostitutes. The history of Chinese women is not necessarily limited to persecution and being dominated, it is also peppered with inspirational stories of women who have been able to find happiness, success and fulfillment within the parameters Chinese tradition and culture dictate.
In Chinese society, the positions women maintained were very indistinct (http://www.wm.edu/CAS/anthropology/faculty/hamada/Virtual_Classromm/wwwb.../208.htm,1)."In Chinese society, women as a category had a dependent status." (Watson, 1991, 232). efore a girl married, she was controlled completely by her father. After she married, this responsibility was transferred to her husband. If…
Bennett, Natalie. (2001) Women of Emperial China: A Re-Examination. http://www.journ.freeserve.co.uk/china/china4.html
Burns, Dennis. (2002) The View From the Dragon's Lair. http://www.crystal-bridge.com/dennis0402.html
Jaschok, Maria. (1988) Concubines and Bondservants: The Social History of a Chinese Custom. London: Zed Press.
Jaschok, Maria & Miers, Suzanne (eds.) (1994) Women and Chinese Patriarchy. New Jersey: Hong Kong U.
Women of today have come along way because society has recognized that they have voices as well as men do. From the entire world, women have maintained their place due to the new customs that have arisen over the years. They have been able to go vote and work, which puts them as equals with men For example, South Korea; there is a female president instead of a make. Therefore, women have overcome the stereotypes that society has created from sixty years ago. No matter what country or culture women are in, it has been proven during the last two decades they are no longer inferior when it comes to being equals with men. In other words, regardless of what society throws at women, they become stronger and more powerful every day.
In Mexico, Mexicans place a high value on family and traditional values. lthough women make up an increasingly…
Along with India, South Korea has build up support for women so that they can be equal. The Korean Women's Development Institute or KWDI was established in 1983 to promote women's social participation and welfare by carrying out research and studies on women, by providing education and training for women, and by assisting women's activities. A law passed by the Korean National Assembly in 1982 mandates the KWDI to assist government in popularizing gender consciousness, as well as in promoting gender equality in policy formulation and implementation. Originally under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and then under the Ministry of Political Affairs, KWDI is now being coordinated by the Special Committee on Women's Affairs directly under the Office of the President (South Korea).
KWDI has three anchor programs, namely; the Research Center, the Lifelong Education Center, and the Women's Information Center. The Research Center carries out basic research and policy studies to promote gender consciousness in various fields of society and life as well as to formulate and implement policies that supports gender equality. The Lifelong Education Center provides gender consciousness education, women's leadership training, women's capacity development, and training of international experts. It also hosts international activities, and acts as a comprehensive assistance center for women's non-formal education. Last but not the least, the Women's Information Center produces and distributes information about the research and projects of the KWDI, as well as information about women's issues and concerns. It systematizes and computerizes various kinds of women's information through databases, and provides information service through its library, various publications, and its nation-wide electronic information network (South Korea). Therefore, women in South Korea have become very strong and determined without the help with men which only means they are growing more powerful every day.
In that case, women in most societies were denied some of the legal and political rights accorded to men. Although women in much of the world have gained significant legal rights, many people believe that women still do not have complete political, economic, and social equality with men. In South Korea, through AWORC, the KWDI hopes to share its resource and library holdings to women outside of South Korea, and to make resource and information generated by women's organizations and institutes accessible to the communities it serves. Throughout each countrywomen are becoming more self-made and the only people that they rely on themselves.