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Unrealistic Expectations on Children in Youth Sports and Early Burnout
Motivators for Participation in Sports
Effect of Unrealistic Expectations and Parental Pressure on the Sports Performance of the Children
eliability and Validity
ecommendation for Further esearch
This study aims at identifying the effect of unrealistic expectations of parents on burnout in youth sport. In order to identify these effects appropriately, this study will examine the perceptions of parents as well as their children in relation to the purpose of the involvement of their child in sports. In addition to that, it will also examine the perception of the children about the expectations of their parents in relation to their sport activities.
Apart from that, the expectations of parents will be identified and then the impact of these expectations on the performance of children in the sport activities will be evaluated. This study also will…
Boak, F.L. & Others (1999). Parent-child relationship, home learning environment, and school readiness. School Psychology Review, 28 (3).
Butcher, J., Lindner, K.J. & Johns, D.P. (2002). Withdrawal from competitive youth sport: a retrospective ten-year study. Journal of Sport Behavior, 25 (2).
Cumming, S.P. & Ewing, M.E. (2002). Parental involvement in youth sports: the good, the bad and the ugly. Spotlight on Youth Sports, 26 (1), pp. 1 -- 5.
Dubois, D.L., Eitel, S.K. & Felner, R.D. (1994). Effects of family environment and parent-child relationships on school adjustment during the transition to early adolescence. Journal of Marriage and the Family, pp. 405 -- 414.
But despite these strides, the negative as well as the positive legacy of sports in American culture cannot be ignored.
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). unning through Kenya. Slate.com. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
Johnson, Jenna. (2010). NCAA graduation rates. The Washington Post. etrieved September 20,
2010 at http://voices.washingtonpost.com/campus-overload/2010/03/another_ncaa_bracket_player_gr.html
Lehrer, Jonah. (2010, August 24). How to raise a superstar. Wired Science. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/08/how-to-raise-a-superstar/#ixzz107NwUSGh
Lovett, C. (1997). The fight to establish the women's Olympic marathon race. Olympic Marathon, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., Westport, CT. etrieved September 21,
2010 at http://www.marathonguide.com/history/olympicmarathons/chapter25.cfm
Williams, Kam. (2006). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves. AALBC.
etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://aalbc.com/reviews/forty_million_dollar_slaves.htm
Witt, Jon. (2006). The…
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutRE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). Running through Kenya. Slate.com. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). Review of William C. Rhoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
Sports have graduated in the last half of the twentieth century from hobbies or pastimes into the pure, unadulterated pursuit of profit. In short, shorts have become a commodity to be exploited as far as the market will allow. The history of American sports has seen this process play out in a stepwise fashion; every several years developments come about that enable the enterprise to expand and increase profits. The latest changes in business that have allowed sports to enlarge have been globalization and communications technologies. Clearly, these two go hand in hand to some extent. Still, both have contributed to the acceleration of the commodification of sports; they have aided its degeneration from a pastime, into the form we see today.
If you were to ask the average American what they thought was wrong with professional sports today they would likely tell you that the amount of money athletes…
1. Calhoun, K., & Gorman, J. (1994). The Name of the Game. New York, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
2. Cosell, H., & Whitfield, S. (1991). What's Wrong with Sports. New York, New York: Simon & Schuster.
3. Dallas Morning News. "Steroids Readily Available." Dallas Morning News, Sunday, Feb. 6, 2005.
4. Kahn, Lawrence M. (2000). "The Sports Business as a Labor Market Laboratory." The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 3, 75-94.
The Fun Principle stated that as "we take the fun out of physical activities, we take the kids out of them" (Martens, 1996, p. 306). Martens said that learning should be enjoyable and that when winning is pursued in the extreme, it produces behaviors that destroy children's self-worth and rob them of fun. However, adults frequently violate this principle by over organizing, constantly instructing and evaluating, over drilling and routinizing the learning of skills, replacing unstructured play with calisthenics, and using physical activity as a form of punishment. Martens noted that the irony in youth sports is that "we turn young people off of the very thing we want to turn them on to" (p. 309). If lifelong participation in physical activity is the goal, then the emphasis should shift from the outcome to the quality of experiences, according to Martens. (Brady, 2004, p. 48)
Differences in Youth Who Withdraw…
Apache, R.R.. "The behavioral assessment of parents and coaches at youth sports: validity and reliability." Physical Educator, September 22, 2006. Retrieved October 18, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-154459895.html www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002319178
Barber, H., Sukhi, H., & White, S.A. (1999). The Influence of Parent-Coaches on Participant Motivation and Competitive Anxiety in Youth Sport Participants. Journal of Sport Behavior, 22(2), 162. Retrieved October 18, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5002319178' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANICS OF THE STUDY:
The pimay independent vaiable o vaiables of the study ae intentional spot, nonintentional spot, and intentional leadeship. The pimay dependent vaiable(s) ae injuy, inceased anxiety, stess and bunout, alcohol and dug use. one elevant vaiable (RV) in the study was the lack of valid and eliable PYD outcome measues is also ecognized as a limitation within the spot psychology field. The pimay unit(s) of analysis ae youth spot pope stuctue; (c) suppotive elationships; (d) oppotunities to belong; (e) positive social noms. The pimay hypothesis showed that diffeences wee pesent acoss these thee contexts, wheeby intentionally stuctued pogams (spot and leadeship) scoed significantly highe on pogam quality fom both the eseaches' and youth's pespectives, as well as on PYD outcomes, than nonintentional stuctued spot pogams.
The pimay natue of the study is to examine the diffeences in pogam quality and positive developmental outcomes…
references are not current but they are cited used in the text.
Structured programs scored higher on program quality and positive youth development out- comes than nonintentionally structured programs, with intentional sport scoring significantly higher on some measures of program quality and positive youth development than leadership programs.
Given that people engage in sporting events for a wide range of reasons, the authors assert that it is time for athletes to develop a moral code that embraces higher standards of conduct that will help reverse these recent trends and once again provide American sports with a sense of fair play and respect.
Fredenburg, Karen, Rafer Lutz, Glenn Miller et al. (2005). "Dismissals and Perceptions of Pressure in Coaching in Texas High Schools: Similarities and Differences with Previous Studies Show the Contemporary Face of Coaching Pressure." JOPERD-- The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 76(1):29.
In this essay, the authors report that there have been a number of recent studies and reports that suggest that the pressure in high school sports is growing, rather than declining. The authors cite an article in Sports Illustrated that described the alarming trends of parental misbehavior at youth sport events. The president…
Motor Processes in Sport
Tom is an 18-year-old goalkeeper who recently moved up in class from youth to adult football. He was an early maturer and has a history of being more advanced in soccer than his peers but now a weakness is exposed. He never learned to kick with his left foot and this has been a problem at this level. The current paper discusses the proposed reasons for his difficulty and outlines a plan of intervention.
Understanding the Effects of Early Maturation as They Apply to Tom
The traditional view holds that early maturation in boys has more positive consequences for psychosocial adaptation than late maturation. The early literature by researchers like Mussen and Jones (1957) described early-maturing boys during late adolescence (17 -- 18 years) as having higher self-esteem and self-confidence, a more positive self-image, and as being more socially mature, which may have led to more…
Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory: Looking back and looking forward. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience 4 (10), 829 -- 839.
Banister, E.W. (1991). Modeling elite athletic performance. In H. Green, J. McDougall and H. Wenger (Eds.), Physiological testing of elite athletes (pp. 403 -- 424). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Brewer, J., Balsom, P.D., & Davis, J. (1995). Season birth distribution amongst European soccer players. Sports Exercise Injury, 1, 154-157.
Castaneda, B. & Gray, R. (2007). Effects of focus of attention on baseball batting performance in players of differing skill levels. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 29 (1), 60-77.
marketing plan a sports enterprise (e.g. professional, school, community program). You select a "real" enterprise a fictitious . You position manager develop a plan implement employees / contractors.
The modern day society is nowadays characterized by numerous challenges, one of the more notable of these being increasing health problems among the population. And these health problems are more severe not only as they attack more people, but especially since they come to impact younger and younger generations.
A large majority of the health problems of today are related to an inadequate nutrition, combined with a sedentary life style. The youth of the day for instance consume more and more calories from the highly processed foods and they exercise less, as the leisure activities come to be centered on video games or other sedentary activities (Smith and Biddle, 2008).
In such a setting then, the current project proposed the…
Armstrong, N., Van Mechelen, W., 2009, Pediatric exercise science and medicine, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press
Longenecker, J.G., Loeza, M.A.T., Small business management, Cengage Learning
Kaser, K., Oelkers, D.B., 2007, Sports and entertainment marketing, 3rd edition, Cengage Learning
Smith, A.L., Bibble, S., 2008, Youth physical activity and sedentary behavior: challenges and solutions, Human Kinetics
234). Culturally, trainers may simply be paying more attention to girls' injuries due to our culture's tendency to protect females more than males (Tierney, et al., 2005, p. 278) and/or boys may simply under-report concussions due to "macho" tendencies to play through pain in order to continue playing (Covassin, et al., 2012, p. 926). Hormones may contribute to the greater incidence of concussions among female high school athletes because researchers have found that estrogen protects male rats from brain trauma but actually makes female rats more vulnerable to brain trauma (Makdissi, et al., 2013, p. 319). Whether caused anatomically, culturally, hormonally or for some other reason, the fact remains that girls are reportedly highly more likely to sustain concussions in sports such as soccer and basketball. Consequently, gender matters in the sports injury of concussion.
Development of a masculine identity is psychologically fundamental for males and particularly for…
Allan, E.J., Gordon, S.P. & Iverson, S.V., Fall 2006. Re/thinking Practices of Power: The Discursive Framing of Leadership in the Chronicle of Higher Education. Review of Higher Education, 30(1), pp. 41-68.
Bourdieu, P., 1978. 'Sport and Social Class,' Social Science Information, 17(6): 819-840. [Online]
Available at: http://ssi.sagepub.com/content/17/6/819.ciatation [Accessed 21 May 2013].
Chesebro, J.W. & Fuse, K., Summer 2001. The Development of a Perceived Masculinity Scale. Communication Quarterly, 49(3), pp. 203-278.
Even the much despised soccer is popular amongst American youths. Yet Americans cheer on their favorite individual stars in all of these sports, especially if the starts engage in charity efforts to justify their bloated salaries. The tension remains about what good sports do for both the individual or society, and Americans today are clearly using sports as a means of practical self-improvement like the Greeks as well as a means of collective identification like the English: "in the 1950's or 1960's, few people exercised; baseline fitness-consciousness was just above zero. Today, 20% of the U.S. population works out on a regular basis, while an additional 60%+ can be classified as...'Consciousness III' -- those persuaded of physical fitness, but who by their own admission, don't get enough exercise. As behavior lags enlightened attitudes, 4 out of 5 adult Americans are true believers in exercise and fitness." But the protests remain…
Ancient Olympic Events," Peruses Digital Library Project, Edited by Gregory R.
Crane, 2007, Tufts University, 29 May 2007, http://www.perseus.tufts.edu .
Dillon, Sam. "Schools Cut Back Subjects to Push Reading and Math." The New York
Times. 25 Mar 2006. 29 May 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/26/education/26child.html?ex=1301029200en=0c91b5bd32dabe2aei=5088partner=rssnytemc=rss
Competitive sports participation opportunities for children continue to grow. Nowadays, children begin their regular sport participation between the ages of 4 to 8 years. Most children enjoy sports and show great enthusiasm for participation. However, the situation changes when young athletes get involved in the elite-level championships organized and directed by adults. Children's play becomes transformed from informal playground games to highly organized sporting events that mirror adult professional sports.
The effects of such intensive training and participation in elite-level competition on young athletes have been investigated. However, most of the research has been devoted to athletes above 10 years of age who are involved in individual sports. Little has been done to explore the impact of the elite-level competition on children under 10 years old participating in team sports.
Indeed, the idea that organized, supervised athletic competition benefits pre-pubertal children is very controversial. However, since more and…
AAP. "Organized Athletics for Preadolescent Children." Pediatrics 84, 1989:583-4.
Ad Hoc Committee on Sports and Children of the FIMS Education Commission. Sports and children. Position stand of the International Federation of Sports Medicine and World Health Organization on "Organized Sport for Children." Olympic Coach, Summer 1997: 6-8.
Backx, F. "Injuries in persons and high-risk sports; a longitudinal study of 1,818 school
Children." The American Journal of Sports Medicine 19, 1991:124-30.
Not unlike the wold of business, many eseaches and pundits have evaluated and looked at the wold of spots as a way to analyze whethe and how cetain coaching styles ae beneficial o non-beneficial in tems of the pefomance and outcomes of the team in question. Of couse, the question is a multi-faceted one and analyzing such a question in a contolled envionment can be difficult. Samples sizes and "apples to apples" compaisons can be difficult. Even so, thee ae many takeaways and points of analysis that can and should be undetaken so as to gauge the efficacy of a team if it is subjected to the suppotive-autonomy coaching ac as opposed to othe methods.
The subject of this epot is an analysis of whethe autonomy-suppotive coaching is o is not beneficial and effective in boosting pefomance of the athletes subjected to the method.…
references for male and female coaches. Women in Sport and Activity Journal,
Hodge, K., & Lonsdale, C. (2011). Pro-social and antisocial behavior in sport: The role of coaching style, autonomous vs. controlled motivation, and moral disengagement. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33(4), 527
Klomsten, A.T., Skaalvik, E.M., and Espnes, G.A. (2004). Physical self-concept and sports: Do gender differences still exist?. Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum
Publishers, 50(1-2), 119-127
According to Smoll and Smith, there are two basic attitudes toward competition; an ego attitude and a mastery attitude. Parents who have an ego attitude toward their own competition -that is, they compete to win and to be better than others - are especially likely to be competitive with other parents about their child's achievements. Essentially, the parent goes from being proud to being boastful.
These, then, are the four psychological factors that must be recognized as we try to understand the youth sports experience of families: the identification of the parent with the child, the tendency of parents to fantasize about their child's potential, the sense of youth sport as an investment, and competitiveness between parents. Combined, these factors drive many parents to push their child to excel, and to take action when they feel that their child's potential is being ignored or inhibited. The unfortunate result is children…
Smoll, F.L., & Smith, R.E. (2002) Children and Youth in Sport: a Biopsychosocial Perspective 2nd ed. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co.
(Why I Quit Hockey... Keep Your Priorities Straight)
The mark of success is often due to goals in a hockey match, but in practice other performances are equally important, and that should be realized the people who are encouraging the player. The supporters often want the player to carry out action on the field that the player cannot do due to his deficiencies in some areas, though that does not make him any less a player. The players often get encouragement from their non-tournament performance as then they can perform without tension and this improves their capacities as a player. The supporters keep advising the coaches about what they should or should not do, and often enough even the players knows that such an action will be wrong. The players are aware that their game is costing the guardians money, and to them it seems that the guardian is not…
Bach, Greg. Combating Violence in Youth Sports. Retrieved at http://www.lib.niu.edu/ipo/ip010927.html . Accessed on 14 July, 2005
Bayles, Fred; Sharp, Deborah. Parental behavior under scrutiny. USA Today. 13 January, 2002.
Retrieved at http://www.pysa.com/images/Parents%20Under%20Scrutiny.PDFAccessed on 12 July, 2005
Davis. Peter. Be the Coach you want to be. Retrieved at http://www.fieldhockeywest.org/articles/art6.htm. Accessed on 14 July, 2005
Building social skills and character in young children of all socioeconomic backgrounds, race and genders through junior golf programs.
Golf is a game of learned behavior and learned skills. When youths are taught golf, it enables the weaving of junior golf and character building activities into lessons that help prepare kids and teens to perform better in the real world. This is due in part to the core values instructors teach and develop in junior golfers that are incorporated throughout junior golf programs. Parents are encouraged to reinforce these behaviors through reflection and discussion, covering the topics and lessons learned in the program. Junior golf programs like The First Tee teaches participants integrity, teamwork, communication, and a handful of other valuable skills via hands-on activities and reflects Albert Bandura's social learning theory in that through observation or direct instruction can help children learn. (Thesis Statement)
Games that require…
Bean, E., Whitley, M., & Gould, D. (2014). Athlete Impressions of a Character-Based Sports Program for Underserved Youth. Journal Of Sport Behavior, 37(1), 3-23.
Messner, M. (2011). Gender Ideologies, Youth Sports, and the Production of Soft Essentialism.Sociology Of Sport Journal, 28, 151-170.
Psychology Today, (2016). Social Learning Theory -- Psychology Today. Psychologytoday.com. Retrieved 11 June 2016, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/basics/social-learning-theory
Rosenstock, I., Strecher, V., & Becker, M. (1988). Social Learning Theory and the Health Belief Model.Health Education & Behavior, 15(2), 175-183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019818801500203
D., What is Altitude Training section). The Website promoting products that Hypoxico Altitude Training Systems offers, reports that when a person is exposed to hypoxia, oxygen reduced environments, his/her body "struggles to produce required amounts of energy with less available oxygen. This struggle triggers the onset of a range of physiological adaptations geared towards enhancing the efficiency of the body's respiratory, cardiovascular and oxygen utilization systems" (Hypoxico Altitude Training, N.D., Why it Works section). In consideration of controversial perceptions regarding ethical conclusions relating to hypoxico, Lippi, Guides and Franchini stress that the "spirit of sport" needs to be developed to include the notion of ethics and authenticity. Lippi, Guides and Franchini, nevertheless, report that they do not entirely agree with the assumption that teleologically, no evidence suggests that more harm than good comes from these particular devices. They note that a universal ban on passive training regimens, such as hypoxic,…
Avans, D.E. (2007). Youth and ethical dilemmas in sport. Research Quarterly for Exercise
and Sport. American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.
Retrieved June 04, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1160166064.html
Bach, G. (2006). The Parents association for youth sports: A proactive method of spectator behavior management. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 77(6), 16+. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5017424445' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Personal Values in Sports
As with most dimensions of life, personal values and beliefs have a demonstrable effect on what is rendered in the form of behavior on the sports field of play and with the activities that surround the same. Beyond that, this paradigm is clear and visible irrespective of whether one is talking about the athletes, the coaches or even the parents of child (or sometimes college) athletes in some instances. This research report shall focus on the factors that most significantly engage and affect people when they are operating within the sports realm. The work of Donghun Lee (2011) will be a major focal point of this report but other sources will be looped in as well. While there are many factors and things that can influence somebody when it comes to sports, it is the free will and moral fortitude of an individual and the resolve…
Baby, B. (2016). Art Briles, Baylor officially part ways in wake of sexual assault scandal --
SportsDay. SportsDay. Retrieved 25 June 2016, from http://sportsday.dallasnews.com/college-sports/collegesports/2016/06/24/art-briles-baylor-officially-part-ways-wake-sexual-assault-scandal
Biography. (2016). Tim Duncan Biography. Biography.com. Retrieved 25 June 2016, from http://www.biography.com/people/tim-duncan-40996
CBS. (2016). The Penn State Scandal - CBS News. CBSNews.com. Retrieved 25 June 2016,
The identification of internal and external environment of the club may help us develop a clear strategy. Strategy basically is a plan of action designed to achieve a specific goal. Application of business strategy may be helpful here. The most common analysis that is used to develop a business strategy is SWOT analysis. SWOT means strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Strengths and weaknesses are positive features of an internal environment, while opportunities and threats are features of an external environment. For developing the strategy, it is also important that our club exercises honesty in facing both internal and external problems. We need to take a broad approach so that we do not ignore relevant issues or miss anything. We need to examine the past challenges and learn from the mistakes. We also need to seek opinions and the perceptions of other professional managers and coaches so that we use all…
business world, many strategies have been devised to gain and retain customers. Phenomena such as globalization, market saturation, and better information technology have driven strategies such as customer awareness and long-term customer relationships to be favored above relatively short-term strategies to gain new customers, such as product price and quality (Kinuthai et al., 2012, p. 223). Indeed, creating brand loyalty in order to retain customers in the long-term has played a key role in long-term business success. To accomplish this, brands such as those operating within sportswear have emphasized strategies to appeal to consumers responding to products at the individual level. As such, customer loyalty is a significant determinant in the amount of product being bought and the frequency of repeat purchases.
On the basis of this, the dissertation will aim to examine brand loyalty among the youth of a developing country (Kenya) as compared to the same phenomenon in…
Aspara, J. (2009). Stock ownership as a motivation of brand-loyal and brand-supportive behaviors. Journal of Consumer Marketing. 26(6). Pp. 427-436. Retrieved from: http://www.yconomie.com/aspara/articles/aspara-2009_stock_ownership_brand_loyal_behaviors.pdf
Ayuk, A. And Nyaseda, C. (2008, Spring). CFC Model. The Appropriateness of Celebrity Endorsement in Developing African Nations: A study of Cameroon and Kenya. IBA 8010. Retrieved from: iba8010kelly.alliant.wikispaces.net
Baker, M., Sterenberg, G., and Taylor, E. (n.d.) Managing Global Brands to Meet Consumer Expectations. Retrieved from: http://www.brsgroup.com/PDFs/Managing_Global_Brands.pdf
Haig, M. (2004). Brand Royalty: How the World's Top 100 Brands Thrive and Survive. London and Sterling VA: Kogan Page Ltd. Retrieved from: http://www.untag-smd.ac.id/files/Perpustakaan_Digital_1/BRAND%20NAME%20PRODUCTS%20Brand%20royalty%20%20how%20the%20world%92s%20top%20100%20brands%20thrive%20and%20survive.pdf
Anti-Jock, Cyber 'Movement'?
Brian ilson, in his article The Anti-Jock Movement: Reconsidering Youth Resistance, Masculinity, and Sport Culture in the Age of the Internet, uses new social movement theory to examine the nature of a cyber-community that has emerged in opposition to the so-called 'jock culture' endemic in American high schools. ilson divides his analysis of the 'anti-jock' youth resistance into two parts. The first part examines published research on youth resistance and then attempts to weave a cohesive argument by relying on new social movement theory to address the role internet-based social media might be playing. In the second part, ilson briefly reviews what is known about jock culture and applies his theory to the emergent anti-jock websites and webzines to see if new social movement theory is adequate to the task of describing this cyber-community. ilson's approach is therefore qualitative in nature and represents a case…
Wilson, Brian. "The "Anti-Jock" Movement: Reconsidering Youth Resistance, Masculinity, and Sport Culture in the Age of the Internet." Sociology of Sport Journal 19.2 (2002): 206-233.
sports apparel markets in the United States and Kenya. The aim is to make a comparison between these markets in terms of how the youth perceives branded products within these markets. My population focus will specifically be young people and business owners to determine the interaction of these populations for the marketing of branded sportswear.
With this in mind the research purpose of the paper will be first to determine the attitudes of young people in the respective countries of investigation towards branded sportswear. This will include whether and why they would prefer to buy branded products as opposed to non-branded ones. Also, the popularity of existing brands will be determined, also in a comparative way, determine which is most popular among young people. In terms of this, the size of each market will be determined.
The practical purposes that will follow include recommending ways in which businesses can develop…
Schram, T.H. (2006) - Chapters 1, 2
Trochim, W.M.K., & Donnelly, J. (2006) - Chapters 1, Sections 1-1f, Chapter 6
According to Paddock, "The American Psychological Association (APA suggests that the proliferation of sexual images of girls and young women in the media is harming their self-image and development." The APA found that these images often arrest healthy development in a variety of areas, including self-esteem, which can cause a woman to display anxiety and shame. The article specifically mentions Christina's advertisements as examples of a negative portrayal of women (Paddock). Thus, the images portray women incorrectly in two ways. First of all, they portray women in a style of beauty that is not common, encouraging these women to believe that the advertised type of beauty is the only type of beauty. In response, some young girls are liable to have low self-esteem, in addition to spending a great amount of money on beauty products that they don't need. In short, the advertisements suggest that only one type of beauty…
Beauty and Body Image in the Media." 2008. Media Awareness Network. 20 October 2008. Media Awareness Network. http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/issues/stereotyping/women_and_girls/women_beauty.cfm
Kid, Shibuya. "More Sizzling Christina Aguilera Ads on the Way! Sketchers Campaign
Shows Off Sexed-Up Xtina." 30 July 2004. AIR Massive. 20 October 2008. Air
Aspara, J. (2009). Stock ownership as a motivation of brand-loyal and brand-supportive behaviors. Journal of Consumer Marketing. 26(6). Pp. 427-436. Retrieved from: http://www.yconomie.com/aspara/articles/aspara-2009_stock_ownership_brand_loyal_behaviors.pdf
In this work, Aspara investigates the psychological motivations underlying stock ownership and its influence on brand loyalty as well as finding empirical evidence to support the explication of these motivations. The author points out that, although consumption and investment psychologies, respectively, have been seen as separate realms, the study reveals that they can have a significant mutual influence. Indeed, the author has found that many individuals who become stockowners in a company also experience a positive and increased motivation towards brand loyalty for that company. Positive word-of-mouth has also been found among individuals becoming stock owners in a company.
What this means for the study to be conducted on brand loyalty among the youth in the United States and Kenya may not be considered in terms of…
ports and popular culture (NFL/NBA)
Popular culture entails all forms of mass communication such as:
Books and Cartoons and comics
It is somewhat different compared to higher forms of cultural art such as:
In terms of mass communication, popular culture means messages which are intellectually and artistically limited primarily designed to entertain and humor the viewers (Hollander, 2014). Following the industrial revolution, the people had a lot of time to spare which led to a huge demand for entertainment and amusement and gave height to media. The increasing supply of goods also made it necessary for the advertisers to attract the consumers and mass media could reach a large number of audiences at the same time (Hollander, 2014).
The physical activities have always been in the life of human beings in the form of different leisure…
Sports have played a huge role in the American society on the whole as they have become a necessary part of the popular culture. American football is quite a popular game which brings NFL (National Football League) in limelight. NFL is same to same as other sports have an off season too when they are on a season break. Leagues such as NBA (National Basketball Association), MLB (Major League Baseball) and NHL (National Hockey League) follow the same pattern which builds the hype for them (Lee, 2012). It enables the public to forget all about sports for a while until it swings back in action again. The off season usually consists of training sessions, gym, trading players, NFL Combine and NFL Draft. These activities are heavily kept watch of by loyal fans followed by intense discussions (House, 2012).
Super Bowl is intensely popular in United States. Even the non-followers are somehow influenced by it as they hear news about it or by viewing it. The news channels mention regularly and social media is definitely on fire with news and updates. A famous band plays during halftime while a draw exists for watching the advertisements during the game and halftime (Lee, 2012). Companies are compelled to dish out loads of cash to display advertise themselves as the Super Bowl progresses. These ads are usually creative and funny and sometimes mixed. People for the sake of fun choose a particular team and cheer it till the end or otherwise friends pick a team and contend that it will win the title. It's sort of a public gathering event where food is enjoyed and drinks are taken in huge quantities. Tostitos and Doritos are chips found mostly at super Bowl parties while in case of drinks Coke, Pepsi and Budweiser. For the sports fans, it's their day off as they spend the entire day in front of a TV or mocking the opponent's team for fun. TV shows often give reference to Super Bowl just as Christmas and Halloween. Betting on a high level is also involved for the winning team, people are cut some slack from office, schools and colleges as it's the biggest event of the year (Hollander, 2014).
In 'Popular culture and the rituals of American Football' by Mark Axelrod, several cultural practices in America regarding football are mentioned. Before the ports went global, there were a lot of rituals and myths
Sociologists base their studies of youth subcultures on structured and unstructured interviews, participant observation and analysis of media, texts and music. Unlike similar studies in the 1950s and 1960s, such as Albert Cohen's Delinquent Boys (1955) that described post-World War II youth cultures as a relatively new and unknown phenomenon, more recent research over the past thirty years has been heavily based on feminist and postmodernist theories. These place special emphasis on the diversity and multiplicity within each subculture, while trying to avoid the stereotypes that commonly appear in the mass media. This new type of sociology also appears to me more journalistic than objective, scientific or value free, rejecting the principles and pretensions of Talcott Parsons and his generation of postwar sociologists. Of course, any type of sociology should still consider questions of ethnicity, social class, immigration, poverty, inequality and violence, although the funding to investigate these…
Wilson, B. (2006). Fight, Flight, or Chill: Subcultures, Youth and Rave into the Twenty-First Century. McGill-Queen's University Press.
Wood, R.T. (2006). Straightedge Youth: Complexity and Contradictions of a Subculture. Syracuse University Press.
There is no significant relationship between having a higher perception of a sport as elite and having a lower willingness to participate.
Here the key concerns will consist of social and cultural perceptions of a sport and how these impact on willingness to try the sport.
Summary. The committee believes that in order to successfully offer archery and fencing as sports in the community program, these level-of-difficulty and social-psychological concerns about the two possible sport offerings must be understood. Obviously, the study of each research question above will inform the other, as both archery and fencing have had similar prestige perceptions in the general public for decades (See for example, Crawford, 1977; and Riess, 1980). As Jones and Gratton (2004) point out, research in sports science constitutes a systematic consideration of a problem as it relates to a situational need for information. In order to study the way potential…
Bowker, A. (2006). "The relationship between sports participation and self-esteem during early adolescence." Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science. 38(3) (July): 214-229.
Crawford, S. (1977). Occupational prestige rankings and the New Zealand Olympic athlete." International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 12 (1): 5-16
Reiss, S. (1980). "Sport and the American Dream," Journal of Social History 14 (2): 295-303
sports leadership. The writer explores what it takes to be an effective leader in the world of sports. Terms are defined and literature is examined to present the most important characteristics in the role of coach. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
Sports can be the foundation for building a successful life. Whether the participant plays childhood league sports, school sports, or goes on to become a professional player the skills and traits that are developed during that time help shape the total person. Because of the important impact that sports can have on a person's total development the way a team is handled becomes a key factor in the sports industry. Most people who have had children participate in sports leagues have either experienced or witnessed both good coaches and bad coaches. On the school level teams coaches quickly develop reputations based on how they lead…
Planning a Preseason Team Meeting
Leadership: what does it take? (Special Feature: Leadership Training).
NZ Business; July 1, 2002; Baker, Glenn
The sports center at the newly opened high school has to employ at least the following:
Two coaches, preferably one male and one female, each to manage the same gender teams. This measure is to be implemented in order to reduce the chances of immoral conduct on school premises, but no discriminations would be committed during the selection and hiring processes.
One medic is required to be easily reachable and assist sports injuries or otherwise medical necessities. Hiring a new medical professional would be redundant and meaningless, coming as such to a conclusion that the already hired school medic would also assist the medical needs of the sports center.
One counselor. Similar to the school medic, it could initially be stated that the role of sports counselor would be played by the already hired school counselor. However, such a solution is not the most viable one in the…
Conrad, M., 2006, the business of sports: a primer for journalists, Routledge
Delaney, T., Madigan, T., 2009, the sociology of sports: an introduction, McFarland
Mac, B., 2010, Code of ethics and conduct for sports coaches, BrainMac, http://www.brianmac.co.uk/ethics.htm last accessed on July 6, 2010
2010, Sports and exercise safety, Kids Health, http://kidshealth.org/teen/safety/safebasics/sport_safety.html# last accessed on July 6, 2010
There can be national championships that have been organized between the teams that won in respective teams in a particular area. These teams in that particular area can be maybe football teams of universities in a particular region of a country. These teams then face each other at national football championship event.
This include events that have been put in place or specifically organized within individuals, groups or teams with a common interest in a particular sport .this include a wide range of clubs that are competitive. This clubs travel and play in competitions that are of high level. This can also involve instructional clubs that are involved in organizing activities such as tournaments that are in-house or instruction of basic skills. Examples of club sports include a youth club that plays soccer, a swimming club, a basketball club and many more clubs that are popular within the…
Ross, C. (2004). Recreational Sports Management: R324 Grad Proficiency Exam Study Guide. Indiana University. Retrieved September 25, 2012 from http://www.indiana.edu/~sportmgt/sport_mgmt/r324.html
Ellyn, S. (2012). Tennis Rules and Skills | LIVESTRONG.COM. LIVESTRONG.COM - Lose Weight & Get Fit with Diet, Nutrition & Fitness Tools | LIVESTRONG.COM. Retrieved September 25, 2012 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/136110-tennis-rules-skills
strong athletic program keeps former students loyal and draws new, more qualified students into the applicant pool.
t present, I am employed in the aviation industry. I obtained a M.S. In viation Safety at the end of 2006 with a 4.0 GP and have since continued my education, maintaining a 4.0 GP through an online master's program at Delta State University in the field of Commercial viation. My success is testimony to the fact that I believe wholeheartedly in the need to pair athletic and academic success in tandem. I was originally drawn to aviation because of the discipline and teamwork I had seen exhibited in the field, but I have begun to realize that I wish to channel my passions into something even more meaningful, that of creating athletic programs that foster positive values in young people.
I believe that my combination of management, business, and marketing skills, can…
At present, I am employed in the aviation industry. I obtained a M.S. In Aviation Safety at the end of 2006 with a 4.0 GPA and have since continued my education, maintaining a 4.0 GPA through an online master's program at Delta State University in the field of Commercial Aviation. My success is testimony to the fact that I believe wholeheartedly in the need to pair athletic and academic success in tandem. I was originally drawn to aviation because of the discipline and teamwork I had seen exhibited in the field, but I have begun to realize that I wish to channel my passions into something even more meaningful, that of creating athletic programs that foster positive values in young people.
I believe that my combination of management, business, and marketing skills, can create a program with a high graduation rate and attract athletes with high levels of physical ability and personal character. Ideally, I would like to improve all athletic programs, not simply high-attendance like football and basketball, although these sports are my first love. I would also like to contribute to the development of underrepresented college sports, to enable as many students to participate in competitive intercollegiate athletics as possible.
I seek this degree to give me the necessary technical skills to put my enthusiasm and innate abilities into action, as well as to gain further knowledge of the field of intercollegiate athletics administration. I am confident that this program at the University of Oklahoma, a university with such a proud and patriotic athletic tradition is the ideal place, with the ideal atmosphere, to learn what I need to know in order to be successful in my chosen, future career.
Their activities and support of the foundation; enable the league to demonstrate a higher purpose which is of greater social value. (Ferriter)
In the majority of cases, the NFL is using the various high profile marketing events to illustrate the importance of sports in promoting various charity related events. The Super Bowl is the biggest event with it using the game as an avenue to help the community which is hosting it. At the same time, it is an avenue for helping to promote social responsibility. Evidence of this can be seen with Babiak & olfe (2006) saying, "The NFL is becoming progressively more invested in corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in an effort to establish itself as a socially conscious organization, one based on the twin pillars of football and the community. As the proverbial jewel in the NFL's crown, the Super Bowl is an institution composed of many…
"Community." NFL Foundation, 2014. Web. 22 Apr. 2014.
"Kirk Cousins of Washington Redskins Says He'd 'Welcome' Gay Teammate: 'Nobody's Perfect." Huffington Post, 2014. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.
"NFL Foundation Kicks Off Summer With Nearly $700,000 in Grants to Youth Football Camps." NFL Communications, 2013. Web. 22 Apr. 2012
Babiak, Kathy and Wolfe, Richard. "More than Just a Game? Corporate Social Responsibility and Super Bowl XL." Sport Marketing Quarterly. 15.4 (2006): 214-222. Print.
Viability of Community Sports Programs
There has been raging debate on whether or not sports projects are wise municipal investments. Experts have raised concern that although such programs may appear very attractive at face value, they end up delivering very little returns in the long-term owing to the incremental nature of the associated hidden costs. This has prompted researchers to shift from studying the benefits of community sport projects as tools of investment to analyzing how the benefits of such investment compare with the costs. The research questions below have been derived from multiple studies seeking to establish the economic impact of community sporting programs on the overall economy by comparing the real costs and benefits of the same.
Q1: Do sporting projects help in tackling the problem of youth crimes?
In this case, we can define sports projects, the independent variable, in terms of the proportion of the budget…
Black, K. (2011). Business Statistics: For Contemporary Decision-Making (7th ed.). Danvers, MA: John Wiley & Sons.
Huck, S.W. (2012). Reading Statistics and Research (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson
Johnson, R. & Kuby, P. (2011). STAT 2. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning
African-American Fixation and Modern Superiority in Sports
Sports are significant in many ways to any individual of the society and their values can notarize any political ideology. Sports have often been considered as a missionary tool of liberation, as anti-hegemonic. Fascists, communists, liberal marketers and filibusters have always revered sports. Even political group of dissidents has also vituperated sports, paradoxically. Sports have marked itself as the most powerful form of human expression during all of man's time. Sadly, sports fail to serve the United States ideology in any ways people decided to define democratic values during this, the American Century, when we became the most powerful purveyors of sports in all history (Gerald Early, Performance And Reality Race, Sports and the Modern orld).
Race does not comprise of a system consisting of the privileged or discredited abilities. It is rather an entirety of clashing rumination of what it means to…
Gerald E. 17 Aug. 1998. Performance And Reality Race, Sports and the Modern World.
The Nation, Sports: A View From Left To Right.
The African-American Sports Fixation. Available on the address http://istsocrates.berkeley.edu/~africam/sportsfix.pdf. Accessed on 14 Mar. 2003.
Black Children Still Victimized By Savage Inequalities. Available on the address http://www.blackcommentator.com/13_education.html . Accessed on 14 Mar. 2003.
Timothy, and Brown, Sandra A. (2006). Adolescent Self-Selection of Service Formats:
Implications for Secondary Interventions Targeting Alcohol Use. The American Journal on Addictions, ol. 15, 58-66.
The authors employed three formats of intervention (individual, group, and website) on youth in four schools over a four-year window of time. The results of this survey (which involved "Project Options") of 1,147 students is that minority teens who willingly sought alcohol services preferred to receive interventions in a private context rather than in group therapy.
Gil, Andres G., Wagner, Eric F., and Tubman, Jonathan G. (2004). Culturally sensitive substance abuse intervention for Hispanic and African-American adolescents: empirical examples from the Alcohol Treatment Targeting Adolescents in Need (ATTAIN) Project. Addiction,
This article offers a strategy that (in this case) significantly reduced use of marijuana and alcohol in all ethnic groups involved in the project. Some 213 juvenile offenders participated in…
Von Wormer, Katherine, and McKinney, Robin. (2003). What Schools Can do To Help Gay/
Lesbian/Bisexual Youth: A Harm Reduction Approach. Adolescence, 38(151), 409-420.
Von Wormer asserts through this article that because adjusting to heterosexual environment in public schools -- and dealing with the bias that often is in evidence -- is difficult, it is a "major cause of psychological problems" which leads these minorities to alcohol and drug abuse issues.
Leadership Training for Youth
Allen, S.J. (2007, Spring). Adult learning theory & leadership development," Kravis Leadership Institute, Leadership Review, 7, 26-37.
The authors explore the relationship between leadership development and adult learning theory, specifically behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and social learning theory. Leadership is studied within learning theories framework.
Charbonneau, D., Barling, J, and Kelloway, E.K. (2001). Transformational leadership and sports performance: The mediating role of intrinsic motivation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31(7), 1521-1534.
The authors sought to test a model of transformational leadership with regard to its indirect effect on sports performance through the mediating effects of the athlete's intrinsic motivation. University athletes rated the transformational leadership of their coaches and their own intrinsic motivation, while the coaches assesses the athletes' performance. Kelloway's mediator tests (1996, 1998) were used to model the relationships. Intrinsic motivation was found to be a mediator of transformational leadership and sports performance,…
Alcohol and Youth
According to the Center on Marketing and Youth (CAMY), states are not doing very much in terms of keeping adolescents and other youth from being over-exposed to alcohol-related advertisements on television. The liquor and beer companies are clearly interested in getting young people started with their particular brand, and through television commercials those companies make beer and liquor seem very "cool" to impressionable young people. This paper reviews and critiques the literature on youth and alcohol-related advertising on television -- including peer-reviewed scholarship from several sources.
Youth Exposure to Alcohol Advertising
The Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth -- a component of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health -- reports that the amount of advertising on television that specifically targets youth rose by 38% between 2001 and 2007. About one in five alcohol advertisements was placed on programs that attracts young people ages 12 to…
Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth. (2008). Youth Exposure to Alcohol Advertising on Television, 2001-2007. Retrieved March 17, 2013, from http://www.camy.org .
Jernigan, David H. (2010). The extent of global alcohol marketing and its impact on youth.
Contemporary Drug Problems, 37(1), 57-89.
Siegel, Michael, King, Charles, Ostroff, Joshua, Ross, Craig, Dixon, Karen, and Jernigan, David
Chief Executive of the Arsenal football team:
Re: Three key drivers of change and strengths and weaknesses
One key driver of change for the Arsenal football team is the sustained demand and interest in the sport of football. Interest in football has expanded given the increased media attention given to the sport, particularly after the recent World Cub. Interest in the game remains strong and sustained, and Arsenal's uniquely ritish character ensures a loyal fan base. ut this sustained interest should not be taken for granted. Given the recent global recession and growing uncertainty about the future of Europe, many fans may be forced to cut back upon their expenditures for games and other forms of team paraphernalia.
Also, there are a growing array of diversions from football, as young people in the future may be drawn away from supporting football and instead focus their energies upon other pursuits, including…
Arsenal Pamphlet. 2012. Class project.
Football hooliganism. 2012. Social Institute Research Center (SIRC). Available:
http://www.sirc.org/publik/fvexec.html [29 April 2012]
Peel, Nick. 2012. Arsenal PowerPoint.
In his preparation for a career in sports, an unethical coach or teammate may present the boy with steroids to enhance his physical performance, with the claim that Rodriguez advocates the use of such substances.
Furthermore, Rodriguez's apparent lack of remorse and his adherence to the claim that he was "young and stupid" creates a poor image for both the sport, its stars, and its followers. It furthermore indicates that being young precludes a person from making wise choices, and that only a maturity in years could bring the wisdom necessary to say no to performance-enhancing drugs.
This also has an effect upon parenting, and the ability of parents to influence children for their best benefit. tars such as Rodriguez indirectly promote drugs by means of their behavior. Jeopardizing good parenting in this way also influences the stability of the family and hence of society as a whole. It is…
Inman, Cam. (2009, Feb 17). Candid Cam: A*Rod, steroids and "My Cousin Vinny." http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=1646806551&SrchMo de=1&sid=21&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1236294835 & clientId=29440
Schneider, Angela J. (2007) Doping in Sport: Global Ethical Issues. Routledge.
Cultural Observation Project
Location of Observation: Shopping mall
Youth 201-Section # Observation:
Write at least two full pages of an observation response as to what you saw from your first field assignment experience. Use the first field assignment suggestions as some suggestive points to this response. This is more of an analytical "objective" observation (from the head).
The shopping mall site that I selected meets the criteria of a secular well-attended local teenage (ages 12 -- 18) "hot spot" because it contains attractions that are designed to draw young people to mall and keep them engaged in activities at the mall for relatively long periods of time. Like many shopping malls today, the site I chose rubs shoulders with a movie complex. Teenagers congregate on the "apron" just outside the theater before and after seeing movies. And from the movie theater, the teenagers walk into the mall to investigate other…
Young People Misuse Substances
The misuse of substances involves more than just taking illegal drugs. Youth can also get involved with prescription drugs (either theirs or someone else's), or they can focus on alcohol or other ways in which they can get high (Alexander, Kruszewski, & Webster, 2012). There are reasons why they do this, of course, but those reasons are often highly varied depending on the youth in question. A number of young people misuse substances because of peer pressure (Ksir & ay, 2002). They meet other young people who are into that particular lifestyle, and they want to be liked, accepted, and appreciated. Because they want those things, they turn to abusing or misusing substances, as well. That gets them accepted by their peers, but shunned by other youth who do not abuse substances. It can also get them failing grades, disease, and an early death, if they…
Alexander, G.C., Kruszewski, S.P., Webster, D.W. (2012). Rethinking Opioid Prescribing to Protect Patient Safety and Public Health" JAMA: 308: 1865-1866.
Ksir, O., Ray, C. (2002). Drugs, society, and human behavior (9th ed. ed.). Boston [u.a.]: McGraw-Hill.
Lowinson, J.H, Ruiz, P. (2005). Substance abuse: A comprehensive textbook (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Nutt, D., King, L.A., Saulsbury, W., Blakemore, C. (2007). Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse. The Lancet, 369(9566): 1047 -- 1053.
Co-Occurrence of Substance Use-Behaviors in Youth
Co-occurrence of Substance Use Behaviors in Youth
Author Biographies: Biographical information of the authors is not made available in the research bulletin. A search online indicates that Carl McCurley shares a passion for analyzing and improving outcomes for court-involved children, youth and families that he was able to apply in the Models for Change program at the National Center for Juvenile Justice. McCurley, Director Administrative Office of the Courts/Washington State Center for Court esearch (WSCC). McCurley joined the Administrative Office of the Courts in 2007As the newly hired WSCC director, he sought to broaden the Center's work, expanding beyond the customary focus of court operations to analyze the courts' impact on the lives of those they served.
Howard N. Snyder is considered to be the foremost expert on juvenile justice data, policy, and is now employed by the Bureau of Justice Statistics,…
Malgarini, M. (2005, November). Efficient sample design and weighting methodologies: Analysis of key issues and recommendations. [Paper presented at the Joint European Commission - OECD Workshop on International Development of Business and Consumer Tendency Surveys in Brussels on November 14 -- 15, 2005, for the Task Force on Harmonisation of Survey Operation and Technical Design}. Retrieved http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/12/37/35493506.pdf
Monitoring the Future. Retrieved http://monitoringthefuture.org/purpose.html
In terms of the mental development, video game offers negative effects to the brain activities. To reiterate, video gaming, if not dealt properly, is addictive. As the teens play this game for a number of hours, growing to days and even months, they will be tempted to skip school classes or reviewing times at home. The teens' minds will always be glued to how they can perform bettering the video game, and not on the school. They will soon forget their responsibility in school, in a way that they will opt to play the games instead of doing their home works.
Psycho-social aspect of the teens can also be negative affected by video gaming. It should be noted that video games can be played by single person and can be done inside the four corners of the room. If the teen has become so addicted to playing video games, he/she…
Schutte NS, Malouff JM, Post-Gorden JC, Rodasta AL. (1988). Effects of playing video games on children's aggressive and other behaviors. J Appl Soc Psychol. 18(5):454-460.
Valencia, R.(2002). The plight of Chicano students: An overview of schooling conditions and outcomes. In Valencia, R. (2002) (Eds.) Chicano school failure and success: Research and policy agenda for the 1990s. New York: The Routledge/Falmer Press.
perceptions of the youth regarding branded sportswear in a developed and developing country. Specifically, the countries to be investigated will include the United States and Kenya. To make such a comparative investigation, a significant amount of qualitative data will have to be collected and analyzed. According to Shank (p. 140), this is one of the most important components of study, since data tends to be the foundation of research findings. Hence the quality of the data will necessarily also dictate the quality of the findings and the usefulness of the study for interested parties in the future. Specifically, the study can have implications for marketing professionals within sportswear companies, as well as for those who used on a freelance basis by sportswear companies in either country. Further implications could be important for sportwear manufacturers and sellers who attempt to make an entry from either Keny or the United States to…
..Medical research also proves that recreation and physical, activity can enhance the learning process.... Furthermore recreational activities are recognized as ways of developing a childs social, decision-making, and problem solving skills.
Effects Of Parks And Recreation Services On Human Development And Other enefits) related factor is that leadership qualities are positively influenced by recreational activities and sports. Participating in sport allows the child to develop and learn leadership abilities in a relaxed and informal way. Psychologists point out that play and recreation are the very foundations of a child's natural development. However this aspect is also dependent on the factors such as the organization of leisure time and the facilities and equipment that are available. In this regard the planning of recreation areas is an extremely important aspect.
Recreational faculties have to be carefully planned with regards to their situation and to ensure that they are accessible to children. If…
Bell, Simon. Design for Outdoor Recreation. London: Spon Press, 1997.
Effects Of Parks And Recreation Services On Human Development And Other benefits. October 10, 2005. ( http://www.cityofsacramento.org/parksandrecreation/ppdd/benefits-effects.htm )
Nash, Jay B. Philosophy of Recreation and Leisure. St. Louis, MO C.V. Mosby, 1953.
Wetzstein, C. America's Quiet Epidemic. Insight on the News, 1998. 14, 41.
Accordingly "the Hitler Youth movement emphasized activism, physical training, NAZI ideology, especially nationalism and racial concepts, and absolute obedience to Hitler and the NAZI Party. Indoctrinating children in National Socialist ideology was a key goal of the NAZI Party. Once Hitler assumed control over the German state, he used the Government to make the Hitler Youth the country's all encompassing youth movement" (HBU1, 1) The racial elements of the Hitler Youth indoctrination were also of critical importance to the Nazi movement as these propelled the aggressive social isolation and abuse of groups such as Jews, gypsies and homosexuals. The Hitler Youth would gain a sense of pride in the propaganda designed to project them as the future leaders of Germany. Essentially granted the right to defy those of any age who differed with the party's values, the Hitler Youth would be primed for a distinct level of enthusiasm based on…
Associated Press (AP). (2005). New Pope Defied Nazis As Teen During WWII. The New York Times. Online at http://bc.edu/research/cjl/meta-elements/texts/cjrelations/topics/new_pope_defied_nazis.htm
The History Place (HP). (1999). The History Place: Hitler Youth. Historyplace.com.
Historical Boys' Uniform (HBU). (1998). German Boys Scouts/Pfadfinderen. Historical Boys' Clothing. Online at http://histclo.com/Youth/youth/org/sco/country/ger/scoutger.ht
Historical Boys' Uniform (HBU1). (1998). Hitler Youth. Historical Boys' Clothing. Online at http://histclo.com/Youth/youth/org/nat/hitler/hitler.htm
All legal stipulations in regard to the usage of licensed and branded merchandise would be respected.
It is initially expected that the aerobics class would sell subscriptions to 1,500 customers. This high volume of sales would be due to promotional offers which promote the aerobics class at lower retail prices. As the promotions expire however, a small decline in the number of sales is expected. The company is however confident that it will manage to sell an estimated 1,300 products following the expiry of the promotions and that it will be able to sustain this level. Additionally, organizational improvements in the product offer and new marketing campaigns would also be implemented and they would attract new customers and as such generate more sales.
Three sponsorships contracts are to be signed -- they have already been negotiated and they would be completed as the project is launched.…
Beech, J., Chadwich, S., 2007, The marketing of sport, Pearson Education
Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., 2010, Principles of marketing, 13th edition, Pearson Education
Luther, W.M., 2001, The marketing plan: how to prepare and implement it, 3rd edition, AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn
Mills, G., 2002, Retail pricing strategies and market power, Melbourne Univ. Publishing Schlossberg, H., 1996, Sports marketing, Wiley-Blackwell
leadership training and experiences for youth. The research methodology was carefully drafted and developed as the best means for exploring this concept. A mixed methods, non-experimental, correlational study will be conducted to examine how problem solving, communication, and the building of self-esteem, contributes to early leadership training and development for youth in rural and inner city communities. While few research methodologies are perfect, this one has a tremendous amount of inherent strengths. One of the benefits of using a more mixed methods approach is that it will allow the researchers to gather data about this issue in a more comprehensive manner. Using both quantitative and qualitative approaches empowers the researchers to gather a wider net of data and to be able to process it from a larger variety of perspectives.
If anything, the wealth of previous literature supports this exact methodology for this particular subject matter. The study, "Personality and…
Boyd, B. (2001). Bringing Leadership Experiences to Inner-City Youth. Journal of Extension.
De Lisle, J. (2011). The Benefits and Challenges of Mixing Methods. Caribbean Curriculum, 87-120.
Ipregroup.com. (2013). Advantages of mixed methods in impact evaluation. Retrieved from ipregroup.com: http://ipregroup.com/2013/04/advantages-of-mixed-methods-in-impact-evaluation/
Judge, T. (2002). Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 765 -- 780.
Singaporean Youth and No Sense of Belonging
With the entrance of foreigners, Singaporean youth claims to have lost their sense of belonging and ownership in Singapore, this was reported by a 23-year-old student at one convention when the guest speaker was saying something quite the opposite. The Singaporean youth doesn't know "what it is defending anymore" since the influx of foreigners in the country has caused fragmentation of nationalistic spirit. There is no single identity attached to being a Singaporean and hence the youth doesn't have the same sense of ownership that it once enjoyed because it no longer believes that Singapore belongs to any single national identity. What the youth is now experiencing is something that has long been felt in the political circles and argued in political discourse i.e. lack of sense of belonging and increased alienation.
It must be understood that the problem goes back to the…
Kluver, R. & Weber I. Patriotism and the Limits of Globalization: Renegotiating Citizenship in Singapore. Journal of Communication Inquiry 27:4 (October 2003): 371-388
Te profiled organization is Yout LifeLine America, ttp://www.youtlifelineamerica.com. Te organization is a not-for-profit 501 c3 tax-exempt status and domiciled in O'Fallon Missouri, United States. Yout LifeLine America (YLA) operates in multiple cities trougout America providing services targeted to te adolescent. Specifically, YLA coordinate efforts to influence yout via suc mediums as te arts, entertainment, sports and celebrities, to teac ways to be productive and encourage a mindset of sustained development.
YLA is a small business employing below ten employees. Te Founder & CEO is Roland Williams, Director of Development & Programs is Cedric Cobb, Katryn Vasconcellos is Event Guru, and Angela Castelli is Vice President of Operations. According to Angela Castelli, YLA as a very targeted approac to assisting te yout population.
"Tis organization as identified te gaps tat exist in our yout's culture today, educates and empowers tem to develop te skills tat allow tem to reac…
Dismal Ethics. Economist; 1/8/2011, Vol. 398 Issue 8715, p76-76, 1p, 1 Color Photograph
Thomson, G.S. 2010, "Taxonomy of Business Ethics Theories," SSRN Working Paper Series,, pp. n/a.
Community Recreation Centers & Sports
hat are the benefits for a community when sports on a recreational level are offered? How does a community benefit from having a community recreation center? These issues are reviewed in this paper.
Reasons why a recreation center would benefit a community
An example of a community that is seeking to put together the resources for a community center is in Port Orchard, England. According to a story in the Port Orchard Independent, Port Orchard did not have a recreation center in 2008, but there were numerous community sports being played in various venues. In order to have a place for youth and adults to meet and enjoy sports together, the community was hoping that a $16 million 20-year bond issue would provide that space for those sports.
The recreational sports that would be available in a future recreation center would be: indoor basketball courts;…
California State Parks. (2005). The Health and Social Benefits of Recreation / An Element of The California Outdoor Recreation Planning Program. Retrieved October 2, 2012, from http://www.parks.ca.gov/planning .
Morton, J. (2008). 21 Reasons why a recreation center would benefit community. Port Orchard
Independent. Retrieved October 2, 2012, from http://portorchardindependent.com .
This aspect is greatly leveraged upon by Sport2Sport as different target populations share their experiences on company's Facebook page. There is also an aspect of quick customer response having the potential of going viral over the internet. This makes companies such as Sport2Sport to focus on customer satisfaction and prompt response. Although it may seem untraditional not to focus on traditional advertising and marketing mediums, the paradigm shift in approach to marketing and advertisement has led this agency to effectively spend their marketing budget on online campaigns and maintenance of web-presence.
IV- Organizational structure
Better Business Bureau (BBB) has reported that Sport2Sport is a limited liability company (LLC) with its current rating at A-. The highest possible rating that an agency can get with BBB is A+ (BBB Business eview, 2013). The length of time that the firm is in business is the only potentially negative factor reported by the…
Annual Report. (2013). Sport2Sport Limited Liability Company Annual Report. DEPARTMNET of the SECRETARY of STATE, North Carolina NC. Retrieved from: [ http://www.secretary.state.nc.us/soskb.web.mvc/search/Filings/9433134 ]
BBB Business Review. (2013). Better Business Bureau: Business Review Sport2Sport LLC. Retrieved from: [ http://www.bbb.org/raleigh-durham/business-reviews/sports-and-recreation/sport2sport-in-cary-nc-90205195 ]
CNN Money. (2012). Best Places to Live. Retrieved from: http://money.cnn.com/magazines/moneymag/best-places/2012/snapshots/PL3710740.html
Facebook.com/CarySport2Sport. ( n.d). Sport2Sport. Retrieved from: [ https://www.facebook.com/CarySport2Sport ]
Nike apparel company is a steadfast company in the minds of most athletic gear and apparel consumers and in the industry as a whole, with substantial earnings growth even in the last few years of recession it has still managed to record substantial growth. The company has even coined household phrases like "Just Do It" a mark of American influence over the global market. Much of this success has long been attributed to the solid nature of its upper management, namely its long time CEO and co-founder Phillip H. Knight. Nike recently made international news when it announced the retirement of Knight to the press, which in the business world can mean at least short-term trouble. The announcement was made with less than sixty days to pass before what would call a revolutionary change for the company. Though Knight will stay on as Chairman of the board, his intention is…
Brown, Carolyn M. "Serena Williams Aces Nike Deal Worth Approximately $40 Million." Black Enterprise Apr. 2004: 26. Questia. 8 Dec. 2004 .
Dionne, E.J. "A Victory over Nike: And a Win for Sweatshop Workers." Commonweal 5 June 1998: 7. Questia. 8 Dec. 2004 .
Hage, J.T. "Organizational Innovation and Organizational Change." Annual Review of Sociology (1999): 597. Questia. 8 Dec. 2004 .
Haley, Eric. "Exploring the Construct of Organization as Source: Consumers' Understandings of Organizational Sponsorship of Advocacy Advertising." Journal of Advertising 25.2 (1996): 19+. Questia. 8 Dec. 2004 .
The other thing John liked so much about his schedule was that he had plenty of time to work on his writing. He actually wrote two books: on skiing and on surfing. Unfortunately, all he ever got from publishers was rejection letters and he could never bring himself to self publish his work online because that seemed to be useless except for its vanity value; instead, he just gave copies out to his friends occasionally.
Becoming a Writer
John continued working at ski resorts and surf shops for the next two decades until both of his knees deteriorated to the point that he could no longer enjoy skiing or surfing. The less time he spent on his two lifelong hobbies, the less he enjoyed working in the environment that continually reminded him how much he missed participating actively. However, by that time he had managed to get enough of his…
strong and positive actions can school take to help solve the problems of youth?
The poet Langston Hughes once asked if the proverbial "dream deferred" of a young person's thwarted ambition in life "dried up like a raisin in the sun" or "does it explode?" Perhaps it does not matter so much what metaphor is most apt to explain this phenomenon, but how to prevent such a deferment from occurring in the first place. In Chapter 14 of the educational anthology of essays entitled Kaleidoscope, perhaps to suggest the dizzying array of solutions offered to the even more overwhelming amount of problems faced by today's educators, Stanley Eitzen attempts to offer some answers to the poet Hughes' rhetorical question.
Eitzen's essay "Problem Students: The Sociocultural Roots" posits the idea that so-called 'problem students,' contrary to much of current educational fashion today, do not simply have problems in school because of…
Banks. James. "Multicultural Education in the New Century." Kaleidoscope. Tenth Edition. Houghton Mifflin, 2003.
Glickman, Carl. "Dichotomizing Education." Kaleidoscope. Tenth Edition. Houghton Mifflin, 2003.
Eisner, Elliot. "The Kind of Schools We Need." Kaleidoscope. Tenth Edition. Houghton Mifflin, 2003.
One of the most difficult paradigms in research is defining what exactly constitutes the idea of "theory." There are many different authors with many different views on this.
Harlow (2009) articulates the problem associated with defining "theory" is that there is no fixed, universal meaning for this concept. One of the guides towards identifying the components that constitute a theory could be the specific research direction at issue. In the natural science, for example, "theory" could refer to the law or system of laws. In a social sciences discipline, "theory" might suggest a construct or set to order and understand the phenomena under study.
While it is difficult to explain or define the concept of theory, Harlow also points towards the importance of understanding the concept of "theory" in terms of research, since it forms the central concept around which the research is conducted. Hence, understanding what is meant…
Best, H. (2013). Theories of Social Changes by Raymond Boudon.
Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (2009). On Being a Scientist: A
Guide to Responsible Conduct in Research. Washington D.C.: National
Based on statistics, nearly one million eighth graders admit getting drunk and another 1.2 million twelfth graders are considered binge drinkers. Heroin use by young adults has doubled from 1991 to 1996 and even teenage compulsive gambling is on the rise (http://www.einstein.edu/e3front.dll?durki=8576,2004).
Youth Gangs and Violence - The Starting Point
It should be noted that violence started from the family affecting the whole society. hat an individual has for a family, what can be seen in the society, what is seen in the environment are all clear reflections of the kind of people a certain society is bringing up - whether it is a deviance to the society or not.
Now, pertaining to the crimes and how the government solved it, it must be remembered that the laws are already there, it is already being maintained by the concerned officials and followed the U.S. citizen. But there are still some…
Capital punishment." 2004 [online] Duhaime.org. http://www.duhaime.org/dictionary/dict-c.htm .
Capital Punishment: Pros." 1998 [online]
Cerf, Vinton G. Computer Networking: Global Infrastructure for the 21st Century. 1997. February 21, 2004. http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/lazowska/cra/networks.html
Fleenor, Atwater, Sturm and McKee (2014) focuses on the need to develop "effective leaders and leadership behavior" that can positively impact organizations (p. 63). Their study provides a meta-analysis of the pertinent literature on the subject from the past quarter century, primarily published in The Leadership Quarterly, a journal of scholarly critique, theory, and research. The researchers note that theories of leadership are relatively new to academia, and that approaches to the development of leaders is still being refined by scholars and professionals across the board. The study focuses primarily on issues (both intrapersonal and interpersonal) that relate to developmental leadership, utilizing "multi-source or 360-degree feedback responses" in order to deepen the current state of understanding regarding how leaders are trained and formed (Day et al., 2014, p. 63).
This study is particularly helpful because of its approach to the need for youth leadership training and development. The subject is…
Baumeister, R., Campbell, J., Krueger, J., Vohs, K. (2003). Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(1): 1-44.
Day, D., Fleenor, J., Atwater, L., Sturm, R., McKee, R. (2014). Advances in leader and leadership development: A review of 25 years of research and theory. The Leadership Quarterly, 25: 63-82.
Den, H., Deanne, N., & Belschak, F. D. (2012). When Does Transformational Leadership Enhance Employee Proactive Behavior? The Role of Autonomy and Role Breadth Self-Efficacy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(1), 194-202.
Gage, R., Thapa, B. (2012). Volunteer Motivations and Constraints among College
Advisory Programs Can Help Middle School Students in Poverty-idden Urban Areas
The focus of this research is implementing advisory programs in poverty urban area middle schools to help students cope with their environment. Economic and social barriers can prevent students at this formative age from maturing and reaching their potential as students. They can cause problems at schools so that the students do not graduate or they can lead students down avenues towards drugs and crime. Advisory programs can be a way to help guide these children out of danger towards a more productive way of life and they can help them to be more successful in their adulthood as a result (Balfanz et al., 2007).
A literature review of this subject will be the approach that this study takes and will provide a meta-analysis that is qualitative in method. This will be a study, therefore, that looks at how…
Balfanz, R. (2007). Preventing Student Disengagement and Keeping Students on the Graduation Path in Urban Middle-Grades Schools: Early Identification and Effective Interventions. Educational Psychologist, 42(4): 223-235.
Frazier, S. et al. (2013). Not Just a Walk in the Park: Efficacy to Effectiveness for After
School Programs in Communities of Concentrated Urban Poverty. Administration and Policy in Mental Health Services Research, 40(5): 406-418.
Moore, J. (2015). Principal's perspectives on middles school advisory programs.
Understanding some of the challenges that could make the business less feasible than envisioned is a critical part of the process of building a better business. In this case, the Youth Sport Development Center concept is feasible in general, as long as certain precautions are taken to ensure that the business model is sustainable.
The company must at all costs mitigate the legal risks. A small business cannot withstand expensive legal action, but there are unique risks associated with exercise in general and also with working with children. The company needs to understand these risks before proceeding. There are few technical or operational reasons why this business idea would not be feasible. The high cost of one-on-one consultation and the large number of qualified staff that would be needed is probably the biggest logistical issue the company faces. As long as the market can bear high-cost Elite program services, the…
Conceptualization and operationalization of variables
Poor communication between young athletes and coaches leads to longer recovery times and increased levels of frustration amongst athletes regarding their prognosis.
Independent Variable: Effective and ineffective communication between coaches and young athletes.
Conceptualization: Sports injuries are a serious concern. There has been a rise in the rate of youth sports injuries in recent decades, an increase partially attributed to a corresponding rise in youth specialization at an early age and year 'round participation in the same type of competitive sports activity, versus varying sports (Merkel & Molony 2013). In some sports, there are also grave concerns about the risk of permanent injury on every level of competition, as manifested in concerns about head trauma amongst football players, making it all the more critical to reduce the likelihood of such injuries occurring when young (Lopate 2013). Overuse injuries are common many popular youth sports: "Preteens…
Apache, R.R. (2006). The behavioral assessment of parents and coaches at youth sports:
Validity and reliability. Physical Educator, 63(3), 126-133.
Borggrefe, C., & Cachay, K. (2013). Communicative challenges of coaches in an elite-level sports system: Theoretical reflections on successful coaching strategies. EJSS: European Journal for Sport and Society, 10(1), 7-29.
Caine, D. (et al. 2006). Physical injuries in children's and youth sports: