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According to Suzuki, when meditation is performed appropriately, time becomes a river that can be traveled: "When we experience this kind of truth it means we have found the true meaning of time. Time constantly goes from past to present and from present to future. This is true, but it is also true that time goes from future to present and from present to past" (pp. 33-34).
Certainly, the Zen master is not suggesting that people can actually travel through time, but he is trying to make the point that a beginner's mind, a Zen mind, possesses the capacity to perceive time in this fluid fashion without the constraints imposed by the physical world. Moreover, Suzuki concedes that the process to achieving a Zen mind is not seamless or easy, and insists that proficiency in attaining a beginner's mind is a matter of practice and time. Nevertheless, the Zen master…… [Read More]
Many early haiku poets recognized this, writing purely from the heart and without too much subjective interpretation, perhaps reflecting their adoption of Zen philosophy.
Basho is but one early haiku poet that took Zen moralisms and philosophies to heart when writing haiku. Many believe that Basho wrote purely from Zen tradition, providing contrasting images of time and setting using only observation. Basho notes that "from ancient times those with a feeling for refinement find joy in knowing the truth and insight of things" (Yasuda, 1973:3) reflected that haiku is more about understanding nature and one's path toward enlightenment.
Those creating haiku often attempt to suggest in the simplest manner possible things natural in nature; the job of the artist or poet is merely to suggest the essence of an object or event, expressing the qualities of the object which are natural art in and of themselves (Lieberman, 2005). This sentiment…… [Read More]
After all, it opened up trade, thus helping commerce and, subsequently Japan's economy. Not only that, but the exchange of information was useful to governmental practices that sought to establish themselves as powerful and influential.
"Jesuit" Christianity survived long enough to be "practiced" within temples, one such "Jesuit temple" being known to have existed in 1603 in the Japanese capital, Kyoto. Such temples served the Church to enact some of its speeches in trying to go against Buddhism and Confucianism theories and implement its own. In fact, such initiatives worked out in the Church's detriment in the end. Habian, who went on to become a most renown orator and advocated for Christianity, turned away from it when the persecution of Christians began and reinforced his public speeches to suppress the "new" religion. It is no wonder then that such occurrences led to an overall negative impression of Christianity. Surely, the…… [Read More]
Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance by Robert M. Pirsig is perhaps one of the most unusually named works of contemporary philosophical narrative. The book takes the form of a novel in which certain philosophic truths about Zen are revealed. The book attempts to explicate Zen Buddhism for an American audience through the use of a narrative and a subject matter that will be understandable to an American audience.
The plot of the novel is deceptively simply.
The novel and philosophical classic tells the tale of a man named Phaedrus who is traveling across America with his troubled son and a couple, the Sutherlands. Phaedrus, the narrator later explains, is a kind of name for the author's former identity, the person whom he was before his electroshock treatments. As the group travels across the country, they discuss different philosophical issues, the Sutherlands espousing and emotional and impractical Romantic philosophy…… [Read More]
One of these core principles is evinced within the practice of zazen, or meditation. As the author of Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind denotes, "…by your practice of zazen you can cultivate this feeling" (p. 95) of totality and uniformity with the universe that is the primary focus of Buddhism.
Yet the way of actuating this ideal state of big mind is decidedly counterintuitive. esterners are used to thinking of heaven as something that one has to earn by going out and accomplishing feats of altruism to demonstrate his or her worth. In Buddhism, however, when one practices zazen and reaches a state of enlightenment that connects one with the entire universe, the exact opposite is the methodology employed to do this. Buddhists must learn to reject all worldly things, all desires, and ultimately free themselves from external concerns in order to reconnect with the oneness that they were a part…… [Read More]
During Sauzen, or the interview with the Zen master, the student is examined based on the life and spiritual knowledge he has acquired through the educational process. The close relationship between the disciple and the teacher is one of the main elements of the cultural and spiritual transmission
The Zen rituals have a background and a history of thousands of years and have as main objective the enrichment of personal experiences. Due to their oriental origins, the ritual may be considered out-of-the-ordinary from the Occidental point-of-view. The ability of the ritual goes beyond the force of the words, and is something that is embraced by the whole community - they are widely accepted and used as a way of cultural experience, personal enlightenment and as social phenomena. A few aspects have to be settled first. These refer to the special terms denoting elements within the ritual and which transmit…… [Read More]
Zen by Charlotte Joko Beck.
Use the book to select one major theme and write a critical essay based on that theme.
Life is a gift unto itself. Living it will give us the satisfaction that we seek. There are no guarantees other than life is yours to live for as long as you have it. How you live it is your choice.
Before delving into the major theme of Beck's book, it might be helpful to understanding her positioning for the book to know something about her. Charlotte Joko is head of the Zen Center of San Diego. In the 1960s she trained under Hakuun Yasutani Roshi and Soen Nakagawa Roshi. In 1983 she became the 3rd Dharma heir of Hakuyu Maezumi Roshi of the Zen Center of Los Angeles. Currently she teaches in San Diego, USA.
The main theme behind Charlotte Joko Beck's book is…… [Read More]
Student C. stands, literally, with his big toe on the threshold of kensho; there is, as Yautani-roshi continually shouts but "one more step." Yet, it is the most difficult step of all. Divesting oneself of all other things is almost as nothing to divesting oneself of oneself.
At the discourse's end Student C. has yet to achieve kensho, but it seems inevitable. He has moved beyond the point of self-actualization and entered a phase of his enlightenment wherein a positive feedback loop is at work. As Yasutani-roshi explains in an earlier lecture, a man who sets his pipe down and loses it begins by searching aimlessly but the intensity of his search increases the longer it continues such that, not finding what he knows to be close, the man becomes obsessed with the search. At times Student C. expresses disillusionment and weariness with the search, as any true hero long…… [Read More]
He believes that fear of punishment for injustice is all that maintains our praise of justice. Gyges was willing to discard all sense of justice and nobility once the opportunity to act freely presented itself.
5. Socrates' use of the city as metaphor in his discussion of justice is the long way of describing the usefulness of justice and its application in human life. His description of a good city is based on the assumption that such a city would be, by matter of definition, just as a virtue. By showing that justice could exist to make a city better, if only in a highly idealized form, Socrates suggests that such a possibility is also available to individuals. His metaphor outlines how justice can be an integral part of civic and individual organization.
Socrates' city has been initially formed to promote the well being of all of its citizenry. This…… [Read More]
Summary of the History of Buddhism and the Life of Buddha
Buddhism is known to be a school of ethical thoughts and philosophies, in addition to being a religion of worship. Different from other religious sects, the sole purpose of Buddhism is not just worshiping a certain god. Buddhism purposes to expound the thought of divine growth that brings about compassion and knowledge. With respect to history, the ancestries of Buddhism can be traced back to 563 BC. The word Buddhism comes from the term "Budhi," which means awakening. Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Guatama, who was later on referred to as Buddha. Guatama, the Buddha, attained enlightenment when he was 35 years old. In terms of the life of Buddha, it is acknowledged that he lived between the years 563 to 483 B.C, although it is estimated that he went on to live 100 years more (Brown, 2003).…… [Read More]
Nirvana, or the goal of it, helps individuals cope with some of the most basic questions in life including why we are here, where we are in life, what we are doing, and where we are going. Through contemplation, the individual comes to a place of peace that allows him or her to look at these questions in a selfless way. By considering things from a selfless perspective, individuals will be more inclined to realize the truth of life. This truth can be attained through the four noble truths of Buddhism, which include the notion that life includes suffering, and that suffering is caused by desire or selfishness. Suffering can be overcome by following the Eightfold Path in Buddhism.
Following the Eightfold Path leads to Nirvana and it begins with an awareness of life's problem, determination to solve this problem, abstention from lying, evil speech, killing, stealing, and immorality. It…… [Read More]
Socrates and Zen
Socrates View of Life to Zenism
The objective of this work, Socrates View of Life to Zenism, will be to see if the sage Socrates agrees or disagrees with the way of the Zen masters. I noticed upon completion of the book, Dan Millman's semi-auto biographical tale, 'Way of the Peaceful Warrior: A Book That Changes Lives,' that I was reminded of something I saw on TV in the cable system's reruns. Although simple, I was reminded of this -- When the student is ready the teacher will come.
That mantra came from a television series about a 'half American' and 'half Chinese' Shoaling monk. The Television series was Kung Fu and although the story was a little out of date, even for a western, the star of the show, Kwi Chang Cain, whenever in trouble or in a situation needing reflection, had an ancient memory jarred…… [Read More]
It is small, real elements like this that keep the characters' human consciousness alert and unable to yet make the final step towards enlightenment with a final departing from the real world.
Above the two rises the personality and figure of the Master Hyegok. A Zen master, he has devoted his entire life to learning about Zen uddhism and is now ready to pass that knowledge along to his pupils. With his time passing and his death approaching, he becomes more and more determined to leave the appropriate instruments for his pupils to use in order to achieve enlightenment and they use his teachings in order to attempt this after his death.
The "Ten ulls" pictures of the Zen tradition reflect the steps in the path to enlightenment and are a good fit on the stages that each of the characters in the movie have achieved. The bull itself is…… [Read More]
The Japanese myth partly resembles that of Adam and Eve present in the Bible and in the Quran. However, the first beings in Japan are considered to hold much more power than their equivalents in the west. Another resemblance between the Japanese legends and those in the west is the fact that the kami are considered to live in the high planes of Takamagahara, somewhat resembling mount Olympus, from Greek mythology. Japanese mythology is different from other mythologies through the fact that all of the deities involved in it are good in their character.
In the sixteenth century, when Buddhism entered Japan, the locals had a hard time keeping Shinto as their main religion, since it had not been an organized religion. Even with the fact that Buddhism had been spreading quickly around the country, the presence of Shinto could be felt everywhere, in people's lifestyles and in their culture.…… [Read More]
Western civilization has been developing according to a set of coordinates that are entirely separated from the ones of its Eastern counterpart. The focus of this paper is to propose subjective psychologically-minded interpretations to a series of Asian stories and poems extracted from the traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism and Taoism.
The storyline of Searching for Buddha begins with the account of a monk's lengthy and arduous journey towards finding Buddha. When he finally locates Buddha's whereabouts, he finds that he needs to cross a river in order to reach the region of destination. Therefore, he solicits the help of a boatman. On waiting to get across, the monk notices something floating on the river, right towards the boat. As it gets closer, the floating object is revealed to be the monk's very own dead body, and the shock of the realization sends the traveler into a fit of distress. The…… [Read More]
Using the ring of Gyges as his 'proof,' he finds the last reason to be the most persuasive.
What Socrates definition of justice in the state is as found in Book IV? Compare the parts of the just state to the parts of the just soul. Describe the virtues of each.
Socrates defines justice in terms of balance, as every person doing what he is best suited to do -- to rule, fight, or labor. This is why the just state is structured into three classes, the philosopher kings who rule, the military class that defends the state, and the ordinary laborers. The philosopher kings govern by virtue of knowing best, the military class is necessary to defend the state, and the laborers are necessary to do the practical work of the land, so people can eat. All classes are necessary, and correspond to the soul, mind, and body split…… [Read More]
Dogen's Great Doubt
Both exoteric and esoteric Buddhism teach the primal Buddha-nature [or harma-nature] and the original self-awakening of all sentient beings. If this is the case, why have the buddhas of all ages had to awaken the longing for and seek enlightenment by engaging in ascetic practice? [Masao Abe, A Study of Dogen, 19]
How did Dogen's "Great Doubt" influence his approach to the philosophy and practice of Zen? How is this approach reflected in his conception of zazen (seated meditation) as "just sitting" (shikan taza)? Contrast Dogen's "just sitting" with the koan style of zazen that developed in the Rinzai school of Zen.
To understand his primal Buddha-nature, the Buddha of all ages paradoxically had to stand outside of the material world of suffering. Through meditation, he was able to break within himself the chain of infinite actions or desires that make up the material world. Dogen's great…… [Read More]
Education then is necessary to help prevent the failures of government - for Socrates, an aristocracy represents a rule by the "best" citizens whose educations have centered upon training the warrior-guardians to be swift, philosophic, spirited and strong.
This education is significant because in order to prevent the corruption that power so often has upon those who wield it - it is the broadly educated, self-aware, and community-driven individual who can truly understand their own place within the machinery of society. The philosopher-king places himself above society leaving the warrior-guardian to protect the lives and livelihoods of not only the individual citizenry, but of the entire community itself.
7-What are Socrates main concerns about education in music? (Remember, music consists of poetry and stories, theater, and music) What are his main points about education in gymnastic and the relation of the body to the mind/soul?
Socrates understands that "Music" (which…… [Read More]
The book discusses the prevalent impression of oneself as a separate ego covered in a bag of skin that is similar to a hallucination that accords neither with experimental philosophy nor with the religions of the east, more specifically Hinduism. This hallucination undermines the use of technology and of formal education in general, because of its involvement in the destruction of humanity. atts favors the kind of education that gives us a sense of existence.
Allan atts, in his book: "On the Taboo Against Knowing hom you are" starts by questioning the amount of knowledge that a young person is supposed to seek in order to be in the know. He suggests the presence of some inside information and some special taboo on life that most teachers and parents have not taught. Culture plays a crucial role in the education of the young people through offering a platform for cultural…… [Read More]
The book's second section generally has more to do with a comparison of Buddhism to other modes and methods of thinking and understanding the world. This begins with the author's relation of Buddhism to his experiences of Catholicism, but continues in many other forms. In the eighth chapter of the book, the seemingly basic concepts of work, money, and earning are delved into with some surprising conclusions. A practicing and entrepreneurial Buddhist recounts a disagreement she once had with her father, equating earning money in a non-rewarding job with selling out before realizing the full realities of the need for money in the modern age in a way that is decidedly un-Buddhist (pp. 94). The author definitely broadens and deepens his understanding of Buddhism by examining it from a variety of such unusual and unexpected perspectives, and this definitely aids in the readers' own appreciation of the complexities of…… [Read More]
The Vairocana Buddha on the back wall has a Bodhisattva to his left wearing a crown and pearls. Bodhisattvas were still 'of the world,' beings in Mahayana Buddhism who temporarily did not seek Enlightenment to bring Enlightenment to the rest of the world. On his other side, a "divine general treads an evil spirit underfoot" ("acred Destinations," Longmen Caves, 2010). The combined images of the most spiritual and enlightened of all manifestations of the Buddha, a spiritual deity still striving to Enlighten those in the world, and national symbolism illustrate how Buddhism was not seen as innately contradictory with the aims of the nation-state.
"Longmen Caves." acred Destinations. March 1, 2010.
O'Brien, Barbara. "The Five Dhyani Buddhas: Vairocana Buddha" About.com.
ummarize the history of the porcelain traditions in China from the Yuan to the present. Give examples.
The Yuan Dynasty saw the development of what…… [Read More]
Instead, the practice bhakti-style devotion to various Buddhas and other supramundane figures (Protehero, 2010, p. 177). These are not manifestations of one God, as might be understood by practitioners of most Western religions, but more similar to spirit guides.
Another aspect of Buddhism that might be surprising is the understanding of "karma." The word is commonly used in our current lexicon and refers to the good or bad that comes one's way based on one's own good or bad deeds. It is thought of as a reward or, conversely, payback. It helps people make sense of the world if they can conceive of such cosmic justice. However, karma is more complicated and really has to do with cause and effect. The idea is that everything one does has consequences, which must be dealt with constructively before one can move on (Martin, 2011). It is about learning and personal growth rather…… [Read More]
Buddha the founder of the Buddhist faith lived in India, Bihar, from 563-483 BCE. As the Buddha or enlightened one he preached his doctrine of the four great truths. Sorrow is inherent in life, it arises from desire, and only by eliminating desire can man be released from sorrow. This may be achieved by following the noble eight-fold path of right conduct in vision, thought, speech, action, giving, striving, vigilance and meditation. He preached that this middle path would lead to nirvana. There are now 4 distinctive types of Buddhism.
Theravada - or "way of the elders" - is the sole remaining form of conservative Buddhism, of which there were once at least 18 schools, or nikaya. It originated in India during the centuries after the final nirvana of the Buddha and was probably the dominant form of Buddhism in India. Theravada is now the dominant form of Buddhism in…… [Read More]
Life of the Buddha:
What was the Buddha's name? How else do Buddhists refer to him?
His name is Siddhartha Gautama and he is often referred to as the 'awakened' or 'enlightened' one.
What are the circumstances in which the Buddha grew up?
Siddhartha was born in 563 B.C. He lived in a place called Lumbini and then was raised in Kapilavashtha, Sakya Kingdom's capital. During this time, Northern India was made up of various small and independent states. It is during this period, people came to challenge and question Vedic philosophy through a number of new religious and philosophical schools. There was a strong moral vacuum present.
What are the "four passing sights"?
The first is an old man that reminded Buddha of aging. The second was a sick person that reminded Buddha of pain and disease. The third was a corpse that reminded Buddha of…… [Read More]
How the Noble Truths can be achieved through the Confucian virtues.
Of course, please note especially the last ingredient, a lifetime of spiritual enlightenment, and the cooking instructions, which required all these ingredients to be mixed by a "strong, feminist hand." The recipe ultimately allows individuals, particularly women, to achieve salvation. If you've read books on Eastern philosophy and religions, you would note that in Japan, the history of Zen Buddhism is inextricably linked also with the eventual "salvation" of women in the society, and I am proud to say that my philosophical writings have helped serve as a catalyst, not only in developing Zen philosophy, but also in promoting women's equality, be this equality socio-political in nature, or in terms of salvation.
Zen philosophy promoted right-mindedness in people because it paved the way for progressive thinking. That is, Zen philosophy opened people's minds that salvation can be achieved not…… [Read More]
Management Project in the Health Care Organization Setting
This study describes the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system. The syndromic surveillance system collects and analyzes prediagnostic and nonclinical disease indicators, drawing on preexisting electronic data that can be found in systems such as electronic health records, school absenteeism records and pharmacy systems. The systems are utilized to identify specific symptoms within a population that may indicate a public health event or emergency such as signaling an outbreak of an infectious disease. school absenteeism records and pharmacy systems. The systems are utilized to identify specific symptoms within a population that may indicate a public health event or emergency such as signaling an outbreak of an infectious disease.
Informatics Management Project In The Health Care Organization Setting
Part One - Introduction
The objective of this study is to describe the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system. Syndromic surveillance systems collect and analyze…… [Read More]
It is impossible to have one without the other. The progression of shadows is used to indicate the passage of time in Ando's work. One can watch the progression of shadow across a light piece of concrete and track the passage of time.
It can be said that light represents the concept of somethingness and shadow represents the concept of nothingness. It is the nothingness that humans seek to understand in their spiritual endeavors. The world of somethingness represents the reality that we know in our physical world. Light allows us to see our world and the things in it. Darkness, however, masks these objects. The objects themselves are still there, only we cannot see them until it is light again. Shadow represents the human journey into the nothingness of the soul. hen we sit in the shadow and cannot see our physical world, we are forced to confront the…… [Read More]
Review of Related Literature
This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter.
In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have een proposed to account for the effect of hypnosis. State theories assume that the hypnotic trance is qualitatively different from all other human experiences. From this perspective, trance capacity is supposedly a fairly stale trait that exhiits sustantial individual differences. Nonstate theories, often referred to as social learning, social psychological or cognitive-ehavioral theories of hypnosis propose that hypnotic phenomena are related to social and psychological characteristics such as hope, motivation, expectancy, elief in the therapist, desire to please the therapist, a positive initial…… [Read More]
The importance of ritual objects to the Shaolin is shown in how they react to the supernatural appearance of an incense burner. hen the survivors of the massacre woke up the next day, they saw on the surface of the water a white incense burner made of greenstone, which had two ears and three feet and weighed 52 "catties, thirteen ounces"; on the bottom of the incense burner, the four words Fan-Qing fu-Ming had been inscribed. The brothers immediately secured the incense burner and placed it in the third field in front of the temple gate (Baoqi & Murray 206). In this regard, the Shaolin monks of the day embraced the popular belief that Heaven could manifest its support of claimants to the Chinese throne or of founders of religious cults through the bestowal of precious objects, such as these incense burners, swords, or books. "The incense burner, as it…… [Read More]
The seeking of salvation is an admission of ignorance while authority-based communication is an assertion of knowledge. The two are incompatible.
Instead, communication has to be understanding-based. All communication should recognize the suffering of the human beings and have the aim of discovering the nature of that suffering, to understand that suffering. Christians have heard it in the Prayer of Saint Francis, which reads: "..grant that I may not so much seek to be consoled as to console; to be understood, as to understand..."
Even secular thinkers understand this concept, as demonstrated by popular Personal Development guru Stephen Covey's principle of "Seek First to Understand, Then Be Understood."
In understanding-based communication, disagreements would no longer express judgment and authority, but trust and compassion. Trust that the other person has your best interests at heart and compassion for the other person who shares your suffering. Although doctrine and theology will inevitably…… [Read More]
The multiple interpretations of simple words and phrases used in modern haiku give the reader a more participatory role in their reading; instead of being literature alone, the haiku that inspires varied meanings becomes art and involves the reader in its interpretation.
Another instance of these multiple interpretations contributing to a deeper understanding of the haiku is seen in the aggregate definition of "mountain village." The term can be personified as "either the unbearable loneliness of a life lived in seclusion or the bliss of living at one's ease from the maddening crowd," (awamoto 714). These choices of interpretation allow the haiku to take on its own meaning, above nature, above literal interpretations of the words, and to resonate more deeply with the reader.
It is this concept of "blending" interpretations of haiku, Hiraga says, that allows the haiku to take on a deeper meaning than its literal interpretation may…… [Read More]
Religious doctrine usually includes some form of salvation as a reward for good behavior and for keeping to the tenets of the religion. Each religion treats this general idea in its own way. For the Christian, right behavior lead to salvation from permanent death and promises an afterlife in heaven. In uddhism, the promise is not of an afterlife but of a reward in this world, a reward in the form of perfect peace through a mind free of craving and unwanted emotion. Nirvana is a state of mind and an achievement in itself, for nirvana is that state of mind to which the adherent aspires. It is considered the highest form of happiness and is achieved only by the most dedicated follower of the uddha.
The conception of salvation usually relates to the idea of some ultimate value or being, and it can be thought of as an…… [Read More]
Moreover, Malachi Martin describes the theology as "a freeing from political oppression, economic want, and misery here on earth. More specifically still…a freeing from political domination by the capitalism of the United States."
Furthermore, though it grew out of the unrest in Latin America "with its political domination by strong-arm leaders and monopolistic oligarchies," viewed by members of the Church as a direct result of American capitalism, the events in Latin America were preceded by a much more basic historical development -- the "rights of man" extrapolated from the French Revolution and re-coined as the "rights of the working man."
The spread of Marxist doctrine in the early twentieth century saw its incorporation into Catholic theology by several prominent professors right up to the time of the Second Vatican Council, upon which Ada Maria Isasi-Diaz certainly based her theology, and pursued her concept of "evangelical poverty": union with the…… [Read More]
The reason for which they chose to leave their previous lives behind is that they want to achieve the ultimate goal of life. Powerful contrasts are present all across the book when Zen Buddhism takes the two travelers from the decadence present in San Francisco to the purity from the rugged mountains in California.
The Japanese practicing Zen Buddhism had virtually referred to it as being a free religion, where one does not have to fear gods, and, where one is not punished for the sins committed over his or her life. For Ray and Japhy Zen Buddhism had been a form of protest to everything related to the American methods of living. Ray sees nature as a place which can assist him in reaching enlightenment, as society's depravation had not made it into the natural world, making it the perfect place for meditation.
Jack Kerouac basically had the same…… [Read More]
Meditation centers became popular during this time, and so did extensive study into eastern religions, such as Buddhism.
There is another aspect of Buddhism that has had a remarkable effect on American society in just about every area, and that is yoga. While all Buddhists do not practice yoga (or meditation, for that matter), a large part of them do. Yoga has spread from being a relatively unknown practice to one of the most popular types of no-stress exercise in the country today. Millions of people attend yoga classes each week across the country, and it is touted as an excellent source of exercise for mind and body.
Buddhists are often thought to be non-materially oriented and interested more in spiritual enlightenment, but that is another area where the religion has altered in America. Author McCormick continues, "Instead, one's external, material circumstances are viewed as an effect of one's inner,…… [Read More]
It upheld, rather than tore down, the existing order. The search for salvation could be seen to be connected to performance of one's duty here in the material world. Confucianism was indeed an important philosophy in the Tokugawa Period, but Japanese forms of Buddhism, together with native Shinto practice always remained central to the Japanese religious experience. As in Korea, Confucian ideals found support because of their emphasis on order. The military classes of the samurai and daimyo, especially, saw a strong linkage between Confucian practice and military ideals, many even criticizing Buddhist doctrines of rebirth as irrational, especially in regard to the idea of the punishment in hell of supposedly incorporeal bodies.
Japanese Neo-Confucianists even criticized Buddhism as an antisocial religion.
Confucianism was seen as supremely rational, while Buddhist doctrines were often questioned by those in authority.
On yet other levels, Chinese ideas were adapted to fit Korean and…… [Read More]
Early Judaic religion also has a long extensive history. The ancient beginnings of Judaism come from the sands of the Syro-Arabian desert. Ancient ancestors of the later Hebrew people moved from the Mesopotamian desert towards the coast, moving into what is now known as Jerusalem and Palestine. Abraham was born into a family which still practiced early forms of animism. Through a religious epiphany, he began to worship only one deity, which he named El-Shaddi, meaning "the rock of the mountain," (383). He was encouraged by God to move to better grazing grounds, "The Lord had said to Abram [Abraham], leave your country, your people and your father's household and go to the land I will show you. I will make you a great nation and I will bless you; I will make your name great and you will be a blessing," (Gen. 12:1-2). After proving his loyalty, God rewarded…… [Read More]
In this field attachment is seen, as it is in uddhism, as a continual pattern of never-ending desire for further attainment and objects. "Social psychological research on subjective well-being supports the assertion that people's desires consistently outpace their ability to satisfy their desires."
McIntosh 39) further issue that relates to Western psychology and the uddhist view of attachment is the nature of existence as impermanent.
The nature of existence is that nothing is permanent. Therefore, even when people attain the object of their attachment, it is only a temporary situation, and people's attempts to maintain the object of their attachment are ultimately doomed to fail. As people struggle to maintain possession of things to which they are attached, those things inevitably continue to slip through their fingers, so people with attachments suffer.
There have been many psychological studies on the effects of attachment structures as a form of…… [Read More]
" By imagining Sisyphus happy, it then becomes possible to find our own happiness in no matter what situation.
Camus begins his argument with a powerful statement about suicide, noting that it is the most important of all philosophical problems. The question of suicide cuts to the core of whether life has any meaning. If life has no meaning then it only makes sense to end the life, and seek meaning elsewhere. Camus claims that accepting absurdity negates the function of suicide, and renders suicide itself an absurdity. To commit suicide is no different than perpetuating blind and useless faith in an abstract God. Both acts entail surrendering the personal will. Suicide and blind faith both deny personal responsibility and instead project and expect meanings onto the universe. Camus' argument is self-empowering. Instead of having faith or hope, holding out for the revelation of true meaning, the individual has the…… [Read More]
There are many instances of art acting as a means of enabling people back to health. This healing aspect of creativity is, I believe, due to the fact that we are liberated from the restrictions of the world in the process of creativity and because artworks are in a sense the residue of the experience of spiritual and expanded consciousness.
There are numerous clinical studies which show the effective of art therapy. For example, a number or art therapists have studied the affect of art therapy on people who have experienced loss. "Art therapists consistently observe the power and potential of art to help identify, cope with, and heal the pain experienced during the grief process..." (Hill, M.A.)
However, the healing process in creativity can best be explained by the deeper meaning of spontaneity.
Nachmanovitch asks the important question: "How does one learn improvisation?" The answer to this question is…… [Read More]
Concept of Usability Evaluation
Issues in Usability Evaluation
Heuristic Evaluation Dimensions
Usability Problem Formats
Heuristic Evaluation Process
Inspection Phase 15
Identifying Usability Problems
Usability Problem Preparation Phase 16
Aggregation Phase 17
Procedure of Evaluation
The Static Web Interface
Observing and Quickly Visiting the Interface
Elaborating (Problems) and evisiting (Interface and Materials)
Navigating the Interface
Annotating the Interface
As part of the Web development process, Web developers are confronted with evaluating the usability of Web interfaces (i.e. Web sites and applications). Typically, a combination of manual methods and automatic tools are used for an effective Web site evaluation -- e.g. manual inspection is needed to supplement automatic validation tool results (owan 2000). However, Web projects are highly affected by their fast paced life cycles, leaving little room for full evaluations. Other major factors contributing to this situation are low budgeting…… [Read More]
When Neo-Confucianism arrived in Japan in the 16th century, it built on the pre-existing ideas of Confucianism that had already been imported into the island centuries earlier (Tsutsui 104). As far back as the 5th century, the Japanese had mixed with Confucian ideas about society and the role of the person in the world. Confucian ideas taught the Japanese about what it means to be a moral person. However, the Japanese also incorporated Buddhist concepts into their culture -- and these focused on the metaphysical side of nature and how to define reality (or unreality). These two systems of thought, along with Taoism, molded Japan for hundreds of years. By the time Neo-Confucianism arrived, the Japanese were ready to address the issues that the schools left unresolved. Buddhism presented life as basically unreal and that nirvana was the real reality. Confucianism taught values about society and how to respect life,…… [Read More]
Typically a Japanese funeral follows the sequence: when someone dies, they are placed to rest in their homes. The corpse was placed with the head pointing the North, copying the deathbed of Gautama, and the head of the bed is well decorated. Then the previously mentioned encoffinment process. The first night after one's death is called the Tsuya; and it is for close family and friends to remember their beloved. In the morning, a cleansing meal is served called Okiyome. The funeral is thereafter carried out where the Jukai rite also known as receipt of commandments gives the dead an opportunity to receive the Buddhist commandments, automatically making the dead a disciple of the Buddha, and the dead person is accepted into Buddha hood.
After all this, the deceased embarks on the journey to the other world as the coffin is carried out of the house and burnt in a…… [Read More]
Another means in which Southwest Airlines resembles McDonald's is given by the very use of the onald McDonald House for charity events. McDonald's has been developing charity actions through sustained donations to the charity houses for nearly four decades now (Website of the onald McDonald House Charities). As of 1983, when a Southwest Airlines pilot lost his daughter to leukemia, the airline operator has also been annually donating money to the charity. Additionally, the company also volunteers employees to help in the charity houses (Airline Industry Information, 2005).
These actions of Southwest can be assessed from two distinct angles -- both similar to the angles of assessing the charity decisions of McDonald's. In this order of ideas, the first angle is constituted by the fact that the companies become respectable members of the community. They show their support to community causes and they are socially responsible by giving back to…… [Read More]
Buddhism, religion and philosophy founded in India c.525 B.C. By Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha. There are over 300 million Buddhists worldwide. One of the great world religions, it is divided into two main schools: the Theravada or Hinayana in Sri Lanka and SE Asia, and the Mahayana in China, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan. A third school, the Vajrayana, has a long tradition in Tibet and Japan. Buddhism has largely disappeared from its country of origin, India, except for the presence there of many refugees from the Tibet region of China and a small number of converts from the lower castes of Hinduism ("Buddhism").
Buddhism is a blend of philosophy, religious belief and educational principles that focuses on personal spiritual development. Although the distinction may be somewhat blurred, strictly speaking, Buddhists do not worship gods or deities, and the Golden Buddha's people pray to are supposed to be merely aids…… [Read More]
Both Taoism and Buddhism encourage meditation as a means by which to liberate the mind and achieve emptiness. One of the Buddhist practices that encourages emptiness is mindfulness meditation, or vipassana. However, there are numerous specific methods that be used during the meditation practice. Some are more Tibetan in origin as those espoused by Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche and the Vajrayana tradition. Other meditation practices are like those I learned at the Hsi Lai Temple, which combine Ch'an (Chinese Zen) Buddhism with Buddhist humanism. Taoism, unlike Buddhism, also offers ancillary spiritual practices such as Tai Chi and Chi Gung. The teachings of Buddhism and Taoism go neatly hand in hand.
Therefore, I am continually growing from becoming more open to spiritual teachings. The spiritual journey is like a flower blossoming. I do not believe that religious dogma or ideology are necessary, and in some cases they can be harmful. As Chogyam…… [Read More]
New Age Movement with an emphasis on the Human Potential Movement. The New Age Movement really blossomed in the 1970s, when followers began attempting to take charge of their lives and grow to their full potential. However, the actual New Age Movement began in the early 1800s, with several writers discussing various spiritual and holistic beliefs that would grow into the New Age Movement. The term gained widespread use in the early 1970s, and the Movement spread from there. Followers of the New Age Movement may participate in meditation, simple living, holistic living, channeling, and they may believe in extraterrestrial life, and other alternative beliefs. Two authors state, "The ultimate ideal of the New Age vision is for the human being to be completely in unison with the cosmos, and through reincarnation, to develop his soul to perfect divinity" (Lewis and Melton 1992, 257). The Human Potential Movement is an…… [Read More]
Siddhartha meets Vasudeva the ferryman. He sees in Vasudeva a quality of peace that he associates with enlightenment. Vasudeva embodies that which Siddhartha has been looking for since he was a boy. His materialistic existence momentarily comes back to haunt him when Kamala approaches Siddhartha with their son. Kamala dies, leaving the son with Siddhartha. The son is a great disappointment who steals Siddhartha's money. Siddhartha has no choice or inclination to do anything else but live the rest of his years on the river, learning lessons from the day-to-day existence of a ferryman. Encounters with the immediacy of nature help Siddhartha cultivate the Zen mind that has come to represent the essence of true Buddhist philosophy.
Siddhartha more than anything represents the sprit of Buddhism. Buddhism is ill defined as a religion. A religion is that which Siddhartha was running from: a set of social and religious rituals reinforced…… [Read More]
(Ng, 1994, p. 93)
The philosophy of Confucius was based essentially on that of human relationships expanded to the sphere of the state, and even beyond into the cosmos. ight conduct and proper action among individuals and groups would result in an ordered universe, one that operated according to the proper laws. By cultivating these believes and following these rules one could hope to produce a society that was perfectly ordered and self-perpetuating. The Confucian ideal of leadership has endured today among many, not only in China, but in many parts of East Asia, and has even attracted followers in the West, for it addresses the issue of responsibility as a metaphor for virtue and harmony.
Far less idealistic were the ideas of the enaissance thinker, Niccolo Machiavelli. Machiavelli lived in Italy at a time when its various princes were contending for power. The region was riven by war and…… [Read More]
It was after this season that Phil Jackson left the Platoons of Albany and joined the Chicago Bulls as an Assistant Coach, and as it is generally said, the 'rest is history'. (Lakers Coach Phil Jackson signs with WMA and Original Entertainment)
In a nutshell, a leader can be seen as a person or an individual who is inevitably the most important person within the group or organization where he is working or associated with in any way. It is this very leader who is most often responsible for the successes and the failures of the group or the team, which is under him. However, it is sometimes said that success and failure also lies in the hands of the followers, and in nay sort of organization or group, it is in the hands of the follower that the leader's goals and dreams are generally carried out or executed. Chris…… [Read More]
accessible to the disabled is a good business decision even when resources are limited. The most obvious reason for designing accessible websites is to increase the number of potential customers that can access the site, but there are other benefits to designing accessible websites. One major benefit is that many of the techniques that make a website work well with accessibility technologies such as screen readers also make it easier for search engines to index, increasing search rankings. There are downsides to creating accessible websites; few web designers are able to design sites that are both accessible and visually impressive. Many techniques commonly used to increase the visual impact of a site make it less accessible. In spite of the difficulties, an accessible website is a worthwhile investment.
Business websites should be designed with accessibility for the disabled in mind. Disabled users are potential customers, and an inaccessible website is…… [Read More]
The museum I attended was the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, which is located at 100 15th Street (Raoul Wallenberg Place) Southwest in Washington D.C. It is part of the National Mall. I was initially struck by the size of the museum itself, and the many labyrinth-like passages, rooms, and corridors it contained that were all related to some different aspect of the Holocaust. I had known that the museum existed and had heard stories about many of the horrors of this particular time period, but I was a little surprised at how much history was preserved and at the number of people who were present on what was just a routine day at the museum.
One of the pieces that I spent the most time looking at was the cover of The Secrets of the Wise Men of Zen, which was displayed in its original German language…… [Read More]
Starbucks coffee company is a leading roaster and retailer of specialty coffees. It has its base in Seattle and has many stores within the U.S. And internationally. The objective of starbucks is the establishment of Starbucks as the most recognized and respected brand of coffee in the world. For this goal to be achieved, starbucks continues to expand its retail operations by selectively pursuing other opportunities so that they can leverage and grow the company's brand by the introduction of a variety of new products (Balaban, s & Kieta, C., 2008).
Starbucks aims at entering more and more foreign countries. Among countries that Starbucks may consider venturing into is Italy. The initial idea to set up starbucks was from the Italian coffee tradition which was infused with the leisure approach found in Seattle. Despite the fact that the idea came from Italy, Italy has been considered a mountain that starbucks…… [Read More]
Today, the Dalai Lama works tirelessly to bring attention to the Tibetan cause, to illuminate human rights abuses by China and to move forward in creating an autonomous, if not independent Tibet. The quest for Tibetan independence and, subsequently, the quest for Tibetan autonomy, have both been informed by this distinct orientation of the Buddhism. The Tibetan mode of Buddhism has historically been a channel for political resistance and the vocalization of protest against injustice. As the text by Fisher indicates, Buddhists have "often been non-violent social activists, protesting and trying to correct injustice, oppression, famine, cruelty to animals, nuclear testing warfare, and environmental devastation. E.F. Schumacher preached what he called 'Buddhist economics,' to restore willingness to live simply, generously, and humanely with each other." (p. 161)
These are the very principles which underlie the global endeavors of the 14th Dalai Lama and which have garnered support from international human…… [Read More]
Discuss changes in the religious culture between 1750 and present day in at least one country from each of the three regions of Asia we have studied (East Asia, South Asia, and South East Asia)
Changes in modern Asian religions: Japan, India, and Thailand
Buddhism is a religion which began on the Indian subcontinent but which has spread across East and Southwest Asia. Its portability as a religion may partially be explained by its ability to blend with other religions and folk traditions. For example, the two dominant religions of Japan have historically encompassed Buddhism and Shinto: two different religions that most citizens profess to one degree or another. A common phrase "born Shinto; die Buddhist" highlights the comfort with which both of these religions exist side-by-side. However, Buddhism in Japan has been undergoing some notable changes in recent years.
Buddhism has been practiced in Japan for 1,440…… [Read More]
Thich Nhat Hanh wrote "The Heart Of Understanding" as a commentary and evaluation of the Heart Sutra in Buddhist philosophy. The book "Heart of Understanding" is a synopsis of Hanh's interpretation of what has been described as the central sutra or philosophical teaching of Zen Buddhism. There has over the centuries been much discussion on the relevance of Buddhist teaching and the meanings held within each of the sutras. A great deal of emphasis has been placed on the heart sutra, or "Prajnaparamita" sutra, as described in great detail in Hanh's work. According to Hanh and other religious scholars, this sutra is "the essence" of Buddhist teaching.
The Heart Sutra is recited daily in Buddhist communities throughout the world (Hanh). The sutra dates back to the beginning of the Christian era, and according to scholars has been studies for over 2000 years in Inda, China, Vietnam, Korea and…… [Read More]
dosage levels of Cholestease on Serum Cholesterol levels and the side effects associated with them in human beings.
Cholesterol has been a major media issue in recent years, especially the negative effects on the heart and its role in the development of heart disease. There have been many studies that indicate a connection between serum cholesterol heart disease and depression (1-3). Developing new methods to lower serum cholesterol has become a major industry in recent years. Currently the leaders in the industry are American Pharmaceutical giants, Pfizer, Merck, and Warner-Lambert (1), who have developed medications that lower cholesterol.
The Endicon corporation recognizes the potential market in developing a drug that will significantly lower serum cholesterol without the side effects associated with long-term use of the drugs currently on the market. In addition, we recognize the potential of developing a ritish Product, primarily marketed in Great ritain. Endicon has been conducting…… [Read More]
uddhism and Christianity
As a system of belief, Zen uddhism arrived in Japan in the 14th century as the result of liberalization of trade relationships between Japan and China after finding it entry into the far eastern cultures through India. (Kitagawa, 1966) uddhism is a system of belief with many sects that follow individual masters who are said to have achieved a new revelation on how to apply the Four Noble Laws. uddhism was meant to give the practitioners influence and control over suffering in the world by teaching then to have greater control over themselves. The combined effect was to help the uddhist to respond differently to the suffering around him. Thereby the uddhist would be less entangled in the suffering in the surrounding world, and indirectly be able to affect change by lessening the corporate experience in suffering. In Medieval Japan, which was ruled by militaristic lords who…… [Read More]
Buddhist Overview of eligion
In many ways, Buddhism is both a religion and a philosophy. Westerners tend to regard this religion based on its philosophical value for the simple fact that many of the core aspects of Buddhist tenets and traditions are contrary to conventional Western thought. It is critical to note that like most religions, Buddhism helps to identify a point in the cosmos of the believer, has a conception of a man who typifies the religion, and has numerous methods for helping believers to achieve a state of bliss or perfection. However, the core conception of Buddhism is that in order to achieve a higher state of being and uniformity with divine forces, adherents have to abnegate most secular aspirations -- as well as the very concept of desire itself. This rejection of desire ultimately functions as a way for believers to become one with the universe and…… [Read More]
Greyston Bakery Case Study
Organization of the report
Description of the case
We don't hire people to bake brownies; we bake brownies to hire people. -- Greyston Bakery's Benefit Corporation eport (2013)
There has been a growing recognition among businesses of all sizes and types that investments in their communities can pay major dividends in terms of corporate good will and increased profitability. As the epigraph above indicates, one company that has been in the vanguard of this movement is Greyston Bakery, based out of Yonkers, New York. To date, Greyston Bakery has leveraged an enlightened approach to human resource management and corporate social responsibility into a thriving business that supports a wide range of community-based support services for those in need. The purpose of this report was to provide a case study of Greyston Bakery based on the company's publicly available information, a case study of the company by…… [Read More]