The World Bank model centers on a five-person team called the Performance Advisory Service or PAS (Yandrick 1995). PAS trains supervisors to analyze work performance and personality problems. The supervisor first determines if a skill deficiency is involved or there are personal and environmental factors. He does this by reviewing the employee's records in search of troubled behavioral patterns; consulting with work team leaders, colleagues and support staff in investigating possible problems within the organization; and/or directly exploring the employee's work performance and conduct.
In the last option, the supervisor may ask or remind the employee about the consequence of poor performance; if he or she is being rewarded for poor or nonperformance; if performance matters to him or her; if there are health or stress factors conducing to his or her poor or low-level performance; or if there are external stimuli behind it. Armed now with the different angles and dimensions of the performance problem, the supervisor develops a plan to improve that performance or restore it to the previously sound level. The solution may or may not come on quickly, but the supervisor is to monitor the change. The performance plan often involves the WB's resources, such as the ombudsman, staff counseling services, career advisory program, legal department or health services department.
In most cases, the PAS training leads the supervisor to adopt its case management approach instead of simply improving on his own approach (Yandrick 1995). It corrects the traditional hard-line punch shown or given to poor performers by sending the accurate message that "you get what you reinforce." PAS trainers demonstrate the appropriate techniques whereby the supervisor and the employee can arrive at a satisfactory solution together. Donald Philips offered a Coaching and Counseling Model, consisting of four stages, i.e, corrective feedback, problem solving, consultation, and corrective interview.
Philips also emphasized that the supervisor or manager needs to reduce the incidence and potential of workplace violence and that performance management training should include and integrate such a need. He noted that critical incidents of violence do not occur entirely in the workplace and to workplace events that traumatize victims and witnesses: these include acts that precede the events. He enumerated critical incidents like physical violence or threats of violence; injury or accident while on duty; mild to severe physical or mental defect; weird talks or behavior; threats of suicide; sudden death of a fellow-worker; and intimidating, threatening or abusive speech or acts. He stressed the need to refer the incidents to a power-assessment resource to prevent or diffuse the likelihood of these occurrences. Otherwise, there should be a critical debriefing if the incidents had already happened.
World Bank adviser Michael Collins advanced that performance case management helps in rendering equitable solutions to employee conduct or work-performance problems (Yandrick 1995). This is made possible by the problem-resolution introduced by PAS for under-achieving employees while fulfilling their duties to the organization. Supervisors get the opportunity to understand the process and motivate them to use it.
The roles of WB's PAS are the prompt resolution of all performance problems and issues; install firm adherence to job-grade performance issues and problems; the clear and consistent application of policies and procedures throughout the organization; the modification of human resource policies and procedures in facilitating a fair resolution of the problems or issues; implementation of improvement plans aimed at resolving or preventing stubborn problems; and close monitoring of performance issues by helping supervisors and managers identify peer-related employee performance discrepancies.
After taking serious stock of manpower issues on health care costs, adjustments to it developments and a World-Bank case performance Model for chronically performing employees, there also appears a need for well-trained managers. Many even believe that management development must precede all other considerations. The shortage or absence of appropriate management skills indicates organizational problems themselves, rather than the incompetence or skills deficiency of the individual manager (Kent 2003).
Recent case studies show that some organizations exhibit a need for a general management system that makes sure the fundamental management practices are conducted and independently of individual personalities or preferences. This system must possess operating procedures that clarify employees' roles; insure that the departments would benefit from their working together; install and operate procedures that would facilitate that cooperation; the identification and resolution of performance problems in a quick, constructive and equitable way; that managers would observe employee-constructive practices; and other fundamental management activities, but this general management system would make establish these practices as the standard behavior and culture of the company, rather than the way individual managers are inclined to impose.
Managers, like their subordinate employees, also need to be managed (Kent 2003). They have just the same right and duty to seek clear direction from their supervisor or chief and receive supportive coaching and direction. Their roles and their CEOs expectations of them must be clear to them. In order to provide this information and direction, the CEO needs to apply the general management system. When this happens, management practices will be consistently applied to entire manpower hierarchy and complement from top to bottom (Kent).
Many businesses confront difficulty or fail on account of a wrong diagnosis of their organizational problems or a stubborn persistence to outmoded ways of handling management problems. The most important and the most difficult center on human resources and health care costs, the wrong and "silver-bullet" concept about information technology, chronically poor performance and the need for a general management system for both the rank-and-file and the managers themselves.
Some companies have begun experimenting on a labor/management partnership in responding to inevitable and rising costs of health care. A number have found their models effective so far but current measures at least are in tune with the reality and inevitableness of health care. The cooperative effort seems headed in the right direction from a right diagnosis of a problem and suggests that ensuing problems will ably handled as long as cooperative efforts remain.
The World Bank came up with a PAS model in assisting businesses in their dealings with problem workers, such as chronically poor performers. The model explores the issue more deeply and honestly and does away with the hard-line approach of simply and summarily firing, demoting or transferring the dysfunctional employee.
There have also been advocates of a general management system, which will insure the operation of fundamental management practices independently of individual personalities and preferences, to keep the organization grinding, cohesive and productive. They also stressed the manager's right and need to be managed by his superiors.
These developments and openness to change, coupled by a demonstrated willingness to respond to that change, indicate that the right attitude has been put in place and a correct diagnosis of management, especially in human resource, is being made at the moment.
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