Sampled and the Various Types of Instruments Essay

  • Length: 5 pages
  • Subject: Transportation
  • Type: Essay
  • Paper: #84228662

Excerpt from Essay :

sampled, and the various types of instruments used in data collection. The methods also differ in how the data will be collected: qualitatively, quantitatively or both.

In the following essay we will be discussing the comparisons and contrasts of the following research methods, followed by some examples and particular usage of these methods.

Field Research Method

Experimental Research Method


Field Research Method

Field research is an activity used to collect primary or unusual data using methods such as face-to-face interviewing, telephonic interviews, surveys and direct observation etc. The purpose of this study is to observe the phenomena in its natural state, collection of data and then construction of theory. The field research method has much strength, such as that the researcher can conduct research in a better way to find out the specific information that is required. Similarly, flexibility is also a great strength of this method, as the researcher can make many changes within field research. The field research method is an inexpensive method as compared to other research methods. The validity of field research method is very high; the researcher can easily document the complexity of human behaviors with detailed directions. The field research method also has some weaknesses: it is observed that this research method takes time for the researcher to gather information. It is also greatly possible that the researcher can also lose control over variables.

Experimental Research Method

Experimental research is a research method that is most generally used in sciences. This is method in which the researcher manipulates one variable, and controls the other variables. Subjects are randomly assigned to groups with a controlled group, and the investigator only tests one effect at a time. It is significant to know for research purposes which variables the researcher wants to test and measure. The basic purpose of this method is to predict the phenomena in controlled environment. Using this method, the researcher can get detailed insight into the methods of instructions and shape the instinctive practice in controlled environment of experimental research method. Human performance is also a great strength of this research method as it allows the researcher to rely on the results of research. This research is usually used to determine the best thing for population and it also provides better transferability as compared to subjective research. In experimental research, human error can affect the results of the research; personal biasness of researcher can also affect the results of research. In this particular type of research, the researcher can produce results artificially. Groups used in this method may not be similar and this can greatly affect the results. Sometimes, particular human reactions can be complicated to calculate for the researcher.

Survey Research Method

A survey research is a method of collecting information on human population. In this method, the researcher directly or indirectly contact the individuals, organizations or communities by using systematic measurement methods such as questionnaires and interviews etc. The purpose of this study is also to observe the phenomena and the survey research method is a low priced method, which makes it a choice method for researchers to study almost any given phenomena. The researcher can ask many questions about a specific topic by giving significant flexibility in the analysis; the researcher can also design consistent questions to get more precise measurement by applying reliable definitions to the participants. In this method, consistence confirms that similar data can be collected from the groups and then can be interpreted relatively. In this method, high reliability is also a strengthening factor which is easy to attain by representing all subjects with a consistent motivation. A methodology of relying on standardization forces the researcher to develop questions to be general enough to minimally adequate for all respondents, possibly, lack what is most suitable for many respondents. Survey research methods are rigid because they need the early study design to stay unaffected all the way through the data collection. As contrasting to straight observation, survey research excluding some interview approaches cannot often deal with background.


Field Research Method

The purpose of field research method is to observe the phenomena in its natural state. In this method, the researcher can directly communicate to collect new information outside the laboratory. In the field research method, the researcher can be sure that the information is up-to-date. By using this particular method, the researcher can easily study nonverbal behavior and conduct the research in a natural environment. The researcher can manage…

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