Multivariate Analysis Essays (Examples)

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Multivariate Statistics the Research Question

Words: 566 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81352641

I might believe that other variables (such as gender and low income) have a more significant impact on the frequency of car accidents as compared to for instance the general belief that it is crime, and location that induce them.

Potential pitfall

Firstly, I have to ascertain that my operational terms of data are totally accurate and thorough, since the outcome depends on the data that is fed-in to the system.

Most significantly, however, the major conceptual limitation is that I can only ascertain a relationship but never be sure of the underlying causal factor. It may be a variable that is seemingly unrelated to the independent variables mentioned here and, therefore, has been overlooked. For instance, it may be a possibility that menopause may be responsible for inducing accidents; so even though the factor of age may have emerged as significant, the real problem -- menopause -- has remained…… [Read More]

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Statistical Analysis of Police Arrest Decisions

Words: 499 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58013004

Statistical Analysis of Police Arrest Decisions

What are the central variables that Smith and Visher studied?

Smith and Visher (1981) analyzed a series of independent variables that were found by previous studies to influence dependent variable 'likelihood of being arrested'. Although a Chi square test revealed several factors to be significantly associated with likelihood of being arrested (Table 1), the aim of their research was to reveal the relative contributions of the many independent variables examined. Towards this goal the authors used a multivariate probit model to gauge relative contributions from a set of independent variables on arrest likelihood. These variables are as follows: police contact initiated by a victim or the police, contact with suspect took place in a public or private location, presence of bystanders, victim is present or absent, victim's choice of how to handle the contact, suspect's race, age, and gender, suspect's demeanor, relationship between victim…… [Read More]

References

Smith, Douglas A. And Visher, Christy A. (1981). Street-level justice: Situational determinants of police arrest decisions. Social Problems, 29, 167-177.
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Multivariate Statistics Compare and contrast

Words: 1438 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53542448

Multivariate Techniques

There is a number of mathematical and statistical tools that businesses use to survive and thrive in their respective markets. Some of the math involved is quite simple and basic. Examples of such basic operations would include percentages, standard deviations and so forth. However, there are some fields and realms where much more intricate mathematics are involved and statistics would be a common example of such a complex method. This brief report shall specifically cover the use of multivariate statistics. Three of the more common manifestations of multivariate statistics are factor analysis, cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling. While making things overly complex from a numbers standpoint is usually not wise, there are situations where more robust and complex analysis is necessary or advantageous.

Compare & Contrast

The first multivariate method that shall be discussed is factor analysis. Factor analysis is a technique that is used to reduce a…… [Read More]

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Sony Ratios and Analysis of

Words: 799 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65318267

This measure is -3.34% for FY 2009, compared to 10.66% in FY 2008 and 3.75% in FY 2007.

2.1.1.8 a quick ratio or liquid ratio measures the ability of a company to use its near cash or quick assets to immediately extinguish or retire its current liabilities. The higher the quick ratio, the better the position of the company. Sony's quick ratio has fallen to 0.14 in FY 2009 down from 0.24 in FY 2008 and 0.19 in FY 2007.

2.1.1.9 a high debt/equity ratio generally means that a company has been aggressive in financing its growth with debt. This is important to examine because it can result in volatile earnings as a result of the additional interest expense. Sony's debt/equity ratio has increased to 3.05 in FY 2009 versus 2.62 in FY 2008 and 2.47 in FY 2007.

2.1.1.10 Growth as measured by sales is horrible for Sony in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Beers, S. And Lund, M. Corporate finance: Using financial ratios. http://www.cooperativegrocer.coop/articles/index.php?id=223

Documents submitted to the SEC (EDGAR) Form 20F and others.  http://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/IR/library/sec.html
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Nursing and Catheter Usage an Analysis

Words: 557 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63422322

Wilde, M. et al. (2015). Self-management intervention for long-Term indwelling urinary catheter users. Nursing Research, 64(1): 24-34.

The method employed in this quantitative study is the random clinical trial and the research tradition was congruent with the methods used to collect and analyze the data: the researchers collected data during face-to-face home interviews and follow-up phone interviews with more than 200 participants involved over a 12-month period; and analysis was generated using generalized estimating equations. Thus the sample size was consistent with a standard quantitative study and the duration was of sufficient length to monitor changes/developments alongside a control group. There was no evidence of reflexivity, as the self-management approach to catheter use eliminated problems.

The sample was adequately described: the participants were adult long-term urinary catheter users split between the trial group testing the effectiveness of the self-management treatment and the control group receiving normal treatment. Thus triangulation was…… [Read More]

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Rapp Adam Trainor Kevin J

Words: 825 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43039201



2.1Critique of the research

The work of app et al. (2009 is rooted on a theoretical background and conceptual framework of resource-based view of technological adoption for the sake of gaining a competitive advantage. The theory of CM technology is also part and parcel of this work. The theoretical model is indicated below;

The hypothesized model

I believe the hypothesized model is appropriate in proving the hypothesis.

The major hypotheses are;

H1: CM technology capability positively affects customer-linking capability

H2: Customer orientation positively affects customer-linking capability

This is because they are the ones that capture the spirit and aim of our study;: Examining the complementary role of customer orientation and CM technology.

2.2. Internal validity

This work has a good internal validity. This is because of the various statistical tests of validity that were carried out and gave appositive answer. The tests included Cronbach's Alpha, Average Variance Extracted and Composite…… [Read More]

References

Rapp, Adam; Trainor, Kevin J; & Agrihotr, Raj (2009). Performance implications of customer-linking capabilities: Examining the complementary role of customer orientation and CRM technology. Journal of Business Research, in Press, Corrected Proof,
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City of Alexandria -- Time Series Data

Words: 1819 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86422683

City of Alexandria -- Time Series Data

Tufte (2001) and other ambassadors of the visual display of data have shown us how easily it is to understand complex data when it is graphically represented in ways that our minds are designed to understand. Tufte argues that "experience with the analysis of data…is essential for achieving precision and grace in the presence of statistics, .but even textbook of graphical design are silent about how to think about numbers" (Tufte, 2001, p. 104). Tufke remarks, that "Illustrators too often see their work as an exclusively artistic enterprise -- the words "creative," "concept," and "style" combine regularly in all possible permutations -- a Big Think jargon for the small task of constructing a time-series a few data points long" (Tufte, 2001, p. 204). Visual display of data has other uses than simply an elegant way to view, appreciate, and analyze data. The process…… [Read More]

References

Averch, H.A. (XXX). Chapter 10 Using expert judgment. [In XXXX].

Gladwell, M. (2007, November 12). Dangerous minds: Criminal profiling made easy. The New Yorker.

Miller, J.E. (2005). The Chicago guide to writing about multivariate analysis. Chicago, Il.: University of Chicago Press.

Meier,, K.J., Brudney, J.L., and Bohte, J. (2005). Applied statistics for public and nonprofit Administration, 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Thompson Wadsworth.
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Job Attitudes

Words: 1222 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53609239

Meta-Analysis Stages and Practices

(based on Figure 1, p. 307, Kirca & Yaprak, 2010)

The Causal Relation Between Job Attitudes and Performance:

A Meta-Analysis of Panel Studies

How Important Are Job Attitudes? Meta-Analytic Comparisons Of Integrative Behavioral Outcomes And Time Sequences

Formulate problem

Identify and read relevant theoretical and empirical articles

studies were utilized.

Contextual performance and focal performance were the two main factors on which the studies were based

Identify important, common variables, study, and measurement characteristics to assess

The two variables being studied were job attitudes and job performance

Job attitudes were linked to different factors that came under the category of contextual and focal performance

Identify contradictory findings

Decide on meta-analysis objectives

To fill the gap between the relationship of these two factors.

To fill the gap between the relationships of these two factors.

Develop preliminary theoretical framework

Job attitudes were defined as a person's affective and…… [Read More]

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Health Sciences

Words: 4995 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35996922

meticulous construction of the data analysis, statistical tabulation, and interpretation is provided in the following pages.

SPSS was used to manage and calculate the researcher-designed data.

Researcher-Designed Questions

Questions numbered 1-11 were administered as a part of the SF-36 mental inventory. As stated earlier, these questions provide a standard assessment means to assess clinical outcome and mental health. However, they are inadequate to assist in assessing quality of life in patients undergoing on-pump and off-pump by-pass surgery.

Questions 12-30 were research developed and designed to give a more accurate assessment of patient satisfaction with the two procedures. These questions were divided into categories which are representative of factors commonly associated with quality of life. The categories are Mental health, Cognitive ability, Social support, General health, and Bodily pain. Demographic data is contained in questions 21-26 and will be used to identify confounding factors. For purposes of data analysis, the questions…… [Read More]

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Multidimensional Scaling Mds The Next

Words: 1567 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75896713

The rating scale is 1 to 7 with 1 representing "I don't like this at all" and 7 "I like this a lot." Each candy bar's average rating across judges is used as a point in a scatterplot with nine points. The scatterplot looks like the constellation Orion. It also looks like a pattern described by two dimensions, sweet and salty. The stress statistic for two dimensions has an acceptable value, but not as good as when a third dimension is added. The third dimension appears to one of texture: creamy vs. crunchy.

As Borgatti (1997) observed, there are two things to look for in interpreting an MDS map: clusters and dimensions. An inspection of the clusters of points reveals that highest average rating seems distant from the other eight and falls in the region describable as somewhat sweet, not very salty, and partly crunchy (Snickers). The lowest rating, which…… [Read More]

References

Borgatti, S. (1997). Multidimensional scaling. Retrieved 4/25/2010 from  http://www.analytictech.com/borgatti/mds.htm .

Cooper, L. (1983). A review of multidimensional scaling in marketing research. Applied Psychological measurement, 7, 427-450.

Garson, G.D. (2009). "Multidimensional scaling" from Statnotes: Topics in Multivariate Analysis. Retrieved 4/25/2010 from http://faculty.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/PA765/statnote.

Young, F, (1983). Multidimensional scaling. Retrieved April 24, 2010, from  http://forrest.psych.unc.edu/teaching/p208a/mds/mds.html .
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Managerial Assessments of the Applications of Regression

Words: 834 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16739508

Managerial Assessments of the Applications of egression

Management

The commentary of the article begins with the subject of the research in the article: Organizational Politics within Academic Departments. This subject is valid of research as it is a factor of which many students are unaware, yet are apart of and by which they are affected. Uninformed views or stereotypes of academia may not include the order of politics evident among faculty and staff within each department, yet they exist. Therefore the first piece of criticism is to validate the subject matter of the study. Furthermore, the authors argue for the importance of their study as there is little research in the area, for reasons that some of which are obvious and self evident.

The specific behavioral focus for the article is conflict. The authors wish to understand the nature of conflict within organizations and the impact conflict has upon perceptions.…… [Read More]

References:

Darr, W.A., & Johns, G. (2003) Political climates: Theoretical processes and multi-level antecedents. In Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Administrative Sciences Association of Canada, Organizational Behavior Division, 24(3)., 36 -- 50. Halifax, Nova Scotia. Retrieved from http://luxor.acadiau.ca/library/ASAC/v24/Proceedings/OrganizationalBehaviour.pdf. 2012 April 14.

Garson, G.D. (n.d.). Regression statnotes: Topics in multivariate analysis. Retrieved from http://www2.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/pa765/regress.htm. 2012 April 10.
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Economics Finance and Management in

Words: 3112 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23917516

This could indicate that the latter two countries seek to join the EU in hopes of more prosperous futures.

e) State of education in the country

From the standpoint of education, this is best ranked in Belgium, with a score of 8.8 on a scale from 1 to ten, and it is closely followed by France, with a score of 8.5, on the same scale. The Germans ranked their educational system with an 8, and the Dutch ranked their educational system with a 7. Turkey reveals a similar perception of its educational system as the Dutch, but the Croatians and the Turks have less positive perceptions over their educational systems.

From this standpoint then, it could be argued that all three non-EU member states would benefit from the accession to the EU as this would serve as grounds for improvement of their educational sectors.

f) State of health services in…… [Read More]

References:

Ozturc, Y., 2007, Negotiating modernity: early childhood education policy in Turkey in the context of seeking European Union membership -- a case study of the General Directorate of Preschool Education,

Tunah, I., Bashevent, C., Female labor supply in Turkey, in The Turkish economy: the real economy, corporate governance and reform, Routledge

Round 4 of the European Social Survey, http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org / last accessed on January 12, 2012
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Widgecorp III There a Number of Techniques

Words: 983 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12198454

idgeCorp III

There a number of techniques for performing multivariate analysis. These include factor analysis, multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. The first of these, factor analysis, is used to determine "something about the nature of the independent variables that affect the dependent variables," without actually measuring the independent variables (Darlington, n.d.).

DeCoster (1998) notes that there are two types of factor analysis: exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. As DeCoster points out "Factor analyses are performed by examining the pattern of correlations (or covariances) between the observed measures. Measures that are highly correlated are likely influenced by the same factors."

An example in the real world is outlined by Goldberg (n.d.). In this example, an energy company wanted explanations for trends in customer energy usage. The study featured sixteen different factors ranging from bill services to cost/rates issues to type of house. This example is not very good, because…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Darlington, R. (no date). Factor analysis. Cornell University. Retrieved November 25, 2011 from http://www.psych.cornell.edu/Darlington/factor.htm

DeCoster, J. (1998). Overview of factor analysis. University of Alabama. Retrieved November 25, 2011 from http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:fhT6X0seACcJ:www.stat-help.com/factor.pdf+factor+analysis&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjxn4JseiKhyt9yGulIOd2RnUxNCCDfycz842ZJmn_FeIysy-GyFA-mNphQfYAO14e-E1fEIKcbxiEiqV8L_-laeRwcg2CYXPdQHVOCA20zdn0vxqtrtPwynEquP3QAbKc1pPSC&sig=AHIEtbTgla9jm-AxXtFO7yUHs-Aj9Pf2rQ

Goldberg, R. (no date). Proc factor: How to interpret the output of a real world example. Guideline Research. Retrieved November 25, 2011 from http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:LHXtU1yyTzwJ:www2.sas.com/proceedings/sugi22/STATS/PAPER268.PDF+factor+analysis+real+world+example&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjmRIib9hGiYYKUnI01mFaBNqV9ZF_zvBJGm8sJtZyC8g3w_arK3xdkC4G03CSGwFcMbqL5lcammE1-jjEqTfYZCVgEq0PTgyh8kSsy8sHGHP21J4kTl9ExF7lgRid8ljAueMsw&sig=AHIEtbRThDVofsMNMv8rs3i4F6kzdDO54Q

Young, F. (no date). Multidimensional scaling. University of North Carolina. Retrieved November 25, 2011 from  http://forrest.psych.unc.edu/teaching/p208a/mds/mds.html
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Coleman Et Al 2009 Patient Perceptions of

Words: 1428 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67687998

Coleman et. al., (2009) Patient Perceptions of Obstetrician-gynecologists' Practices elated to HIV Testing. Maternal Child Health Journal 13: 355-363.

What were the objectives and hypothesis of the study?

The Coleman and colleagues (2009) study had four main objectives. The researchers sought to determine (1) the number of patients who were tested for HIV by their obstetrician-gynecologist (OBGYN); (2) investigate the attitudes of knowledge of patients concerning HIV testing and their personal risk status; (3) elucidate the key reasons that lead to declining an HIV test; and (4) examine how patients recall their OBGYN's approach to HIV testing.

The researchers hypothesized that women in their sample who were pregnant, seeking preconception care or who were women with risk factors for HIV infection would demonstrate recall for their OBGYN recommending an HIV test.

What was the overall goal/recommendation of the study?

The studying was predominantly seeking to determine whether or not female…… [Read More]

References

CDC (2008). Training: Policy Research and Development. Retrieved May 16, 2010 from http://www.cdc.gov/phtrain/policy_research.html.

Coleman, (2009). Patient Perceptions of Obstetrician-Gynecologists' Practices Related to HIV Testing. Maternal Child Health Journal, 13, 355-363.

DIGISTATS (2007). Descriptive Statistics; Inferential Statistics; Graphical Analysis. Retrieved on May 16, 2010 from  http://www.cvgs.k12.va.us/DIGSTATS/ .

Norusis, M.J. (2008). Guide to Data Analysis. SPSS Statistics 17.0.
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Healthcare in a New Policy

Words: 881 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92400400

The objective is to use one set of variables (columns) to predict another, for the purpose of optimization, and to find out which columns are important in the relationship. Here, we can compare the lifestyles through social status, activities they are involved in, physical activities and diet.

esearch tells us that obesity and being overweight play a role in cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, arthritis and colon, breast, uterine and prostate cancers. The health risks of being overweight are no secret, of course, and yet there appears to be no widespread urgency to address this trend (UCLA, 2009). Through this study, the writer hopes that public becomes more aware on which lifestyle they would like to choose -- hopefully, the health and wellness campaign that will be of benefit to everyone in the long run. Parents of overweight children have to go all-out to present healthy diet alternatives…… [Read More]

References

University of California - Los Angeles (2009, February 13). New Factor in Teen Obesity: Parents. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 5, 2009, at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090209125824.htm.

Feinstein, a.R. (1996) Multivariable Analysis. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
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Gender Differences in the Perception

Words: 2001 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84171848

The quantitative approach, meanwhile, will make use of the survey method, focusing on three (3) segments each for males and females (criteria mentioned earlier in the preceding section).

Diary Method

The diary method is recommended because this will generate information that is insightful and in-depth, as it provides participants with an opportunity to express their thoughts and feelings without being conscious of the people who might be interviewing them or be with them, as what happens during an FGD.

Focus Group Discussion (FGD)

The FGDs will provide breadth of information about perceived pain. There will be twelve (12) mini-groups per segment, broken down into the following discussant types:

Group Type

Age group

Males

Youth/Young Adult (13-25 years old)

Adults (26-55 years old)

Females

Youth/Young Adult (13-25 years old)

Adults (26-55 years old)

Survey

The survey method will make use of the multi-stage sampling, using once again the respondent criteria enumerated…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Babl, F. (2008). "Procedural pain and distress in young children as perceived by medical and nursing staff." Pediatric Anesthesia, Vol. 18.

Carlson, K. (2000). "Using distraction to reduce reported pain, fear, and behavioral distress in children and adolescents: a multisite study." JSPN, Vol. 5, No. 2.

Hama, a. (2004). "Sex differences in pain perception: a biological perspective." Mankind Quarterly, Vol. XLIV, Nos. 3 & 4.

Ibid., (2000). "Racial differences in pain perception: a biological basis." Mankind Quarterly, Vol. XLI, No. 1.
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Environmental Systems in the Past

Words: 12463 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 751326

Although the research tools provided by the ISO 14001 framework are both qualitative and quantitative, this approach is consistent with the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who points out that, "Both qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet there is much overlap between the type of data and the style of research. Most qualitative-style researchers examine qualitative data and vice versa" (p. 16). Indeed, researchers have used qualitative and quantitative surveys to assess consumer reactions to proposed environmental initiatives at the local level (Neuman, 2003).

In fact, quantitative and qualitative research methods are characterized by a number of similarities that lend themselves to environmental systems analyses and development (as well as some differences) (Neuman, 2003). The distinct differences in the qualitative and quantitative research suggest that the use of quantitative data for environmental system development is highly appropriate, but that such…… [Read More]

References

Bonlac Foods. (2012). Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from http://investing.business week.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=883342.

McComb, S. (2010). Green building & green business informatics tool. Elusor. Retrieved from http://www.environmentalaccountingtools.com/magazine/tag/building.

Recardo, R. & Jolly, J. (1999). Organizational culture and teams. SAM Advanced Management

Journal, 62(2), 4-5.
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Royal Dutch Shell PLC and Its Edge

Words: 2602 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76396691

oyal Dutch Shell PLC and Its Edge on the Global Market

The concept of financial analysis is a core indicator of the actual financial health of a given organization. The development of an accurate and dependable conceptual framework to be employed in the analysis of the global and corporate financial system has for quite a long time been an important issue in corporate accounting (Bodie & Merton,1990). An appropriate conceptual framework must be able to meet two main objectives: to effectively address the differences that exists in the institutional structures as well as to explain the main changes in the institutional structures over time. A review of extant literature has been dedicated to the concept of financial analysis. Most of these studies have dwelt on financial ratios. A study by Nenide, Pricer & Camp (2008) indicated that extant literature in accounting as well as finance indicate that the application of…… [Read More]

References

Chemical Market Reporter (2001) Energy markets poised for dramatic change, Chemical Market Reporter, 260(17), p. 8.

Datamonitor (2006). Royal Dutch Shell PLC.

http://favormall.net/clientimages/38996/oil-royaldutchshell.pdf

Duval, Y (2005). Primary Data Collection Methods: Survey Design. ARTNeTCapacity Building Workshop on Trade Research Bangkok, Thailand, 22-25 March 2005
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Goldenberg Et Al 2001 and Titled Cause

Words: 1202 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48342686

Goldenberg, et al. (2001), and titled "Cause or effect? A longitudinal study of immigrant Latino parents' aspirations and expectations of their children's school performance." (p. 547). The authors collected data using the longitudinal study from randomly selected immigrant Latino families whose children were mostly born in the United States. The research used the mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research, and the authors tracked N= 121 families of schools children in two Los Angeles school area districts, and the families of the children were tracked from "kindergarten to sixth grade." (Goldenberg, et al. 2001, p 547),

The procedures used in the research are by randomly selecting N= 32 families for the case study and the interviews were conducted for the families "10 times between the time their children were admitted into kindergarten and completed 6th grade." (Goldenberg, et al. 2001 p 554). The interviews were conducted within three years…… [Read More]

Reference

Goldenberg, C., Gallimore, R., Reese, L., et al. (2001). Cause or effect? A longitudinal study of immigrant Latino parents' aspirations and expectations of their children's school performance. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 547-582.
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Analytics Interfaces & Cloud Technology

Words: 2203 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54905385

Analytics, Interfaces, & Cloud Technology

The use of analytics and cloud technology is a new advance in computing which allows data collection and analytics to be done using higher processing speeds. It allows organizations to take full advantage of the huge amount of data that is collected through web analytics services. Miller Inc. collects a huge amount of data which is difficult to process. It also takes a very long time to process the data since the data is dynamic in nature. There is also a challenge in keeping data secure since the company needs to ensure its business and competitive advantage is protected. Through providing analytics services through cloud technology, Miller Inc. will be able to leverage the data driven frontier of cloud analytics. Basically, the company will be able to leverage the use of technological and analytical tools and techniques which it will design for its clients. These…… [Read More]

References

Antonopoulos, N., & Gillam, L. (2010). Cloud Computing: Principles, Systems and Applications. London: Springer London.

Buyya, R., Broberg, J., & Goscinski, A.M. (2010). Cloud Computing: Principles and Paradigms. New York: Wiley.

Jamsa, K.A. (2011). Cloud Computing. Burlington, Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Appendix
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Study on Parents with Autistic Children

Words: 1500 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39071859

Autism is a problem with significant negative impacts on affected children and their parents/families who require wide-ranging support services for their children. For family members, the condition generates distress when raising the affected child due to the psychological and social problems it creates. Therefore, the consideration of parental mental health is an important aspect for social workers and mental healthcare providers when attending to these special needs' kids and creating interventions for children diagnosed with autism. In this regard, the research problem to be examined in this study is the link between hopefulness, quality of life (QOF) and internalized stigma for parents with autistic children.

Plan for Identifying Research Question and Sub-questions

The plan for identifying the research question and relevant sub-questions in this study involves utilizing the PICO format. First, the researcher identified the population or problem of interest i.e. parents with children suffering from autism. This was followed…… [Read More]

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Patient Nurse Compliance With Scd

Words: 1618 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91082263

" (Morris & Woodcock, 2004)

V. Murakami et al. (2003)

In the work entitled: "Deep Venous Thrombosis Prophylaxis in Trauma: Improved Compliance With a Novel Miniaturized Pneumatic Compression Device" the authors state that: "Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) devices prevent lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis (LEDVT) when used properly, but compliance remains an issue." (Murakami et al., 2003) the study conducted by Murakami et al. (2003) is stated to be a."..prospective trial in which trauma patients (mean age, 46 years; revised trauma score, 11.7) were randomized to DVT prophylaxis with a standard calf-length sequential IPC device (SCD group) or a miniaturized sequential device (continuous enhanced-circulation therapy [CECT] group). Compliance rates for all subjects were averaged in each location: emergency department, operating room, intensive care unit, and nursing ward." (Murakami et al., 2004) the study results state that: "Total compliance rate in the CECT group was significantly higher than in the SCD group…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kehl-Preutt, Wendy (2006) Deep Vein Thrombosis in Hospitalized Patients: A Review of Evidence-based Guidelines for Prevention. Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing March/April 2006. Vol. 25 No.2. Online available at http://www.nursingcenter.com/prodev/cearticleprint.asp?CE_ID=636024.

Chang, David et al. (2002) Compliance with sequential compression device prophylaxis in at-risk trauma patients: a prospective analysis. Am Surg. 2002 May;68:470-3 Online available at http://lib.bioinfo.pl/auid:1350109.

Practice Alert: Deep Vein Thrombosis Prevention" (2006 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses Journal " Vol. 23 No. 1 January 2006.

Morris, Rhys J. & Woodcock, John P. (2004) Evidence-Based Compression: Prevention of Stasis and Deep Vein Thrombosis. Ann. Surg. 2004 February 239(2): 162-171.
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Applying Statistical Process Control Pharmaceutical Manufacturing the

Words: 1635 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76683966

Applying Statistical Process Control Pharmaceutical Manufacturing

The use of applied statistics in studying a pharmaceutical manufacturing process is examined in the work of Tiani (2004) reports that health care quality is critically important in society and the quality of health care is important to all individuals. It is important that treatment is given in an accurate manner and this is particularly true of medications given to patients as it is expected that "the bottle of medicine has the specified number of tablets and that each tablet contains the specified quantity of the correct drug." (Tiani, 2004)

Legal and Regulatory Framework

There are legal and regulatory requirements set out in the law of the United States that the quality of medications be controlled in the pharmaceutical industry. The regulations are contained in federal statutes and outline "a quality control functions that emphasizes inspection and defect detection, and pharmaceutical quality control technology."…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Shanley, Agnes (2011) No Time for Process Control? PharmaManufacturing Magazine. Retrieved from: http://www.pharmamanufacturing.com/articles/2010/123.html?page=full

Janardhan, 2011, Pala Bashanam (2011) Pharmaceutical Manufacturing: Embracing Process Analytical Technology. Pharma Focus Asia. Retrieved from:  http://www.pharmafocusasia.com/manufacturing/pharmaceutical_manufacturing_pat.htm 

Moore, V (2003) Statistical Process Control. Chapter 24 9 Apr 2003. Retrieved from: http://www.uncp.edu/home/marson/360chapter24.pdf

Guidance for Industry Process Validation: General Principles and Practices (2011) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) Jan 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.pharmamanufacturing.com/wp_downloads/pdf/FDAProcessValidationJan2011.pdf
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How Do the Non-For Profit NFP Organizations Manage Their Procurement Processes

Words: 6916 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39302164

picture of how nonprofit organizations balance their procurement processes by applying a phenomenological method to investigate the procurement methods, by categorizing the knowledge of participants. This involved the analysis of survey results in order to pinpoint the fundamental challenges that nonprofits face in conjunction with finding a means of improving the procurement processes. This was an investigation founded on an intensified approach to epistemology. Other models, such as the descriptive and analytical approach were also harnessed to help explain this particular topic. Surveys are of the most pinnacle and fundamental means of gathering enquiries to the information that exists, analyzing them to engage in a critical evaluation of the data. This survey seeks to shed light on the entire task of procurement, which generally refers to the manner in which goods are acquired, via a procuring entity and through the use of public funds. "Public bodies have always been big…… [Read More]

References

Aday, L., & Cornelius, L. (2011). Designing and Conducting Health Surveys. Ssan Francisco: Jossy-Bass.

Angeles, R., & Nath, R. (2007). Business-to-business e-procurement. Retrieved from porto.ucp.pt:  http://www.feg.porto.ucp.pt/docentes/rsousa/Files/Le%20Havre%20Files/S7_4.pdf 

Baxter, P., & Jack, S. (2008, December). Qualitative Case Study Methodology: Study Design. Retrieved from PSU.edu: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.152.9570&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Daymon, C., & Holloway, I. (2011). Qualitative Research. New York: Routledge.
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Criminal Justice-Corrections Vast Literature Has

Words: 533 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91734128



All of the authors' hypotheses have been supported. Results of this study suggest that positive view of the ACA standards has a negative impact on job stress and a positive impact on job satisfaction. The same holds true with positive relations with coworkers and clear and consistently enforced institutional policies. Furthermore, results show that the impacts of these three are superior to that of personal characteristics of correctional workers.

This study has its own share of limitations and weaknesses. One, the sample was limited to employees of OCCD only. This creates an issue on the representativeness of the sample and thus, the accuracy and generalizability of the findings. Second, among the array of work environment factors that might possibly affect job stress and job satisfaction, discussion has been limited to only three. Lastly, the effects of these three factors on the organizational commitment and job involvement of correctional workers has…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Paoline, E.A., Lambert, E.G., & Hogan, N.L. (2006). A calm and happy keeper of the keys. The Prison Journal, 86 (2), 182-205.
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Linear Regression Examples

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66685519

Linear egression

Predictions and Hypothesis Testing

What benefit does a variable provide when developing and examining models?

Statistics can be used to describe a phenomenon or conduct hypothesis testing, but statistics can also used to predict outcomes (Hanneman, Kposowa, & iddle, 2012, p. 7). To enable predictions to be made, variables are required in the statistical model. Variables allow researchers to model the mathematical relationship between two or more phenomenon. For example, the relationship between tree circumference and the number of leaves could be described by the two variables girth and leaves. This relationship may or may not be causal, but it could be correlational. If a causal relationship is suspected, then maybe reducing the number of leaves inhibits expansion of tree girth. In this case, leaves would be the independent variable and girth the dependent variable. If the model is valid, then the tree girth could be predicted for…… [Read More]

References

Atmospheric pressure and other state variables. (n.d.). Retrieved 6 May 2014 from  http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~joel/g110_w08/lecture_notes/pressure/pressure.html .

Hanneman, R.A., Kposowa, A.J., & Riddle, M.D. (2012). Research Methods for the Social Sciences: Basic Statistics for Social Research. Somerset, N.J.: Jossey-Bass.

Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. (n.d.). Chapter 2: Simple linear regression. In Research Methods II: Multivariate Analysis. Retrieved 6 May 2014 from  http://www.oxfordjournals.org/our_journals/tropej/online/ma.html .

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2011). What are the coronary heart disease risk factors? Retrieved 6 May 2014 from  http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hd/ .
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Rights and Social Inclusion Homeless

Words: 3174 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85089247

Often children must withhold information from people who could help them as public awareness of their homelessness would likely end in separation from loved ones as for children a greater number of programs exist to help them independently than collectively with their parents. Homeless youth are also a significant social issue and their numbers are hard to even estimate, though there are clear indications that the numbers are growing. "Novac, Serge, Eberle, and Brown (2002) identified four important trends among homeless youth: 1) the incidence is increasing; 2) an increasing number are chronically homeless; 3) the age at which youth become homeless is decreasing, especially for females; and 4) more identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgendered." (Wingert, Higgitt & istock, 2005, p. 54) the issue, like with that of other homeless populations is developing systems that build transitions to more stable and permanent housing. (Wingert, Higgitt & istock, 2005,…… [Read More]

References

Calhoun, J. (2006). Proven Pathways to Violence Prevention. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 15(1), 19.

Canada, G. (2001). The Best Way We Know How. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 10(1), 54.

Conderman, G., Heimerl, a.M., & Ketterhagen, B.L. (2001). Longing for a Father. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 10(3), 140.

Craig, T.K.J. Hodson, S. (1998) Homeless youth in London: I. Childhood antecedents and psychiatric disorder. Psychological Medicine. 28:1379-1388.
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Park J & Choi H J

Words: 349 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2076574



Statistical Test

The researchers used descriptive statistics (mean mode, etc.), chi square, and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA).

esults

Individual characteristics were developed from the survey answers. Data is then divided into various groups where age, sex and characteristics are all compared. Certain characteristics are statistically proven to relate to certain groups of learners making the study somewhat useful.

Conclusions

The study demonstrated that online dropouts had significant difference in perceptions of learner satisfaction and relevance from persistent learners." In other words, learners are less likely to drop out when they are satisfied with the courses, and when the courses are relevant to their own lives."

Critique

This study is probably too narrow in scope to make any definite relationships between learning characteristics and dropouts.

eferences

Park, J., & Choi, H.J. (2009). Factors influencing adult learners' decision to drop out or persist in online learning. Journal of Educational Technology &…… [Read More]

References

Park, J., & Choi, H.J. (2009). Factors influencing adult learners' decision to drop out or persist in online learning. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 12(4), 207-n/a. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/1287038599?accountid=28844
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Nursing Retention

Words: 1379 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47549418

Motivation as a Factor in Nurse etention

The decreasing recruitment and retention of nurses throughout the United States and internationally is a growing concern that must be addressed and remedied. As front-line workers, nurses play an integral role in the provision of quality healthcare to those who are most in need - the patients. In order to remedy the problem of increasing numbers of nurses leaving the profession, it is crucial that influential factors be identified. This study will explore the effects that motivation has on the job satisfaction of nurses and on nurse retention. It is hypothesized that nurses who are more motivated in their jobs are more satisfied, and are thus less likely to leave the profession. The findings from this study will provide information as to what changes can be made so that nurses are more motivated in their profession.

Nursing retention is a prominent factor in…… [Read More]

References

Callaghan, M. (2003). Nursing morale: What is it like and why? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 42 (1), 82-9.

Cooper, E.E. (2003). Pieces of the shortage puzzle: aging and shift work. Nursing Economics, 21 (2), 75-9.

Donley, R., Flaherty, M.J., Sarsfield, E., Taylor, L., Maloni, H., Flanagan, E. (2002). What does the nurse reinvestment act mean to you? Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, http://nursingworld.org/ojin/topic14/tpc.14_5.htm.

Ma, C.C., Samuels, M.E., Alexander, J.W. (2003). Factors that influence nurses' job satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Administration, 33 (5), 293-9.
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Multivariable Statistical Control Charts

Words: 1772 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19359503

Hoteling T^2 Control Charts

Multivariable statistics is an aspect of statistics that involves analysis of more than one variables. In other words, the multivariable analysis is concerned with the statistical analysis of more than one variables how they are related to one another. Some problems involve using the multivariable data using multiple regression or linear regression, and one of the aspects of the multivariable analysis is an area that involves analysis of quality control using the linear regression. Contrary to the univariable analysis that uses two variables, the multivariable analysis uses two or more independent variables or dependent variables. The concept independent variables are the variables manipulated by the researcher to carry out the analysis. With this control, the researcher will be able to correlate the dependent and independent variables. However, the manufacturing companies are increasingly using the multivariable statistics to enhance product quality. In the contemporary manufacturing environment, increasing…… [Read More]

Reference

Bersimis, S. Panaretos, J. &. Psarakis, S. (2005). Multivariate Statistical Process Control Charts and the Problem of Interpretation: A Short Overview and Some Applications in Industry. University of Piraeus, Department of Statistics and Insurance Science, Piraeus, Greece.

Harris, K., Triantafyllopoulos., K. Stillman., E. et al. (2016). A Multivariate Control Chart for Autocorrelated Tool Wear Processes. Quality and Reliability Engineering International, 32: 2093 -- 2106.

Hidalgo, B; Goodman, M (2013). "Multivariate or multivariable regression?". Am J. Public Health. 103: 39 -- 40.

Lyu, J.& Chen, M. (2009). Automated Visual Inspection Expert System for Multivariate Statistical Process Control Chart. Expert Systems with Applications 36: 5113 -- 5118.
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Statistical Processes

Words: 860 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26062280

A more robust method is to conduct a factor analysis before running the regression analysis, and then to rotate the factors to insure that the factors are independent in the factor analysis ("Statistics Solutions, 2012").

9. Discuss autocorrelation (serial correlation) assumption & implication to student work

Autocorrelation (lagged correlation or serial correlation) occurs when the correlation between values in a random process at different times that is a function of the time lag or of the two times ("Statistics Solutions, 2012"). That is to say that there is a relationship between a variable and itself over intervals of time ("Statistics Solutions, 2012"). These serial correlations occur in repeating patterns when the level of a variable at a time certain affects the variable at a future time ("Statistics Solutions, 2012").

10.Discuss ways to overcome the serial correlation

When using an estimated equation for statistical inference in hypothesis testing, the residuals will…… [Read More]

References

Geisser, S. And Johnson, W.M. (2006). Modes of Parametric Statistical Inference, John Wiley & Sons.

____. (2012). Statistics Solutions. Retrieved http://www.statisticssolutions.com/academic-solutions/resources/directory-of-statistical-analyses/assumptions-of-multiple-linear-regression/#sthash.hirr3Y2x.dpuf
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Business Using Gelso 2006 Harlow

Words: 16758 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35830950

esearchers have an occasion to further organizational science and to make research practical by producing information that can impact changing organizational forms and circumstances. Pragmatically, academic researchers are not likely to get access to a company that is going through change unless the practitioners believe the research will be helpful (Gibson & Mohrman, 2001).

There have been a number of calls to augment the significance and effectiveness of organizational science to companies. The usefulness challenge cannot be defined merely as getting practitioners to value and include what academics learn. It is believed that the usefulness of research depends, somewhat, on the degree to which the perspectives of organization members are incorporated in research procedures and the results are included into those members' organization design activities that take place as their company adjusts to its changing environment. esearch is more likely to be seen as useful if there are occasions for…… [Read More]

References

Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (U.S.), National Academy of Sciences

(U.S.), National Academy of Engineering & Institute of Medicine (U.S.). (2009). On

being a scientist: A guide to responsible conduct in research, (3rd ed.). Washington,

D.C.: National Academies Press. Retrieved from:
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Alcohol Drinking Among Young Jews

Words: 23454 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67540801

Paenting Style Influence on Excess Alcohol Intake Among Jewish Youth

Clinical Psychology

The health hazads that ae associated with adolescent alcohol use ae well documented, and thee is gowing ecognition among policymakes and clinicians alike that moe needs to be done to addess this public health theat. The pupose of this study was to examine the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish college students in the United States. The study daws on attachment theoy, social leaning theoy, and a paenting style model as the main theoetical famewoks to evaluate the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish adolescents to develop infomed answes to the study's thee guiding eseach questions concening the elationship between peceived paenting style and excess alcohol use of male, Jewish, college students aged 18-26 yeas, the elationship between academic achievement and the alcohol use fequency of male Jewish…… [Read More]

references to gender.

Scoring: The PAQ is scored easily by summing the individual items to comprise the subscale scores. Scores on each subscale range from 10 to 50.

Author: Dr. John R. Buri, Department of Psychology, University of St. Thomas, 2115

Summit Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55105.

Source: Buri, J.R. (1991). Parental Authority Questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Assessment, 57, 110-119
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Alcohol Drinking Among Young Jews

Words: 23424 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99740327

Paenting Style Influence on Excess Alcohol Intake Among Jewish Youth

Clinical Psychology

The health hazads that ae associated with adolescent alcohol use ae well documented, and thee is gowing ecognition among policymakes and clinicians alike that moe needs to be done to addess this public health theat. The pupose of this study was to examine the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish college students in the United States. The study daws on attachment theoy, social leaning theoy, and a paenting style model as the main theoetical famewoks to evaluate the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish adolescents to develop infomed answes to the study's thee guiding eseach questions concening the elationship between peceived paenting style and excess alcohol use of male, Jewish, college students aged 18-26 yeas, the elationship between academic achievement and the alcohol use fequency of male Jewish…… [Read More]

references to gender.

Scoring: The PAQ is scored easily by summing the individual items to comprise the subscale scores. Scores on each subscale range from 10 to 50.

Author: Dr. John R. Buri, Department of Psychology, University of St. Thomas, 2115

Summit Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55105.

Source: Buri, J.R. (1991). Parental Authority Questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Assessment, 57, 110-119
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Drinking With Younger Jews

Words: 24280 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42632920

Paenting Style Influence on Excess Alcohol Intake Among Jewish Youth

Ross

Maste of Science, Mental Health Counseling, College, Januay, 2008

Clinical Psychology

Anticipated; Decembe, 2016

The health hazads that ae associated with adolescent alcohol use ae well documented, and thee is gowing ecognition among policymakes and clinicians alike that moe needs to be done to addess this public health theat. The pupose of this study will be to examine the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish college students in the United States. The study daws on attachment theoy, social leaning theoy, and a paenting style model as the main theoetical famewoks to evaluate the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish adolescents to develop infomed answes to the study's thee guiding eseach questions concening the elationship between peceived paenting style and excess alcohol use of male, Jewish, college students aged 18-26…… [Read More]

references to gender.

Scoring: The PAQ is scored easily by summing the individual items to comprise the subscale scores. Scores on each subscale range from 10 to 50.

Author: Dr. John R. Buri, Department of Psychology, University of St. Thomas, 2115

Summit Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55105.

Source: Buri, J.R. (1991). Parental Authority Questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Assessment, 57, 110-119
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ICU Job Satisfaction Burnout Rate

Words: 1933 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5239720

e., males and females per nurse specialty).

Variables & Measures

Variables for the study are as follows: workload management, work environment, burnout rate, and job satisfaction. In addition to these variables, instruments gauging the level of burnout experienced will be used, particularly the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). An index of attitudes and perceptions on workload management, work environment, and job satisfaction will also be formulated, and will be tested for internal and construct validity.

FGD Guide / Survey Instrument

The FGD Guide will have four (4) sections, focusing on the following broad themes/topics: workload management as experienced by the discussants, work environment, burnout (concepts and experiences), and job satisfaction (as related to burnout). The survey instrument or questionnaire will also have the sections used in the FGD guide, with an additional section allotted for the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI).

Data Analysis

Data analysis will make use of both bivariate and…… [Read More]

References

Ablett, J. And R. Jones. (2007). "Resilience and well-being in palliative care staff: a qualitative study of hospice nurses' experience of work." Psycho-Oncology, Vol.16.

Browning, L., C. Ryan, S. Thomas, M. Greenberg, and S. Rolniak. (2007). "Nursing specialty and burnout." Psychology, Health & Medicine, Vol. 12, No. 2.

Gawel, J. (1999). "Herzberg's Theory of Motivation and Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs." ERIC Digests Website. Available at  http://www.ericdigests.org/1999-1/needs.html .

Gustafsson, G., a. Norberg, and G. Strandberg. (2008). "Meanings of becoming and being burnout -- phenomenological-hermeneutic interpretation of female healthcare personnel's narratives." Scandinavian Journal of Caring Science, Vol. 22.
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Developing Best Employee Performance Assessment for Call Centers

Words: 1421 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4440228

Telephone Customer Service epresentatives

Employment Assessment - Telephone

How do you interpret the reliability results for the clerical test and work sample? Are they favorable enough for the company to consider using them for keeps in selecting job applicants?

A primary objective of evaluating two new methods of assessing candidates for positions as telephone customer service representatives for the Phonemin Company is to improve the caliber of the employment pool from which new hires are selected. The participation of customer service representatives in the telephone ordering system of the company is critical to this endeavor. Moreover, the company will be adding roughly 40 employees to the call center in order to meet the anticipated growth in phone order sales. From this, it is readily apparent that effective means of assessing candidates for the positions of telephone customer service representatives is needed. The reliability figures for the current employee candidate system,…… [Read More]

References

French, A., Macedo, M., Poulsen, J., Waterson, T., & Yu, A. (2008). Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). San Francisco, CA: San Francisco State University. Retreived  http://userwww.sfsu.edu/efc/classes/biol710/manova/MANOVAnewest.pdf 

Shoukri, M.M. (2010) Measures of interobserver agreement and reliability (2nd ed). Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall/CRC Press.

Validity evidence: Types of validity. (2014). New York, NY: The College Board. Retrieved  http://research.collegeboard.org/services/aces/validity/handbook/evidence
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chronic pain

Words: 5085 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20582137

diagnoses, pain is a common complaint among inpatients. In the U.S. alone, approximately 100 million patients experience chronic pain (Alaloul et al., 2015). Pain negatively affects numerous aspects of an individual's life, such as sleep, quality of life, and physical functioning. Pain is also associated with negative psychological outcomes like depression, extended hospitalization, and a huge economic burden. In the U.S., for instance, pain imposes an estimated cost of $635 billion on patients and the healthcare system as a whole (Alaloul et al., 2015). Ineffective management of pain can have a negative impact on patient satisfaction, underscoring the need for more effective interventions.

Effective pain management is particularly important in postpartum care, where the experience of pain is common (Eshkevari, Trout & Damore, 2013). However, the management of pain in postpartum care remains quite ineffective, with up to 20% of postpartum patients reporting dissatisfaction with pain management (Niemi-Murola et al.,…… [Read More]

References

Alaloul, F., Williams, K., Myers, J., Jones, K., & Logsdon, M. (2015). Impact of a script- based communication intervention on patient satisfaction with pain management. Pain Management Nursing, 16(3), 321-327.

Broeck, J., Cunningham, S., Eeckels, R., & Herbest, K. (2005). Data cleaning: detecting, diagnosing, and editing data abnormalities. PLoS, 2(10), e267.

Brosey, L., & March, K. (2015). Effectiveness of structured hourly nurse rounding on patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 30(2), 153-159.

Bryman, A. (2008). Social research methods. 3rd ed. Buckingham: Open University Press.
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Nursing Alcohol Consumption Adolescent Alcohol

Words: 942 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99347074

In the analysis of the quantitative data, crude odds ratios were planned. Afterwards, a multinomial regression analysis was used (Pettersson, Linden-Bostrom and Eriksson, 2009).

The qualitative analysis of obvious barriers was completed by using content analysis on the answers to the opened-ended questions that were in the questionnaires. There were 176 responses all that considered meaning units. The significance units were then reduced into shorter sentences without altering the basis of the statements. The reduced meaning units were labeled with one or several codes. Sub-categories were shaped based on those codes and classified into eight main categories. The main lessons were separated into two main themes. The assessment was carried out by the first author, but before any concluding decision was made the co-authors read through all the steps in the analysis in order to verify the results (Pettersson, Linden-Bostrom and Eriksson, 2009).

Strengths and limitations of the mixed-methods approach…… [Read More]

References

Pettersson, Camilla, Linden-Bostrom, Margareta and Eriksson, Charli. (2009). BMC Public

Health, 9:478 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-478
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E-Learning vs F2f Traditional Learning the

Words: 1770 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3197314

Ethnography and in-depth interviews are the methods that will be applied for the educators group, while ethnography, in-depth interviews, and experimental methods will be used for the students group. Meta-analysis would simply include an analysis of all quantitative studies conducted proposing new measures and tools that will help evaluate the effective of online and/or traditional learning approaches.

For the ethnography and in-depth interviews, thematic analysis will be used to dimensionalize the variables and concepts used in the study, specifically those relevant to describing the nature and dynamic of online and traditional learning. Multivariate analysis, meanwhile, will be applied in determining the effectiveness of the learning approaches in providing quality education among students.

ibliography

Hughes, J. (2007). "Academic achievement and perceptions of the learning environment in virtual and traditional secondary mathematics classrooms." The American Journal of Distance Education, Vol. 21, No. 4.

Keller, C. And J. Lindh. (2009). "The impact of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Hughes, J. (2007). "Academic achievement and perceptions of the learning environment in virtual and traditional secondary mathematics classrooms." The American Journal of Distance Education, Vol. 21, No. 4.

Keller, C. And J. Lindh. (2009). "The impact of national culture on e-learning implementation: a comparative study of Argentinean and a Swedish university." Educational Media International, Vol. 46, No.1.

Rossett, a. And J. Marshall. (2010). "e-Learning: What's old is new again." T+D.

Todd, S. And K. Schwartz. (2009). "Thinking through quality in field education: integrating alternative and traditional learning opportunities." Social Work Education, Vol. 28, No. 4.
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Determining the Type of Research Methods to Use

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26323700

Nursing Discussion Posts

Regarding Data Collection and Analysis

It is possible to use a word processor to analyze qualitative data (LaPelle, 2004), an idea that is appealing because of the implied simplicity and because it is comparatively inexpensive. As I understand it, a qualitative data analysis tasks include the following major steps: Coding and retrieving data; inspection of data to prepare for indexing; creating hierarchies of categories by indexing; review and editing of the theme codes; including face sheet data about individual respondents (if interviews or surveys have been used) through demographic coding; relating the demographic data from the face sheets to the conceptual codes; quantifying the frequency of the instances of the codes; and annotating the text or narrative (MacQueen, et al., 1998) The terminology is a bit esoteric, but the process of qualitative data analysis is iterative so it helps me to think of the data as passing…… [Read More]

Kotler, P. (2003). Marketing Management (11th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc., Prentice Hall.

Regarding Interpersonal Trauma

It does seem important to use a multivariate analysis of variance in the study about
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MMR Vaccine and Autistic-Spectrum Disorders

Words: 6800 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49586616

Controversy with vaccines, adverse reactions of the MM vaccine and the negative publicity surrounding it

SHAPE

Measles, Mumps and ubella Vaccine:

Absence of Evidence for Link

to Autistic-Spectrum Disorders

Henry K. Nguyen, MD Candidate

Increased incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella is directly due to controversies regarding the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine despite the absence of data supporting a correlation between this combined vaccine and development of autism.

Correspondence to:

Mentor:

Dr. Anshu Kacker

5650 including Abstracts

Increased incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella is directly due to controversies regarding the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine despite the absence of data supporting a correlation between this combined vaccine and development of autism.

Methods and materials: A literature search was performed using key phrases, including the search-requisite abbreviation 'MM' (measles, mumps, rubella), such as: 'autism mmr vaccine', 'colitis mmr vaccine', 'controversy mmr', 'mmr adverse results', 'vaccines autism-spectrum disorders', 'vaccine effects…… [Read More]

References

Anderberg, D. (2009). Anatomy of a Health Scare: Education, Income and the MMR Controversy in the UK. Wrong source cited -- found article ===> Journal of Health Economics 03/2011; 30(3):515-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.01.009

Andrews, N.,Miller, E., Taylor, B., Lingam, R., Simmons, A., Stowe, J., Waight, P. (2002). Recall bias, MMR, and autism. Arch Dis Child, 87, 493-4.

ADDED

Autism Watch (2015)  http://www.autism-watch.org/news/lancet.shtml
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Slides and Speaker Notes

Words: 2603 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38472233

Evidence-Based Practice, or EVB, is a strategy that uses research, quality control measures, and other forms of evaluation data in order to improve practice methods within the healthcare setting.

EVB utilizes innovative clinical research study findings, survey results from both patients and healthcare providers, expert opinions, and quality improvement data to demonstrate a need for change and generate the most potentially successful strategy to improve the quality of care.

The procedures used within any application of EVB practices are guided by a clear mission and vision statement that directly reflect a need for improvement or other problem area.

Teams within the healthcare setting must be willing to search for and use evidence to help facilitate change.

Slide

Today, there are more Americans living with and at risk for diabetes than ever before in this nation's history.

Over 29 million Americans deal with diabetes on a daily basis. Many might think…… [Read More]

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Depression and Metabolic Syndrome Is

Words: 2340 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85883804

A key strength of the study was that it was the first to show that major depression predicts increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome in middle-aged women. One of the key limitations of the study was that it only evaluated the role of depression in middle-aged women and not in men. This limits the external validity of the study. In addition, the use of cross-sectional data, self-reports, or the measurement of depressive symptoms as opposed to clinical depression only provided indirect support for the link between depression and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome.

Although a majority of the research agrees that a clear connection exists between depression and metabolic syndrome, several sources disagree. Hildrum, Mykletun, Midthjell and associates (2008) are a key example of research that does not support the connection between depression and anxiety with metabolic syndrome. This study used a cross sectional study of participants aged 20-89.…… [Read More]

References

Akbaraly, T.N., Kivimaki, M., Brunner, E.J., Chandola, T., Marmot, M.G. Ferrie,

(2009). Association between metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults. Diabetes Care, 32, 499-504.

American Heart Association. (2010). Metabolic syndrome. Retrieved June3, 2010. From http://www.american heart.org/presenter,

Identifier+4756.
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Adults With Learning Disabilities it Has Been

Words: 14280 Length: 53 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 855258

Adults ith Learning Disabilities

It has been estimated (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 that 50-80% of the students in Adult Basic Education and literacy programs are affected by learning disabilities (LD). Unfortunately, there has been little research on adults who have learning disabilities, leaving literacy practitioners with limited information on the unique manifestations of learning disabilities in adults.

One of the major goals of the (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 National

Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center (National ALLD Center) is to raise awareness among literacy practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and adult learners about the nature of learning disabilities and their impact on the provision of literacy services. This fact sheet provides: a definition of learning disabilities in adults; a list of common elements found in many useful LD definitions; and a list of areas in which LD may affect life situations of adults.

Background

In 1963, the term "learning…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Author Unkown. Adult with Learning Disabilities

http://www.niwl.org/nalldc/ALLDissues.html

Corley, Mary Ann & Taymans, Juliana M. Adults with Learning Disabilities:A Review of Literature

http://www.josseybass.com/cda/cover/0,0787960624%7Cexcerpt,00.pdf
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Analyzing the Comparison Matrix

Words: 1435 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55032683

socialization of doctoral students the authors John C. Weidman and Elizabeth L. Stein utilize the framework for graduate and professional socialization to explain the socialization of doctoral students to academic rules of research and scholarship. The researchers reveal information about the perceptions of doctoral students on social science and on the foundation of education. The researchers also present information socialization of the students with their peers and with members of faculty. The authors employed a multivariate analysis to support the framework. The analysis helped to emphasize the social relationships between students and the members of faculty. The main objectives of the study were to examine the structures of faculties in relation to the student's socialization and to determine ways that could help create a supportive environment/structure that could help students taking graduate programs by using academics and legislations to help colleges to bring up professionals.

While in the second article…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baker, V., & Lattuca, L. R. (2010). Developmental networks and learning: toward an interdisciplinary perspective on identity development during doctoral study. Studies in Higher Education, 35(7), 807-827.

Visser, L., Visser, Y. L., & Schlosser, C. (2003). Critical thinking distance education and traditional education. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 4(4), 401-407

Weidman, J. C., & Stein, E. L. (2003). Socialization of doctoral students to academic norms. Research in Higher Education, 44(6), 641.
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Investigation on the development of youth

Words: 980 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81547481

Youth Development

UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANICS OF THE STUDY:

The pimay independent vaiable o vaiables of the study ae intentional spot, nonintentional spot, and intentional leadeship. The pimay dependent vaiable(s) ae injuy, inceased anxiety, stess and bunout, alcohol and dug use. one elevant vaiable (RV) in the study was the lack of valid and eliable PYD outcome measues is also ecognized as a limitation within the spot psychology field. The pimay unit(s) of analysis ae youth spot pope stuctue; (c) suppotive elationships; (d) oppotunities to belong; (e) positive social noms. The pimay hypothesis showed that diffeences wee pesent acoss these thee contexts, wheeby intentionally stuctued pogams (spot and leadeship) scoed significantly highe on pogam quality fom both the eseaches' and youth's pespectives, as well as on PYD outcomes, than nonintentional stuctued spot pogams.

The pimay natue of the study is to examine the diffeences in pogam quality and positive developmental outcomes…… [Read More]

references are not current but they are cited used in the text.

OVERALL EVALUATION:

Structured programs scored higher on program quality and positive youth development out- comes than nonintentionally structured programs, with intentional sport scoring significantly higher on some measures of program quality and positive youth development than leadership programs.
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Team Building through Servant Leadership Philosophy Essay

Words: 756 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

Essay Prompt:
Read two journal articles relating to Team Building through Servant Leadership philosophy.
Submit a written analysis (one to two pages) for each article, and attach a copy of the article.



Neill, M., Hayward, K., & Peterson, T. (2007). Students' Perceptions of the Interprofessional Team in Practice Through The Application of Servant Leadership Principles. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 21(4), 425-432

Neill, Hayward, and Peterson (2007) investigated the perceptions students have concerning interprofessional teams in practice using the principles of servant leadership. The sample that was studied was students from different professions within the health sector, subjected to a similar framework. The students provided care using mobile wellness services. These teams had a central source of communication coordinated by a faculty member of the health profession. An Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale was used to measure the perceptions of interdisciplinary practice. Further, a pretest-posttest research design was employed in checking whether…… [Read More]

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Halo Effect in Business Halo

Words: 5281 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89417219

This is because teams are believed to deliver high performance in a marketplace that is hypercompetitive. Teams are also though to integrate the unique skills of each individual in order to produce high performance. This perception of teams is a halo effect since empirical evidence on the efficacy of work teams in organization does not show consistency. A study that was conducted by a.T. Kearney found that 70% of teams do not deliver the required results. In another study reported by Cleaver (2001)

, it was found that teams greatly improve the output of the organization.

esearchers on the effectiveness of work teams are more careful in making conclusions about their efficacy since they found that their efficacy is simply a myth and that teams are often overused in situations which would have been better with non-team structures. Popular press and business professional continue to profess the importance of work…… [Read More]

References

Balzer, W.K., & Sulsky, L.M. (1992). Halo and performance appraisal research: A critical examination. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(6), 975-985.

Banks, C.G., & Murphy, K.R. (1985). Toward narrowing the research-Practice gap in per-formance appraisal. Personnel Psychology, 38(2), 335-345.

Bechger, T.M., Maris, G., & Hsiao, Y.P. (2010). Detecting Halo Effects in Performance-Based Examinations. Applied Psychological Measurement, 34(8), 607-619.

Beckwith, N.E., Kassarjian, H.H., & Lehmann, D.R. (1978). Halo Effects in Marketing Research: Review and Prognosis. Advances in Consumer Research, 5(1978), 465-467.
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Pilot Study of Relationships Among Pain Characteristics

Words: 1552 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49759320

Pilot Study of elationships Among Pain Characteristics

Mood Disturbances, and Acculturation in a Community

Sample of Chinese-American Patients With Cancer

Edrington, J., Sun, A., Wong, C., Dodd, M., Padilla, G., Paul, S., & Miaskowski, C.

This study is a pilot study to determine how level of acculturation and mood affect the intensity and functional aspects of pain in Chinese-American cancer patients. The purpose of the study is to determine if the pain perception of Chinese-American cancer patients is consistent with some past research on other ethnic groups (particularly Hispanic and African-Americans) that find that the level of acculturation is negatively related to the patients' self-reported pain intensity and the relief from pain associated with cancer. The researchers use the definition of acculturation as the process by which immigrants take on or embrace values, beliefs, customs, norms, and the lifestyle of the mainstream culture. Thus the Americanized the group is the…… [Read More]

References

Bates, M.S., Edwards, W.T., & Anderson, K.O. (1993). Ethnocultural influences on variation in chronic pain perception. Pain, 52, 101-112.

Edrington, J., Sun, A., Wong, C., Dodd, M., Padilla, G., Paul, S., & Miaskowski, C. (2010). A pilot study of relationships among pain characteristics, mood disturbances, and acculturation in a community sample of Chinese-American patients with cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 37 (2), 172-181.

Gregory, R.J. (2011). Psychological Testing: History, Principles, and Applications (Sixth Edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Koyama, T., McHaffie, J.G., Laurienti, P.J., & Coghill, R.C. (2005). The subjective experience of pain: Where expectations become reality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102, 12950-12955.
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Conselling Master Questionnaire Describe the Boolean Approach

Words: 4070 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6118072

Conselling Master Questionnaire

Describe the Boolean Approach (Hauser, 2009 p. 18)

In order to use counseling databases to search for information, it is important to develop appropriate search practices. The terms one types when searching will most likely provide the results owing to their meaning. Therefore, it is up to an individual to come up with a search strategy and learn the tips of using counseling databases. The tips will assist an individual in acquiring high quality information in the required amount. Additionally, an individual is likely to add intelligence to their search strategies, the more one knows the tips of searching, and they are likely to obtain better results.

The Boolean approach is among the techniques that will generate useful results when using counseling databases, and it aims at supporting scholarly research. On the other hand, Boolean operators are words, which have unique meanings that instruct the database to…… [Read More]

References

Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application.

Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage.

McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counselling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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The Future of the Death Penalty

Words: 902 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24325733

Death Penalty

Schaefer, K., J. Hennessy, & J.G. Ponterotto. (2000). ace as a variable in imposing

and carrying out the death penalty in the U.S. ace, ethnicity, sexual orientation, violent crime: The realities and the myths. The Haworth Press, 35-45.

The research question was: given the extent to which the death penalty has been arbitrarily imposed, to what extent are there unbalanced racial demographics in death penalty sentencing?

The hypothesis was that race is a factor in terms of how death penalty sentencing is allocated.

esearch was accumulated through the analysis of the FBI's Uniform Crime eports from 1976 to 1995. This source provided information about the race of perpetrators. DOJ capital offender data files were also analyzed for the demographic data for each of the 5,580 of the prisoners condemned to death versus those of offenders from states without death penalties (Schaefer, Hennessey, & Ponterotto, 2000, p. 39).

Q4.…… [Read More]

References

Schaefer, K., J. Hennessy, & J.G. Ponterotto. (2000). Race as a variable in imposing

and carrying out the death penalty in the U.S. Race, Ethnicity, Sexual Orientation, Violent Crime: The Realities and the Myths. The Haworth Press, 35-45.

Lambert, E., S. Jiang, O. Elechi, M. Khondaker, & D. Baker. (2014). A preliminary study of gender differences in death penalty views of college students from Bangladesh, China,

Nigeria, and the United States. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 12:44-68.
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Management of ICU Delirium

Words: 1029 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21898324

ICU Delirium

Search of Literature for Evidence

One of the most crucial elements towards conducting a high-quality research is conducting an effective and valid search of literature for evidence. The search of literature for evidence is defined as an organized comprehensive search of existing literature published regarding the research issue. A well-organized search of literature is important when conducting a study since it's the most efficient and effective means for locating sound evidence on the research topic. For this study on intensive care delirium, a literature search is crucial towards identifying existing evidence on the topic and identifying gaps in knowledge. The information or insights obtained from the literature search is used to provide guidelines on the research process and how to fill the gaps in knowledge.

In this regard, the researcher conducted a search on electronic databases in order to identify credible sources of data. The researcher conducted the…… [Read More]

References

Ista et al. (2014, October 2). Improvement of Care for ICU Patients with Delirium by Early Screening and Treatment: Study Protocol of iDECePTIvE Study. Implementation Science, 9(143), 1-10.

Luetz et al. (2014, November). Delirium, Sedation and Analgesia in the Intensive Care Unit: A Multinational, Two-Part Survey among Intensivists. PLOS One, 9(11), 1-6.
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Men and Women More Similar

Words: 951 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67617222

These communities represent different cultures -- people who have different ways of speaking, acting, and interpreting, as well as different values, priorities, and agendas. According to the different cultures thesis, masculine and feminine modes of thinking, speaking, and interpreting represent stylistic differences, not functional differences; each community is held to develop its own characteristic styles of addressing communication goals. Different styles are assumed to be equally valid and functionally equivalent; that is, within their respective communities, different styles are assumed to be equally effective at achieving intended outcomes." (2007) MacGeorge reports having conducted a study to test the communicative differences between genders and states findings that the result of the study "...provide very little support for the hypotheses' stated in the gender communicative theory. (2007)

IV. EXPERIENTIAL SIMILARITIES in GRIEF

The work of Suitor and Pillemer (2000) entitled: "When Experience Counts Most: Effects of Experiential Similarity on Men's and Women's…… [Read More]

Bibliography

The Truth about Gender Differences (2008) American Psychological Association. Online available at http://www.psychologymatters.org/nodifference.html

Guimond, Serge (2007) Psychological Similarities and Differences between Women and Men across Cultures. Social & Personality Psychology Compass. Nov 2007. Abstract Online available at http://www.blackwell-compass.com/subject/socialpsychology/article_view?article_id=spco_articles_bpl036

MacGeorge, Erina L. (2007) the myth of gender cultures: similarities outweigh differences in men's and women's provision of and responses to supportive communication. Sex Roles Journal. Feb. 2004. Online available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_3-4_50/ai_114703688/print?tag=artBody;col1

Suitor, J.J. And Pillemer, K. (2000) When Experience Counts Most: Effects of Experiential Similarity on Men's and Women's Receipt of Support During Bereavement. Social Networks. Vol. 22 Issue 4. October 2000. Online available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VD1-428DW6S-2&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=fe24f83af1dca9d2b4a0c6fe3a0fae3c
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Amon & Campbell 2008 Was

Words: 1399 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46838424

The results of the study showed a significant difference between the control and the treatment group for The Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). Using an independent samples t-test, which is designed to show the difference between groups based on a comparison of the means of both groups. The results for the experimental group was mean=26.29 and standard deviation=6.06, the control group had a mean=16.08 and a standard deviation =4.37. The't statistic =5.18 and it was significant. The researchers also determined that there was a significant difference between Diary entry times. This was demonstrated using multivariate analysis of variance. The researchers also looked at the frequency of attendance at the study and determined that for the group one children there was a significant reduction in SDQ scores from the baseline values t statistic =4.14 and p< .05. However, there was not similar result for the children from group two. The study…… [Read More]

References

Kerlinger, F.N. & Lee, H.B. (2000). Foundations of Behavioral Research. London: Thompson

Learning.

Nachmias, C.H. And Nachmias, D. (2000). Research Methods in the Social Sciences. New York:

Worth Publishers.
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Sampled and the Various Types of Instruments

Words: 1492 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84228662

sampled, and the various types of instruments used in data collection. The methods also differ in how the data will be collected: qualitatively, quantitatively or both.

In the following essay we will be discussing the comparisons and contrasts of the following research methods, followed by some examples and particular usage of these methods.

Field esearch Method

Experimental esearch Method

Comparison

Field esearch Method

Field research is an activity used to collect primary or unusual data using methods such as face-to-face interviewing, telephonic interviews, surveys and direct observation etc. The purpose of this study is to observe the phenomena in its natural state, collection of data and then construction of theory. The field research method has much strength, such as that the researcher can conduct research in a better way to find out the specific information that is required. Similarly, flexibility is also a great strength of this method, as the…… [Read More]

References:

Babbie, Earl R (1973) "Survey Research Methods" Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co.

Experiment Resources (2008) "Experimental Research" Retrieved 7th May 2011 from Experiment Resources: http://www.experiment-resources.com/experimental-research.html

Shuttleworth, Martyn (2009) "Field Experiments" Retrieved 7th May 2011 from Experiment Resources: http://www.experiment-resources.com/field-experiments.html
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Effects on Race Ethnicity and Gender

Words: 713 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68875572

Criminology: Driving hile Black

In their article "Driving hile Black: Effects of Citizen Self-Reports of Traffic Stops and Police Actions," Richard J. Lundman and Robert L. Kaufman present their findings regarding the influence of race and ethnicity traffic stops by the police. In particular, the authors hypothesize that African-American and Hispanic drivers "should be less likely to exit their traffic stop encounters believing police acted legitimately and properly," and the reverse would be true for whites (198). Moreover, total number of stops made by police for traffic violations would be higher for people of color than for whites. Basing their data on a report entitled

Contacts Between Police and the Public: Findings from the 1999 National Survey, the authors base the results of their study on this national survey, which was based on citizen self-reports regarding their encounters with the police 'Driving hile Black" is a well-written and informative article…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lundman, Richard J. And Kaufman, Robert L. "Driving While Black: Effects of Citizen Self-Reports of Traffic stops and Police Actions."