375+ documents containing “theory x and theory y”.
Theory Y Theory X
Theory X / Theory Y
Theory X / Theory Y reflects Douglas McGregor's suggestion in The Human Side of Enterprise that managers tend to fall into two categories, in terms of how they see human nature. Theory X managers take a 'carrot and stick' approach when motivating subordinates. They assume that workers are inherently resistant to labor and will do all they can to avoid doing work so as to gain the maximum amount of profit for the least amount of effort. They may assume responsibility, but will do so for personal profit alone. Theory Y managers assume that workers are internally motivated, rather than externally motivated.
The essential problem with Theory X approaches, McGregor contended, is that once basic needs are satisfied, they are no longer motivational. Once a worker has enough money for life expenses and reaches a certain salary level, continually using money to motivate him….
Chapman, Allen. (2010). Abraham Maslow. Business Balls. Retrieved July 19, 2011 at http://www.businessballs.com/maslow.htm
Engineer's life. (2011). Google. Retrieved July 19, 2011 at http://www.google.com/international/en/jobs/lifeatgoogle/englife/index.html
ERG theory. (2011). Google. Retrieved July 19, 2011 at http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/erg/
Frederick Taylor. (2011). Net MBA. Retrieved July 19, 2011 at http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/scientific/
Theory X and theory Y
According to McGregor (1969), Theory X and Theory Y explain describe the differences in management styles and the behavior of leadership. He assumed that the leaders in organization have diverse views on the skills and motivation of the members of organization.
Theory X is a management style which embodies autocratic leadership approach to leadership. The managers who are categorized as a Theory X leaders in general believe that the subordinates fail to live up to the corporate expectations hence assume that subordinates are just influenced with rewards as well as monetary rather than fulfilling the stated corporate objectives. This theory presumes that employees dislike work and they avoid responsibility, but will always seek directions when possible. The theory therefore requires the managers to be coercive and controlling and also to be ready in punishing the unwanted behaviors (Gitman & McDaniel, 2008, pg 240).
Theory Y is….
Mcgregor, D. (1969). Douglas Mcgregor's Motivational Theory x Theory y Retrieved November
6, 2012 from http://www.businessballs.com/mcgregor.htm
Media, D., & Grace, N. (2012). The Theory & Practice of Leadership and Management Styles.
Retrieved November 6, 2012, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/theory-practice-leadership-management-styles-34147.html
ather than continually telling people what to do, Theory Y managers believe that people actually want to work and do a good job and that "people will apply self-control and self-direction in the pursuit of organisational objectives, without external control or the threat of punishment" (Chapman 2013). The managers who have applied this philosophy to their leadership and show great trust and confidence in the ability of workers to monitor themselves and to exercise personal judgment have always been the most respected and well-liked in my experience.
Theory Y managers also believe that workers can be motivated by other aspects of their job such as duty and a commitment to serve. In general, almost all of my managers have acknowledged the tremendous risks officers undertake as part of their duties and realize that all persons involved in law enforcement have some sense of a higher duty or power they serve….
Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y
The work of Douglas McGregor, the renowned social psychologist at MIT's Sloan School of Management who studied the theoretical foundations of human motivation in the 1960's, was premised on a binary conception of managerial perception known as Theory X and Theory Y According to McGregor, managers practicing Theory X operate under the assumption that employees are inherently lazy and unwilling to pursue greater responsibility, while managers who adhere to Theory Y assume that their workers are ambitious in the self-motivated pursuit of personal goals, and these contrasting approaches viewing a workforce necessarily informs management's choice of leadership style. Under the working conditions fostered by Theory X, management must develop strict organizational controls to assure even minimal levels of efficiency, with managers providing close supervision to assure compliance, and punitive measures used as a threat-based incentive. Conversely, the liberated style of Theory Y management empowers….
Chapman, A. (2002, March 13). 'X-Y theory' questionnaire. Retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/mcgregorxytheorytest.pdf
Hindle, T. (2008, October 06). Theories x and y. The Economist. Retrieved from http://www.economist.com/node/12370445
McGregor, D., The Human Side of Enterprise. McGraw-Hill, 1960; annotated edn, McGraw- Hill, 2006
Theory X and Theory Y represents a dichotomous view of leadership-worker relations. Theory X "assumes that employees are naturally motivated and dislike working" (MindTools.com 2013). This theory leads to a conclusion of authoritarian management where employees need to be actively directed in their tasks and require significant supervision. Managers must supply the employees with motivation, or the work will not get done. Organizations that subscribe to this theory of motivation tend to be top-heavy, hierarchical, and with strict rules. Theory X is sometimes suitable for organizations like large-scale production environments, where there is little benefit to allowing greater employee freedom.
Theory Y, in contrast, emphasizes "a participative style of management that is de-centralized, assumes employees are happy to work, are self-motivated and creative, and enjoy greater responsibility" (MindTools.com, 2013). MUSE (2013) points out that the Theory Y style of leadership has become increasingly common in American society in recent decades,….
MUSE. (2013). The human resource element. MUSE. Retrieved November 17, 2013 from https://class.aiuniv.edu/_layouts/MUSEViewer/Asset.aspx?MID=MU12790&aid=AT62910
MindTools.com (2013). Theory X and Theory Y MindTools.com. Retrieved November 17, 2013 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_74.htm
( Place security above other factors-to reiterate increased pay seemed to be the primary motivational factor in improving work and this was rarely and option, so security was a primary concern but responsibility was not sought. Most lacked the confidence to attempt to obtain higher levels of responsibility. Ultimately most simply followed the rules to ensure they would still have their job on the next pay period.
The X theory aspects served as an introduction to work for many people. Teaching them the boundaries of the work environment as well as work ethic they may not learn otherwise. This transitional type job is an essential one in any capitalistic society as it shows people why they should seek higher order actions and thoughts, while it allows a place for those who never recognize this.
Theory Y Setting
Conversely, I have worked in settings were skilled individuals were sought to perform higher order work….
Robbins, S.P. & Judge, T.A. (2008). Organizational Behavior: Motivation Concepts. Washington DC: PHI.
Shah, K. & Shah, P.J. (2008). "Theories of Motivation." Referenced 18th February, 2010 from: http://www.laynetworks.com/Theories-of-Motivation.html
Mind Tools (2010) "Theory X and Theory Y: Understanding team member motivation" Referenced 18th February, 2010 from: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_74.htm
Long-Term Employment -- Japanese organizations tend to have longer employee cycles than U.S. companies. Many U.S. companies treat employees as replaceable parts. It is far more cost-effective and efficient to retain expertise than continually retrain. This keeps the knowledge base inside the company. Providing incentives for long-term employment, then, is an essential component of Theory Z
Consensual Decision Making -- hen employees feel that they have input into decisions that affect them, their jobs, and their daily processes, they are more likely to buy into those decisions and support change management.
Individual responsibility -- Moving away from 'the union mentality' and accepting measurement based on individual performance is tough for many Americans, but the balance between the group and the individual's participation actually empowers both.
Slow Evaluation and Promotion -- Rather than taking the short-term approach, as many American company's do, it is about the long-term strategy, not the monthly ROI. This encourages….
Ramifications of Theory and Personal Management Style:
As a manager, one of the most important skills is the ability to recognize differences in various employees. Certainly, in any vocational environment, some employees will fit the classic Theory X model, requiring definite objective standards for performance and constant supervisory attention. However, many individuals do not necessarily function in the manner described by Theory X, in which case, employing that principle and its underlying assumption may compromise the quality of their work as well as the intangibles that are conducive to a productive work environment over the long-term.
Specifically, Theory Y management practices (where appropriate) tend to correspond to much greater camaraderie and to the genuine best efforts of employees.
Conversely, Theory X is associated with decreased motivation and with the relative extinguishing of any sense of personal pride, joy, or genuine sense of responsibility at work and its replacement with a culture of….
It is difficult to show which theory works best in practice, as every company has a unique environment and workforce (Daft, 2004). However, few would argue that Theory X is an outdated leadership style that does not promote success. According to Kopelman et al. (2008): "At the heart of McGregor's argument is the notion that managers' assumptions/attitudes represent, potentially, self-fulfilling prophecies. The manager who believes that people are inherently lazy and untrustworthy will treat employees in a manner that reflects these attitudes. Employees, sensing that there is little in the job to spur their involvement, will exhibit little interest and motivation. Consequently, and ironically, the manager with low expectations will lament that 'you can't get good help nowadays,' oblivious as to the actual nature of cause and effect. Closing the serf-reinforcing cycle, the manager feels vindicated; that is, his low expectations were warranted. Conversely, the manager who believes that employees….
Benson, Gary L. (1983). "How Employee Assumptions Influence Managerial Behavior." Supervisory Management March: 2(7).
Bittel, Lester. (1989). McGraw-Hill Management Course. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Braden, Pamela. (2007). West Virginia University, Division of Business and Economics. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.wvup.edu/jcc/mgmt410/TheoryZ.pdf .
Daft, R.L. (2004). "Theory Z: Opening the Corporate Door for Participative Management." Academy of Management Executive 18, no. 4: 117-122.
MASLOW'S THOEY VS. HULL'S THEOY
Integrating Two Theories of Motivational Psychology
Maslow Hierarchy of needs vs. Hull's Drive eduction Theory
Motivation is common term, but it is not easily defined. This is due to the many studies, which provide different definitions for the term. While some define it as a set of beliefs, values, interests, others define it as a cognitive decision making process. For this paper, motivation is central to a set of processes, which induce, direct, and maintain actions towards an objective. It is not similar to job performance, but it is a contributor to job performance (Linder, 1980). Motivation is a crucial component in the workplace, which explains why organizations are borrowing concepts from the motivation theories. There are many motivational theories, but they either fall under the content or process categories. Content theories assume that individuals have similar needs, and process theories emphasize the importance of cognitive processes in….
Brewer, E.W., & McMahan-Landers, J. (2003). Job satisfaction among industrial and technical teacher educators. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 40(2), 65.
Benson, S.G., & Dundis, S.P. (2003). Understanding and motivating health care employees:
integrating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, training and technology. Journal of nursing management, 11(5), 315-320.
Jensen, R. (2006). Behaviorism, latent learning, and cognitive maps: Needed revisions in introductory psychology textbooks. Behavior analysis fall, 29(2), 187-209.
Person " Theories, advantages disadvantages current
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
Prior to discussing the advantages and disadvantages of the current theory/approach used within my workplace, it is necessary to elucidate just what sort of theory is most readily employed. The principle theory used is Theory X in which the management widely views their employees through the Person as Machine model. This theory states that management believes that the laborers are only working for monetary compensation. As such, the former believes that they must readily coerce the latter into being productive. The major disadvantage of the application of this theory is that it makes for an antagonistic, tense work environment. The employers are always monitoring and looking for ways to punish the employees in order to galvanize them into performing better, because "the underlying assumption…is that no worker wants to work" (Landy and Conte, 2013, p. 319). The disadvantage is that there is….
Landy, F.J., & Conte, J.M. (2013). Work in the 21st century: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology (4th ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons
Chapter 8: The Motivation to Work
Locke, E.A., & Latham, G.P. (2006). New directions in goal-setting theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(5), 265-268. Retrieved from http://home.ubalt.edu/tmitch/642/Articles%20syllabus/Locke%20et%20al%20New%20dir%20goal%20setting%2006.pdf
Motivational Theories / Teamwork
Recommendation to the Director of Highlands on potentially feasible leadership styles: Visionary Leadership Theory and Path-Goal Theory of Leadership.
The Visionary Leadership Theory is based partly on Max Weber's ideas of charisma and transformational leadership. This theory -- when implemented successfully -- creates trust in the leader, a "high commitment to the leader," high levels of "performance among followers," and a high "overall organizational performance" (Kirkpatrick, 2011). The visionary leader must have acute insight into the needs and values of his/her staff. The vision of the leader positively influences and motivates the followers. The visionary leader must have a "long-range vision of what his or her organization should become in ten, twenty, or more years in the future" (Kirkpatrick, p. 1616).
The leader must not only have charisma but also be able to "engage in several rhetorical techniques" that will motivate followers. Those techniques include "…using metaphors, analogies, stories,….
Dyer, W. Gibb, Dyer, Jeffrey H., and Dyer, William G. 2013. Team Building: Proven Strategies for Improving Team Performance. John Wiley & Sons: Santa Barbara, CA.
House, Robert J. 1996. 'Path-Goal Theory of Leadership: Lessons, Legacy, and a Reformulated Theory.' Leadership Quarterly, vol. 7, 323-353.
Kirkpatrick, Shelly A. 2011. 'Visionary Leadership Theory', Encyclopedia of Leadership. SAGE Publications. Retrieved January 26, 2013, from http://knowledge.sagepub.com .
Koontz, Harold, and Weihrich, Heinz. 2006. Essentials of Management. Tata McGraw-Hill Education: Mumbai, India.
McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y, Open Systems Theory, and in general a recognition of the complexities of what fosters and supports greater productivity on the part of people.
At this point the evolution of organizational theories begins looking at how the factors of the distribution of knowledge, the integration of process for knowledge management, and in general the recognition of personal productivity as the basis of competitive advantage. This specific phase in the evolution of organizational theories is so fundamentally disruptive to previous theories that the effects are found in global economic theories, including the theory of comparative advantage. One of the thought leaders in the area, Dr. Michael Porter (1990, pp. 32-78) whose groundbreaking analysis of productivity pointed to individual's ability to fundamentally re-order processes would eventually surface in the 21st century as a Business process Management (BPM) revolution. When one considers the evolutionary shift from seeing assets….
Christian Cordes. "The Role of "Instincts" in the Development of Corporate Cultures." Journal of Economic Issues 41.3 (2007): 747-764. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest.13 Jan. 2008
Gerald F. Davis. "Mechanisms and the Theory of Organizations. " Journal of Management Inquiry 15.2 (2006): 114-118. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 15 Jan. 2008
Anil K. Gupta, Paul E. Tesluk, M Susan Taylor. "Innovation at and Across Multiple Levels of Analysis. " Organization Science 18.6 (2007): 885-897,1022-1023. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest;14 Jan. 2008 www.proquest.com
Michael G. Jacobides. "The architecture and design of organizational capabilities. " Industrial and Corporate Change 15.1 (2006): 151. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 13 Jan. 2008
Despite the fact that extreme poverty exists in many areas, Mexico's rising middle class is increasingly seeking out the trappings of American success. "The middle class in Mexico includes 39.2% (44 million people) of the country's total population. Mexico's middle class increased 11.4% during between 2000 and 2010" and these consumers are seeking out cellular phones and flat screen TVs in record numbers (Flannery 2013). Unfortunately, an increasingly affluent culture has brought forth one of the problems of industrialized prosperity, namely a rise in obesity. To take advantage of this concern, one possible product to market to the population coping with more sedentary jobs and a taste for highly caloric foods is that of gym memberships. Introducing a chain of low-cost gyms modeled on popular chains such as WOW and Planet Fitness, particularly in cities with high concentrations of white collar office workers would be an ideal way to capitalize….
Both observation and experiment provided the underpinning for Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation. Maslow (1943) posits, “man is a perpetually wanting animal,” leading to the constant striving to fulfill goals (p. 370). If and when anything prevents the fulfillment of a goal—whether the obstacle is internal or external—discomfort or psychopathy can occur (Maslow, 1943). Although Maslow’s original research was conducted decades ago, recent research on motivation and human behavior continues to substantiate Maslow’s core claims. Researchers continue to operationalize Maslow’s definitions of needs and motivation, leading to a strengthening of the original theory and expanded applications in the social sciences. Maslow himself wrote extensively to develop and mature a comprehensive theory of human motivation based on the hierarchy of needs model. The original needs hierarchy consists of five fundamental needs: for physiological comfort and fulfillment, for safety and security, for belongingness, for esteem, and for self-actualization. Although definitions of….
Business - Management
Theory Y Theory X Theory X / Theory Y Theory X / Theory Y reflects Douglas McGregor's suggestion in The Human Side of Enterprise that managers tend to fall into two…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Theory X and theory Y According to McGregor (1969), Theory X and Theory Y explain describe the differences in management styles and the behavior of leadership. He assumed that the…Read Full Paper ❯
ather than continually telling people what to do, Theory Y managers believe that people actually want to work and do a good job and that "people will apply…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y The work of Douglas McGregor, the renowned social psychologist at MIT's Sloan School of Management who studied the theoretical foundations of human motivation…Read Full Paper ❯
Leadership Styles Theory X and Theory Y represents a dichotomous view of leadership-worker relations. Theory X "assumes that employees are naturally motivated and dislike working" (MindTools.com 2013). This theory leads…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
( Place security above other factors-to reiterate increased pay seemed to be the primary motivational factor in improving work and this was rarely and option, so security was a…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Long-Term Employment -- Japanese organizations tend to have longer employee cycles than U.S. companies. Many U.S. companies treat employees as replaceable parts. It is far more cost-effective and efficient…Read Full Paper ❯
Ramifications of Theory and Personal Management Style: As a manager, one of the most important skills is the ability to recognize differences in various employees. Certainly, in any vocational…Read Full Paper ❯
Conclusion It is difficult to show which theory works best in practice, as every company has a unique environment and workforce (Daft, 2004). However, few would argue that Theory X…Read Full Paper ❯
MASLOW'S THOEY VS. HULL'S THEOY Integrating Two Theories of Motivational Psychology Maslow Hierarchy of needs vs. Hull's Drive eduction Theory Motivation is common term, but it is not easily defined. This is…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Person " Theories, advantages disadvantages current ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Prior to discussing the advantages and disadvantages of the current theory/approach used within my workplace, it is necessary to elucidate just…Read Full Paper ❯
Motivational Theories / Teamwork L03.1 Recommendation to the Director of Highlands on potentially feasible leadership styles: Visionary Leadership Theory and Path-Goal Theory of Leadership. The Visionary Leadership Theory is based partly on…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y, Open Systems Theory, and in general a recognition of the complexities of what fosters and supports greater productivity on the part of…Read Full Paper ❯
Mexico Despite the fact that extreme poverty exists in many areas, Mexico's rising middle class is increasingly seeking out the trappings of American success. "The middle class in Mexico includes…Read Full Paper ❯
Both observation and experiment provided the underpinning for Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation. Maslow (1943) posits, “man is a perpetually wanting animal,” leading to the constant striving to…Read Full Paper ❯