Theory X And Theory Y Essays (Examples)

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Theory X And Theory Y
PAGES 5 WORDS 1601

Theory Y Theory X
Theory X / Theory Y

Theory X / Theory Y reflects Douglas McGregor's suggestion in The Human Side of Enterprise that managers tend to fall into two categories, in terms of how they see human nature. Theory X managers take a 'carrot and stick' approach when motivating subordinates. They assume that workers are inherently resistant to labor and will do all they can to avoid doing work so as to gain the maximum amount of profit for the least amount of effort. They may assume responsibility, but will do so for personal profit alone. Theory Y managers assume that workers are internally motivated, rather than externally motivated.

The essential problem with Theory X approaches, McGregor contended, is that once basic needs are satisfied, they are no longer motivational. Once a worker has enough money for life expenses and reaches a certain salary level, continually using money to motivate him….

Theory X and theory Y
According to McGregor (1969), Theory X and Theory Y explain describe the differences in management styles and the behavior of leadership. He assumed that the leaders in organization have diverse views on the skills and motivation of the members of organization.

Theory X

Theory X is a management style which embodies autocratic leadership approach to leadership. The managers who are categorized as a Theory X leaders in general believe that the subordinates fail to live up to the corporate expectations hence assume that subordinates are just influenced with rewards as well as monetary rather than fulfilling the stated corporate objectives. This theory presumes that employees dislike work and they avoid responsibility, but will always seek directions when possible. The theory therefore requires the managers to be coercive and controlling and also to be ready in punishing the unwanted behaviors (Gitman & McDaniel, 2008, pg 240).

Theory Y

Theory Y is….

ather than continually telling people what to do, Theory Y managers believe that people actually want to work and do a good job and that "people will apply self-control and self-direction in the pursuit of organisational objectives, without external control or the threat of punishment" (Chapman 2013). The managers who have applied this philosophy to their leadership and show great trust and confidence in the ability of workers to monitor themselves and to exercise personal judgment have always been the most respected and well-liked in my experience.
Theory Y managers also believe that workers can be motivated by other aspects of their job such as duty and a commitment to serve. In general, almost all of my managers have acknowledged the tremendous risks officers undertake as part of their duties and realize that all persons involved in law enforcement have some sense of a higher duty or power they serve….

Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y
The work of Douglas McGregor, the renowned social psychologist at MIT's Sloan School of Management who studied the theoretical foundations of human motivation in the 1960's, was premised on a binary conception of managerial perception known as Theory X and Theory Y According to McGregor, managers practicing Theory X operate under the assumption that employees are inherently lazy and unwilling to pursue greater responsibility, while managers who adhere to Theory Y assume that their workers are ambitious in the self-motivated pursuit of personal goals, and these contrasting approaches viewing a workforce necessarily informs management's choice of leadership style. Under the working conditions fostered by Theory X, management must develop strict organizational controls to assure even minimal levels of efficiency, with managers providing close supervision to assure compliance, and punitive measures used as a threat-based incentive. Conversely, the liberated style of Theory Y management empowers….

Leadership Styles
Theory X and Theory Y represents a dichotomous view of leadership-worker relations. Theory X "assumes that employees are naturally motivated and dislike working" (MindTools.com 2013). This theory leads to a conclusion of authoritarian management where employees need to be actively directed in their tasks and require significant supervision. Managers must supply the employees with motivation, or the work will not get done. Organizations that subscribe to this theory of motivation tend to be top-heavy, hierarchical, and with strict rules. Theory X is sometimes suitable for organizations like large-scale production environments, where there is little benefit to allowing greater employee freedom.

Theory Y, in contrast, emphasizes "a participative style of management that is de-centralized, assumes employees are happy to work, are self-motivated and creative, and enjoy greater responsibility" (MindTools.com, 2013). MUSE (2013) points out that the Theory Y style of leadership has become increasingly common in American society in recent decades,….

Mcgregor Theory X Theory Y
PAGES 4 WORDS 1374


( Place security above other factors-to reiterate increased pay seemed to be the primary motivational factor in improving work and this was rarely and option, so security was a primary concern but responsibility was not sought. Most lacked the confidence to attempt to obtain higher levels of responsibility. Ultimately most simply followed the rules to ensure they would still have their job on the next pay period.

The X theory aspects served as an introduction to work for many people. Teaching them the boundaries of the work environment as well as work ethic they may not learn otherwise. This transitional type job is an essential one in any capitalistic society as it shows people why they should seek higher order actions and thoughts, while it allows a place for those who never recognize this.

Theory Y Setting

Conversely, I have worked in settings were skilled individuals were sought to perform higher order work….

Theory Z Is a Paradigm
PAGES 2 WORDS 592


Long-Term Employment -- Japanese organizations tend to have longer employee cycles than U.S. companies. Many U.S. companies treat employees as replaceable parts. It is far more cost-effective and efficient to retain expertise than continually retrain. This keeps the knowledge base inside the company. Providing incentives for long-term employment, then, is an essential component of Theory Z

Consensual Decision Making -- hen employees feel that they have input into decisions that affect them, their jobs, and their daily processes, they are more likely to buy into those decisions and support change management.

Individual responsibility -- Moving away from 'the union mentality' and accepting measurement based on individual performance is tough for many Americans, but the balance between the group and the individual's participation actually empowers both.

Slow Evaluation and Promotion -- Rather than taking the short-term approach, as many American company's do, it is about the long-term strategy, not the monthly ROI. This encourages….

Ramifications of Theory and Personal Management Style:
As a manager, one of the most important skills is the ability to recognize differences in various employees. Certainly, in any vocational environment, some employees will fit the classic Theory X model, requiring definite objective standards for performance and constant supervisory attention. However, many individuals do not necessarily function in the manner described by Theory X, in which case, employing that principle and its underlying assumption may compromise the quality of their work as well as the intangibles that are conducive to a productive work environment over the long-term.

Specifically, Theory Y management practices (where appropriate) tend to correspond to much greater camaraderie and to the genuine best efforts of employees.

Conversely, Theory X is associated with decreased motivation and with the relative extinguishing of any sense of personal pride, joy, or genuine sense of responsibility at work and its replacement with a culture of….


Conclusion

It is difficult to show which theory works best in practice, as every company has a unique environment and workforce (Daft, 2004). However, few would argue that Theory X is an outdated leadership style that does not promote success. According to Kopelman et al. (2008): "At the heart of McGregor's argument is the notion that managers' assumptions/attitudes represent, potentially, self-fulfilling prophecies. The manager who believes that people are inherently lazy and untrustworthy will treat employees in a manner that reflects these attitudes. Employees, sensing that there is little in the job to spur their involvement, will exhibit little interest and motivation. Consequently, and ironically, the manager with low expectations will lament that 'you can't get good help nowadays,' oblivious as to the actual nature of cause and effect. Closing the serf-reinforcing cycle, the manager feels vindicated; that is, his low expectations were warranted. Conversely, the manager who believes that employees….

MASLOW'S THOEY VS. HULL'S THEOY
Integrating Two Theories of Motivational Psychology

Maslow Hierarchy of needs vs. Hull's Drive eduction Theory

Motivation is common term, but it is not easily defined. This is due to the many studies, which provide different definitions for the term. While some define it as a set of beliefs, values, interests, others define it as a cognitive decision making process. For this paper, motivation is central to a set of processes, which induce, direct, and maintain actions towards an objective. It is not similar to job performance, but it is a contributor to job performance (Linder, 1980). Motivation is a crucial component in the workplace, which explains why organizations are borrowing concepts from the motivation theories. There are many motivational theories, but they either fall under the content or process categories. Content theories assume that individuals have similar needs, and process theories emphasize the importance of cognitive processes in….

Person " Theories, advantages disadvantages current
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

Prior to discussing the advantages and disadvantages of the current theory/approach used within my workplace, it is necessary to elucidate just what sort of theory is most readily employed. The principle theory used is Theory X in which the management widely views their employees through the Person as Machine model. This theory states that management believes that the laborers are only working for monetary compensation. As such, the former believes that they must readily coerce the latter into being productive. The major disadvantage of the application of this theory is that it makes for an antagonistic, tense work environment. The employers are always monitoring and looking for ways to punish the employees in order to galvanize them into performing better, because "the underlying assumption…is that no worker wants to work" (Landy and Conte, 2013, p. 319). The disadvantage is that there is….

Motivational Theories / Teamwork
L03.1

Recommendation to the Director of Highlands on potentially feasible leadership styles: Visionary Leadership Theory and Path-Goal Theory of Leadership.

The Visionary Leadership Theory is based partly on Max Weber's ideas of charisma and transformational leadership. This theory -- when implemented successfully -- creates trust in the leader, a "high commitment to the leader," high levels of "performance among followers," and a high "overall organizational performance" (Kirkpatrick, 2011). The visionary leader must have acute insight into the needs and values of his/her staff. The vision of the leader positively influences and motivates the followers. The visionary leader must have a "long-range vision of what his or her organization should become in ten, twenty, or more years in the future" (Kirkpatrick, p. 1616).

The leader must not only have charisma but also be able to "engage in several rhetorical techniques" that will motivate followers. Those techniques include "…using metaphors, analogies, stories,….

McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y, Open Systems Theory, and in general a recognition of the complexities of what fosters and supports greater productivity on the part of people.
At this point the evolution of organizational theories begins looking at how the factors of the distribution of knowledge, the integration of process for knowledge management, and in general the recognition of personal productivity as the basis of competitive advantage. This specific phase in the evolution of organizational theories is so fundamentally disruptive to previous theories that the effects are found in global economic theories, including the theory of comparative advantage. One of the thought leaders in the area, Dr. Michael Porter (1990, pp. 32-78) whose groundbreaking analysis of productivity pointed to individual's ability to fundamentally re-order processes would eventually surface in the 21st century as a Business process Management (BPM) revolution. When one considers the evolutionary shift from seeing assets….

Mexico
Despite the fact that extreme poverty exists in many areas, Mexico's rising middle class is increasingly seeking out the trappings of American success. "The middle class in Mexico includes 39.2% (44 million people) of the country's total population. Mexico's middle class increased 11.4% during between 2000 and 2010" and these consumers are seeking out cellular phones and flat screen TVs in record numbers (Flannery 2013). Unfortunately, an increasingly affluent culture has brought forth one of the problems of industrialized prosperity, namely a rise in obesity. To take advantage of this concern, one possible product to market to the population coping with more sedentary jobs and a taste for highly caloric foods is that of gym memberships. Introducing a chain of low-cost gyms modeled on popular chains such as WOW and Planet Fitness, particularly in cities with high concentrations of white collar office workers would be an ideal way to capitalize….

Both observation and experiment provided the underpinning for Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation. Maslow (1943) posits, “man is a perpetually wanting animal,” leading to the constant striving to fulfill goals (p. 370). If and when anything prevents the fulfillment of a goal—whether the obstacle is internal or external—discomfort or psychopathy can occur (Maslow, 1943). Although Maslow’s original research was conducted decades ago, recent research on motivation and human behavior continues to substantiate Maslow’s core claims. Researchers continue to operationalize Maslow’s definitions of needs and motivation, leading to a strengthening of the original theory and expanded applications in the social sciences. Maslow himself wrote extensively to develop and mature a comprehensive theory of human motivation based on the hierarchy of needs model. The original needs hierarchy consists of five fundamental needs: for physiological comfort and fulfillment, for safety and security, for belongingness, for esteem, and for self-actualization. Although definitions of….

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5 Pages
Research Paper

Business - Management

Theory X And Theory Y

Words: 1601
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Theory Y Theory X Theory X / Theory Y Theory X / Theory Y reflects Douglas McGregor's suggestion in The Human Side of Enterprise that managers tend to fall into two…

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2 Pages
Essay

Business - Management

Theory X And Theory Y According to

Words: 764
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Theory X and theory Y According to McGregor (1969), Theory X and Theory Y explain describe the differences in management styles and the behavior of leadership. He assumed that the…

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2 Pages
Term Paper

Leadership

Theory X And Theory Y Applying Mcgregor's Theory to Law Enforcement

Words: 583
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Term Paper

ather than continually telling people what to do, Theory Y managers believe that people actually want to work and do a good job and that "people will apply…

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2 Pages
Essay

Business - Management

Douglas Mcgregor's Theory X And Theory Y

Words: 615
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y The work of Douglas McGregor, the renowned social psychologist at MIT's Sloan School of Management who studied the theoretical foundations of human motivation…

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2 Pages
Essay

Leadership

Leadership Styles Theory X And Theory Y

Words: 528
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Leadership Styles Theory X and Theory Y represents a dichotomous view of leadership-worker relations. Theory X "assumes that employees are naturally motivated and dislike working" (MindTools.com 2013). This theory leads…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
4 Pages
Essay

Business - Management

Mcgregor Theory X Theory Y

Words: 1374
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Essay

( Place security above other factors-to reiterate increased pay seemed to be the primary motivational factor in improving work and this was rarely and option, so security was a…

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image
2 Pages
Essay

Business - Management

Theory Z Is a Paradigm

Words: 592
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Long-Term Employment -- Japanese organizations tend to have longer employee cycles than U.S. companies. Many U.S. companies treat employees as replaceable parts. It is far more cost-effective and efficient…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Essay

Careers

Psychology - Mcgregor's Theory X Y

Words: 504
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Ramifications of Theory and Personal Management Style: As a manager, one of the most important skills is the ability to recognize differences in various employees. Certainly, in any vocational…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
8 Pages
Thesis

Leadership

Leader Comparing Leadership Theories the

Words: 2035
Length: 8 Pages
Type: Thesis

Conclusion It is difficult to show which theory works best in practice, as every company has a unique environment and workforce (Daft, 2004). However, few would argue that Theory X…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
7 Pages
Research Paper

Psychology

Analyzing Motivational Theories

Words: 2495
Length: 7 Pages
Type: Research Paper

MASLOW'S THOEY VS. HULL'S THEOY Integrating Two Theories of Motivational Psychology Maslow Hierarchy of needs vs. Hull's Drive eduction Theory Motivation is common term, but it is not easily defined. This is…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Essay

Business - Management

Person Theories Advantages Disadvantages Current Advantages and

Words: 650
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Person " Theories, advantages disadvantages current ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Prior to discussing the advantages and disadvantages of the current theory/approach used within my workplace, it is necessary to elucidate just…

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6 Pages
Essay

Leadership

Motivational Theories Teamwork L03 1 Recommendation to

Words: 1926
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Essay

Motivational Theories / Teamwork L03.1 Recommendation to the Director of Highlands on potentially feasible leadership styles: Visionary Leadership Theory and Path-Goal Theory of Leadership. The Visionary Leadership Theory is based partly on…

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5 Pages
Term Paper

Business - Management

Organizational Theories as a Product

Words: 1428
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Term Paper

McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y, Open Systems Theory, and in general a recognition of the complexities of what fosters and supports greater productivity on the part of…

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4 Pages
Essay

Sociology

Business Theories of Organizational Development and Employee Motivation

Words: 1177
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Essay

Mexico Despite the fact that extreme poverty exists in many areas, Mexico's rising middle class is increasingly seeking out the trappings of American success. "The middle class in Mexico includes…

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4 Pages
Research Paper

Psychology

theory of motivation and maslows hierarchy of needs

Words: 1316
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Both observation and experiment provided the underpinning for Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation. Maslow (1943) posits, “man is a perpetually wanting animal,” leading to the constant striving to…

Read Full Paper  ❯