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Theory X And Theory Y Essays (Examples)

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Mcgregor Theory X Theory Y
Words: 1374 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89420337
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( Place security above other factors-to reiterate increased pay seemed to be the primary motivational factor in improving work and this was rarely and option, so security was a primary concern but responsibility was not sought. Most lacked the confidence to attempt to obtain higher levels of responsibility. Ultimately most simply followed the rules to ensure they would still have their job on the next pay period.

The X theory aspects served as an introduction to work for many people. Teaching them the boundaries of the work environment as well as work ethic they may not learn otherwise. This transitional type job is an essential one in any capitalistic society as it shows people why they should seek higher order actions and thoughts, while it allows a place for those who never recognize this.

Theory Y Setting

Conversely, I have worked in settings were skilled individuals were sought to perform…


Robbins, S.P. & Judge, T.A. (2008). Organizational Behavior: Motivation Concepts. Washington DC: PHI.

Shah, K. & Shah, P.J. (2008). "Theories of Motivation." Referenced 18th February, 2010 from:

Mind Tools (2010) "Theory X and Theory Y: Understanding team member motivation" Referenced 18th February, 2010 from:

Theory Z Is a Paradigm
Words: 592 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48392064
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Long-Term Employment -- Japanese organizations tend to have longer employee cycles than U.S. companies. Many U.S. companies treat employees as replaceable parts. It is far more cost-effective and efficient to retain expertise than continually retrain. This keeps the knowledge base inside the company. Providing incentives for long-term employment, then, is an essential component of Theory Z

Consensual Decision Making -- hen employees feel that they have input into decisions that affect them, their jobs, and their daily processes, they are more likely to buy into those decisions and support change management.

Individual responsibility -- Moving away from 'the union mentality' and accepting measurement based on individual performance is tough for many Americans, but the balance between the group and the individual's participation actually empowers both.

Slow Evaluation and Promotion -- Rather than taking the short-term approach, as many American company's do, it is about the long-term strategy, not the monthly…


Barney, J. (2004). "An Interview with William Ouchi." Academy of Management

Executives.18 (4): 108-117.

Daft, R. (2004). "Theory Z: Opening the Corporate Door for Participative Management."

Academy of Management Executives. 18 (4): 117-22.

Psychology - Mcgregor's Theory X Y
Words: 504 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56875671
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Ramifications of Theory and Personal Management Style:

As a manager, one of the most important skills is the ability to recognize differences in various employees. Certainly, in any vocational environment, some employees will fit the classic Theory X model, requiring definite objective standards for performance and constant supervisory attention. However, many individuals do not necessarily function in the manner described by Theory X, in which case, employing that principle and its underlying assumption may compromise the quality of their work as well as the intangibles that are conducive to a productive work environment over the long-term.

Specifically, Theory Y management practices (where appropriate) tend to correspond to much greater camaraderie and to the genuine best efforts of employees.

Conversely, Theory X is associated with decreased motivation and with the relative extinguishing of any sense of personal pride, joy, or genuine sense of responsibility at work and its replacement with a…

Leader Comparing Leadership Theories the
Words: 2035 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 77494899
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It is difficult to show which theory works best in practice, as every company has a unique environment and workforce (Daft, 2004). However, few would argue that Theory X is an outdated leadership style that does not promote success. According to Kopelman et al. (2008): "At the heart of McGregor's argument is the notion that managers' assumptions/attitudes represent, potentially, self-fulfilling prophecies. The manager who believes that people are inherently lazy and untrustworthy will treat employees in a manner that reflects these attitudes. Employees, sensing that there is little in the job to spur their involvement, will exhibit little interest and motivation. Consequently, and ironically, the manager with low expectations will lament that 'you can't get good help nowadays,' oblivious as to the actual nature of cause and effect. Closing the serf-reinforcing cycle, the manager feels vindicated; that is, his low expectations were warranted. Conversely, the manager who believes that…


Benson, Gary L. (1983). "How Employee Assumptions Influence Managerial Behavior." Supervisory Management March: 2(7).

Bittel, Lester. (1989). McGraw-Hill Management Course. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Braden, Pamela. (2007). West Virginia University, Division of Business and Economics. Retrieved from the Internet at .

Daft, R.L. (2004). "Theory Z: Opening the Corporate Door for Participative Management." Academy of Management Executive 18, no. 4: 117-122.

Analyzing Motivational Theories
Words: 2495 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 51234336
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Integrating Two Theories of Motivational Psychology

Maslow Hierarchy of needs vs. Hull's Drive eduction Theory

Motivation is common term, but it is not easily defined. This is due to the many studies, which provide different definitions for the term. While some define it as a set of beliefs, values, interests, others define it as a cognitive decision making process. For this paper, motivation is central to a set of processes, which induce, direct, and maintain actions towards an objective. It is not similar to job performance, but it is a contributor to job performance (Linder, 1980). Motivation is a crucial component in the workplace, which explains why organizations are borrowing concepts from the motivation theories. There are many motivational theories, but they either fall under the content or process categories. Content theories assume that individuals have similar needs, and process theories emphasize the importance of…


Brewer, E.W., & McMahan-Landers, J. (2003). Job satisfaction among industrial and technical teacher educators. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 40(2), 65.

Benson, S.G., & Dundis, S.P. (2003). Understanding and motivating health care employees:

integrating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, training and technology. Journal of nursing management, 11(5), 315-320.

Jensen, R. (2006). Behaviorism, latent learning, and cognitive maps: Needed revisions in introductory psychology textbooks. Behavior analysis fall, 29(2), 187-209.

Person Theories Advantages Disadvantages Current Advantages and
Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67065106
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Person " Theories, advantages disadvantages current


Prior to discussing the advantages and disadvantages of the current theory/approach used within my workplace, it is necessary to elucidate just what sort of theory is most readily employed. The principle theory used is Theory X in which the management widely views their employees through the Person as Machine model. This theory states that management believes that the laborers are only working for monetary compensation. As such, the former believes that they must readily coerce the latter into being productive. The major disadvantage of the application of this theory is that it makes for an antagonistic, tense work environment. The employers are always monitoring and looking for ways to punish the employees in order to galvanize them into performing better, because "the underlying assumption…is that no worker wants to work" (Landy and Conte, 2013, p. 319). The disadvantage is that there…


Landy, F.J., & Conte, J.M. (2013). Work in the 21st century: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology (4th ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons

Chapter 8: The Motivation to Work

Locke, E.A., & Latham, G.P. (2006). New directions in goal-setting theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(5), 265-268. Retrieved from

Motivational Theories Teamwork L03 1 Recommendation to
Words: 1926 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73968207
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Motivational Theories / Teamwork


Recommendation to the Director of Highlands on potentially feasible leadership styles: Visionary Leadership Theory and Path-Goal Theory of Leadership.

The Visionary Leadership Theory is based partly on Max Weber's ideas of charisma and transformational leadership. This theory -- when implemented successfully -- creates trust in the leader, a "high commitment to the leader," high levels of "performance among followers," and a high "overall organizational performance" (Kirkpatrick, 2011). The visionary leader must have acute insight into the needs and values of his/her staff. The vision of the leader positively influences and motivates the followers. The visionary leader must have a "long-range vision of what his or her organization should become in ten, twenty, or more years in the future" (Kirkpatrick, p. 1616).

The leader must not only have charisma but also be able to "engage in several rhetorical techniques" that will motivate followers. Those techniques include…


Dyer, W. Gibb, Dyer, Jeffrey H., and Dyer, William G. 2013. Team Building: Proven Strategies for Improving Team Performance. John Wiley & Sons: Santa Barbara, CA.

House, Robert J. 1996. 'Path-Goal Theory of Leadership: Lessons, Legacy, and a Reformulated Theory.' Leadership Quarterly, vol. 7, 323-353.

Kirkpatrick, Shelly A. 2011. 'Visionary Leadership Theory', Encyclopedia of Leadership. SAGE Publications. Retrieved January 26, 2013, from .

Koontz, Harold, and Weihrich, Heinz. 2006. Essentials of Management. Tata McGraw-Hill Education: Mumbai, India.

Organizational Theories as a Product
Words: 1428 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13280950
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McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y, Open Systems Theory, and in general a recognition of the complexities of what fosters and supports greater productivity on the part of people.

At this point the evolution of organizational theories begins looking at how the factors of the distribution of knowledge, the integration of process for knowledge management, and in general the recognition of personal productivity as the basis of competitive advantage. This specific phase in the evolution of organizational theories is so fundamentally disruptive to previous theories that the effects are found in global economic theories, including the theory of comparative advantage. One of the thought leaders in the area, Dr. Michael Porter (1990, pp. 32-78) whose groundbreaking analysis of productivity pointed to individual's ability to fundamentally re-order processes would eventually surface in the 21st century as a Business process Management (BPM) revolution. When one considers the evolutionary shift from seeing assets…


Christian Cordes. "The Role of "Instincts" in the Development of Corporate Cultures." Journal of Economic Issues 41.3 (2007): 747-764. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest.13 Jan. 2008

Gerald F. Davis. "Mechanisms and the Theory of Organizations. " Journal of Management Inquiry 15.2 (2006): 114-118. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 15 Jan. 2008

Anil K. Gupta, Paul E. Tesluk, M Susan Taylor. "Innovation at and Across Multiple Levels of Analysis. " Organization Science 18.6 (2007): 885-897,1022-1023. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest;14 Jan. 2008

Michael G. Jacobides. "The architecture and design of organizational capabilities. " Industrial and Corporate Change 15.1 (2006): 151. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 13 Jan. 2008

Business Theories of Organizational Development and Employee Motivation
Words: 1177 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21557103
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Despite the fact that extreme poverty exists in many areas, Mexico's rising middle class is increasingly seeking out the trappings of American success. "The middle class in Mexico includes 39.2% (44 million people) of the country's total population. Mexico's middle class increased 11.4% during between 2000 and 2010" and these consumers are seeking out cellular phones and flat screen TVs in record numbers (Flannery 2013). Unfortunately, an increasingly affluent culture has brought forth one of the problems of industrialized prosperity, namely a rise in obesity. To take advantage of this concern, one possible product to market to the population coping with more sedentary jobs and a taste for highly caloric foods is that of gym memberships. Introducing a chain of low-cost gyms modeled on popular chains such as WOW and Planet Fitness, particularly in cities with high concentrations of white collar office workers would be an ideal way to…


Theory X and Theory Y (2015). Mind Tools. Retrieved from:

theory of motivation and maslows hierarchy of needs
Words: 1316 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 94663143
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Both observation and experiment provided the underpinning for Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation. Maslow (1943) posits, “man is a perpetually wanting animal,” leading to the constant striving to fulfill goals (p. 370). If and when anything prevents the fulfillment of a goal—whether the obstacle is internal or external—discomfort or psychopathy can occur (Maslow, 1943). Although Maslow’s original research was conducted decades ago, recent research on motivation and human behavior continues to substantiate Maslow’s core claims. Researchers continue to operationalize Maslow’s definitions of needs and motivation, leading to a strengthening of the original theory and expanded applications in the social sciences. Maslow himself wrote extensively to develop and mature a comprehensive theory of human motivation based on the hierarchy of needs model. The original needs hierarchy consists of five fundamental needs: for physiological comfort and fulfillment, for safety and security, for belongingness, for esteem, and for self-actualization. Although definitions of…

Theory a Set Can Be
Words: 323 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 75569393
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In the example above, the intersection of sets a and B. would be { 2 }

X ? Y = { 2, 5, 7, 8, 11, 16, 19, 21, 702 }

b) X ? Y = { 5, 11, 702 }

c) Z = { 7, 11 }

a) 1 / 2 = { a, b, c, d, e, f, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z }

b) Set 3 is a proper subset of Set 2. All of the elements in Set 3 are contained within Set 2.

4 a) { heads, tails }

b) { 2 heads, 1 head & 1 tail, 2 tails }

c) the odds of getting one head and one tail are two in four. Although Set B. only has three elements, the 1H1T element could arise from two different scenarios, head first and tail second…

Fragile X Syndrome
Words: 2837 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 97214966
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Fragile X syndrome (also called Martin -- Bell syndrome, or Escalante's syndrome) is the most common single cause of mental retardation and the second most common inherited form of mental retardation, affecting approximately 1 in 1000 males and 1 in 2000 females (Sadock & Sadock, 2007). Fragile X syndrome is the result of a single gene mutation, a mutation of the FM1 gene, located on the X chromosome. Every person has 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 individual chromosomes). Twenty two pairs of chromosomes are autosomes and one pair is an allosome, also known as sex the chromosomes. The allosomes determine the person's gender. Female infants receive two X chromosomes (one each from mother and father), whereas males receive one X chromosome (from the mother) and one Y chromosome (from the father). The site of the Fragile X mutation is on one of these X chromosomes (Sadock & Sadock, 2007).



American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders, IV- Test Revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Atkinson, R.C. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In Spence, K.W & Spence, J.T. (Eds.) pp. 89 -- 195. The psychology of learning and motivation (Volume 2). New York: Academic Press.

Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory: looking back and looking forward. Nature Reviews

National Culture and Related Theories This Paper
Words: 5015 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 42825467
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National Culture and elated Theories

This paper presents a comprehensive discussion on the cultural diversity and its impact on the organizational performance and management practices. The paper includes a methodical analysis of the influence of culture on operational performance of an organization and the working patterns of individuals. A logical criticism has also been done on the relevant theories and concepts that are widely practiced in the business world.

Cultural diversity refers to the differences of cultural backgrounds, religious beliefs, social norms, races, and other dimensions among individuals. Cultural diversity is widely seen in large societies and multinational organizations. Due to its importance in today's challenging and complex business environment, organizations are giving more focus on managing cultural diversity in their workplaces. A number of research studies have been conducted which explain the importance, challenges, and issues of cultural diversity for business organizations. The most important studies are conducted in…


Collings, D.G. 2012, International Human Resource Management: Policies and Practices for Multinational Enterprises. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23 (7): 1509-1511.

Dowling, P.J., & Welch, D.E. 2008, International Human Resources Management: Managing People in a Multinational Context. 5th Edition, London: Prentice Hall

Fischer, R., & Poortinga, Y.P. 2012, Are cultural values the same as the values of individuals? An examination of similarities in personal, social and cultural value structures, International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 12 (2):157-170.

Gopalan, S., & Stahl, A. 1998, Application of American Management Theories and Practices to the Indian Business Environment: Understanding the Impact of National Culture, American Business Review, 1 (1): 33-38.

Global Warming a Theory or
Words: 1326 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54241330
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"Global air temperatures have been rising at a steady trend rate of 0.5 degrees Centigrade per century since about 1750, as the world recovers from the little ice age." (Evans, Global Research, 2009

Global temperatures cooled off from 1940 through the late 1970's, which refutes the casual relationship earlier defined by scientists between rises in CO2 levels and global warming. Tsonis also points to a Washington Post article from 1922 that reports Greenland glaciers to be fast disappearing and arctic seals not engaging their warmer waters. Subsequently the period from the 1980's to 2000 showed an aggressive rise in temperature. Tsonis does agree to an element of human activity and greenhouse gas that contributes to the MDO cycle but does not believe in predictions of catastrophe associated with Global Warming. He further states that we may see reports of an on setting ice age by the early 2030's, as the…


Environmentalists 'exaggerated' threat to tropical rainforests from global warming. David Derbyshire. November 10, 2010. 

Global warming or global cooling? S. Anklesaria Aiyari. India Times. February 27, 2005. Retrieved from: 

Global Warming or Global Cooling? A New Trend in Climate Alarmism. Dr. David Evans. Centre for Research on Globalization -- July 23, 2009. Retrieved from: 

Skeptics on Human Climate Impact Seize on Cold Spell. Andrew C. Revin. The New York Times -- Science. March 2, 2006. Retrieved from:

Ortega Y Gasset the Spanish
Words: 1737 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54723682
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However, he reconciles these opposite views in what he designs as the new religion for man:

hile he knew that a collapse and ricorso of Vico's type into a "divine" and "barbaric" epoch was possible, he did not regard any such colossal disaster as necessary or likely. He put hope above fear, and positive over negative. He seems to have foreseen a historical transformation similar to the change from Hellenic to "Hellenistic" in ancient civilization, which, in the Roman Empire, finally did collapse into such a barbaric ricorso, or cycle. European and "estern" phases of civilization have not yet experienced Spengler's or Toynbee's "Roman paradigm" of orld State and orld Religion, and Ortega trusted that such a horrible outcome could be forever avoided by a kind of federal world order built on the model of the European Union." (Graham, 2001, p.504)

Thus, Ortega y Gasset's main attempt is to create…

Works Cited

Graham, John T (2001) The Social Thought of Ortega Y. Gasset: A Systematic Synthesis in Postmodernism and Interdisciplinarity. Columbia: University of Missouri Press

Ortega y Gasset, Jose.(1998) Man and Crisis. New York W.W. Norton

The Modern Theme. (1961)New York W.W. Norton

Blaise Pascal.

Criminal Justice Theory
Words: 2525 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51732386
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Criminal Justice Theory and the Los Angeles County Probation Department

Criminal and antisocial behaviors have been studied in the field of criminology for many years. Criminologists are very interested to learn what types of things cause specific criminal and antisocial behaviors. hile criminal behavior and antisocial behavior are not always related, they often have close ties. Criminologists and other researchers are looking to find commonalities between certain genetic makeups and deviant behavior. They believe that many people are genetically predisposed to be violent, and if these people can be located they can be treated.

That does not mean that criminologists are in favor of testing everyone's genetic makeup on the planet to see if any of them show violent tendencies. hat they are interested in doing, however, is studying criminals who already have a history of violent and deviant behavior to see what other traits they have, and what their…

Works Cited

Anderson, R.H. (2000, January 13). Unit 5: deviance, conformity and social control. University of Colorado at Denver. Retrieved September 2, 2005, from http://psychology.

Brand, C. Cycad Web Works. (2003, February). Can crime be traced to such often-mooted personality features as extraversion and lack-of-conscientiousness? Are genetic factors involved-in whatever interaction with the environment? And can any therapeutic or preventive steps by recommended? Retrieved August 29, 2005, from

Brunet, J.R. (2002, November 15). Discouragement of Crime Through Civil Remedies: An Application of a Reformulated Routine Activities Theory. In Western Criminology Review 4 (1) Retrieved September 5, 2005, from html

Casey, D. Human Genome Project. (1997, June). Introduction. Retrieved September 1, 2005, from  / primer/prim1.html

Educational Theory Meaning of Authentic
Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92827016
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Instead, it is rigid and reinforced with bureaucracy and red tape, thus making it a poor system for education and children.

Educating the whole child." Educating the whole child is an idea that took root in the early 20th century and is making a comeback in education. The educational model is conducted throughout the child's education - from kindergarten through high school, and recognizes the child is a complete being, with spirit, mind, and body, and each item must be addressed in the educational model. The model attempts to educate the "whole" child - heart, head, and hands, by offering education in a variety of areas, from academics to art and practical, hands-on activities. The children are encouraged to play as well as study, to help develop fully rounded personalities and ideas. Teachers also use storytelling, fairy tales, and other folk art as models for teaching and involving the children…


Editors. (2007.) Ism book. Retrieved from the Web site:  March 2007.

Gur-Ze'ev, I. (1999). Knowledge, violence, and education. Retrieved from the Encyclopedia of philosophy in education Web site: March 2007.

Waghid, Y. (2005). Action as an educational virtue: Toward a different understanding of democratic citizenship education. Educational Theory 55 (3), 323-342. doi:10.1111/j.1741-5446.2005.00006.x

Real Options Theory in Financial
Words: 2677 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 40789768
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The reason that the subject lends itself to natural resources or real estate is that there will be some information available in those areas, making the valuation less difficult than in innovative areas.

The pessimistic approach is characterized by the divest/shrink option. When a firm is divesting or shrinking it can first scale down, which means that it can "shrink or shut down a project part way through if new information changes the expected payoffs;" this option lends itself to capital intensive industries or industries dealing with financial services (Mauboussin, 1999). ather than shutting down a project, a company can also choose to switch down, which involves switching "to more cost-effective and flexible assets as new information is obtained," and might be used in smaller companies, where the wholesale shut-down of a project could end a business (Mauboussin, 1999). The scope-down option is the mirror image of the above-mentioned scope-up…


Discounted cash flow- DCF. (2009). Retrieved February 2, 2009, from

Web site: 

Espinoza, R.D. And Luccioni, L.X. (2007). Simplified investment valuation model for projects with technical uncertainty and time to build. Retrieved February 1, 2009, from Web site: 

Giat, Y., Hackman, S., and Subramanian, a. (2007). Risk, uncertainty and optimism in venture capital relationships. (2007). Retrieved February 3, 2009, from Web site:

Labor Econ the Theory of
Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48080519
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he intersection determines the amount of investment in education / productivity factors by all individuals and institutions.

he major criticisms to the Neoclassical model come from the assumption competition holds, namely that individuals act to maximize profit in all scenarios; factor mobility is unlimited; marginal returns to labor don't increase with wage rates, and other simplifications which rarely hold true in the workforce. Nor are all workers the same to the firm (discrimination), and workers' productivity and labor supply decisions change at different wage levels. hen we have to consider frictional unemployment; information asymmetry; product substitution; any number of real constraints that complicate the pure "Marginal Demand for Labor" theory (Kaufman & Hotchkiss, 2000, p. 31).

he main counter to the Neoclassicals arose in the early-mid-20th century Institutional school after Veblen, Commons and Mitchell, ironically at the University of Wisconsin 1920-30. Institutionalist focus on real evidence counters the Neoclassical theory…

The main counter to the Neoclassicals arose in the early-mid-20th century Institutional school after Veblen, Commons and Mitchell, ironically at the University of Wisconsin 1920-30. Institutionalist focus on real evidence counters the Neoclassical theory where institution effects went ignored (New School n.d.). The more sociological approach recognizes 'market failures' of discrimination, collective bargaining and incorporation. Evidence surrounds us today in the form of monopolistic energy provision, embedded in every price on every shelf including wages, for example. One criticism on an Institutional line would be the persistence of poverty. If poverty is unwanted, either we allow poverty to persist, it is necessary for Neoclassical models to hold, or the model is flawed. The Institutional thread leads eventually via the London School to the modern "Post-Keynesian," "Behavioral," "Environmental," and other heterodox schools.

Comparing share of population to share of workforce for groups with a particular characteristic reveals discrimination if a group is underrepresented in a firm or industry. or, we identify where a category is overrepresented in the total labor market relative to other workers. If productivity is the same between groups, lower wages must be explained somehow. The heterodox perspective recognizes potential effects within the market, and before workers apply for a job. Some workers are less competitive than others before they apply, education being a common reason, which depends on access outside the workplace. Market discrimination enters the realm of individual aversion to classes of workers by the employer or other workers, usually over ethnicity, religion or gender, but any reason can provide empirical evidence if wage differentials persist.

Prejudice is real, and it results in lower wages for minorities (Kaufman & Hotchkiss 2000, p. 469). In the aggregate, equally

Successful Aging as Viewed by Generation X
Words: 3822 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71404341
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successful aging as viewed by Generation X versus Baby Boomers over the age of

Successful Ageing: Generation X versus Baby Boomers

Numerous studies have focused on understanding and defining the constituents of successful aging. The term "successful aging" is popular in the gerontological literature to cover processes in aging. The processes of aging are positive, and at times, the term has shown relations to "vital aging" or "active aging" implying that later life is characterized by sustained health and vitality. According to Moody (2005), "successful aging" suggests main ideas including life satisfaction, longevity, freedom from disability, mastery, and growth, active management with life and independence.

According to Dubey et al. (2011), as people grow older, they have incidences of illnesses. However, an older population has numerous needs as compared to a younger population. Life satisfaction continues to be an important aspect in the study of aging. This is because it…


AARP. (2007). Leading a multi-generational workforce. Retrieved from 

Berkman, L., Unger, J.B., McAvay, G., Bruce, M.L., Seeman, L., (1999). Variation in the impact of social network characteristics on the physical functioning in elderly persons.

The Journals of Gerontology, 54(B), 245-251

Bovbierg, V.E., McCann, B.S., Brief, D.J., Follette, W.E., Retzlaff, B.M., Dowdy, A.A.,

Understanding the Theory of Comfort
Words: 1966 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37167652
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Evaluation of K. Kolcaba's Comfort Theory


Are the concepts in the theory explicitly and/or implicitly described in the theory?

(including the four concepts of the metaparadigm of nursing; nurse/nursing; person/patient; health; environment)? The descriptions of the theoretical concepts of comfort theory are provided below:

Nurse/nursing: According to Kolcaba (2003), "The term [nursing] can mean the discipline (noun) or what nursing does (the verb)" (p. 68);

Person/patient: Likewise, Kolcaba (2003) notes that "the concept [person] has been utilized as client, patient, family, community, region, or nation" (p. 68).

Health: "Health Care Needs" include those identified by the patient/family in a particular practice setting (Kolcaba, 2016, para. 3);

Environment: Generally, Kolcaba (2003) describes this concept as "where ever nurses practice" (p. 68).

b. Are the relationships of the theory concept relationships explicitly and/or implicitly described in the theory? According to Kolaba (2003), her definition characterizes comfort "as…


Goodwin, M. & Candela, L. (2012). Outcomes of newly practicing nurses who applied principles of holistic comfort theory during the transition from school to practice: A qualitative study. Nurse Education Today, 33(6), 614-619.

Kolcaba, K. Y. (1991). A taxonomic structure for the concept comfort. Image, 23(4), 237-240.

Kolcaba, K. (1994). A theory of holistic comfort for nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19, 1178-1189.

Kolcaba, K. (2003). Comfort theory and practice: A vision for holistic health care and research. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Key Underlying Theories
Words: 1049 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 90991073
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Operations Management

There are a number of words that can best describe (and are currently being used) how operations management is causing a renaissance in the business community. Words such as flexibility, agility and responsiveness have found their way into the business jargon commonly used throughout the new global business environment. The reason behind the use of such lexicons seems to be to make it simpler for management to explain what it is they are striving to achieve; this holds true in almost all types of business operations including IT, mining and manufacturing. The literature concerning operations management is replete with the use of such terms and oftentimes the words are used in conjunction with one another or in the place of other less attention grabbing language.

One recent study is a prime example when it states that the "evaluation of flexibility in a manufacturing system development in operations management…


Buckingham, L.; (2009) Priority list, EWeek, Vol. 26, Issue 14, p. 43

Cardin, M.A.; de Neufville, R.; Kazakidis, V.; (2008) Process to improve expected value of mining operations, Mining Technology: Transactions of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Section A, Vol. 117, Issue 2, pp. 65 -- 70

De Koster, R.; (2003) Distribution strategies for online retailers, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 50, Issue 4, pp. 448-457

Gong, Y. & De Koster, R.; (2008) A polling-based dynamic order picking system for online retailers, IIE Transactions, Vol. 40, Issue 11, pp. 1070-1082

Organizational Theory the Theoretical and
Words: 2840 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69415961
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Further, coercive and reward power are often highly distributed through the more agile organizations and as a result must be applied immediately to behavior to be effective.

In the context of Dr. Edgar Schein's (1983) analysis and presentation of results in his working papers referenced in this document, an industry's growth and culture is well defined in the following quote. In the working papers, Schein (1983) writes:

For an organizational culture to exist, there must be a definable organization in the sense of a number of people interacting with each other for the purpose of accomplishing some goal in their defined environment. The founder of an organization simultaneously creates such a group and, by force of his or her personality, begins to shape the culture of that group. But the culture of that new group is not there until the group has had its own history of overcoming various crises…


Azize Ergeneli, Guler Sag, Iam Ari, Selin Metin. 2006. Psychological empowerment and its relationship to trust in immediate managers. Journal of Business Research 60, no. 1 (December 1): 41. (Accessed December 6, 2007).

French, J.R.P., & Raven, B.H., 1959. The bases of social power. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in social power (pp. 150-167). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

Geert Hofstede, 2006 - Summary of Ideas about Cultural Differences. From Geert Hofstede's personal website: Accessed on December 7, 2007:

Leadership the Basic Theory of
Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6101499
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In SLII, there is a recognition that leadership is "done with people, not to people." The change in words illustrates this change of philosophy accurately.

In a sense, the two models have slightly different conceptualizations to reflect changes in the audience. Situational leadership was developed by the authors in 1972, when leadership styles were far more autocratic than they are today. Leadership was done to people in those days. Today, leadership is done with people. . The authors have recognized this fundamental shift in the prevailing leadership attitudes and made the appropriate changes to their model to reflect this. However, the terminology used in the original situational leadership model will still appeal to autocratic leaders. The SLII model's terminology will appeal more to modern leaders. As the excessive and clumsy use of the registered trademark symbol throughout their paper indicates, these concepts are products being sold. A shift in wording…

Works Cited:

Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. (1988). Management of organizational behavior: Utilizing human resources. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Hersey, P & Blanchard, K. (2009). Situational leadership & situational leadership II: Commonalities and differences. Self published. In possession of the author.

Staff and the Supervision of Higher Education
Words: 1909 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91620791
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staff and the supervision of higher education staff members?

It is the primary assumption regarding the staff as well as the supervision of higher education staff members that they should influence the people around them in such a manner that they would work for the welfare of all rather than working for their own personal causes (Yukl, 2006). This staff acts as a leadership and therefore, they should have high ethical standards along with intrapersonal and interpersonal skills so that they can guide and influence the people around them in a positive manner and prove to be effective leaders (Jossey-Bass, 2003, p. 253).

Assumptions are opinion instinctively created to simplify a persons' rationale for considering and accepting something that one thinks to be right (uggiero, 2004, p. 94-95). I was given the responsibility to consider and decide a number of things regarding the current staff working in the higher education…


Bernhardt, V.L. (2004). Data Analysis for Continuous Improvement (2nd ed.). Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.

Business leadership: A Jossey-Bass reader. (2003). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. (pp.440-445).

Gaetane, Jean-Marie, Normove, Anthony H. (2010). "The Impact of Relational Leadership, Social Justice, and Spirituality among Female Secondary School Leaders." International Journal of Urban Educational Leadership 4(1) pg. 22-24.

Glickman, C.D., Gordon, S.P., Ross-Gordon, J.M. (2010). SuperVision and Instructional Leadership (8th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Motivating Employees You Pick 2 Companies Write
Words: 2690 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45661278
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Motivating Employees

you pick 2 companies write their motivation techniques. I pick intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. And compare companies. Do papers have database, searches people pulled web. You find UOPHX Website writes companies listed, pick.

Motivating employees at two companies:

Ben & Jerry's versus Southwest

Motivational theories by their very nature address companies in a fairly generic, prescriptive format. However, two corporations exist that continue to be very successful, after many years of impressive financial growth, seem to break all molds, yet confirm one of the most noteworthy theories regarding what motivates employees -- intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation. Ben & Jerry's began as a small company based in Vermont that, despite or because of its ethical ideals, has become an integral part of American culture. Ben & Jerry's changed the way Americans consume ice cream, shifting the focus from quantity to quality. Southwest Airlines is a largely regional airline…


Activism. (2012). Ben & Jerry's. Retrieved: 

Bailey, Jeff. (2008). Southwest. The New York Times. Retrieved:

FOX Case Study Analyzing the Practice of
Words: 2894 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40040302
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FOX Case Study

Analyzing the Practice of Management:

A case study discussion of the Fox elocation Management Corporation

There is an ancient Greek aphorism, "Know thyself." Nowhere is this statement truer than in analyzing the role management plays in a company. Every leader of an organization seeks to define his or her role and address the issues of the day as well as those that will inevitably arise. An academic approach to management theory allows for calibrations of structure, culture and client focus that can allow a company to focus. This paper will focus on the Fox elocation Management Corporation and how its CEO Gretchen Fox directs and organizes the business with the goal of providing a better understanding of management theory.

In Drucker's pivotal essay "The Practice of Management" the fundamental managerial skill of feedback analysis is held up as a critical commodity. One can see from Gretchen's progress…


Dean, J. And Bowen, D. 1994. Management theory and total quality. Academy of Management Review. 3(392-418.)

Gomez-Mejia, L., Balkin, D. And Cardy, R. 2008. Management: People, Performance, Change (3rd edition). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Johnson, R. 1976. Management, systems and society: an introduction. Pacific Palisades, CA: Goodyear Publishing.

Koontz, H. 1961. The management theory jungle. J of the Academy of Management. 4(3).

Incomplete Projects
Words: 1880 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 8175032
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Theory Z Management Style on IT Project Completion

Incomplete projects in the IT industry are responsible for significant losses in time, money and creative energy (Boehne, 2000; Mokhtari, et al., 2010). This is very often a result of inadequate project management (Glaser, 2005; Humphrey, 2005; Kimball, 2000). One well-accepted approach to project management that has received considerable attention in the scholarly literature is the contingency management concept known as "theory Z," devised by William Ouchi in 1981.

Theory Z is a management philosophy based on goal setting and achievement. It utilizes a structural motivational strategy based on employee participation combined with an authoritative process of motivation to achieve specific objectives. It was developed as a means of integrating Japanese management philosophies into Western managerial strategies (England, 1983). Essentially, theory Z posits that the structure of the decision making hierarchy must be in alignment with the level of employee participation. Thus…


Blackstone, J.H., Cox, J.F. & Schleier, J.G. (2009) A tutorial on project management from a theory of constraints perspective. International Journal of Production Research. 47(24) 7029-7046

Boehne, D. (2000). Deciding whether to complete or terminate an unfinished project: A strong test of the project completion hypothesis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 81(2),178-194.

Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010) Occupational employment statistics, Retrieved from;jsessionid=6230f0cca7c57f5b5d67

England, G.W. (1983) Japanese and American management: Theory Z and beyond, Journal of International Business Studies, 14, 131 -- 142

Organizational Behavior Past Present Discuss Statements & 8226
Words: 744 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98022807
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Organizational Behavior: Past Present. Discuss statements. • The Human elations Movement. Discuss Hawthorne Experiment implications a legacy workplace; compare contrast McGregor's Theory X Theory Y assumptions employees, personal experiences Theory X & Y managers, prefer.

Organizational behavior: Past and present

Discuss the Hawthorne Experiment and its implications as a legacy in the workplace

The Hawthorne Experiment suggests that when subjects are aware that they are being observed, they behave better than they do under regular circumstances. The implications of this experiment in the workplace are fairly obvious: workers are often regularly watched by managers, as a way of improving employee productivity and enhancing compliance. When workers cannot be watched through the use of human agency, then mechanized means are used to engage in surveillance. Time clocks, 'blocking' controls upon unsupervised employee web-surfing, sitting workers in open environments where they can be easily monitored and other efforts to make employee behaviors…


Kreitner & Kinicki. (2007). Chapter 14 outline. Fundamentals of organizational behavior.


Mead, A. (1996). Deming distilled. TQM. Retrieved April 28, 2011 at 

Schmidt, Klaus. (1998). Applying the Four Principles of Total Quality Management to the classroom. Tech Directions, 58 (1):16-18.

Motivation & Leadership the Objective
Words: 2002 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58196405
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" (Ibid)

Transformation leadership is 'authentic' leadership which "builds genuine trust between leaders and followers." Furthermore transformational leadership "concentrates on terminal values such as integrity and fairness. They see the responsibility for their organization's development and impact on society." (Ibid)

Homig and MacGregor in the work entitled:" Transformational Leadership" state that the following ten 'tenets' are inclusive in the transformational leader's style of leading:

1. Leaders have high moral and ethical values.

2. Leaders express genuine interest in followers.

3. Leaders have an inspirational vision.

4. Genuine trust exists between leaders and led.

5. Followers share leader's values and vision.

6. Leaders and followers perform beyond self-interest.

7. Participatory decision-making is the rule.

8. Innovative thinking and action is expected.

9. Motivation is to do the right thing.

10. Leaders mentor. (nd)


While all of these theories were valid at some time or in relation to some…


Creating Futures (nd) Online available at NewsletterFI NAL.pdf+Jeffrey+H.+Brotman,+Leadership&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=9

Costco Wholesale Investor Relations (2006) Online

Employee Motivation, the Organizational Environment and Productivity (2006) Section 2: Basic Approaches Used to Improve Productivity. Accel Team Online available at

Costco -5th Largest Retailer in U.S. And 11th Largest in the World (2006)

Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1
Words: 4858 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: Array
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Leadership and Human esource Management in the Public Sector

The public sector consists of the section of the government, which attends to matters of production, ownership, sales, provision and delivery and allocation of services and goods to the government and the citizens of the state, nationally, regionally and locally. The public sector conducts activities such as delivering of social security services, overseeing urban planning and organizing the national defense among other services. The organizational structure takes various forms, which dictate the leadership formula of the countries sectors. Some of these forms of organization include the direct administration founded on the lines of direct taxation; in this form, the government does not have particular requirements but to meet the commercial success and production decisions of the country. Another structure of organization under public sector is the publicly owned corporations. These differ from the direct administration of the government as they have…


White, J.D. (2007). Managing information in the public sector. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe.

Raffel, J.A., Leisink, P., & Middlebrooks, A.E. (2009). Public sector leadership: International challenges and perspectives. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Berman, E.M. (2010). Human resource management in public service: Paradoxes, processes, and problems. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Berman, E.M. (2013). Human resource management in public service: Paradoxes, processes, and problems. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Movie Peaceful Warrior Character Socrates Played
Words: 1578 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41177939
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movie Peaceful Warrior, character "Socrates" ( played Nick Nolte) "There's greater purpose service

Servant Leadership model- leadership style of George Washington

Some people believe that leaders have the ability to lead from the time of birth. This could be true; however, not necessarily the reality on the ground. Additionally, there are different types of leaders depending on their leading requirements and personal attributes. There are dictatorial leaders, directing and commanding leaders, as well as, serving leaders. In description, servant-leadership is leadership, which is a way of being in relationship with others. It seeks to involve and incorporate the followers or employees at all levels in decision-making, strongly adhering to ethical and caring behavior, hence enhances the individual growth of all followers or workers and their performance in the work place. As a young man, President George Washington exhibited admiration of rules and wanted to be a gentle man, this is…


Savage-Austin, A.R., & Honeycutt, A. (2011). Servant leadership: A phenomenological study of practices, experiences, organizational effectiveness, and barriers. Journal of Business & Economics Research, 9(1), 49-55. Retrieved from ProQuest.

Greenstein, F.I. (2011). Inventing the Job of President: Leadership Style from George

Washington to Andrew Jackson. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Edwards, R., & Kelley, T. (2009). Who was George Washington?. New York: Grosset & Dunlap.

Human Resource Management HRM Questions Companies Will
Words: 996 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 20234912
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Human esource Management

HM Questions

Companies will usually downsize in order to reduce costs, especially where a firm is making losses, or to streamline the organizational structure, which may improve efficiency. The downside of downsizing is that there is no guarantee of success, and in the downsizing process the firm may lose resources that would have been useful, including human knowledge as well as capacity which may be a negative influence a firm. One strategy often used is outsourcing, this may cut costs, or allow for access to specialist services at a lower costs that internal provision. However, outsourcing also has disadvantages including loss of control over timing and quality, costs may increase, there may also be risks in terms commercial confidentiality.

Question 7


Maslow's hierarchy of needs hypothesizes that there is a pyramid of needs with individuals moving up and down over different points in their life (Torrington…


Forsyth, D.R. (2010), Group Dynamics, Belmont, Wadsworth, Cengage Learning

Torrington, Derek; Taylor, Stephen; Hall, Laura; Atkinson, Carol, (2011), Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

Combine Rdt & Sct Into
Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 56625263
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Still, they also have to be aware of the fact that they have to change and grow in tune with the other organizations in their area (Boyd, 1990). If they fail to do this, they will generally find themselves struggling because they no longer fit in with the other organizations in their surrounding area. That could cause them to lose the power they had over those organizations, and could also become an issue for them when it comes to getting what they need from the organizations with which they surround themselves. For sustaining ability, Structural Contingency Theory would work best. How an organization acts and reacts internally can have much to do with how that organization is then able to act externally (Morgan, 2007). When people in the organization are working at maximum efficiency and are "in sync" with one another, it is easy to see that the organization will…


Boyd, B. (1990). Corporate linkages and organizational environment: A test of the resource dependence model. Strategic Management Journal 11(6): 419-430.

Morgan, G. (2007) Images of organization. Thousand Oaks: Sage

Socially Innovative and Socially Responsible Commerce Examination
Words: 2165 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16451838
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Socially Innovative and Socially Responsible Commerce: Examination of Carbon Tax in Australia

In a November 8th 2011 report in the Australian Times it is reported that as the final hurdle to carbon emission tax was cleared by the Federal Government of Australia, "Prime Minister Julia Gillard avoided saying the passage of the controversial impost would mark a turning point in Labor's fortunes." It is related that a new polled demonstrated "a modest uptick in its primary support." (Australian Times, 2011) The new tax is geared toward a reduction in carbon emissions in theory however; it is likely that the carbon tax is in reality more focused on government receipts in terms of its revenue. This issue will be examined through the lens of theorists Senge (2000) and the Dynamics of Systems, Jenkins (2008) and value and identities, and einhocker (2006) theories and global commerce.

Carbon Tax in Australia: An Overview…


Aronson, D. (1998) Overview of Systems Thinking. Retrieved from:

Beinhocker, ED (2006) Evolution, Complexity, and the Radical Remaking of Economics. Harvard Business School Press. Retrieved from:;%20Evolution,%20Complexity,%20and%20the%20Radical%20Remaking%20of%20Economics%20(Harvard%20Business%20School%20Press;%202006).pdf

Carbon Emitters Face Up to $7.3 Bill. Australian Times. Retrieved from: 

Carbon Tax to Destroy Australia: Monckton. Australian Times. Retrieved from:

Airline Industry Has Become Increasingly
Words: 17068 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 69548589
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By the turn of the century, though, these low-costs carriers had become profitable or at least had significantly reduced their losses due in large part to concomitant increases by major carriers that were increasing their prices in response to decreasing yields and higher energy prices (Doganis 2001).

By and large, passenger traffic across the board increased significantly prior to September 11, 2001 and all signs indicated it was continue to increase for the foreseeable future. For example, according to Janda, Flouris and Oum (2005), global air passenger traffic increased from 1.573 trillion revenue-passenger-kilometers (RPK) in 1985 to 3.394 trillion in 2000, representing a 116% increase during this decade-and-a-half period, or an average annual compounded growth of 5.26%. Furthermore, between 1985 and 2000, air freight traffic grew at even faster rate than passenger traffic (Janda et al. 2005). These authors also emphasize airlines are directly affected by the larger economy in…

Network." 2010, October 7 Canada NewsWire Group. [online]. available:

Consumer Choice Behavioral Economics
Words: 1763 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77467948
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Thus the indifference curve II passing through D. must have a negative slope. It is generally assumed that such curves are convex to the origin.

Now I-I is a particular indifference curve. We may think of the consumption of any bundle of goods on it as yielding a particular level of satisfaction, or utility, to the consumer. However there are indifference curves passing through every point on figure 2, each one negatively sloped and each one convex to the origin. Those which pass through points above and to the right of D. link

Indifference curves that cross are incompatible with the assumption that consumers order bundles of goods consistently.

Up bundles of goods that yield higher levels of satisfaction than those on I-I and those below and to the left yield lower levels of satisfaction. Such curves can never cross one another, for this would violate the rationality assumption. Consider…


Bailey, M.J., The Marshallian Demand Curve, Journal of Political Economy, June 1994, reprinted in Breit and Hochman (op. cit).

Hicks, J.R., Value and Capital (2nd edition), New York (Oxford University Press) 1946, Chs 1-3.

Marshall, A., Principles of Economics (8th edition), London (Macmillan) 1936, Book 3.

Skurski, Roger. New Directions in Economic Justice. University of Notre Dame Press, 1983.

How Incentives Effect the Performance of Managers
Words: 1749 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 27787564
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Incentives and Performance

Kopelman, ., et al. (2012); Further Development of a Measure of Theory X and Y Managerial Assumptions. Journal of Managerial Issues. 24 (4): 450-62.

Certainly, there is no one best way to ensure that either employees or managers are properly motivated. Most scholarship, in fact, indicates that motivation is a balance between the task-relevant behavior and the maturity and acumen of the group in which the individual manages or participates in. In fact, motivation is the basic driving force that helps individuals work, change and actualize to achieve their goals. This motivational behavior may be intrinsic or extrinsic, depending upon the individual and the manner in which that individual's personality uses different sets of motivation to incur actualization. Much of the basic theory of motivation tends to be based on the work of Benjamin Maslow, not only on human needs, but on the manner in which those…


Heil, G., et al., (2000). Douglas McGregor Revisited: Managing the Human Side of the Enterprise. New York: John Wiley.

Hersey and Blanchard (1977). Management of Organization Behavior, Utilizing Human Resource. New Jersey: Prentice Hall

Kopelman, R., et al. (2012); Further Development of a Measure of Theory X and Y Managerial Assumptions. Journal of Managerial Issues. 24 (4): 450-62.

Martin, A. (2009). Motivation and Engagement in the Workplace. Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling and Development. 41 (1): 223-43.

Organizational Behavior and Teamwork
Words: 9355 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50662786
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Organizational Behavior and Teamwork


Southwest Airlines, Inc. has become an example of notable success. One reason for its significant achievement is its application of Reinforcement Theory to its employees. These applications have resulted in a highly motivated workforce, which is intimately tied to Southwest's success among business leaders. Even so, not even Southwest can satisfy its employees' needs according to Maslow's Hierarchy; rather, Southwest can only give some raw materials for satisfying those needs.

Are Southwest Airlines Inc. leadership and policies fulfilling Maslow's Needs Theory stages?

Abraham Maslow's 5-stage needs theory, developed in the United States during the 1940's and 1950's (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010), includes the following stages: biological and physiological needs; safety needs; belongingness and love needs; esteem needs; and self-actualization (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010). The most basic needs that are basic to survival and are at the bottom…

Works Cited

Coca-Cola Company. (2012). Careers. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from Web site: 

Coca-Cola Company. (2012). Sustainability. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from Web site: 

Erdogan, B., & Bauer, T. (2010). Organizational behavior. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from Web site: 

IWon. (n.d.). Careers. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from Web site:,15623,1310,00.html

Management Development Process Has Been
Words: 4207 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23880192
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Previously the element of interest and personal motivation were found missing, the technical capabilities of the employees have never been a matter of debate, however the personal and mental capacities and limitations are either ignored or not respected which resulted in the poor performance of the organization. Apparently, the rise in the demands pertaining to the particpation of the employees and the industrial democracy has also distorted the professional environment. Such all complains were lately resolved and answered through the unique approach of the organization, the organization has understood the significance of the employees, and had realized that their performance is not based upon their professional capabilities, but rather it is the function of the mental capability of the employee related to the friendly and conducive environment offered to the employees occasionally. The need of the employees that focus upon peaceful, conducive and liberal environment has been ensured, which required…


Hamel, G. Leading the Revolution. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. 2000. Pp. 123-124.

Keely, L. Strategic Choices. Dublin Group presentation materials, unpublished. 1999.

Mahler, W., & Drotter, S. The Succession Planning Handbook for the Chief Executive, Midland Park, NJ: Mahler Publishing Co. 1986.

McKinsey and Co. The War for Talent Survey, New York, NY: McKinsey and Co. publication. 1997.

Workplace Psychological Testing and Measurement
Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29703287
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What are the most important requisite skills required of organizational leaders? Why? How do effective and ineffective leadership behaviors affect employees both positively and negatively?

The most important skill of an organizational leader is to be able to motivate people, contrary to the assumption leadership is synonymous with telling people what to do in an authoritative fashion. Although in some limited instances, when a matter is urgent and followers are inexperienced, authoritarian leadership may be required, for the most part, people work best when they feel empowered to do so. According to Hersey-Blanchard leadership theory (2018), the four dominant modes of leadership include telling, selling, supporting and delegating. All too often, leaders assume that more telling is needed than actually is required. Employees need to be empowered and motivated to make positive choices to act autonomously, and even when they are inexperienced, coaching and mentorship is often more effective than…

Functionalism Is What Advantage Does it Have
Words: 2978 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15329603
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Functionalism is. What advantage does it have over the Identity Theory?

Functionalism imparts the theoretical underpinnings of much work in cognitive science and is one of the chief theoretical developments of Twentieth Century analytic philosophy. To solve psyche problem, functionalism is presented as one of the main schemes. Following are the customary questions that are asked to solve psyche problem: what makes a mental state mental? Or what is the eventual nature of the mental? To be more particular, what makes a thought? Or what do thoughts have in common in virtue of which they are thoughts? What makes a pain? (Functionalism) Through their informal roles, functionalism recognizes mental states and processes; and neural states and processes hold functional roles. (The Identity Theory of Mind)

As per functionalism, informal relations among mental states sensory inputs and behavioral outputs comprise mental states. Three separate sources of functionalism are as follows. Putnam…


Chinese room -An argument forwarded by John Searle. Retrieved from  Accessed on 19 May, 2005

Chinese Room Argument. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from  / Accessed on 19 May, 2005

Dualism (philosophy of mind). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from  Accessed on 19 May, 2005

Folk Psychology as a Theory. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from  / Accessed on 19 May, 2005

Proper and Dynamic Leadership
Words: 1307 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23788243
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Interview Steps

This brief report is the confluence of four different activities. The activities all center on a hypothetical scenario where the author is "shortlisted" and otherwise involved in the recruitment process for the position of Organizational Development Officer for a large organization in a large metropolitan area. The first activity will be a preparation of a report that proves understanding of several important topics including an evaluation of leadership theories, the impact of managerial styles on organizational efficacy, the use of motivational theory and the use of work relationships and interaction. The second activity will come as a separate file in PowerPoint form. The presentation will include several important topics including different organizational structures and the importance of organizational culture theory. Aspects of a booklet are asked for and will be included as well. That will be done in this file and will include how organizations can facilitate innovation…


Gordeau, J. (2013). 7 Surprising Ways To Motivate Millennial Workers. Retrieved 29 March 2016, from 

HBR,. (2015). Introverts, Extroverts, and the Complexities of Team Dynamics. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved 29 March 2016, from 

Inc Staff,. (2010). 8 Ways to Foster Innovation in Your Company. Retrieved 29 March 2016, from 

Kokemuller, N. (2016). Why Is Culture Important in Understanding Strategic Management?. Retrieved 29 March 2016, from

Method to Motivate Multigeneration Workforce
Words: 1295 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79336692
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The multigenerational workforce in the United States presents a critical challenge for managers because each generation requires different expectations. Over the last few decades, the U.S. workforce has become so unique and diverse involving the mix of generation, gender, and ethnicity for the first time in the history of United States, workplace demographic spans four generations. The 2008 and 2009 U.S. economic crisis makes many older workers delaying retirement leading to a rich mixture of generation across different sectors. Consequently, this shift affects the workplace culture since values, attitudes as well as workplace style differ across a different generation. Moreover, each generation brings their work behaviors, values, motivation and relationship styles to the workplace assisting in enhancing the organizational development. Despite the benefits associated with the multi-generation work environment, a present of diverse generation can bring a challenge to managers with respect to communication, respect and work styles. Organizations can…

Goal Is Not a Strategy
Words: 6751 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15249790
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He also held weekly cookouts and he stood in line with all the crew to show he was on equal footing for that day.

Peter Drucker

One of Abrashoff's heroes was Peter Drucker, often referred to as the "father" of the modern management theory. Drucker predicted the emergence of the innovative knowledge worker -- the kind of talented employee that electronics firms hire as often as they can -- and he developed a management style that sought to "…embrace team members' creativity and intellectual contributions," according to M.E. Oss, writing in Behavioral Healthcare. Drucker developed the idea of decentralizing the workplace, and viewing the workplace as a "human community" that should be built on full trust and deep respect for the worker, not just a place where profit is the sole motive (Byrne, et al., 2005). Drucker treated the workers as "assets" rather than "liabilities" and long before other management…

Works Cited

Abrashoff, Michael D. (2002). it's Your Ship: Management Techniques from the Best Damn

Ship in the Navy. New York: Warner Books.

Alic, John a., and Harris, Martha Caldwell. (1986). Employment lessons from the electronics

Industry. Monthly Labor Review, 27-31.

Managing Cultural Differences in an Organization
Words: 1259 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53810970
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Global Perspectives on Leadership

Working with individuals from Latin America requires significant consideration of various factors that influence the relationship and the realization of a shared organizational objective. Firstly, taking into consideration the cross-cultural communication that will dominate the interaction with individuals from this culture is imperative. The fact that cultural differences exist translate to the communication breakdown that should be managed by the leader of an organization. Developing a culture-sensitive environment will help eliminate such barriers. The leader should also consider the context and content of understanding business setup when working with individuals with Latin America culture. Textual analysis shows that Latin business culture focuses on the broad aspects of the organizational relationship, social approaches, and broad circumstances influencing the business (Moran, 2011, p. 215).

However, the culture of other states such as the U.S. places a strong emphasis on the communication content. The content of focus includes facts,…


Moran, Robert T. Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership Strategies for Cross-Cultural Business Success (8th Edition).: Routledge, . (2011). Print

Concept of the Multiplier
Words: 2076 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29082372
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Thailand, like many third world countries, is interested in identifying the mechanisms by which economic growth may be achieved. Economic growth and more specifically 'rapid economic growth falls within the province of the mid-term and long-term macroeconomic policies (Dervis and Petri 1987, p. 211). Dervis and Petri, survey 20 'middle income' countries, in an attempt to identify the factors which contribute to successful development-which they identify as moderately rapid economic growth as measured by changes in the GDP ((Dervis and Petri 1987, p. 213-214). The work Dervis and Petri is over 20 years old; it is useful only to set a baseline for the macroeconomic challenges faced by developing countries, in comparison to the macroeconomic challenges faced by Thailand in 2011 and beyond.

Primary indicators of success in included among others, three factors. First, political stability- the authors note that often many developing countries experience a period of rapid…


Bhanupong, N 2010, "Effectiveness of Thailand's macroeconomic policy response to the global financial crisis," ASEAN Economic Bulletin, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 121-135, viewed 12 Dec 2011, Http://

Brawley, M & Baerg, N. 2007, "Structural adjustment, development, and democracy," International Studies Review, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 601-615, viewed 13 Dec 2011, Http:// /

Chaikledkaew, U Lertpitakpong, C. Teerawattananon, Y. Thavorncharoensap, M. & Tangcharoensathien, V. 2009, "The current capacity and future development of economic evaluation for policy decision-making: A survey among researchers and decision makers in Thailand," Value in Health, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. S31-S35, viewed 12 Dec 2011,  Http:// 

Chipman, J 1949 "The generalized bi-system multiplier," The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 176-189, viewed 12 Dec 2011,

Influence of National Culture and Gender in Leadership Style
Words: 3441 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10625377
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globalization that diversified cultures and backgrounds have converged and are working together in collaboration. Considering the scenario of today's world, the rapidly changing demographics have played a critical role in the emergence of new styles of leadership. The definition of competitiveness and the qualities associated with a leader have also changed in the current times. And among all the qualities the two most prominent qualities that every leader must possess is related to the consideration of equity of gender, and equity of diversified cultures.

Different cultures suggest different roles for males and females based on their unique value system. The mindsets, couture, and eating habits of almost all the cultures are traditionally unique. Countries belonging to a particular geographical area behave in a certain way, so do the organizations and leaders belonging to those areas. Their attitude and approach is derived from their cultural values. Some countries have common cultures…


Fiedler, F. (1972). Predicting the effects of leadership training and experience from the contingency model., Journal of Applied Psychology, retrieved April 27, 2011 from

Fiedler, F. (1972). The effects of leadership training and experience: A contingency model interpretation, Administrative Science Quarterly, retrieved April 27, 2011 from

Fiedler, F. (2005). CONTINGENCY THEORY OF LEADERSHIP, Essential theories of motivation and leadership, retrieved April 25, 2011 from 

Harris, P. & Moran, R. (1996). Managing cultural differences, retrieved April 27, 2011 from

Steelhead Police Department
Words: 1314 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42892157
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Policy Statement

Effective management of the criminal justice and law enforcement organization has been a challenge to most in the current global environment. Factors such as the rising rates of global insecurity, conflicts of interests, and resistance to organizational change are some of the forces that complex, effective management of these organizations. However, adoption of the desired organizational management theories and styles prove effective in enhancing effective management of such organizations. Therefore, this study analyzes some of the factors that often affect the effective management of operations in criminal justice and law enforcement organizations. It provides analysis of the most effective theories considered effective in the management of these organizations. The paper also addresses some of the arguments that can arise from the case provided for analysis alongside the solutions to the problems identified in the analysis.


As a patrol lieutenant, effective management of the people and the allocated…


Braithwaite, J., & Pettit, P. (2002). Not just deserts: A republican theory of criminal justice. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Gordon, G.R., & McBride, R.B. (2011). Criminal justice internships: Theory into practice. Amsterdam: Anderson / Elsevier.

Helfgott, J.B. (2008). Criminal behavior: Theories, typologies, and criminal justice. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Kania, R., & Davis, R.P. (2012). Managing criminal justice organizations: An introduction to theory and practice. Waltham, MA: Anderson Pub.

Leadership and Relationship Style
Words: 1555 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30071388
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It is the balancing of tools within the rubric of employee-supervisor roles that requires one use different managerial techniques in order to solve the problem at hand. Similarly, find ways to build and increase trust between members of the group and management and group.


Blake, . And Mouton, J. (1985). The Managerial Grid III.: The Key to Leadership Excellence. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company.

Boulgarides, J. And Cohen, W. (2001). Leadership Styles Vs. Leadership Tactics. The Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship. 6 (1): 59-73. etrieved from:

Cronkite, J. (2006). Why is Leadership Style Important. Dirgo Consulting Group. etrieved from:

Porter, M.E. (1998). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior

Performance. New York: Free Press.

owe, A. And Boulgarides, J. (2998). Managerial Decision Making. New York: MacMillan Publishing.

Senge, P.M. (2006). The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning

Organization. New York: Broadway.

Zeidan, H. (2005).…


Blake, R. And Mouton, J. (1985). The Managerial Grid III.: The Key to Leadership Excellence. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company.

Boulgarides, J. And Cohen, W. (2001). Leadership Styles Vs. Leadership Tactics. The Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship. 6 (1): 59-73. Retrieved from: 

Cronkite, J. (2006). Why is Leadership Style Important. Dirgo Consulting Group. Retrieved from:

Porter, M.E. (1998). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior

Organizational Behavior - Case Study
Words: 1408 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79070566
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Most retail environments are plagued by high turnover. While some of this has to do with a lack of motivation, much of the problem lies in the company's inability to create high-performance teams capable of taking on challenges and making decisions with peers to help solve problems within the company (Janis, 1972). In any environment, when a successful team is lacking, so too is motivation and consistency of performance. None of these traits are evident however, within the Container Store's case study.

Escalation of commitment - the Container store adopts the ideal of escalation of commitment as stated by the store's managers who follow the McGregor Theory Y This theory suggests that employees are not by nature "lazy" and will often perform in the best manner possible and commit to the company if given an opportunity to feel empowered to make decisions without the need to "check in" with members…


Ahlfigner, N.R. & Esser, J.K. (2001). Testing the groupthink model: Effects of promotional leadership and conformity predisposition. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 29(1): 31-42.

Janis, I.L. (1972). Victims of groupthink. New York: Houghton Mifflin.

Vroom, V.H. (1964). Work and Motivation. New York: Wiley

Weiner, B. (1986). An attributional theory of emotion and motivation, New York:

Leadership tools and being fair
Words: 1189 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70048498
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.....efficacy and standing as the basis of leadership styles. Those three prompts, in the order in which they will be discussed, are communication, task management and the driving of results and integrity and trustworthiness. While these items are collectively quite good in terms of being the basis of leadership styles, they should indeed be part of a wider collection of ideas and should not be left to stand on their own.


On its face, communication is a good thing to focus on and have as part of a leadership brand and system. At the same time, however, too much of any good thing can indeed be a bad thing. Indeed, meetings and reports should not be overly verbose and common. Emails should be done in a focused way and should not end up with people being inundated and blitzed with a ton of words. Going too far with communication…

Green Marketing Over the Last
Words: 3752 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77115823
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She also mentions the huge energy giant British Petroleum (BP) came up with some honest and effective marketing in its green promotions. And while it is laudable for an oil company to invest in green technologies, BP did it with "appropriate humility that admits its own guilt while setting the stage for conversion to alternative energy sources" (Ottman, 2002). Meantime she says to Exxon, "ake Up!" because Exxon was at that time running "green-themed" ads that spoke to the need to "find more oil."

In still another green marketing-themed article from Ottman, she writes in the publication in Business that while the George . Bush Administration "abdicates responsibility for a strong response to slowing down" global climate change, Bush's lack of leadership on the issue opened a "unique window of opportunity for America's advertisers and marketers" (Ottman, 2002). That advice to advertisers and marketers is this: using the same effective…

Works Cited

Bird, Lori, and Swezey, Blair. 2006. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status

Report (Ninth Edition). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Retrieved February 18,

2010 from .

Business.Gov. 2009. Green Marketing Regulations. Retrieved February 20, 2010, from .

Transference and Persuasion Leadership
Words: 1162 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75080028
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Leadership: Transference and Persuasion

Maccoby (2004) defines transference as "the often irrational tendency to relate to a leader as some important person from the past -- a parent, a sibling, a close friend, or even a nanny" (p. 119). Transference forms the basis of how employees perceive their leader, as well as what they expect from him/her. I totally agree with the author's position that transference, if not properly checked, can lead to over-expectations and, subsequently, to unnecessary misunderstandings at the workplace, especially if the leader fails to meet the expectations and perceptions imposed upon them as the transferred pattern. To this end, leaders can better understand their employees by first understanding the effect of transference at the workplace. In a competitive marketplace, employee retention is key; employee motivation is a crucial retention tool, and transference can either be a source of motivation or discouragement. Leaders can prevent employee walk-outs;…


Garvin, D.A. & Roberto, M.A. (2008). Change through Persuasion. In Harvard Business Review on the Persuasive Leader (pp. 145-166). Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review.

Maccoby, M. (2004). Why People Follow the Leader: The Power of Transference. In Harvard Business Review on the Persuasive Leader (pp. 119-144). Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review.

Walker, S.J. (2013). UK Higher Education: Let's Not Follow the Leader but Develop Our Own Vision. The Guardian. Retrieved 29 June 2014 from

Conspicuous Consumption the Relationship Between Luxury Purchase
Words: 8087 Length: 29 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81374108
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Conspicuous Consumption

The Relationship between Luxury Purchase as Conspicuous Consumption and Y Generation -Take Designer rands for Example

Conspicuous consumption is a complex concept that requires a great deal of quandary. Conspicuous consumption is often thought of as unnecessary spending or the purchasing of products that are not necessities. Increases in upward mobility have increased conspicuous consumption patterns in nations around the world.

Marketing professionals are eager to find the target markets that engage in conspicuous consumption. The purpose of this thesis was to examine the conspicuous consumption of the Y Generation in Taiwan.

Our research found that there are clear differences between luxuries and necessities and that the characteristics that distinguish each can differ from country to country. The discussion also discovered that conspicuous consumption is defined as "the consumption of goods and services on a grand scale for the purpose of demonstrating pecuniary power rather than that of…


Dictionary. Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, © 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.

Golden boys and girls." 2004. The Economist. 27 June 2004.

Ackerman, Frank. "Consumed in Theory: Alternative Perspectives on the Economics of Consumption." Journal of Economic Issues 31.3 (1997): 651+. 

Bao, Yeqing, and Alan T. Shao. "Nonconformity Advertising to Teens." Journal of Advertising Research 42.3 (2002): 56+.