Social Contexts of Development the Term Paper

  • Length: 10 pages
  • Subject: Children
  • Type: Term Paper
  • Paper: #39089120

Excerpt from Term Paper :

(the Teacher's role in developing social skills)

Role of Workplaces:

Respectable work is seen as a social standard based on harmonizing and mutually collaborative policies to advance rights at work; employment; social protection and social dialogue. It tackles a basic ambition of women and men everywhere, that is, to get respectable and productive work in situations of freedom, equality, security and dignity of human labor. This ambition stresses a collective attempt by many bodies, namely, by international organizations, national governments, business and workers, and by all the social bodies in civil society. It needs all mediators of change to be involved in pioneering economic and social initiatives, customized to particular national and local needs. It specifically calls for new working relationships and dialogue between the conventional social partners in the sphere of work which includes governments, organizations of employers and trade unions and other associations of civil society, which have increased in numbers and persuade in recent years at the levels of national and local activity. (Promoting decent work: The role of civil society)

Greater public consciousness and developments in communication technology give them an essential role in advancing job promotion and sustainable livelihoods, and in the achievement of social development objectives. Efficient and accountable collaborations of civil society could work in combination with governments, employers and workers groups, in advancing rights at work, nurturing job creation, and increasing social guard and social dialogue. They could be specifically effective in such areas as the informal sector, gender, child labor and the socially barred. At the working class level, civic associations could be influential agents for decent work in terms of advocacy, social organization, and delivering of services. As a result of this, they would widen and toughen social dialogue, and improve democratic governance and sustainable social development. (Promoting decent work: The role of civil society)

Human Growth:

Human development includes of human knowledge and consciousness, ambitions, outlooks and values. Human development is a process of self-conception similar to any human creative processes. As writers, artists, politicians and businessmen visualize possibilities which are unrealized and stream out their energies to provide meaning to them, the social collective develops an understanding of what it desires to become and by articulating its energies through countless forms of activity seeks to convert its conception into social actuality. Society is a subconscious living organism that tries hard to live on, grow up and progress. The members of society articulate conscious motives by means of their words and actions, but these are only superficial articulations of deep subconscious motives that influence the society as a whole. The consciousness of a real collective organism is not just the total of its individual parts, but obtains its own independent character and personality. Society has no direct way to provide conscious articulation to its subconscious ambitions and desires. This necessary role is performed by ground-breaking conscious individuals or intellectuals having a vision, politicians, businessmen, artists and spiritualists who are stimulated to articulate and accomplish what the collective subconsciously seeks and is equipped for. (Social Development Theory: (www.icpd.org/development_theory/)

In case the aspiration and action of the leader do not reflect the will of the collective, then, it will be overlooked or discarded. On the other hand, if it gives expression to a genuinely felt collective desire, then, it gets approved, reproduced, encouraged, and methodically disseminated. This is most obvious in cases of war, social revolution or in times of communal tensions. All creative processes of humans liberate and exploit human energy and translate it into outcomes. The process of developing of skills takes into account authority over our physical-nervous energies so that we can influence our bodily movements in an accurately controlled fashion. In the absence of skills, physical movements are awkward, ineffective and fruitless, like the faltering efforts of a child who is beginning to walk. Human beings attain social behaviors in a comparable fashion. Other than the physical skills required for communication and for interacting with other people, essential attitudes are significant. The attitudes and motives of a person are revealed in each and every social behavioral pattern of that person.

Obtaining social behaviors necessitates taking control over our psychological aspects and directing them into agreeable types of behavior. If attitude is changed, the behavior also gets changed. The developmental accomplishments of modern society are based upon such elusive social attitudes such as trust in the government; belief in other people; patience and cooperative nature. Without such attitudes, our money would become worthless paper and our organizations would close down. The same procedure takes place at the mental level. The mind's energy obviously flows as thought in several varied directions without any formation to control or systematize it. The attainment of knowledge has the formation of a mental structure of understanding as its part and that is equivalent to the forms of skills and attitudes that control expression of our physical and important energies. It shapes an organizational structure for learning and for the purpose of applying those of what is learned. Human values are fashioned by a similar process and they engage in similar forms of activities. Although the word is mostly used in connection with ethical and cultural principles, there are many categories of values. This could be in terms of 'physical, organizational, psychological, mental, or spiritual'. (Social Development Theory: (www.icpd.org/development_theory/)Values are essential principles or thoughts for organizing that administer and decide human behavior. Values provide direction to our thinking processes, feelings, expressive energies, favorites and actions. (Social Development Theory: (www.icpd.org/development_theory/)

Social Development Theory:

The foremost subject of Vygotsky's theoretical structure of social development theory is that social relations perform a primary role in the development of cognition. Vygotsky states that "Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people which is 'inter-psychological' and then inside the child which is 'intra-psychological'. This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals." (Social Development Theory: (www.tip.psychology.org/)a second feature of Vygotsky's theory is the notion that the possibility for cognitive development is based on the 'Zone of proximal development' - ZPD, a stage of development achieved when children involve in social behavior. Complete development of the ZPD is based on the total social interaction. The variety of skills that can be produced with adult assistance or peer support extends beyond those skills that can be realized by being alone. Vygotsky's theory was an effort to clarify consciousness as the outcome of socialization. For instance, in the process of learning language, our first expressions with peers or adults are for the reason of communication but once mastered they become internalized and permit the promotion of inner speech. (Social Development Theory (L. Vygotsky): (www.tip.psychology.org/)

Cognitive Theory:

The Social Cognitive Theory - SCT originated from the Social Learning Theory - SLT, which has a wealthy historical background going back to the latter part of the 1800's. Albert Bandura first commenced publishing his work on SLT in the early 1960's. In 1986, Bandura formally introduced SCT in his book "Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory." The SCT has its genesis in the subject of psychology, with its initial basis being laid by behavioral and social psychologists. The SLT developed under the shelter of behaviorism, which is a group of psychological theories proposed to explain why people and animals behave the manner in which they do. The SCT explains human behavior as a triadic, which is dynamic in nature and has interaction of personal causes based on reciprocity, includes behavior, and the influence of the environment. According to this theory, an individual's behavior is exclusively decided by each of these three elements. While the SCT supports the behaviorist idea that reaction results arbitrate behavior, it challenges that behavior is principally controlled antecedently through cognitive processes. (Social Cognitive Theory: University of Florida)

Therefore, reaction consequences of a behavior are used to shape expectations of behavioral results. It is the capability to shape these expectations that provide human beings with the capability to foresee the results of their behavior, even before the behavior is executed. Additionally, the SCT proposes that most behavior is studied explicitly. The SCT's study stress on one's cognitions proposes that the mind is a lively force that builds one's actuality, encodes information in a selective manner, executes behavior on the foundation of values and expectations, and inflicts structure on its own actions. By means of criticism and acceptance, a person's own reality is shaped by the combination of one's cognitions and environment. Also, cognitions transform over due process as an activity of maturation and experience, that is, attention span, skills of reasoning, memory power and capacity to form symbols. It is by means of knowledge of the processes involved in one's construction of reality that allows human behavior…

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